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1-1 programme
3D modelling
3G
4G
AAC
absolute cell reference
absolute link
acceptable use policy
acceptance testing
access levels
accessibility
accounting software
Active Server Pages
Active Server Pages Extended
ad blockers
adaptive maintenance
ADC
addiction
agile development
AI
alignment
alpha testing
ALT attribute
alternative key
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
analog data
Analog to digital converter
analyst
anchor
android
ANPR
anti-plagiarism software
anti-virus
Apache
applet
application server
application software
application suite
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Neural Network
ASCII
ASP
ASPX
assistant
assumptions
asymmetric key encryption
asynchronous
asynchronous learning
ATM
attributes
audio software
audit trails
auditing
augmented reality


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authentication
authentication server
authorised access
Automatic Number Plate Recognition
automatic recalculation
autonomous
avatar
AVI
B2B
B2C
back-end
backbone
backdoor
backup
BAN
bandwidth
banner ads
bar code scanners
Basel Action Network
Basel Convention, The
battlefield network
beta tester
beta testing
biometric enrolment
biometric template
biometrics
bit
Bit depth
bit rate
bitmap graphics
black boxes
black list
blade servers
blended learning
blog
blue screen
Bluetooth
BluRay
BMP
Boolean logic
Boolean operators
botnet
bounce rate
bps
Braille keyboard
Braille printer
breadcrumb trails
broadband
browser
browser compatibility
brute force attack
brute force searching
buffer
bug
bug tracking system
bulk email


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business case
Business Software Alliance
Business-to-Business
Business-to-Consumer
byte
C2C
cable
cache
CAD
camera
Capability Maturity Model Integration
CAPTCHA
car crash model
cardinality
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
Cascading Style Sheets
CAVE
Cave Automated Virtual Environment
CD-ROM
cell format
cell range
cell reference
Central Processing Unit
centralised database
centralised processing
Certificate Authority
CFD
CGI
chaining
changeover
character check
check digit
Children's Internet Protection Act
Chinese Room, the
chip and pin
CIPA
ciphertext
citation
citizen journalism
clamps
claws
Click Through Rate
client (person)
client (computer)
client-server
climate model
clinical decision support system
clock speed
cloning
Closed Circuit Television cameras
closed source
cloud computing
CMMI
codes of conduct
collaborative software
colour balance


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colour depth
colour levels
Colour management
colour profile
Colour synchronisation
Comma Separated Values
command line interface
commercial software
CompactFlash
compatibility
composite image
composite key
compression
computational intelligence
Computer Aided Design
Computer Generated Imagery
computer matching
Computer Misuse Act
Computer model
Computer simulation
computer vision
concept keyboard
concurrent licence
confidence interval
consistency check
constraints
Consumer-to-Consumer
content rating
continuous data
Convergence
conversion rate
cookies
copyright
copyright infringement
corrective maintenance
Cost Per Click
CP
CPC
CPU
cracking
Creative Commons
Critical Path
Cropping
cross-platform
CRT monitor
CSS
CSV
CTR
CTS
Custom / bespoke software
cyber-bullying
cyber-terrorism
cyber-warfare
cybernetics
data centres
data collection


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data entry form
Data Flow Diagram
data integrity
data layers
data logging
data matching
data mining
Data Protection Act
data redundancy
data structure
data subject
data synchronisation
data throughput
data types
data user
data warehouses
data-driven web sites
database administrator
Database Management System
database server
database software
DBMS
DDoS
Decision Support System
Defragmentation
delivery
Denial of Service attack
deployment
Design stage
deskilling
desktop computer
desktop publishing software
Development methodologies
development manager
device drivers
DFD
DHCP
dialup
dictation software
dictionary attack
digital cameras
digital certificates
digital data
digital divide
digital effects
digital footprint
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
digital radio
digital restoration
Digital Rights Management
digital signatures
digital television
digital video cameras
digitisation
digitise
direct changeover


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direct payment
Direct Recording Electronic
discrete data
disk wiping
Distributed Denial of Service attack
distributed processing
DMCA
DNA database
DNS
DNS poisoning
do not track
DOC
Domain Name System
domain names
donation schemes
DoS
Dots Per Inch
download
DPI
DRE voting machine
Drive-by download
DRM
drone
DSL / cable
DTP
dual core
DVD
Dvorak keyboards
Dynamic Host Control Protocol
dynamic web site
e-book
e-book reader
E-commerce
e-learning
E-marketing
e-passport
e-petition
e-prescriptions
e-store
e-waste
EB
EDI
edutainment
EFT
EHR
Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronic Health Records
electronic ink
Electronic Medical Records
electronic shopping cart
electronic textbooks
electronic voting
electronic waste
email
email monitoring


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email server
Embedded systems
employee monitoring
EMR
emulator
encryption
encryption key
end user licence agreement
end-user
enterprise information system
Entertainment Software Rating Board
entities
entity relationship diagram
equality of access
ERD
ergonomics
eSATA
ESRB
ethernet
EULA
EV SSL
exabyte
expert system shell
expert systems
external hard disk
external link
extranet
eye tracking software
failover system
fair use
false negative
false positive
feasibility study
Federation Against Software Theft
feedback loop
fibre optic
field
field size
file server
File Transfer Protocol
filter
filtering
filters
firewall
firewire
first party cookie
FLAC
Flash
flash memory/flash drive
flat classrooms
flat file database
fleet management
fleet tracking
flight simulator
flipping
follow-the-sun working


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footer
foreign key
forms
formula
forums
fragmentation
free and open source software
freeware
Frequently Asked Questions
FTP
Full backup
full body scanners
full disk encryption
full motion platform
function
functional requirements
future warrior
fuzzy logic
fuzzy set theory
game controllers
Gantt chart
gateway
GB
Gbps
Geographical Information System
geotagged
GHz
GIF
Gigabyte
gigahertz
GIS
Global Climate Model
Global Positioning System
GNU Free Documentation License
goal seek
GPS
GPS receiver
GPS satellite
Graphical User Interface
graphics software
green screen
grid computing
GPS receiver
GUI
hacking
hand writing recognition
handover
hard copy
hard disk
hardware
hardware address
HDTV
head control systems
head wand
header
heat sensor


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heuristics
high contrast mode
High Definition Television
high performance computing
home automation
home directory
home network
Home Theatre PC
host
HTML
HTPC
HTTP
HTTPS
hub
Human Genome Project
humanoid
humidity sensor
hyperlinks
IDE (hardware)
IDE (software)
identity theft
IF-THEN rule
image editor
implementation
incident escalation
Incident management system
incident tracking system
Incremental backup
index (databases)
inference engine
inference rule
information system (IS) managers
infrared sensor
inkjet printer
input
input mask
input switches
installation
Integrated Development Environment
intellectual property
intelligent cars
interactive whiteboard
internal link
internal support
Internet
Internet monitoring
Internet Protocol
Internet Service Provider
Internet voting
Internet Watch Foundation
intranet
IP address
IPTV
IrDA
ISP
IWF


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Java
JavaScript
joystick
JPG
KB
Kbps
Kensington lock
key escrow
key field
key logger
key pair
Keyboard
keystroke monitoring
keyword density
keyword filter
keyword prominence
keyword spamming
Kilobyte
knowledge base
knowledge discovery
knowledge domain
knowledge engineer
knowledge representation
LAN
laptop
laser imaging
laser printer
laser scanning
lasers
layer
LCD screen
LEDC
legacy system
length check
Lidar
life cycle (hardware)
light sensor
lights
link farm
load testing
Local Area Network
location based service
log file
logic
login
lookup
lossless compression
lossy compression
loyalty card
m-commerce
m-learning
MAC address
machine learning
machine translation
macro
macro virus


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Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
magnetic storage
magnetic stripe readers
magnetism sensor
mail merge
mainframe
maintenance
malware
MAN
Massively Multiplayer Online Game
Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game
master page
MB
mbps
MDI
MEDC
medical expert system
Megabyte
megahertz
megapixel
Menu Driven Interface
meta tags
Metropolitan Area Network.
MHz
MICR
micro-payments
microblog
microphone
microprocessor
microwave
MIDI
milestones
MIPS
mission creep
mixed reality
MMC
MMOG
MMORPG
mobile commerce
MODEM
monitoring
morphing
Motherboard
motion capture
motion controllers
Motion Picture Association of America
motors
mouse
MOV
MP3
MP4
MPAA
MPEG
Multi-core
Multi-factor authentication
multi-touch


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multi-user licence
multimedia
multimedia keyboard
multimedia software
multiprocessing
multitasking
myoelectric control
MySQL
narrowband
native resolution
natural language processing
netbook
network administrator
network manager
neural control
neural networks
news aggregator
newsletter
non-functional requirements
non-volatile storage
normalization
object oriented graphics
OCR
ODT
off-the-shelf software
OMR
one time password
online advertising
online banking
online encyclopedias
online lessons
online mapping
online reputation
online voting
onscreen keyboard
open courseware
open government
open source
open textbooks
operating systems
opt-in
opt-out
Optical Character Recognition
optical fibre
Optical Mark Recognition
optical scanning electronic voting system
optical storage
organisational IT policies
output
outputs
P2P
package tracking
packet sniffer
pages per minute
PAN
Pan European Game Information


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parallel processing
parallel running
parameter query
passphrase
password
pattern recognition
payment gateway
paywall
PB
PDA
PDF
Peer to peer
PEGI
perfective maintenance
Personal Area Network
personal data
Personal Digital Assistant
personal firewall
Personal Health Record
personally identifiable data
PERT chart
Petabyte
pH sensor
pharming
phase out
phased changeover
phishing
PHP
PHR
physical security
piracy
pixel
pixels per inch
plagiarism
plain text file
plaintext
planned obsolescence
platform
plugins
PMBoK
PNDRE
PNG
podcast
Point of Sale
pop-ups
port
Portable Document Format
POS
power consumption
power settings
PPI
precision guided weapons
prediction
predictive text
presence check
presentation software


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pressure sensor
preventative maintenance
price comparison sites
primary key
Primary storage
PRINCE2
print server
printers
privacy policy
private key
process
processes
processor
procurement
product activation
productivity software
profile privacy settings
programmer
project goals
project initiation document
project management methodology
project management software
project manager
project plan
projector
prosthetics
protocols
prototype interface
proximity sensor
proxy server
public domain
public key
Public Network Direct Recording Electronic
push technology
Quad-core
quality assurance methods
quality control processes
queries
radar
Radio Frequency Identification
radio tag
RAID
RAM
Random Access Memory
range check
ranking of sites
raster graphics
RDBMS
re-skilling
Read / write web
read me file
Read Only Memory
real-time data collection
record
Recording Industry Association of America
recycling (of e-waste)


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reduce
Reduction of Harmful Substances
redundancy
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
redundant data
Redundant system
reference software
referrer
refurbish
regression testing
relational database
relational database management system
relationships (in ERDs)
relationships (in databases)
relative cell reference
relative link
relays
reliability
Remote access
remote desktop
remote monitoring
remote sensing
remote vehicle disabling
Repetitive Strain Injury
report generation
requirements specification
resolution
restore (a backup)
reuse
reward card
RFID reader
RFID tag
RIAA
Rich Text Format
robot
robotic arm
robotic fingers
RoHS
ROM
root user
rootkit
rotating
route planning
Router
RSI
RSS
RTF
safety critical system
sample precision
sample rate
SAN
sat nav
SATA
satellite imaging
satellite navigation system
scaling


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scanner
school information system
scope
screen magnification
screen reader
scripting
SDLC
Search Engine Optimisation
Search engines
Searching (AI)
searching (databases)
secondary key
Secondary storage
secondary use
secret key encryption
secure deletion
secure online payment
Secure Socket Layer
security token
security update
select query
selection tools
self checkout
sensitive data
sensors
SEO
serial number
serious games
server
set theory
shareware
Silverlight
simplification
simulation
single-user licence
sip and puff
sirens
site licence
sitemap
Smart card readers
smart cards
smart cars
smart home
smart meters
smart shopping trolley
smart weapons
Smart phones
smishing
social bookmarking
social engineering
social media
social network
social news
Soft keyboard
software
software testers


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software verification
solid state storage
sonar
sorting
sound sensor
source code
spam
spam bot
spam filters
speakers
speech recognition
speech synthesis
speed throttling
sponsored links
spreadsheet
spyware
SQL
SSADM
SSL
stereolithography
sticky keys
Storage Area Network
store-and-forward telemedicine
streaming media
Structured Query Language
stylesheet
stylus
supercomputer
support
support staff
SVG
switch
SWOT
symmetric key encryption
Synchronous
synchronous learning
system administrator
system context diagram
System development life cycle
Tab Separated Values
tab-delimited text files
table
tactile feedback
tagging
tags (HTML)
take-back scheme
targeted advertising
TB
TCP/IP
technical documentation
tele-learning
telecommuting
telehealth
telemedicine
telesurgery
teleworking


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template
Terabyte
terahertz
test plan
text file
Text-to-speech
thin client
third party cookie
third party hosting
third party payment service
THz
TIF
title attribute
TLS
Top Level Domain
Touch pad
touch screen
touch sensitive input
trackball
tracking number
tracks
training
training data
Trans-border data flow
Transport Layer Security
trojan horse
true colour
TSV
Turing test
tutorials
TXT
typography
UAV
unauthorised access
Unicode
Uninterruptible Power Supply
unique identification number
Universal Product Code
Universal Serial Bus
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UPC
upload
UPS
uptime
URL
USB
user acceptance testing
user documentation
User interface
user manual
utility software
validation
variables
vector graphics
verification
video CODECs (coder-decoders)


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video conferencing
video editing software
Video On Demand
viral advertising
virtual actors
virtual environment
virtual globe
virtual keyboard
Virtual LAN
Virtual Learning Environment
virtual machine
Virtual Private Network
virtual reality
virtual reality headset
virtual world
virtualisation
Virus
virus definition file
vishing
visualisation
VLAN
VLE
VOD
voice control
voice controlled interface
Voice over Internet Protocol
voice recognition
VoIP
volatile storage
Vorbis
Voter Verified Paper Audit Trails
VPN
vulnerability scanner
VVPAT
W3C
WAN
waterfall development
watermarking
WAV
Web 2.0
Web 3.0
web analytics
web bug
Web Content Management System
web crawler
web databases
web development software
web hosting
web server
web spider
web traffic analysis
Web-based software
Webcam
WebCMS
WEEE
weighted filter


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WEP
What-if scenario
wheels
white list
Wide Area Network
WiFi
wiki
WiMax
wired soldiers
wireless hotspot
wizard
WLAN
WMA
word processing software
World Wide Web Consortium
worm
WPA
WPA2
WWW
WYSIWYG
XML
YB
yottabyte
ZB
zettabyte
zip file
zombie




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Scheme in which every student is given their own laptop.

System to allow Internet access using mobile phone networks.
System to allow Internet access using mobile phone networks.
Lossy file format for audio.
In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which does not change when moved.
HTML link to a fully specified URL.
Policy that sets out what users are and are not allowed to do with IT systems.
See user acceptance testing.

Hardware and software features to help disabled users operate computer systems.
Application software for managing finances.
Technology used to create dynamic web pages.
See Active Server Pages.
Software to block adverts in web pages.

See analog to digital converter.

Development method that focuses on creating small, working parts of a project at regular intervals.
See Artificial Intelligence
Tools to control placement of objects in presentation or DTP software.
Initial testing of an IT system.
HTML attribute that provides a text description of images.
See secondary key.
Encoding system to store text, where one byte is used for each character. Compare Unicode.
Data which can be measured.
Device for sampling analog data and producing a digital equivalent.
In project development, person who documents the current system, finding its problems and areas for improvement
See internal link.
Robot designed to look like a human, with lifelike skin and other features.
See Automatic Number Plate Recognition.
Software to detect plagiarised work by searching the Internet and previous work samples.
Software to detect and remove viruses and other malware.
Well known web server software.
Java program which runs inside a web page.
Computer that stores application software for clients on a network.
Software which allows users to produce work, such as documents and presentations.
Collection of application programs that perform related tasks, sold together.
Creating a system that produces results comparable to human intelligence.
AI system that attempts to mimic the neurons and synapses in the human brain.
See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
See Active Server Pages.
See Active Server Pages.
See wizard.

See public key encryption.
Data transfer method in which the sender and receiver are not synchronised.
Learning which does not require the teacher and student to be online at the same time.

Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Application software for creating, recording, and editing sound.
Record of all changes and actions performed with a system, for security purposes.
See audit trails
Overlapping layers of computer data with images of the real world.


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Establishing a user's identity.
Computer that checks usernames and passwords when a user tries to log in.
User who has permission to use a system.
Software which processes video camera data to read vehicle number plates.
Spreadsheet feature that updates results when cells are changed.
Robot which operates without human intervention.
Representation of a person in a virtual environment.
Lossy file format for video.
See Business-to-Business.
See Business-to-Consumer.
Database which stores web site content 'behind the scenes'.
High speed connections that connect main Internet sites.
Method of bypassing security in a system, built in by the system designers.
Spare copy of data to be used in the event of an emergency.
See Basel Action Network.
Measure of a network's speed.

Input device that uses a laser to read a bar code.
Environmental campaign group.
Environmental agreement regarding e-waste.
Large scale network gathering information from soldiers, vehicles, and maps to provide an overall view of the battlefield.
See beta testing.
Testing of an IT system once all features have been added and only bugs need to be worked out.
Process of registering a user for a biometric system by taking an initial sample.
Measurements taken from a biometric sample.
Use of fingerprints, retina scans, or other body features as an authentication mechanism.
A single binary digit (a 1 or a 0). The smallest unit of storage inside a computer.
Refers to the number of colours in an image.
Amount of data used to represent a single sample in a video or audio file.
Graphics composed of rectangular grids of pixels.
Closed system whose internal operation cannot be inspected.
List of banned web sites in a filtering system.
Servers housed on individual circuit boards in a modular system.
Mix of traditional teaching techniques and e-learning techniques.
Web page where entries are stored chronologically, like a diary or journal.
Technique used to replace part of a video image with computer graphics.
Short range, low bandwidth wireless technology often used for mobile phone headsets or earphones.
Optical secondary storage device capable of storing 16GB+.
Lossless file format for audio.
Logic in which clauses can have one of two states – such as yes or no, true or false.
AND, OR, and NOT operators used in a query.
Group of zombie computers under the control of a criminal.
Percentage of users who visit a web site but immediately leave it.
See bits per second.
Special keyboard designed for users with eyesight problems.
Special printer that can produce Braille text.
Feature of a web site to help user navigation.
High speed network connection.
Software used to view web pages.

Attempt to break a password by trying all possible combinations of letters, numbers, and symbols.
See searching.
Temporary storage area used to store video or audio data ready for playing.
Error or mistake in a program.
Used to track and manage bugs in a piece of software.
See spam.


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Analysis of the benefits and problems of a proposed IT project.
Organisation that works to reduce illegal copying of software.
E-commerce conducted between two businesses, such as a business and their suppliers.
E-commerce conducted between a business and their customers, for example, online shopping.
Storage unit: 8 bits. Enough to store a single ASCII text character.
See Consumer-to-Consumer.
See DSL / cable
Storage area for frequently used information, to speed up access.
See Computer Aided Design
Common input device in robotics.
Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.
System designed to create text that is unreadable to a computer but understandable to a person, to reduce spam.
Used to predict the results of car crashes.
Property of a relationship in an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Injury caused by overuse or incorrect use of a computer
Technology to specify styling and formatting information for web pages.
See Cave Automated Virtual Environment
Form of virtual reality which projects images on the walls surrounding a user.
Optical secondary storage device capable of holding 650-700MB of data.
In spreadsheets, the properties of a cell such as its colour, font, and cell type.
In spreadsheets, reference to a range of continuous cells.
In spreadsheets, a combination of row number and column letter to refer to a single cell (e.g. A2).
Hardware responsible for processing all instructions the computer runs.
database in which all data in stored in one centralised location.
Single computer with multiple processors working on a task.
Organisation that issues digital certificates to individuals and companies.
Computational Fluid Dynamics. A technique used to model airflow in computer models.
See Computer Generated Imagery.
Use of logical statements to come to a conclusion.
Moving from an old system to a new IT system.
Ensuring a field contains only the specified character types.
Way of checking mathematically if a item of data has been correctly entered.
US law requiring Internet filtering in US most schools and libraries.
Thought experiment dealing with the idea of knowledge.
Systems designed to reduce credit card fraud by requiring the user to authenticate themselves at the point of sale.
See Children's Internet Protection Act.
Result of encrypting plaintext.
Acknowledge to a piece of work used as a source.
News reporting by everyday citizens using mobile technology, rather than traditional media.
Common output device in robotics.
Common output device in robotics.
Percentage of users who click on an advert after seeing it.
Person or organisation who commissions an IT project.
Computer on a network that uses services provided by a server.
Network system that uses servers to store data centrally and client computers to access them.
Used to predict possible future climate change.
Expert system for medical diagnosis.
Speed of a processor, in ticks per second.
Image effect used to copy one part of an image to another.

Software whose source code is not publicly available.
System whereby application software and data are stored on a remote Internet server.
See Capability Maturity Model Integration.
Professional guidelines created by bodies such as the ACM and the BCS.
Application software to let users work together on projects even if they are geographically remote.
Graphics filtering for altering the tones and intensities of colours in an image.


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See bit depth.
Graphics filtering for altering the tones and intensities of colours in an image.
See colour synchronisation.
Used as part of colour synchronisation to specify how a device represents colour.
Ensuring printed output colours accurately match those on the screen.
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file.
System the user controls by typing in commands.
Software which is sold for profit.
Solid state storage device usually used in digital cameras.
Idea that two systems work together and can share hardware, software, or data.
Image which was created from several separate images.
Primary key which consists of more than one field.
Reduction in the amount of data used to store a file.
Approach that tries to create systems that think and learn in the same way humans do.
Technical graphics software used to design products for manufacture.
Graphics created entirely on a computer, using 2D or 3D graphics software.
See data matching.
UK law governing criminal offences committed using a computer.
Mathematical representation of the real world using computer software.
Based on computer models, gives users experience of events such as flying a plane.
Techniques to let computers and robots see and understand the world around them.
Keyboard with keys that perform programmable, customised functions.
Software licence that allows a specific number of copies to be used at one time.
Level of certainty in an answer a pattern recognition system provides.
Validation check in which two fields' values are mutually dependent.
Limitations within which an IT system must work.
E-commerce where customers deal directly with each other, such as in online auction.
System whereby web site content is categorised so that filters can block it if necessary.
See analog data.
Idea that one device performs the same functions as many separate devices.
Percentage of visitors who visit a site and then make a purchase.
Small text file text by some web sites to recognise the user when they return.
Law protecting intellectual property from unauthorised copying.
Illegally copying or distributing copyrighted material.

Amount paid to the advertising company when a user clicks on an advert.
See Critical Path.
See Cost Per Click.
See Central Processing Unit.
See hacking.
Licensing system for authors who wish to distribute their work freely.
Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.
Taking a small part (subset) of an image.
Hardware or software that works on multiple operating systems.
Output device. Older type of monitor, now almost obsolete.
See Cascading Style Sheets.
See Comma Separated Values.
See Click Through Rate.
See Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
Software created specific for an individual or organisation.
Use of IT such as social networks to harass or bully individuals.
Using computer hacking techniques to commit acts of terrorism.
Using computer hacking techniques to commit acts of war.
Integration of IT into the human body.
Large warehouses of computers that host hundreds or thousands of gigabytes of data.
Used to find information about an existing system during the development of a new system.


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Screen used to input data into a database.
Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.

Layers of information added to a Geographical Information System.
Automatic recording of data using sensors.
Combining several databases to build up more information about a person or set of people.
Searching collections of data for hidden patterns.
UK law that governs the collection and use of personal data.
Data in a database which is needlessly duplicated.
Description of the data which will be stored in an IT system.
The person about whom data is stored.
Exchanging data between a computer and a portable device such as a smart phone.
Rate at which data is processed and output by a system.
Format of data in a field, such as text, number, or date.
Person who will have access to data in a database.
Vast databases containing many gigabytes of data.
See dynamic web site.
Person with overall responsibility for managing a database.
Application software used to create, enter, edit, and retrieve data in a database.
Computer on a network that stores data for other users to access.
Application software for creating, recording, and finding large collections of data.
See Database Management System.
See Distributed Denial of Service attack
Use of models or expert systems to aid (business) decision making processes.
Process of reducing disk fragmentation.
See deployment.
Flooding a computer system with data so that it cannot respond to genuine users.
Stage in the SDLC where the system is deployed at the client's site.
Stage in the SDLC where the new system is planned and designed.
Reduction in the skill needed to do a job, due to technology
Typical computer system with a separate screen and system unit.
Application software used to lay out pages for printed publications.
See project management methodology.
In project development, person who oversees programmers as they create the system specified in the design.
Utility software used by the operating system to communicate with peripheral devices.
See Data Flow Diagram.
See Dynamic Host Control Protocol.
Internet access that connects using a telephone line and a MODEM.
See voice recognition software.
Attempt to break a password by trying all possible words.
Camera that saves images digitally, often in JPEG format.
Used to authenticate a user, for example a shop in an online transaction.
Data which can be counted.
The gap between those who have access to IT and those who do not.
Effects applied to digital images, video, or audio.
An individual's effect on the environment due to e-waste.
Law regarding intellectual property and copyright protection.

Use of technology to restore ancient works of art.
Software which restricts the actions a user can perform with a file, such as copying or printing.
Technique used to authenticate remote users, such as online shopping businesses.

Camera that saves digital video
See digitise.
To convert data from analog to digital form.
Immediate removal of an old system and complete replacement with a new IT system.


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E-commerce payment using a debit or credit card.
Voting machines where users cast votes by touching a screen.
See digital data.
Securing deleting files from a disk, beyond recovery.
Denial of service attack committed using dozens of computers, usually zombies on a botnet.
Use of multiple separate computers working together on a common task.
See Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

See Domain Name System.
Technique used by criminals to alter DNS records and drive users to fake sites, to committing phishing.
Initiative designed to stop tracking cookies from recording user's web activity.
File format for documents, used by Microsoft Office.
System for translating domain names into IP addresses.
Human readable names given to web sites, such as www.itgstextbook.com
Schemes set up to receive donations of old computers for refurbishing and reuse.
See denial of service attack
Measure of the quality of a printer's output.
To transfer data from a server to a client computer.
See dots per inch
See Direct Recording Electronic.
Program which automatically downloads when a user visits a web page, usually without their knowledge or consent.
See Digital Rights Management.
See Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Common type of broadband Internet connection.
See desktop publishing software.
A multi-core system with two processor cores.
Optical secondary storage device capable of storing up to 8GB.
Alternative keyboard layout to improve typing speed.
System that automatically assigns IP addresses to computers on a network.
See data-driven web sites.

Portable device used to download and read e-books.
The techniques used to sell products online.
Electronic learning. The use of IT to teach and learn.
The techniques used to market produces online.
Passport with a microchip containing biometric features, and RFID technology to transmit these to immigration control.
Online petitions, usually housed on government web sites.
Electronic prescriptions.
Web page used for e-commerce.
See electronic waste.
See Exabyte
See Electronic Data Interchange.
Entertainment software designed to have an educational aspect.
See Electronic Funds Transfer
See Electronic Health Records.
Process of transferring data between systems in a standard format that both can understand.
Transfer of money from one account to another using computer systems and networks.
Computerised medical records, often stored on a centralised server.
Technology used in e-book readers to improve display quality.
See Electronic Health Records.
Feature of e-commerce sites which contains items for later purchase.
E-books designed to replace traditional paper textbooks for teaching and learning
Any use of IT to count or cast votes in an election.
Discarded electronic equipment.

Technology to monitor emails sent and received, usually by employees.


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Computer on a network that stores email for other users to access.
Computer system hidden inside another device, such as a car engine management system.
Technology used to monitor the work of employees using a computer system.
See Electronic Medical Records
Program that creates a simulation of another computer's hardware.
System of encoding plaintext so that it cannot be understood with access to an encryption key.
Used to encrypt and decrypt data.
Licence agreement for software that sets out the users rights and responsibilities.
Person who will use an IT project one it is finished.
Software which provides business data and analysis functions for large organisations.
Organisation that provides content ratings for computer games.
Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.

See Entity Relationship Diagram.
Meaning a system design for user comfort.
A modern type of connector for attaching external hard disks
See Entertainment Software Rating Board.
Type of wired network connection commonly used on LANs.
See end user licence agreement
Extended Validation SSL. Digital certificate validation technique used on the world wide web.
Storage unit: 1024 petabytes.
Software used to create expert systems.
Software designed to make the same decisions that a human expert would, in a given knowledge domain.
Portable storage device often used for backups.
HTML link which points to a separate, external web site.
Content on a LAN which is available to authorised third parties.
Accessibility software that tracks where a user is looking on the screen.
See Redundant system.
Exceptions to copyright law that allow copying in certain limited circumstances.
When a system incorrectly rejects an action instead of accepting it.
When a system incorrectly accepts an action instead of rejecting it.
Examination of a proposed system to see if its creation is possible.
Organisation that works to reduce illegal copying of software.
Use of previous answers (right or wrong) to improve the decision making process next time.
Types of network connection that offers extremely high speed transfers.
Single item of data about a single record in a database.
Validation technique. Number of characters that can be stored in a field.
Computer on a network that stores files for other users to access.
System for transferring files over the Internet, often used for uploading web sites.
Software which blocks some Internet content, based on a series of rules or lists of content.
Process of preventing access to some resources, usually web pages.
See digital effects.
Hardware or software that controls access to a network.
Interface for attaching external hard disks and digital video cameras.
Cookie left by a web site the user directly visited.
Lossless file format for audio.
Technology often used to create interactive web pages.
See solid state storage.
Use of IT to connect classrooms with other classrooms around the world
Database which consists of just one table.
Software to track and manage fleets of vehicles, including route planning and data analysis functions.
Software to display the location of vehicles, such as trucks or taxis.
Simulator hardware and software used to train pilots.
Image effect found in most graphics software.
Work is passed to workers around the globe depending on the time of day in any location.


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Area of a document which appears the same on every page.
Database field whose sole purpose is to form part of a relationship with another table.
See data entry form.
In spreadsheets, a combination of cell references and mathematical operations.
Online areas where users can post messages to each other.
Problem that occurs as files are saved on non-contiguous sectors on a disk.
Software whose source code is freely available and can be changed and distributed.
Software which is distributed for no cost.
List of questions and answers often found in manuals and help screens.
See File Transfer Protocol
Backup that copies all data from a system.
Security system used at airports to produce a digital image of passengers 'without clothes'.
System that encrypts all data saved to a hard disk automatically and transparently.
Hardware device which can move in many directions to increase the realism of simulators.
Built in features of spreadsheets for performing common calculations.
Specific features and functions that a proposed IT system must have.
See wired soldier.
Logic in which items can have multiple values. Used in AI.
System in which items can be partial or complete members of a set. Used in AI.
Input device with buttons used for games playing.
Used to chart the stages of a planned IT project and the people responsible for each stage.
Computer which acts as a bridge between a local area network and the Internet.
See Gigabyte.
Gigabits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
Mapping system with layers of additional data for analysis and planning.
Item of data (usually an image) with GPS coordinates embedded.
See gigahertz.
Lossless file format for images.
Storage unit: 1024 megabytes.
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed. 1000 MHz.
See Geographical Information System.
See climate model.
System of satellites which can pinpoint a users location on the Earth.
Licensing system for authors who wish to distribute their work freely.
Spreadsheet tool used to determine the required values to meet a certain goal.
See Global Positioning System
See Global Positioning System
See Global Positioning System
System the user controls using a mouse to click on icons, buttons, and windows.
Application software for creating and editing images.
See blue green.
See distributed computing
See Global Positioning System
See Graphical User Interface.
Gaining illegal access to a computer system
System to recognise human writing and convert it to text.
Point at which the developers of a system formally pass it to the client.
A printed paper copy of data.
Magnetic secondary storage device found in most desktop and laptop computers.
Physical parts of a computer system.
See MAC address.
See High Definition Television.
Accessibility software that tracks a users head movements to allow them to input data.
Accessibility hardware that lets a user input using a wand connected to their head.
Area of a document which appears the same on every page.
Common input device in robotics.


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General rules for performing a task, used to improve the perform of searching algorithms in AI applications.
Accessibility setting for users with eyesight problems.

High speed computing using multiple processors
See smart home.
Directory that contains a users personal files.
Small local computer network used in homes.
Computer with multimedia capabilities designed specifically for watching television and films.
See server.
HyperText Markup Language. The standard language for creating web pages.
See Home Theatre PC.
HyperText Transfer Protocol. The standard protocol of the world wide web.
Secure version of HTTP which offers encrypted communication.
Hardware device for connecting several computers on a network.

Robot designed generally like a human – bipedal, upright, and arms, and a head.
Common input device in robotics.

Interface for attaching internal hard disks.
See Integrated Development Environment.
Stealing personal data in order to impersonate a person.
See inference rule.
See graphics software
Stage in the SDLC where the system is created (programmed).
Moving a problem with an IT project to a higher level if it cannot be solved.
See incident tracking system.
Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.
Backup that copies only the changed data since the last backup.
See secondary key.
Part of an expert system which attempts to relate the users input with knowledge stored in the knowledge base.
Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
Person responsible for all IT purchases, deployments, and systems within an organisation.
Common input device in robotics.
Printer that works by spraying ink through nozzles at a sheet of paper.
Data or information that is entered into the computer.
Validation technique. Ensures only the specified characters can be entered into a field.
Accessibility hardware that lets a user input data by pressing a simple on-off switch.
See deployment.
Software used to write and compile programs.
Creations of the mind, such as stories, films, music, and computer programs.
See smart cars.
Device that uses a projector for output and touch inputs, using a special pen.
HTML link which points to a different part of the same page.
Support for an IT system provided within an organisation.

Technology to monitor Internet data sent and received, usually by employees.
Standard protocol used on many LANs and on the Internet. See TCP.
Company that provides Internet access to homes and businesses.
See online voting.
Organisation that works with British ISPs to block access to illegal content on the Internet.
Content on a LAN which is only available to members of an organisation.
Unique address assigned to every computer on a network.
Internet Protocol Television
Short range, low bandwidth, line-of-sight wireless communication technology.
See Internet Service Provider.
See Internet Watch Foundation.


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Programming language often used to create interactive web pages.
Scripting language often used to create interactive web pages.
Input device used for games playing and flight simulators.
Lossy file format for images.
See kilobyte.
Kilobits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
Special lock for securing portable devices to immovable objects to prevent theft.
Idea of having encryption keys stored by a third party company so the government can access them if needed.
See primary key.
Software or hardware which records all key strokes on a computer system.
A public key and private key that work together in a public encryption system.
Input device that lets the user enter text and numeric data.
See key logger.
Frequently with which key words appear in a web page.
Filter that blocks web pages containing specified key words.
Locations within a web page that key words appear.
Overuse of key words in a web page in an attempt to increase search engine ranking.
Storage unit: 1024 bytes
Area of an expert system where all facts about the knowledge domain are stored.
See data mining.
Area of knowledge in which an expert system specialises.
Programmer responsible for entering expert knowledge into an expert system.
Different techniques for representing concepts and their relationships inside a computer system.
See Local Area Network.
Portable computers that come in many shapes and sizes.
Technique used by satellites to image the Earth.
High speed printer.
Technique used to build 3D computer models of real world locations.
Common input device in robotics.
Feature of graphics and multimedia software.
Output device. The newer type of monitor which is flat.

System which runs on obsolete hardware or has been discontinued by its manufacturer.
See field size.
Remote imaging method used by satellites.
Stages an item of hardware goes through, from manufacture to disposal.
Common input device in robotics.
Common output device in robotics.
Service that links many pages to each other in an attempt to increase search engine ranking.
Testing of an IT system with the amount of work it can be expected to process in real world conditions.
Computer network in a small area such as an office building.
Any service (e.g. web page content) which varies according to the user's location.
Chronological record of events, used for reporting purposes and audit trails.
See Boolean logic.
Process of authenticating oneself before using a computer system.
Feature of spreadsheet and database software to retrieve data from other fields.
Compression technique in which the original file is completely recoverable, with no loss of quality. Compare lossy compression.
Compression technique in which some file data is sacrificed in order to reduce file size.

See mobile commerce.
Mobile learning. Use of mobile devices to teach and learn.
Unique address embedded in network connected devices.
Technique for making a computer produce better results by learning from past experiences.
Technique for automatically translating one human language into another.
In application software, a set of actions which are recorded so they can be played back later.
Virus that takes advantage of the macro programming languages built into some software.


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Input device that reads text written in special magnetic ink. Often used at the bottom of cheques.
Type of secondary storage that users magnets to read and store data. Examples include floppy disks and hard disks.
Input device that reads the magnetic stripe on cards like ATM cards and bank cards.
Common input device in robotics.
Automatically customising a standard letter with individual names and addresses.
High end computer system that achieves very high data throughput.
Alterations made to a system after it has been formally handed over.
Generic name for malicious software
See Metropolitan Area Network.
Games played by connecting to a central server and interacting with other players in a virtual world.
See Massively Multiplayer Online Game.
In DTP, a page whose contents is applied to all pages in a publication.
See megabyte.
Megabits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
See Menu Driven Interface

Expert system for medical diagnosis support.
Storage unit: 1024 kilobytes
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed.
Refers to 1 million pixels.
Interface that presents a series of pre-defined options to the user.
HTML tags to add additional information about a web page and its content.
Computer network over a large area such as a city.
See megahertz.
See Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
Online payments, generally less than $100.
Blog-like system which limited post length, such as Twitter.
Input device for sound data
See Central Processing Unit.
Networking technology for medium to long range wireless communication.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. System for communication between musical hardware and software applications.
Key points during project development, such as the completion of a stage.
See Millions of Instructions Per Second
When the use of an IT system extends beyond its original purpose.
Combination of virtual reality and real life training.
Solid state secondary storage device, often used for digital cameras.
See Massively Multiplayer Online Game.
See Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game.
Use of mobile phones to conduct online purchases.
Device for connecting a computer to a telephone line, used in dialup connections.
See employee monitoring.
Effect that transforms one image into another over a series of frames.
The circuit board to which the internal computer components connect: the CPU, the RAM, the ROM, and the secondary storage de
System to digitise the movements of an actor.
Input devices which are moved through the air to control a computer system.
Film industry group that works to reduce illegal copying of films.
Common output device in robotics.
Input device used to control a cursor or pointer.
Lossy file format for video.
Lossy file format for audio.
Lossy file format for video.
See Motion Picture Association of America.
Lossy file format for video.
Processor with more than one processor core, to increase its performance.
Use of several authentication techniques together, such as passwords and security tokens.
Input device able to recognise touches and gestures made with multiple fingers.


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Software licence that allows a specific number of copies to be used at one time.
Use of images, audio, text, and video data together.
Keyboard with buttons to perform common tasks such as program launching.
Application software for creating and editing presentations, animations, and video.
A system with more than one processor, to increase its performance.
A single processor running multiple tasks by switching rapidly between them.
Control of IT using electrical impulses from the body
Database system often used by data driven web sites.
Low speed network connection.
Resolution of an LCD display that produces the best display quality.
Techniques for processing human languages to enable a computer to understand their meaning.
Lightweight laptop computer designed for portability.
Individual responsible for maintaining and running a network.
See network administrator.
Control of IT using electrical impulses from the brain
See Artificial Neural Network.
Software which fetches news headlines from a variety of sources for display in one location.

Conditions that a proposed IT system must meet, such as working on certain hardware or giving results within a certain time.
Storage which does not lose its contents when the power is removed.
Process of converting a database from a flat file database to a relational database.
See vector graphics.
See Optical Character Recognition.
File format for documents, used by LibreOffice.
Software which is widely available for general purchase. Compare custom / bespoke software.
See Optical Mark Recognition.
Password generated by a security token, which expires as soon as it is used.

Use of the Internet to perform tasks such as bill payment, money transfers and other banking tasks.
Web site containing a large number of articles for research purposes.


User's rating based on comments and reviews made by other users of a system.
Casting votes over the Internet.
See soft keyboard.
Educational material which is released for free use and distribution.
Use of IT to publish data about government operations, improving transparency.
See free and open source.
See open courseware.
Software that manages the computer system and controls the hardware.
System in which users must explicitly decide to participate.
System in which users must explicitly decide not to participate.
Input device that reads printed text, scans it, and converts it to text that can be edited in a word processor.
See fibre optic.
Input devices that reads simple multiple-choice style answers by looking for marks on the paper.
Voting machines which count paper ballots cast by voters.
Storage devices which use lasers to store and read data. Examples include CDs and DVDs.
Policies governing the appropriate use of IT, data integrity, security procedures, and other aspects of IT use with an organisation.
Information which is produced by a computer system.
In system development, a section of a requirements specification
See Peer to peer.
Use of RFID and a web site to show customers the location of packages awaiting delivery.
Software or hardware used to collect data travelling over a network.
Speed at which a printer produces output.
See Personal Area Network.
Organisation that provides content ratings for computer games.


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High speed computing using multiple processors
Running the old system and the new system side by side.
Database query whose criteria are decided by the user at run-time.
See password.
Word or phrase used to authenticate a user.
Computational Intelligence technique where computers are trained on examples and learn to recognise similarities between them.
Company that handles Internet payments for customers and businesses.
System to prevent access to a web site's content unless the user pays a subscription fee.
See petabyte.
See Personal Digital Assistant.
See Portable Document Format.
Network in which all computers are equal and there are no centralised servers.
See Pan European Game Information.

Short range network between a computer and a mobile phone or similar portable device.
Data which could identify a user, or lead to social impacts such as identity theft.
Mobile device bigger than a phone but smaller than a laptop. Probably has a keyboard or at least a stylus (pen) and a touch-screen
Software application that controls network access to and from a single computer.
Electronic health records which are stored on the patient's own computer system.
See personal data.
Charting system to show the inter-dependencies in projects.
Storage unit: 1024 terabytes
Common input device in robotics.
See DNS Poisoning.
Gradually removing an old IT system from use.
One part of an organisation switches to a new IT system to test it, while others remain using the old system.
Use of fake emails and web sites to trick users into revealing sensitive data.
Technology used to create dynamic web pages.
See Personal Health Record
Locks, alarms, and other techniques used to securely a building or computer room.
Copyright infringement.
Individual dots which make up bitmap graphics.
Number of pixels displayed in each inch of screen output.
Use of another user's work without proper credit or citation being given.
See text file.
Message before it is encrypted, or after it has been decrypted.
Idea that IT equipment is designed to have a short life expectancy before failing or becoming obsolete.
Refers to a particular combination of hardware and operating system.
Software added to web browsers to extend their functionality.
Project Management Body of Knowledge. A project management methodology.
See Public Network Direct Recording Electronic.
Lossless file format for images.
Sound files recorded and uploaded to a web server, usually in episodic format.
Checkout system in a shop, usually connected to a store database and EFT system.
Windows that open up while browsing a web site, usually containing adverts.
Number used to determine the type of service required when a computer connects to another.
Common file format for the exchange of documents.
See Point of Sale.


See Pixels per inch.
Weapons that use IT to improve their accuracy or effectiveness.
Output of a computer model.
System that predicts the word being typed based on the letters already typed.
Validation technique. Requires a field to be completed.
Application software for creating slides used for lectures, presentations, and lessons.


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Common input device in robotics.

Sites which aggregate price data from a variety of sources to offer customers the best deal.
Field which contains a different value for every record in that table.
Storage systems which are found inside the computer and are electronic. RAM and ROM are examples.
PRojects IN Controlled Environments 2. A project management methodology.
Computer on a network that receives and processes print requests.
Output device which produces paper copies.
Policy governing what data a company or web site will collect about you and how it will be used.
Key used for decryption in a public key encryption system.

In system development, a section of a requirements specification.
See Central Processing Unit.
In system development, the act of acquiring required resources.
Process of registering software online before it can be used, to reduce illegal copies.
See application software.
Settings in social networks and other systems to control how a user's data is shared with others.
Person who creates software.
Clear statement of the intentions of a proposed IT project.
Document used in PRINCE2 to describe the key features of an IT project.
Systems and techniques designed to encourage successful projects and avoid project failure.
Software to help plan, manage, and guide the process of IT project development.
Person with overall responsibility for an IT project.
Clear definition of the goals, scope, and schedule of a proposed IT project.
Output device for displaying content on large screens.

A standard set of rules for performing tasks, such as communication.
Early version of a user interface to get feedback about its effectiveness.
Common input device in robotics.
Computer on a network which acts on behalf of another, or through which all Internet data must pass.
Software to which the author has waived all rights.
Key used for encryption in a public key encryption system.
Voting machines where users cast votes over a network like the Internet.
System which notifies users of changes to web pages without them having to visit the page.
A multi-core system with four processor cores.
In project development, used to ensure the whole development team are following standardised best practises.
Processes to ensure code produced by programmers followed accepted best practices.
Method of extracting data from a database that matches specific criteria
Remote imaging method used by satellites, and input device used by robots.
System of tags which contain data that can be read from a distance using radio waves.
Tags which broadcast their position over a large distance using radio waves.
See Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.
See Random Access Memory.
Primary storage which is fast, relatively expensive, and volatile.
Validation technique. Ensures a field is between a certain range of values.
Performed by search engines to produce their results page listings.
See bitmap graphics.
Relational DBMS. See Database Management System.
When a de-skilled user retrains, often in a technology related discipline.
See web 2.0.
Help file containing latest updates and information about using a system.
Primary storage whose contents are written at manufacture and cannot be altered later.
Data logging systems which report data as soon as it is collected.
Collection of fields that represent a single entity, such as a person.
Music industry group that works to reduce illegal copying of music.



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(chemicals in e-waste)
Law governing the chemicals that can be included in electronic equipment.
See data redundancy.
System where multiple hard disks contain duplicate data, to be used in the event of one failing.
See data redundancy.
System which will take over the role of a primary system if it fails.
Electronic encyclopedia software containing articles, images, videos, and other reference items.
Site that directed the user to the current web site.
Method of prolonging the life of old IT equipment
Testing to ensuring changes to an IT system did not break any previously working functionality.
Database containing multiple related tables and no redundant data.
Application software used to create, enter, edit, and retrieve data in a relational database.


In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which updates when moved.
HTML link to a file, with no path specified.
Common output device in robotics.

Ability to connect to a computer as though you were physically present at the keyboard.
See remote access.
Use of IT to monitor the health of patients over a large distance.
Techniques used by satellites to image the Earth.
Ability to disable a vehicle over a computer network if it has been stolen
Injury caused by overuse or incorrect use of a computer

Clear list of the functional and non-functional requirements for a proposed IT project.
Refers to the number of pixels in an image.
Copying data from a backup copy back to the main system.
See refurbish.
See loyalty card.
See Radio Frequency Identification.
See Radio Frequency Identification.
See Recording Industry Association of America .
Standard file format that can store documents that include formatting data.
Computerised device that performs manual or physical tasks, either autonomously or under remote control.
Common output device in robotics.
Common output device in robotics.
See Reduction of Harmful Substances.
See Read Only Memory.
User will full control over a computer system.
Type of malware which infiltrates the operating system and attempts to hide itself from view.
Image effect found in most graphics software.
Software to plan the optimum route between two points.
Hardware device used to connect two separate networks.
See Repetitive Strain Injury.
Really Simple Syndicate. A push technology.
See Rich Text Format.
System whose failure could result in injury or loss of life.
See bit rate.
Number of samples taken each second when recording sound.
See Storage Area Network.
See satellite navigation system.
Interface for connecting storage devices like hard disks.
Technique used to produce images of the Earth.
Portable device that uses GPS to plot the user's position.
Changing the size of an image.


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Input device used to digitise photographs and paper copies of data.
Database system for storing and managing information about a school, its students, and staff.
Clear definition of the boundaries of an IT project.
Accessibility setting for users with eyesight problems.
See text-to-speech.
Programming language to provide interactivity in web pages.
See System Development Life Cycle
Techniques used to increase a web page's search engine rankings.

AI technique that considers all possible solutions, looking for the best.
See query.
Field by which a database is often searched.
Storage systems which are connected externally to the computer's motherboard.
Using data for a purpose other than the one for which it was collected.
Encryption system in which a single key is used for both encryption and decryption.
See disk wiping.

System used to encrypt https web traffic.
Hardware device that must be present during login to authenticate a user.
Software update to fix a security problem discovered in software.
See query.
Tools in graphics software for selecting only a subset of an image.
Supermarket technology that lets users scan and pay for their own goods without staff assistance.
See personal data.
Input devices used to measure certain traits, such as sound, heat, or light.
See Search Engine Optimisation.
Registration number needed during software installation, used to reduce illegal copies.
Games designed to teach players about an issue.
Computer on a network that provides services or performs work for others.
Mathematical theory used in some AI techniques.
Software which is free to use initially, but which must be pay for if use continues.
Technology often used to create interactive web pages.
Difference between a computer model's representation of a process, and the real life process.
Software and hardware to recreate an experience of a real event.
Software licence that allows the use of only a single copy on a single computer.
Accessibility hardware for users with very limited mobility
Common output device in robotics.
Software licence that allows an organisation to use software on an unlimited number of computers.
Overview of a web site and all the links and pages within it.
Device to read a smart card.
Credit card sized card containing a microchip for data storage and processing.
Cars incorporating IT to improve driver safety and comfort.
Building with integrated IT to improve comfort and energy efficiency.
Component of smart homes to monitor resource usage.
Shopping trolley with RFID technology to offer enhanced functionality.
See precision guided weapons.
Mobile phone with capabilities including Internet access and a camera.
Phishing attacks committed using text messages (SMS).
Web site that lets users store and manage their favourite links, and share them with others.
Tricking a user into revealing their password or other sensitive data.
See web 2.0.
Web site that lets users create personal profile pages and share them with friends.
News sites which rank news stories based on user ratings.
Keyboard which is displayed on screen and controlled by clicking on buttons with the mouse or a touch screen.
The instructions and programs which are run by the CPU.
People who perform alpha, beta, and acceptance testing.


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Ensuring software functions correctly by examining its source code.
Type of secondary storage device that uses electronic circuits to read and store data.
Remote imaging method used by satellites.

Common input device in robotics.
Instructions that make up the software, entered by the programmer using a programming language.
Unwanted, bulk email.
Program that scans web pages for email address, in order to send spam.
Program designed to identify and block spam messages while letting genuine messages through.
Output device for sound.
Computer system that can process spoken language and understand its meaning.
See text to speech.
Reducing a processor's clock speed to save power when not in use.
Links show by search engines because the link owners paid a fee.
Application software for performing numerical calculations and analysis.
Malware which covertly records a user's actions, such as their key presses.
See Structured Query Language
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. A project management methodology.
See Secure Socket Layer.
'3D printer' that can produce actual objects from computer models.
Accessibility setting for users with movement problems.
Network dedicated to providing disk storage to other computers on the network.
Telemedicine using techniques such as email, which do not operate in real time.
Video or audio data that is played while it is downloading.
Language for managing databases by typing commands.
See Cascading Style Sheets.
Input device used in conjunction with touch screens.
Fastest computers available, capable of performing trillions of calculations per second.

Staff who train users and help them with problems as they occur
Standard file format for vector image data.
Hardware device for connecting several computers on a network.
Analysis method sometimes used when creating a business case.
See Secret key encryption.
Data transfer method in which the sender and receiver are synchronised, allowing higher speed transfer.
Learning which does requires the teacher and student to be online at the same time.
Personal in overall charge of a computer system in an organisation.
High level DFD of a system.
Stages through which a IT project development must pass, from planning to completion.
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file.
See Tab Separated Values
In databases, a collection of records representing a type of item.
Output in the form of movement or vibrations.
Adding key words to an item such as a photo to describe its content.
Used as part of HTML to control the appearance of web pages.
Scheme operated by IT manufacturers to accept customers' old hardware for recycling at its end of life.
Use of data about customers to determine which adverts they are most likely to find useful.
See terabyte
Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Common protocol for LANs and the Internet.
Documentation intended for programmers and developers of an IT system.
Learning that occurs when the teacher and students are in separate geographical locations.
See teleworking.
See telemedicine.
Using IT to perform medical consultations when the doctor and patient are in geographically separate locations.
Using IT to perform surgery on a patient in a geographically separate location from the doctor.
Working away from an organisations main office or base, using portable computers.


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Document used to provide a guiding layout in a word processor, presentation, or DTP application.
Storage unit: 1024 gigabytes
See Terahertz
List of all tests and test data that should be tried with a system.
File containing text with no formatting or other information.
Accessibility feature for users with eyesight problems.
Networking system whereby client computers rely on servers to perform their processing tasks.
Cookie left by a web site the user did not directly visit (usually by advert companies).
Use of a separate company to store a web site on their servers.
See payment gateway.
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed. 1000 GHz.
Lossless file format for images.
HTML attribute that provides a text description of links.
See Transport Layer Security.
Suffix at the end of a URL, such as .com or .org.
Input device commonly found on laptops instead of a mouse.
Input device that lets the user touch areas of the display to perform tasks.

Input device that uses a rotating ball to control the cursor.
Used as part of package tracking systems.
Common output device in robotics.
Preparing users for a new IT system.
Example data used in a pattern recognition system.
Transfer of data between countries.
System used to encrypt https web traffic.
Malware which pretends to be a genuinely useful program to trick the user into using it.
Image with 24 bit colour depth.
See Tab Separated Values
Proposed test to see if a computer is intelligent or not.
Step by step help on using a system.
See text file.
The choice of fonts and typefaces.
See Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Gaining illegal access to a computer system
Encoding system to store text, with support for multiple languages and alphabets. Compare ASCII.
Backup power system which powers a computer if the mains electricity fails.
Used by cookies to help recognise return visitors to web sites.
A type of barcode.
Common interface for connecting peripheral devices including mice, printers, and digital cameras.
Remote control aircraft used for surveillance.
See Universal Product Code
To transfer data from a client to a server computer.
See Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Measure of how long a computer system has been operating without restarting.
Universal Resource Locator. Describes the location of an item, such as a web page, on the Internet.
Secondary storage device which uses electronic circuits to store data.
Tests performed by a client before formally accepting an IT system from the developers.
Documentation intended for users of an IT system, helping them understand and use it.
Method used to communicate with a computer system.

Software used to perform maintenance jobs such as defragmenting disks.
Checks to ensure whether data is in the correct format.
Components of a computer model which can be altered to vary the output.
Graphics which are stored as a series of mathematical shapes and properties.
Checking whether data is correct.
Software required to view certain compressed video and audio formats.


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Use of video cameras and microphones to conduct a conversation over a network.
Application software for creating and editing video.
Television and films which can be streamed at any time from the Internet, rather than waiting for a TV broadcast.
Advertising using social media, spread by users rather than the advertising company.
Animated characters used in films, created entirely using computer graphics software.

3D representation of the Earth with added data layers.
See soft keyboard
Network form by several LANs which are in separate geographical locations.
Form of Content Management System used by teachers to upload lessons and materials for students.
Software application that runs a virtual 'computer' inside a window.
System to allow a remote computer to securely connect to a LAN, as though it were physically connected.
3D virtual environment which projects images into a headset worn by the user.

3D virtual environment to which users connect over the Internet.
Using a system in a virtual machine.
Computer program which damages files and data spreads when infected programs are copied.
Used by anti-virus programs to recognise known viruses.
Phishing attacks committed using telephone calls or VoIP systems.
Graphical or animated output from a computer model or simulation.
See Virtual LAN.
See Virtual Learning Environment.
See Video On Demand.
See voice controlled interface.
Ability to operate a computer by issuing spoken commands.
System that lets users make telephone calls over the Internet.
Use of software to convert spoken words into text.
See Voice over Internet Protocol.
Storage which loses its contents when the power is removed.
Lossy file format for audio.
E-voting machine that produces a paper receipt to combat potential voting fraud.
See Virtual Private Network.
Software to scan a system for potential security problems.
See Voter Verified Paper Audit Trails.
See World Wide Web Consortium .
See Wide Area Network.
Development method that focuses on completing each stage of the SDLC for the entire project before moving onto the next.
Embedding the author's name or logo into an image to act as a copyright reminder.
Lossless file format for audio.
Refers to web pages which allow user interaction and collaboration.
Proposed evolution of the world wide web.
See web traffic analysis.
Technique used by spammers to detect if an email address is valid or not.
Web page that allows users to upload content which is automatically formatted and displayed.
Software which scans web pages looking for key words, so search engines can index them.

Application software for creating HTML pages for web sites.
Company that stores web sites on their servers, making them accessible on the Internet.
Computer which houses web pages and serves them to computers that request them.
See web crawler.
Statistics about visitors to a web site, including duration and pages viewed.
See cloud computing.
Input device used to record video, often found in laptop computers.
See Web Content Management System.
Waste Electrical and Electrical Equipment directive.
Filter that considers key words as well as their context or relationship to other key words.


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Wired Equivalence Protocol. Wireless network encryption system.
Use of a computer model to test the results of different situations and scenarios.
Common output device in robotics.
List of allowed web sites in a filtering system.
Computer network over a large area, such as a country or several countries.
Most common type of wireless connection.
Type of web page that any visitor can edit.
Long range wireless network technology.
Technologies used to improve soldier effectiveness.
A public wireless access point.
Step by step help system to guide a user through a task.
Wireless LAN. A LAN what allows WiFi connections.
Lossy file format for video.
Application software for creating written documents such as letters or essays.
Organisation that manages standards on the world wide web.
Malicious software which replicates itself and spreads between computer systems and over networks.
Wireless Protected Access. Wireless network encryption system.
Wireless Protected Access 2. Wireless network encryption system.
World Wide Web – a series of interlinked multimedia pages stored on the Internet.
What You See Is What You Get. Refers to programs that present their output onscreen exactly as it will appear when printed.

See Yottabyte.
Storage unit: 1024 zettabyes
See Zettabyte
Storage unit: 1024 exabytes
Compressed file format for general data.
Computer which has been compromised by malware and is part of a botnet.




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rall view of the battlefield.




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e to immigration control.




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ity. Compare lossy compression.




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y disks and hard disks.




d software applications.




ROM, and the secondary storage devices




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g results within a certain time.




ects of IT use with an organisation.




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ecognise similarities between them.




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before moving onto the next.




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as it will appear when printed.




                                  Page 60
                                     Intro
Core
application areas
ethical issues
ethics
information technology
social and ethical considerations
social impacts
stakeholders

Strand 1
anonymity
authenticity
compatibility
cultural diversity
cultural impact
digital citizenship
economic impact
environmental impact
equality of access
ergonomic impact
globalization
health impact
integrity
intellectual property
legal impact
policies
political impact
privacy
protocols
psychological impact
reliability
security
standards
surveillance
the digital divide
unauthorised access

Strand 2
Business and employment
Education and training
Environment
Health
Home and leisure
Politics and Government

Strand 3
input
networking
output
processing
storage

General terms
RSS feed
RSS reader



                                    Page 61
                                           Hardware
Processing Technologies   clock speed
                          Central Processing Unit
                          CPU
                          data throughput
                          dual core
                          GHz
                          gigahertz
                          hardware
                          megahertz
                          MHz
                          microprocessor
                          MIPS
                          Motherboard
                          Multi-core
                          multiprocessing
                          multitasking
                          processor
                          Quad-core
                          software
                          speed throttling
                          terahertz
                          THz
Input Devices             bar code scanners
                          concept keyboard
                          digital cameras
                          digital video cameras
                          digitize
                          Dvorak keyboards
                          game controllers
                          joystick
                          Keyboards
                          Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
                          magnetic stripe readers
                          MICR
                          microphone
                          multi-touch
                          multimedia keyboard
                          OCR
                          OMR
                          Optical Character Recognition
                          Optical Mark Recognition
                          scanner
                          sensors
                          Smart card readers
                          Soft keyboard
                          stylus
                          Touch pad
                          touch screen
                          trackball
                          UPC
                          Universal Product Code
                          virtual keyboard
                          voice control
                          voice recognition
                          Webcam
Output Devices            CRT monitor


                                            Page 62
                           Hardware
          hard copy
          inkjet printer
          interactive whiteboard
          laser printer
          LCD screen
          native resolution
          output
          pages per minute
          printers
          projectors
          speakers
Storage   bit
          BluRay
          byte
          CD-ROM
          CompactFlash
          data synchronisation
          disk wiping
          DVD
          eSATA
          EB
          exabyte
          external hard disk
          firewire
          flash memory/flash drive
          GB
          Gigabyte
          hard disk
          IDE
          input
          KB
          Kilobyte
          magnetic storage
          MB
          Megabyte
          MMC
          mouse
          non-volatile storage
          optical storage
          PB
          Petabyte
          Primary storage
          Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
          Redundant system
          RAID
          ROM
          RAM
          Random Access Memory
          Read Only Memory
          SATA
          Secondary storage
          secure deletion
          solid state storage
          TB
          Terabyte
          Universal Serial Bus


                           Page 63
                                           Hardware
                          USB
                          volatile storage
                          YB
                          ZB
                          yottabyte
                          zettabyte
Misc                      ASCII
                          American Standard Code for Information Interchange
                          Convergence
                          failover system
                          Global Positioning System
                          GPS
                          RFID
                          Kensington lock
                          plain text
                          Radio Frequency Identification
                          radio tag
                          RFID reader
                          RFID tag
                          RTF
                          Rich Text Format
                          Unicode
                          UPS
                          uptime
                          Uninterruptible Power Supply
                          Voice over Internet Protocol
                          VoIP
Types of Computer         desktop computer
                          Embedded systems
                          HTPC
                          Home Theatre PC
                          laptop
                          mainframe
                          netbook
                          PDA
                          Personal Digital Assistant
                          smartphones
                          supercomputers
accessibility             Braille keyboard
                          Braille printer
                          eye tracking software
                          head control systems
                          head wand
                          high contrast mode
                          input switches
                          screen magnification
                          sip and puff
                          sticky keys
                          Text-to-speech
Networking Technologies   Bluetooth
                          IrDA




                                            Page 64
                                              Hardware
Speed of a processor, in ticks per second.
Hardware responsible for processing all instructions the computer runs.
See Central Processing Unit.
Rate at which data is processed and output by a system.
A multi-core system with two processor cores.
See gigahertz.
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed. 1000 MHz.
Physical parts of a computer system.
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed.
See megahertz.
See Central Processing Unit.
See Millions of Instructions Per Second
The circuit board to which the internal computer components connect: the CPU, the RAM, the ROM, and the secondary storage de
Processor with more than one processor core, to increase its performance.
A system with more than one processor, to increase its performance.
A single processor running multiple tasks by switching rapidly between them.
See Central Processing Unit.
A multi-core system with four processor cores.
The instructions and programs which are run by the CPU.
Reducing a processor's clock speed to save power when not in use.
See Terahertz
Unit of measurement for a processor's clock speed. 1000 GHz.
Input device that uses a laser to read a bar code.
Keyboard with keys that perform programmable, customised functions.
Camera that saves images digitally, often in JPEG format.
Camera that saves digital video
To convert data from analog to digital form.
Alternative keyboard layout to improve typing speed.
Input device with buttons used for games playing.
Input device used for games playing and flight simulators.
Input device that lets the user enter text and numeric data.
Input device that reads text written in special magnetic ink. Often used at the bottom of cheques.
Input device that reads the magnetic stripe on cards like ATM cards and bank cards.
See Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
Input device for sound data
Input device able to recognise touches and gestures made with multiple fingers.
Keyboard with buttons to perform common tasks such as program launching.
See Optical Character Recognition.
See Optical Mark Recognition.
Input device that reads printed text, scans it, and converts it to text that can be edited in a word processor.
Input devices that reads simple multiple-choice style answers by looking for marks on the paper.
Input device used to digitise photographs and paper copies of data.
Input devices used to measure certain traits, such as sound, heat, or light.
Device to read a smart card.
Keyboard which is displayed on screen and controlled by clicking on buttons with the mouse or a touch screen.
Input device used in conjunction with touch screens.
Input device commonly found on laptops instead of a mouse.
Input device that lets the user touch areas of the display to perform tasks.
Input device that uses a rotating ball to control the cursor.
See Universal Product Code
A type of barcode.
See soft keyboard
Use of spoken commands to control a computer.
Use of software to convert spoken words into text.
Input device used to record video, often found in laptop computers.
Output device. Older type of monitor, now almost obsolete.


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                                                 Hardware
A printed paper copy of data.
Printer that works by spraying ink through nozzles at a sheet of paper.
Device that uses a projector for output and touch inputs, using a special pen.
High speed printer.
Output device. The newer type of monitor which is flat.
Resolution of an LCD display that produces the best display quality.
Information which is produced by a computer system.
Speed at which a printer produces output.
Output device which produces paper copies.
Output device for displaying content on large screens.
Output device for sound.
A single binary digit (a 1 or a 0). The smallest unit of storage inside a computer.
Optical secondary storage device capable of storing 16GB+.
Storage unit: 8 bits. Enough to store a single ASCII text character.
Optical secondary storage device capable of holding 650-700MB of data.
Solid state storage device usually used in digital cameras.
Exchanging data between a computer and a portable device such as a smart phone.
Securing deleting files from a disk, beyond recovery.
Optical secondary storage device capable of storing up to 8GB.
A modern type of connector for attaching external hard disks
See Exabyte
Storage unit: 1024 petabytes.
Portable storage device often used for backups.
Interface for attaching external hard disks and digital video cameras.
See solid state storage.
See Gigabyte.
Storage unit: 1024 megabytes.
Magnetic secondary storage device found in most desktop and laptop computers.
Interface for attaching internal hard disks.
Data or information that is entered into the computer.
See kilobyte.
Storage unit: 1024 bytes
Type of secondary storage that users magnets to read and store data. Examples include floppy disks and hard disks.
See megabyte.
Storage unit: 1024 kilobytes
Solid state secondary storage device, often used for digital cameras.
Input device used to control a cursor or pointer.
Storage which does not lose its contents when the power is removed.
Storage devices which use lasers to store and read data. Examples include CDs and DVDs.
See petabyte.
Storage unit: 1024 terabytes
Storage systems which are found inside the computer and are electronic. RAM and ROM are examples.
System where multiple hard disks contain duplicate data, to be used in the event of one failing.
System which will take over the role of a primary system if it fails.
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A way of having two (or more) hard disks in a computer and having the exact same data wr
See Read Only Memory.
See Random Access Memory.
Primary storage which is fast, relatively expensive, and volatile.
Primary storage whose contents are written at manufacture and cannot be altered later.
Interface for connecting storage devices like hard disks.
Storage systems which are connected externally to the computer's motherboard.
See disk wiping.
A type of secondary storage device that uses electronic circuits to read and store data. The advantage of this is that is has no movi
See terabyte
Storage unit: 1024 gigabytes
Common interface for connecting peripheral devices including mice, printers, and digital cameras.


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                                                Hardware
Secondary storage device which uses electronic circuits to store data.
Storage which loses its contents when the power is removed.
See Yottabyte.
See Zettabyte
Storage unit: 1024 zettabyes
Storage unit: 1024 exabytes
See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Encoding system to store text, where one byte is used for each character. Compare Unicode.
Idea that one device performs the same functions as many separate devices.
See Redundant system.
System of satellites which can pinpoint a users location on the Earth.
See Global Positioning System
See Radio Frequency Identification.
Special lock for securing portable devices to immovable objects to prevent theft.
Text file which contains no formatting data
System of tags which contain data that can be read from a distance using radio waves.
Tags which broadcast their position over a large distance using radio waves.
See Radio Frequency Identification.
See Radio Frequency Identification.
See Rich Text Format.
Standard file format that can store documents that include formatting data.
Encoding system to store text, with support for multiple languages and alphabets. Compare ASCII.
See Uninterruptible Power Supply.
Measure of how long a computer system has been operating without restarting.
Backup power system which powers a computer if the mains electricity fails.
System that lets users make telephone calls over the Internet.
See Voice over Internet Protocol.
Typical computer system with a separate screen and system unit.
Computer system hidden inside another device, such as a car engine management system.
See Home Theatre PC.
Computer with multimedia capabilities designed specifically for watching television and films.
Portable computers that come in many shapes and sizes.
High end computer system that achieves very high data throughput.
Lightweight laptop computer designed for portability.
See Personal Digital Assistant.
Mobile device bigger than a phone but smaller than a laptop. Probably has a keyboard or at least a stylus (pen) and a touch-screen
Mobile phone with capabilities including Internet access and a camera.
Fastest computers available, capable of performing trillions of calculations per second.
Special keyboard designed for users with eyesight problems.
Special printer that can produce Braille text.
Accessibility software that tracks where a user is looking on the screen.
Accessibility software that tracks a users head movements to allow them to input data.
Accessibility hardware that lets a user input using a wand connected to their head.
Accessibility setting for users with eyesight problems.
Accessibility hardware that lets a user input data by pressing a simple on-off switch.
Accessibility setting for users with eyesight problems.
Accessibility hardware for users with very limited mobility
Accessibility setting for users with movement problems.
Accessibility feature for users with eyesight problems.
Short range, low bandwidth wireless technology often used for mobile phone headsets or earphones.
Short range, low bandwidth, line-of-sight wireless communication technology.




                                                 Page 67
                                                             Hardware




e CPU, the RAM, the ROM, and the secondary storage devices




t the bottom of cheques.




an be edited in a word processor.
for marks on the paper.



ons with the mouse or a touch screen.




                                                             Page 68
                                                                         Hardware




xamples include floppy disks and hard disks.




. RAM and ROM are examples.
he event of one failing.

ard disks in a computer and having the exact same data written to each of them automatically. If one of the disks fails, the computer can switch to the othe




and store data. The advantage of this is that is has no moving parts, making it faster and less likely to be damaged if dropped. Also called flash memory. (


ters, and digital cameras.


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                                                               Hardware




phabets. Compare ASCII.




as a keyboard or at least a stylus (pen) and a touch-screen.




one headsets or earphones.




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one of the disks fails, the computer can switch to the other disk and continue running normally (since the second disk is an exact copy).




ely to be damaged if dropped. Also called flash memory. (Compare magnetic storage with optical storage and solid state storage)




                                                                         Page 72
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ond disk is an exact copy).




                              Page 75
                                    Software
accounting software
application software
application suite
assistant
audio software
automatic recalculation
backup
browser
Business Software Alliance
bug
closed source
cloud computing
command line interface
commercial software
compatibility
concurrent licence
copyright
cross-platform
database software
Defragmentation
desktop publishing software
device drivers
DTP
EULA
end user licence agreement
Federation Against Software Theft
firewall
fragmentation
free and open source software
freeware
frequently asked questions
Full backup
Graphical User Interface
graphics software
GUI
Incremental backup
mail merge
MDI
Menu Driven Interface
multi-user licence
multimedia software
open source
operating systems
platform
presentation software
product activation
productivity software
public domain
read me file
restore (a backup)
safety critical system
serial number
shareware
single-user licence
site licence
source code


                                    Page 76
                             Software
spreadsheet software
tutorials
User interface
utility software
video editing software
voice controlled interface
web development software
Web-based software
wizard
word processing software




                             Page 77
                                                Software
Application software for managing finances.
Software which allows users to produce work, such as documents and presentations.
Collection of application programs that perform related tasks, sold together.
See wizard.
Application software for creating, recording, and editing sound.
Spreadsheet feature that updates results when cells are changed.
Spare copy of data to be used in the event of an emergency.
Software used to view web pages.
Organisation that works to reduce illegal copying of software.
Error or mistake in a program.
Software whose source code is not publicly available.
System whereby application software and data are stored on a remote Internet server.
System the user controls by typing in commands.
Software which is sold for profit.
Idea that two systems work together and can share hardware, software, or data.
Software licence that allows a specific number of copies to be used at one time.
Law protecting intellectual property from unauthorised copying.
Hardware or software that works on multiple operating systems.
Application software for creating, recording, and finding large collections of data.
Process of reducing disk fragmentation.
Application software used to lay out pages for printed publications.
Utility software used by the operating system to communicate with peripheral devices.
See desktop publishing software.
See end user licence agreement
Licence agreement for software that sets out the users rights and responsibilities.
Organisation that works to reduce illegal copying of software.
Hardware or software that controls access to a network.
Problem that occurs as files are saved on non-contiguous sectors on a disk.
Software whose source code is freely available and can be changed and distributed.
Software which is distributed for no cost.
List of questions and answers often found in manuals and help screens.
Backup that copies all data from a system.
System the user controls using a mouse to click on icons, buttons, and windows.
Application software for creating and editing images.
See Graphical User Interface.
Backup that copies only the changed data since the last backup.
Automatically customising a standard letter with individual names and addresses.
See Menu Driven Interface
Interface that presents a series of pre-defined options to the user.
Software licence that allows a specific number of copies to be used at one time.
Application software for creating and editing presentations, animations, and video.
See free and open source.
Software that manages the computer system and controls the hardware.
Refers to a particular combination of hardware and operating system.
Application software for creating slides used for lectures, presentations, and lessons.
Process of registering software online before it can be used, to reduce illegal copies.
See application software.
Software to which the author has waived all rights.
Help file containing latest updates and information about using a system.
Copying data from a backup copy back to the main system.
System whose failure could result in injury or loss of life.
Registration number needed during software installation, used to reduce illegal copies.
Software which is free to use initially, but which must be pay for if use continues.
Software licence that allows the use of only a single copy on a single computer.
Software licence that allows an organisation to use software on an unlimited number of computers.
Instructions that make up the software, entered by the programmer using a programming language.


                                                Page 78
                                                  Software
Application software for performing numerical calculations and analysis.
Step by step help on using a system.
Method used to communicate with a computer system.
Software used to perform maintenance jobs such as defragmenting disks.
Application software for creating and editing video.
Ability to operate a computer by issuing spoken commands.
Application software for creating HTML pages for web sites.
See cloud computing.
Step by step help system to guide a user through a task.
Application software for creating written documents such as letters or essays.




                                                  Page 79
                                Networks
3G                                   System to allow Internet access using mobile phone networks.
4G                                   System to allow Internet access using mobile phone networks.
application server                   Computer that stores application software for clients on a network.
asynchronous                         Data transfer method in which the sender and receiver are not synchronise
audit trails                         Record of all changes and actions performed with a system, for security pu
authentication server                Computer that checks usernames and passwords when a user tries to log i
authorised access                    User who has permission to use a system.
backbone                             High speed connections that connect main Internet sites.
bandwidth                            Measure of a network's speed.
blog                                 Web page where entries are stored chronologically, like a diary or journal.
Bluetooth
bps                                  See bits per second.
cache                                Storage area for frequently used information, to speed up access.
client computer                      Computer on a network that uses services provided by a server.
client-server                        Network system that uses servers to store data centrally and client compute
database server                      Computer on a network that stores data for other users to access.
DHCP                                 See Dynamic Host Control Protocol.
dialup                               Internet access that connects using a telephone line and a MODEM.
DNS                                  See Domain Name System.
Domain Name System                   System for translating domain names into IP addresses.
domain names                         Human readable names given to web sites, such as www.itgstextbook.com
download                             To transfer data from a server to a client computer.
DSL / cable                          Common type of broadband Internet connection.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol        System that automatically assigns IP addresses to computers on a network
email server                         Computer on a network that stores email for other users to access.
ethernet                             Type of wired network connection commonly used on LANs.
fibre optic                          Types of network connection that offers extremely high speed transfers.
file server                          Computer on a network that stores files for other users to access.
File Transfer Protocol               System for transferring files over the Internet, often used for uploading web
firewall
FTP                                  See File Transfer Protocol
gateway                              Computer which acts as a bridge between a local area network and the Inte
Gbps                                 Gigabits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
hardware address                     See MAC address.
home network                         Small local computer network used in homes.
host                                 See server.
HTTP                                 HyperText Transfer Protocol. The standard protocol of the world wide web.
HTTPS                                Secure version of HTTP which offers encrypted communication.
hub                                  Hardware device for connecting several computers on a network.
Internet Protocol                    Standard protocol used on many LANs and on the Internet. See TCP.
Internet Service Provider            Company that provides Internet access to homes and businesses.
IP address                           Unique address assigned to every computer on a network.
ISP                                  See Internet Service Provider.
Kbps                                 Kilobits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
LAN                                  See Local Area Network.
Local Area Network                   Computer network in a small area such as an office building.
log file                             Chronological record of events, used for reporting purposes and audit trails
login                                Process of authenticating oneself before using a computer system.
MAC address                          Unique address embedded in network connected devices.
MAN                                  See Metropolitan Area Network.
mbps                                 Megabits per second. Measure of network bandwidth.
Metropolitan Area Network.           Computer network over a large area such as a city.
microblog                            Blog-like system which limited post length, such as Twitter.
MODEM                                Device for connecting a computer to a telephone line, used in dialup conne
narrowband                           Low speed network connection.
network administrator                Individual responsible for maintaining and running a network.


                                Page 80
                          Networks
P2P                            See Peer to peer.
PAN                            See Personal Area Network.
Peer to peer                   Network in which all computers are equal and there are no centralised serv
Personal Area Network          Short range network between a computer and a mobile phone or similar po
personal firewall              Software application that controls network access to and from a single com
port                           Number used to determine the type of service required when a computer co
print server                   Computer on a network that receives and processes print requests.
protocols                      A standard set of rules for performing tasks, such as communication.
proxy server                   Computer on a network which acts on behalf of another, or through which a
push technology                System which notifies users of changes to web pages without them having
Read / write web               See web 2.0.
Remote access                  Ability to connect to a computer as though you were physically present at th
Router                         Hardware device used to connect two separate networks.
RSS                            Really Simple Syndicate. A push technology.
SAN                            See Storage Area Network.
server                         Computer on a network that provides services or performs work for others.
social bookmarking             Web site that lets users store and manage their favourite links, and share t
social network                 Web site that lets users create personal profile pages and share them with
Storage Area Network           Network dedicated to providing disk storage to other computers on the netw
switch                         Hardware device for connecting several computers on a network.
Synchronous                    Data transfer method in which the sender and receiver are synchronised, a
tagging                        Adding key words to an item such as a photo to describe its content.
TCP/IP                         Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Common protocol for LANs an
thin client                    Networking system whereby client computers rely on servers to perform the
top-level domain               Suffix at the end of a URL, such as .com or .org.
upload                         To transfer data from a client to a server computer.
URL                            Universal Resource Locator. Describes the location of an item, such as a w
Virtual LAN                    Network form by several LANs which are in separate geographical location
Virtual Private Network        System to allow a remote computer to securely connect to a LAN, as thoug
VLAN                           See Virtual LAN.
VPN                            See Virtual Private Network.
WAN                            See Wide Area Network.
Web 2.0                        Refers to web pages which allow user interaction and collaboration.
Web 3.0                        Proposed evolution of the world wide web.
web server                     Computer on a network that stores web pages.
Wide Area Network              Computer network over a large area, such as a country or several countries
WiFi                           Most common type of wireless connection.
wiki                           Type of web page that any visitor can edit.
WiMax                          Long range wireless network technology.
wireless hotspot
WLAN                           Wireless LAN. A LAN what allows WiFi connections.
WWW                            World Wide Web – a series of interlinked multimedia pages stored on the I




                          Page 81
                                                                       Networks
et access using mobile phone networks.
et access using mobile phone networks.
application software for clients on a network.
 n which the sender and receiver are not synchronised.
 and actions performed with a system, for security purposes.
 usernames and passwords when a user tries to log in.

ns that connect main Internet sites.

es are stored chronologically, like a diary or journal.


ently used information, to speed up access.
k that uses services provided by a server.
ses servers to store data centrally and client computers to access them.
k that stores data for other users to access.

onnects using a telephone line and a MODEM.

 domain names into IP addresses.
es given to web sites, such as www.itgstextbook.com
a server to a client computer.
dband Internet connection.
 ally assigns IP addresses to computers on a network.
 k that stores email for other users to access.
 connection commonly used on LANs.
nection that offers extremely high speed transfers.
 k that stores files for other users to access.
g files over the Internet, often used for uploading web sites.


as a bridge between a local area network and the Internet.
Measure of network bandwidth.

network used in homes.

 otocol. The standard protocol of the world wide web.
TP which offers encrypted communication.
onnecting several computers on a network.
 d on many LANs and on the Internet. See TCP.
 s Internet access to homes and businesses.
ned to every computer on a network.

easure of network bandwidth.

a small area such as an office building.
of events, used for reporting purposes and audit trails.
 ing oneself before using a computer system.
 dded in network connected devices.

 Measure of network bandwidth.
er a large area such as a city.
h limited post length, such as Twitter.
 a computer to a telephone line, used in dialup connections.

 for maintaining and running a network.


                                                                           Page 82
                                                                         Networks



omputers are equal and there are no centralised servers.
 etween a computer and a mobile phone or similar portable device.
hat controls network access to and from a single computer.
mine the type of service required when a computer connects to another.
 k that receives and processes print requests.
s for performing tasks, such as communication.
 k which acts on behalf of another, or through which all Internet data must pass.
 users of changes to web pages without them having to visit the page.

computer as though you were physically present at the keyboard.
 to connect two separate networks.
te. A push technology.

 k that provides services or performs work for others.
 s store and manage their favourite links, and share them with others.
 s create personal profile pages and share them with friends.
providing disk storage to other computers on the network.
onnecting several computers on a network.
 n which the sender and receiver are synchronised, allowing higher speed transfer.
n item such as a photo to describe its content.
 col / Internet Protocol. Common protocol for LANs and the Internet.
 ereby client computers rely on servers to perform their processing tasks.
URL, such as .com or .org.
a client to a server computer.
ocator. Describes the location of an item, such as a web page, on the Internet.
ral LANs which are in separate geographical locations.
ote computer to securely connect to a LAN, as though it were physically connected.



which allow user interaction and collaboration.

 k that stores web pages.
er a large area, such as a country or several countries.




 what allows WiFi connections.
series of interlinked multimedia pages stored on the Internet.




                                                                          Page 83
                                                  Security
access levels
anti-virus                             Software to detect and remove viruses and other malware.
asymmetric key encryption              See public key encryption.
authentication                         Establishing a user's identity.
backdoor                               Method of bypassing security in a system, built in by the system designers.
biometric enrolment                    Process of registering a user for a biometric system by taking an initial sample.
biometric template                     Measurements taken from a biometric sample.
biometrics                             Use of fingerprints, retina scans, or other body features as an authentication mechanism.
botnet                                 Group of zombie computers under the control of a criminal.
brute force attack                     Attempt to break a password by trying all possible combinations of letters, numbers, and sym
CAPTCHA
Certificate Authority                  Organisation that issues digital certificates to individuals and companies.
ciphertext                             Result of encrypting plaintext.
Computer Misuse Act                    UK law governing criminal offences committed using a computer.
cracking                               See hacking.
DDoS                                   See Distributed Denial of Service attack
denial of service attack               Flooding a computer system with data so that it cannot respond to genuine users.
dictionary attack                      Attempt to break a password by trying all possible words.
digital signatures                     Technique used to authenticate remote users, such as online shopping businesses.
Distributed Denial of Service attack   Denial of service attack committed using dozens of computers, usually zombies on a botnet.
DNS poisoning                          Technique used by criminals to alter DNS records and drive users to fake sites, to committin
DoS                                    See denial of service attack
Drive-by download                      Program which automatically downloads when a user visits a web page, usually without their
encryption                             System of encoding plaintext so that it cannot be understood with access to an encryption ke
encryption key                         Used to encrypt and decrypt data.
EV SSL                                 Extended Validation SSL. Digital certificate validation technique used on the world wide web
false negative                         When a system incorrectly rejects an action instead of accepting it.
false positive                         When a system incorrectly accepts an action instead of rejecting it.
full disk encryption                   System that encrypts all data saved to a hard disk automatically and transparently.
hacking                                Gaining illegal access to a computer system
home directory                         Directory that contains a users personal files.
https
identity theft                         Stealing personal data in order to impersonate a person.
key escrow                             Idea of having encryption keys stored by a third party company so the government can acces
key logger                             Software or hardware which records all key strokes on a computer system.
key pair                               A public key and private key that work together in a public encryption system.
macro virus                            Virus that takes advantage of the macro programming languages built into some software.
malware                                Generic name for malicious software
Multi-factor authentication            Use of several authentication techniques together, such as passwords and security tokens.
one time password                      Password generated by a security token, which expires as soon as it is used.
packet sniffer                         Software or hardware used to collect data travelling over a network.
passphrase                             See password.
password                               Word or phrase used to authenticate a user.
pharming                               See DNS Poisoning.
phishing                               Use of fake emails and web sites to trick users into revealing sensitive data.
physical security                      Locks, alarms, and other techniques used to securely a building or computer room.
plaintext                              Message before it is encrypted, or after it has been decrypted.
private key                            Key used for decryption in a public key encryption system.
public key                             Key used for encryption in a public key encryption system.
root user                              User will full control over a computer system.
rootkit                                Type of malware which infiltrates the operating system and attempts to hide itself from view.
secret key encryption                  Encryption system in which a single key is used for both encryption and decryption.
Secure Socket Layer                    System used to encrypt https web traffic.
security token                         Hardware device that must be present during login to authenticate a user.
security update                        Software update to fix a security problem discovered in software.
smishing                               Phishing attacks committed using text messages (SMS).


                                                  Page 84
                                      Security
social engineering         Tricking a user into revealing their password or other sensitive data.
spam                       Unwanted, bulk email.
spam bot                   Program that scans web pages for email address, in order to send spam.
spam filters               Program designed to identify and block spam messages while letting genuine messages thro
spyware                    Malware which covertly records a user's actions, such as their key presses.
SSL                        See Secure Socket Layer.
symmetric key encryption   See Secret key encryption.
system administrator       Personal in overall charge of a computer system in an organisation.
TLS                        See Transport Layer Security.
Transport Layer Security   System used to encrypt https web traffic.
trojan horse               Malware which pretends to be a genuinely useful program to trick the user into using it.
unauthorised access        Gaining illegal access to a computer system
Virus                      Computer program which damages files and data spreads when infected programs are copie
virus definition file      Used by anti-virus programs to recognise known viruses.
vishing                    Phishing attacks committed using telephone calls or VoIP systems.
vulnerability scanner      Software to scan a system for potential security problems.
web bug                    Technique used by spammers to detect if an email address is valid or not.
WEP                        Wired Equivalence Protocol. Wireless network encryption system.
worm                       Malicious software which replicates itself and spreads between computer systems and over n
WPA                        Wireless Protected Access. Wireless network encryption system.
WPA2                       Wireless Protected Access 2. Wireless network encryption system.
zombie                     Computer which has been compromised by malware and is part of a botnet.




                                     Page 85
                                                                        Security




 in by the system designers.
stem by taking an initial sample.

features as an authentication mechanism.

ble combinations of letters, numbers, and symbols.

dividuals and companies.




 cannot respond to genuine users.

such as online shopping businesses.
 s of computers, usually zombies on a botnet.
 ds and drive users to fake sites, to committing phishing.

a user visits a web page, usually without their knowledge or consent.
e understood with access to an encryption key.

dation technique used on the world wide web.


isk automatically and transparently.




 party company so the government can access them if needed.
kes on a computer system.
in a public encryption system.
mming languages built into some software.

her, such as passwords and security tokens.
 expires as soon as it is used.




into revealing sensitive data.
curely a building or computer room.




 system and attempts to hide itself from view.
d for both encryption and decryption.

 gin to authenticate a user.




                                                                        Page 86
                                                     Security



ss, in order to send spam.
messages while letting genuine messages through.
s, such as their key presses.




 ul program to trick the user into using it.

 ta spreads when infected programs are copied.



mail address is valid or not.

preads between computer systems and over networks.


 lware and is part of a botnet.




                                                     Page 87
                                       Multimedia
AAC                              Lossy file format for audio.
alignment                        Tools to control placement of objects in presentation or DTP software.
AVI                              Lossy file format for video.
Bit depth                        Refers to the number of colours in an image.
bit rate                         Amount of data used to represent a single sample in a video or audio file.
bitmap graphics                  Graphics composed of rectangular grids of pixels.
blue screen                      Technique used to replace part of a video image with computer graphics.
BMP                              Lossless file format for audio.
buffer                           Temporary storage area used to store video or audio data ready for playing.
CAD                              See Computer Aided Design
CGI                              See Computer Generated Imagery.
citation                         Acknowledge to a piece of work used as a source.
cloning
colour balance                   Graphics filtering for altering the tones and intensities of colours in an image.
colour depth                     See bit depth.
colour levels                    Graphics filtering for altering the tones and intensities of colours in an image.
Colour management                See colour synchronisation.
colour profile                   Used as part of colour synchronisation to specify how a device represents colour.
Colour synchronisation           Ensuring printed output colours accurately match those on the screen.
composite image                  Image which was created from several separate images.
compression                      Reduction in the amount of data used to store a file.
Computer Aided Design            Technical graphics software used to design products for manufacture.
Computer Generated Imagery       Graphics created entirely on a computer, using 2D or 3D graphics software.
copyright
Creative Commons                 Licensing system for authors who wish to distribute their work freely.
Cropping                         Taking a small part (subset) of an image.
desktop publishing software
digital effects
Digital Rights Management        Software which restricts the actions a user can perform with a file, such as copying or pri
digitisation
DOC                              File format for documents, used by Microsoft Office.
dots per inch
DPI                              See dots per inch
DRM                              See Digital Rights Management.
DTP
fair use                         Exceptions to copyright law that allow copying in certain limited circumstances.
filters                          See digital effects.
FLAC                             Lossless file format for audio.
flipping                         Image effect found in most graphics software.
footer                           Area of a document which appears the same on every page.
GIF                              Lossless file format for images.
GNU Free Documentation License   Licensing system for authors who wish to distribute their work freely.
green screen                     See blue green.
header                           Area of a document which appears the same on every page.
image editor                     See graphics software
intellectual property
JPG                              Lossy file format for images.
layer
lossless compression             Compression technique in which the original file is completely recoverable, with no loss o
lossy compression                Compression technique in which some file data is sacrificed in order to reduce file size.
master page
megapixel
MIDI                             Musical Instrument Digital Interface. System for communication between musical hardwa
morphing                         Effect that transforms one image into another over a series of frames.
motion capture
MOV                              Lossy file format for video.


                                        Page 88
                                      Multimedia
MP3                             Lossy file format for audio.
MP4                             Lossy file format for video.
MPEG                            Lossy file format for video.
object oriented graphics        See vector graphics.
ODT                             File format for documents, used by LibreOffice.
PDF                             See Portable Document Format.
pixel                           Individual dots which make up bitmap graphics.
pixels per inch                 Number of pixels displayed in each inch of screen output.
plain text file                 See text file.
PNG                             Lossless file format for images.
Portable Document Format        Common file format for the exchange of documents.
PPI                             See Pixels per inch.
raster graphics                 See bitmap graphics.
resolution                      Refers to the number of pixels in an image.
Rich Text Format
rotating                        Image effect found in most graphics software.
RTF
sample rate                     Number of samples taken each second when recording sound.
scaling                         Changing the size of an image.
selection tools                 Tools in graphics software for selecting only a subset of an image.
streaming media                 Video or audio data that is played while it is downloading.
SVG                             Standard file format for vector image data.
template
text file
TIF                             Lossless file format for images.
true colour                     Image with 24 bit colour depth.
TXT                             See text file.
typography
vector graphics                 Graphics which are stored as a series of mathematical shapes and properties.
video CODECs (coder-decoders)   Software required to view certain compressed video and audio formats.
virtual actors                  Animated characters used in films, created entirely using computer graphics software.
Vorbis                          Lossy file format for audio.
watermarking
WAV                             Lossless file format for audio.
WMA                             Lossy file format for video.
WYSIWYG                         What You See Is What You Get. Refers to programs that present their output onscreen e
zip file                        Compressed file format for general data.




                                       Page 89
                                                                         Multimedia


cts in presentation or DTP software.


 a single sample in a video or audio file.

 a video image with computer graphics.

 ore video or audio data ready for playing.




 nes and intensities of colours in an image.

 nes and intensities of colours in an image.

 tion to specify how a device represents colour.
 curately match those on the screen.
 eral separate images.

 o design products for manufacture.
mputer, using 2D or 3D graphics software.

wish to distribute their work freely.



 s a user can perform with a file, such as copying or printing.




 ow copying in certain limited circumstances.



s the same on every page.

wish to distribute their work freely.

s the same on every page.




he original file is completely recoverable, with no loss of quality. Compare lossy compression.
ome file data is sacrificed in order to reduce file size.


e. System for communication between musical hardware and software applications.
nto another over a series of frames.




                                                                          Page 90
                                                                         Multimedia




h inch of screen output.




cond when recording sound.

cting only a subset of an image.
while it is downloading.




ries of mathematical shapes and properties.
 ompressed video and audio formats.
  created entirely using computer graphics software.




 efers to programs that present their output onscreen exactly as it will appear when printed.




                                                                          Page 91
                                          Databases
alternative key                See secondary key.
auditing
Boolean operators              AND, OR, and NOT operators used in a query.
character check                Ensuring a field contains only the specified character types.
check digit                    Way of checking mathematically if a item of data has been correctly entered.
Comma Separated Values         File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file.
composite key                  Primary key which consists of more than one field.
computer matching              See data matching.
consistency check              Validation check in which two fields' values are mutually dependent.
CSV                            See Comma Separated Values.
data entry form                Screen used to input data into a database.
data integrity
data matching                  Combining several databases to build up more information about a person or set of people.
data mining                    Searching collections of data for hidden patterns.
Data Protection Act            UK law that governs the collection and use of personal data.
data redundancy                Data in a database which is needlessly duplicated.
data types                     Format of data in a field, such as text, number, or date.
data warehouses                Vast databases containing many gigabytes of data.
Database Management System     Software used to create, enter, edit, and retrieve data in a database.
DBMS                           See Database Management System.
field                          Single item of data about a single record in a database.
field size                     Validation technique. Number of characters that can be stored in a field.
flat file database             Database which consists of just one table.
foreign key                    Database field whose sole purpose is to form part of a relationship with another table.
forms                          See data entry form.
index                          See secondary key.
input mask                     Validation technique. Ensures only the specified characters can be entered into a field.
key field                      See primary key.
knowledge discovery            See data mining.
length check                   See field size.
normalization                  Process of converting a database from a flat file database to a relational database.
online encyclopedias           Web site containing a large number of articles for research purposes.
opt-in                         System in which users must explicitly decide to participate.
opt-out                        System in which users must explicitly decide not to participate.
parameter query                Database query whose criteria are decided by the user at run-time.
personal data                  Data which could identify a user, or lead to social impacts such as identity theft.
personally identifiable data   See personal data.
presence check                 Validation technique. Requires a field to be completed.
primary key                    Field which contains a different value for every record in that table.
privacy policy                 Policy governing what data a company or web site will collect about you and how it will be us
queries                        Method of extracting data from a database that matches specific criteria
range check                    Validation technique. Ensures a field is between a certain range of values.
RDBMS                          Relational DBMS. See Database Management System.
record                         Collection of fields that represent a single entity, such as a person.
redundancy                     See data redundancy.
redundant data                 See data redundancy.
relational database            Database containing multiple related tables and no redundant data.
report generation
searching                      See query.
secondary key                  Field by which a database is often searched.
secondary use                  Using data for a purpose other than the one for which it was collected.
select query
sensitive data
sorting
SQL                            See Structured Query Language
Structured Query Language      Language for managing databases by typing commands.


                                           Page 92
                                      Databases
Tab Separated Values       File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file.
tab-delimited text files   See Tab Separated Values
table                      In databases, a collection of records representing a type of item.
Trans-border data flow     Transfer of data between countries.
TSV                        See Tab Separated Values
validation                 Checks to ensure whether data is in the correct format.
verification               Checking whether data is correct.
web databases




                                       Page 93
                                                           Databases




f data has been correctly entered.
es fields and records in a plain text file.


s are mutually dependent.



more information about a person or set of people.




 trieve data in a database.


s that can be stored in a field.

rm part of a relationship with another table.


 cified characters can be entered into a field.



at file database to a relational database.
cles for research purposes.


 by the user at run-time.
 social impacts such as identity theft.


very record in that table.
web site will collect about you and how it will be used.
 that matches specific criteria
ween a certain range of values.

entity, such as a person.


s and no redundant data.



e for which it was collected.




                                                           Page 94
                                              Databases
es fields and records in a plain text file.




                                              Page 95
                                             Models&Sims
absolute cell reference      In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which does not change when moved.
assumptions
car crash model              Used to predict the results of car crashes.
cell format                  In spreadsheets, the properties of a cell such as its colour, font, and cell type.
cell range                   In spreadsheets, reference to a range of continuous cells.
cell reference               In spreadsheets, a combination of row number and column letter to refer to a single cell (e.g. A2).
centralized processing       Single computer with multiple processors working on a task.
CFD                          Computational Fluid Dynamics. A technique used to model airflow in computer models.
climate model                Used to predict possible future climate change.
Computer model               Mathematical representation of the real world using computer software.
Computer simulation          Based on computer models, gives users experience of events such as flying a plane.
Decision Support System      Use of models or expert systems to aid (business) decision making processes.
distributed processing       Use of multiple separate computers working together on a common task.
feedback loop
flight simulator             Simulator hardware and software used to train pilots.
formula                      In spreadsheets, a combination of cell references and mathematical operations.
full motion platform         Hardware device which can move in many directions to increase the realism of simulators.
function                     Built in features of spreadsheets for performing common calculations.
Global Climate Model         See climate model.
goal seek                    Spreadsheet tool used to determine the required values to meet a certain goal.
grid computing               See distributed computing
high performance computing   High speed computing using multiple processors
lookup
parallel processing          High speed computing using multiple processors
prediction                   Output of a computer model.
process
relative cell reference      In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which updates when moved.
simplification               Difference between a computer model's representation of a process, and the real life process.
spreadsheet
supercomputer
variables                    Components of a computer model which can be altered to vary the output.
visualisation                Graphical or animated output from a computer model or simulation.
What-if scenario             Use of a computer model to test the results of different situations and scenarios.




                                                Page 96
                                                       Models&Sims




s colour, font, and cell type.

d column letter to refer to a single cell (e.g. A2).

 to model airflow in computer models.


ce of events such as flying a plane.
) decision making processes.
her on a common task.


 and mathematical operations.
ons to increase the realism of simulators.


values to meet a certain goal.




 ation of a process, and the real life process.


ltered to vary the output.

erent situations and scenarios.




                                                         Page 97
                                         Business-Traditional
acceptable use policy       Policy that sets out what users are and are not allowed to do with IT systems.
ATM
chip and pin                Systems designed to reduce credit card fraud by requiring the user to authenticate themselves at the
collaborative software      Application software to let users work together on projects even if they are geographically remote.
deskilling                  Reduction in the skill needed to do a job, due to technology
EFT                         See Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronic Funds Transfer   Transfer of money from one account to another using computer systems and networks.
email monitoring            Technology to monitor emails sent and received, usually by employees.
employee monitoring         Technology used to monitor the work of employees using a computer system.
extranet                    Content on a LAN which is available to authorised third parties.
filtering                   Process of preventing access to some resources, usually web pages.
follow-the-sun working
Internet
Internet monitoring         Technology to monitor Internet data sent and received, usually by employees.
intranet                    Content on a LAN which is only available to members of an organisation.
keystroke monitoring        See key logger.
loyalty card
macro                       In application software, a set of actions which are recorded so they can be played back later.
macro viruses
mail merge
monitoring                  See employee monitoring.
online banking              Use of the Internet to perform tasks such as bill payment, money transfers and other banking tasks.
Point of Sale               Checkout system in a shop, usually connected to a store database and EFT system.
POS                         See Point of Sale.
re-skilling                 When a de-skilled user retrains, often in a technology related discipline.
remote desktop              See remote access.
reward card                 See loyalty card.
RFID
self checkout               Supermarket technology that lets users scan and pay for their own goods without staff assistance.
smart shopping trolley      Shopping trolley with RFID technology to offer enhanced functionality.
targeted advertising        Use of data about customers to determine which adverts they are most likely to find useful.
telecommuting               See teleworking.
teleworking                 Working away from an organisations main office or base, using portable computers.




                                                Page 98
                                                                   Business-Traditional
ed to do with IT systems.

uiring the user to authenticate themselves at the point of sale.
ojects even if they are geographically remote.


g computer systems and networks.

 sing a computer system.




 d, usually by employees.



 orded so they can be played back later.



ment, money transfers and other banking tasks.
 tore database and EFT system.




y for their own goods without staff assistance.

 erts they are most likely to find useful.

 ase, using portable computers.




                                                                        Page 99
                                         Business-Online
absolute link                   HTML link to a fully specified URL.
Active Server Pages             Technology used to create dynamic web pages.
Active Server Pages Extended    See Active Server Pages.
ad blockers                     Software to block adverts in web pages.
ALT attribute                   HTML attribute that provides a text description of images.
anchor                          See internal link.
Apache                          Well known web server software.
applet                          Java program which runs inside a web page.
ASP                             See Active Server Pages.
ASPX                            See Active Server Pages.
B2B                             See Business-to-Business.
B2C                             See Business-to-Consumer.
back-end                        Database which stores web site content 'behind the scenes'.
banner ads
bounce rate                     Percentage of users who visit a web site but immediately leave it.
breadcrumb trails               Feature of a web site to help user navigation.
browser compatibility
bulk email                      See spam.
Business-to-Business            E-commerce conducted between two businesses, such as a business and their suppliers.
Business-to-Consumer            E-commerce conducted between a business and their customers, for example, online shoppin
C2C                             See Consumer-to-Consumer.
Cascading Style Sheets          Technology to specify styling and formatting information for web pages.
Click Through Rate              Percentage of users who click on an advert after seeing it.
Consumer-to-Consumer            E-commerce where customers deal directly with each other, such as in online auction.
conversion rate                 Percentage of visitors who visit a site and then make a purchase.
cookies                         Small text file text by some web sites to recognise the user when they return.
Cost Per Click                  Amount paid to the advertising company when a user clicks on an advert.
CPC                             See Cost Per Click.
CSS                             See Cascading Style Sheets.
CTR                             See Click Through Rate.
data mining
data-driven web sites           See dynamic web s
digital certificates
direct payment                  E-commerce payment using a debit or credit card.
do not track                    Initiative designed to stop tracking cookies from recording user's web activity.
domain name
Domain Name System
dynamic web site                See data-driven web sites.
E-commerce                      The techniques used to sell products online.
E-marketing                     The techniques used to market produces online.
e-store
electronic shopping cart        Feature of e-commerce sites which contains items for later purchase.
email
enterprise information system
external link                   HTML link which points to a separate, external web site.
File Transfer Protocol
filtering
first party cookie              Cookie left by a web site the user directly visited.
Flash                           Technology often used to create interactive web pages.
HTML                            HyperText Markup Language. The standard language for creating web pages.
https
hyperlinks
internal link                   HTML link which points to a different part of the same page.
Internet Service Provider
ISP
Java                            Programming language often used to create interactive web pages.


                                            Page 100
                                         Business-Online
JavaScript                      Scripting language often used to create interactive web pages.
keyword density                 Frequently with which key words appear in a web page.
keyword prominence              Locations within a web page that key words appear.
keyword spamming                Overuse of key words in a web page in an attempt to increase search engine ranking.
link farm                       Service that links many pages to each other in an attempt to increase search engine ranking.
location based service
m-commerce                      See mobile commerce.
meta tags                       HTML tags to add additional information about a web page and its content.
mobile commerce                 Use of mobile phones to conduct online purchases.
MySQL                           Database system often used by data driven web sites.
newsletter
online advertising
online reputation
payment gateway
PHP                             Technology used to create dynamic web pages.
plugins                         Software added to web browsers to extend their functionality.
pop-ups
ranking of sites
referrer
relative link                   HTML link to a file, with no path specified.
screen reader
scripting
Search Engine Optimisation      Techniques used to increase a web page's search engine rankings.
secure online payment
SEO                             See Search Engine Optimisation.
Silverlight                     Technology often used to create interactive web pages.
sitemap                         Overview of a web site and all the links and pages within it.
social media
spam
sponsored links                 Links show by search engines because the link owners paid a fee.
SQL
styles
stylesheet                      See Cascading Style Sheets.
SVG
tags (HTML)
targeted advertising
third party cookie              Cookie left by a web site the user did not directly visit (usually by advert companies).
third party hosting             Use of a separate company to store a web site on their servers.
third party payment service     See payment gateway.
title attribute                 HTML attribute that provides a text description of links.
Top Level Domain
tracking number
unique identification number    Used by cookies to help recognise return visitors to web sites.
uploading
uptime
viral advertising
virtual world
W3C                             See World Wide Web Consortium .
web analytics
Web Content Management System
web crawler                     Software which scans web pages looking for key words, so search engines can index them.
web hosting
web server                      Computer which houses web pages and serves them to computers that request them.
web spider                      See web crawler.
web traffic analysis
WebCMS


                                            Page 101
                                    Business-Online
World Wide Web Consortium   Organisation that manages standards on the world wide web.
WYSIWYG
XML




                                       Page 102
                                                       Business-Online




esses, such as a business and their suppliers.
s and their customers, for example, online shopping.

 information for web pages.

with each other, such as in online auction.

ognise the user when they return.
 en a user clicks on an advert.




rom recording user's web activity.




 items for later purchase.




 language for creating web pages.




 interactive web pages.


                                                          Page 103
                                                    Business-Online




ttempt to increase search engine ranking.
 in an attempt to increase search engine ranking.


out a web page and its content.




search engine rankings.




ink owners paid a fee.




ectly visit (usually by advert companies).




r key words, so search engines can index them.

ves them to computers that request them.




                                                       Page 104
Business-Online




   Page 105
                    Business-Online
start page:   189
hack            2




                       Page 106
                            Business-Transport
fleet management
fleet tracking
full body scanners
GPS
intelligent cars
package tracking
price comparison sites
real-time data collection
remote vehicle disabling
RFID
route planning
sensors
smart cars




                                Page 107
                                            Business-Transport
Software to track and manage fleets of vehicles, including route planning and data analysis functions.
Software to display the location of vehicles, such as trucks or taxis.
Security system used at airports to produce a digital image of passengers 'without clothes'.

See smart cars.
Use of RFID and a web site to show customers the location of packages awaiting delivery.
Sites which aggregate price data from a variety of sources to offer customers the best deal.
Data logging systems which report data as soon as it is collected.
Ability to disable a vehicle over a computer network if it has been stolen

Software to plan the optimum route between two points.

Cars incorporating IT to improve driver safety and comfort.




                                                 Page 108
                                     Education
1-1 programme
acceptable use policy
accessibility
anti-plagiarism software
asynchronous learning
black list
blended learning
Children's Internet Protection Act
CIPA
cyber-bullying
dictation software
e-book
e-book reader
e-learning
EDI
edutainment
Electronic Data Interchange
electronic textbooks
equality of access
false negative
false positive
flat classrooms
forums
intellectual property
interactive whiteboard
m-learning
motion controllers
multimedia
onscreen keyboard
open courseware
open textbooks
plagiarism
podcast
predictive text
profile privacy settings
projector
reference software
school information system
serious games
speech synthesis
synchronous learning
tele-learning
touch sensitive input
video conferencing
VLE
web 2.0
Virtual Learning Environment




                                     Page 109
                                                  Education
Scheme in which every student is given their own laptop.

Hardware and software features to help disabled users operate computer systems.
Software to detect plagiarised work by searching the Internet and previous work samples.
Learning which does not require the teacher and student to be online at the same time.

Mix of traditional teaching techniques and e-learning techniques.
US law requiring Internet filtering in US most schools and libraries.
See Children's Internet Protection Act.
Use of IT such as social networks to harass or bully individuals.
See voice recognition software.

Portable device used to download and read e-books.
Electronic learning. The use of IT to teach and learn.
See Electronic Data Interchange.
Entertainment software designed to have an educational aspect.
Process of transferring data between systems in a standard format that both can understand.
E-books designed to replace traditional paper textbooks for teaching and learning



Use of IT to connect classrooms with other classrooms around the world
Online areas where users can post messages to each other.


Mobile learning. Use of mobile devices to teach and learn.
Input devices which are moved through the air to control a computer system.
Use of images, audio, text, and video data together.

Educational material which is released for free use and distribution.
See open courseware.
Use of another user's work without proper credit or citation being given.
Sound files recorded and uploaded to a web server, usually in episodic format.
System that predicts the word being typed based on the letters already typed.
Settings in social networks and other systems to control how a user's data is shared with others.

Electronic encyclopedia software containing articles, images, videos, and other reference items.
Database system for storing and managing information about a school, its students, and staff.
Games designed to teach players about an issue.
See text to speech.
Learning which does requires the teacher and student to be online at the same time.
Learning that occurs when the teacher and students are in separate geographical locations.

Use of video cameras and microphones to conduct a conversation over a network.
See Virtual Learning Environment.




                                                   Page 110
Education




Page 111
                    Education
start page:   219




                    Page 112
                                      Environment
ADC
analog data
analog to digital converter
BAN
Basel Action Network
Basel Convention, The
blade servers
continuous data
CRT
data centres
data layers
data logging
digital data
digital footprint
digital divide
digitisation
discrete data
donation schemes
e-waste
electronic waste
Geographical Information System
geotagged
GIS
Global Positioning System
GPS
GPS receiver
GPS satellite
laser imaging
LCD
LEDC
Less Economically Developed Country
Lidar
life cycle (hardware)
location based service
MEDC
More Economically Developed Country
online mapping
planned obsolescence
power consumption
power settings
radar
recycling
reduce
redundant systems
remote sensing
refurbish
reuse
RoHS
Reduction of Harmful Substances
sample precision
sample rate
sampling
sat nav
satellite imaging
satellite navigation system
sensors


                                       Page 113
                   Environment
sonar
speed throttling
take-back scheme
virtual globe
virtual machines
virtualisation
visualisation
WEEE




                    Page 114
                                                Environment
See analog to digital converter.
Data which can be measured.
Device for sampling analog data and producing a digital equivalent.
See Basel Action Network.
Environmental campaign group.
Environmental agreement regarding e-waste.

See analog data.

Large warehouses of computers that host hundreds or thousands of gigabytes of data.
Layers of information added to a Geographical Information System.
Automatic recording of data using sensors.
Data which can be counted.
An individual's effect on the environment due to e-waste.

See analog to digital converter.
See digital data.

See electronic waste.
Discarded electronic equipment.


See Geographical Information System.




Remote imaging method used by satellites.

Any service (e.g. web page content) which varies according to the user's location.



Idea that IT equipment is designed to have a short life expectancy before failing or becoming obsolete.


Remote imaging method used by satellites.



Techniques used by satellites to image the Earth.


See Reduction of Harmful Substances.
Law governing the chemicals that can be included in electronic equipment.
See bit rate.


See satellite navigation system.

Portable device that uses GPS to plot the user's position.



                                                 Page 115
                                               Environment
Remote imaging method used by satellites.

Scheme operated by IT manufacturers to accept customers' old hardware for recycling at its end of life.




Waste Electrical and Electrical Equipment directive.




                                                 Page 116
Environment




              10




 Page 117
Environment




 Page 118
Environment
        Start page   235




 Page 119
                                    Health
addiction
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
centralised database
clinical decision support system
computer model
CTS
cybernetics
e-prescriptions
EDI
EHR
Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic Health Records
Electronic Medical Records
EMR
ergonomics
Human Genome Project
medical expert system
myoelectric control
neural control
opt-in
opt-out
Personal Health Record
PHR
prosthetics
real time
remote monitoring
Repetitive Strain Injury
RSI
smart cards
store-and-forward telemedicine
telehealth
telemedicine
telesurgery
virtual reality
VPN




                                   Page 120
                                                    Health


Injury caused by overuse or incorrect use of a computer
database in which all data in stored in one centralised location.
Expert system for medical diagnosis

See Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
Integration of IT into the human body.
Electronic prescriptions.
See Electronic Data Interchange
See Electronic Health Records.

Computerised medical records, often stored on a centralised server.
See Electronic Health Records.
See Electronic Medical Records
Meaning a system design for user comfort.

Expert system for medical diagnosis support.
Control of IT using electrical impulses from the body
Control of IT using electrical impulses from the brain


Electronic health records which are stored on the patient's own computer system.
See Personal Health Record


Use of IT to monitor the health of patients over a large distance.
Injury caused by overuse or incorrect use of a computer
See Repetitive Strain Injury.
Credit card sized card containing a microchip for data storage and processing.
Telemedicine using techniques such as email, which do not operate in real time.
See telemedicine.
Using IT to perform medical consultations when the doctor and patient are in geographically separate locations.
Using IT to perform surgery on a patient in a geographically separate location from the doctor.




                                                  Page 121
                                             Home&Leisure
3D modelling
augmented reality                           Overlapping layers of computer data with images of the real world.
avatar                                      Representation of a person in a virtual environment.
biometrics
CAVE                                        See Cave Automated Virtual Environment
Cave Automated Virtual Environment          Form of virtual reality which projects images on the walls surrounding a user.
citizen journalism                          News reporting by everyday citizens using mobile technology, rather than traditional
copyright infringement                      Illegally copying or distributing copyrighted material.
digital restoration
Digital Rights Management
digital radio
digital television
digitisation
DRM
e-book
electronic ink                              Technology used in e-book readers to improve display quality.
Entertainment Software Rating Board         Organisation that provides content ratings for computer games.
ESRB                                        See Entertainment Software Rating Board.
ground penetrating radar
HDTV                                        See High Definition Television.
High Definition Television
home automation                             See smart home.
Home Theatre PC
HTPC
IPTV
laser scanning                              Technique used to build 3D computer models of real world locations.
Massively Multiplayer Online Game           Games played by connecting to a central server and interacting with other players in
                                            See
Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game Massively Multiplayer Online Game.
MMOG                                        See Massively Multiplayer Online Game.
MMORPG                                      See Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game.
Motion Picture Association of America       Film industry group that works to reduce illegal copying of films.
MPAA                                        See Motion Picture Association of America.
news aggregator                             Software which fetches news headlines from a variety of sources for display in one lo
P2P
Pan European Game Information               Organisation that provides content ratings for computer games.
paywall                                     System to prevent access to a web site's content unless the user pays a subscription
Peer-to-Peer
PEGI                                        See Pan European Game Information.
piracy
Recording Industry Association of America   Music industry group that works to reduce illegal copying of music.
RFID
RIAA                                        See Recording Industry Association of America .
smart home
smart meters
social news                                 News sites which rank news stories based on user ratings.
stereolithography                           '3D printer' that can produce actual objects from computer models.
streaming media
Video On Demand                             Television and films which can be streamed at any time from the Internet, rather than
virtual worlds
VOD                                         See Video On Demand.




                                                Page 122
                                                                         Home&Leisure


rs of computer data with images of the real world.
f a person in a virtual environment.

ated Virtual Environment
ality which projects images on the walls surrounding a user.
y everyday citizens using mobile technology, rather than traditional media.
or distributing copyrighted material.




 in e-book readers to improve display quality.
 provides content ratings for computer games.
nt Software Rating Board.




 o build 3D computer models of real world locations.
y connecting to a central server and interacting with other players in a virtual world.
 ultiplayer Online Game.
 ultiplayer Online Game.
 ultiplayer Online Role Playing Game.
up that works to reduce illegal copying of films.
 re Association of America.
etches news headlines from a variety of sources for display in one location.

 provides content ratings for computer games.
nt access to a web site's content unless the user pays a subscription fee.



oup that works to reduce illegal copying of music.

 dustry Association of America .


 rank news stories based on user ratings.
an produce actual objects from computer models.

ms which can be streamed at any time from the Internet, rather than waiting for a TV broadcast.




                                                                            Page 123
      Home&Leisure
273




        Page 124
                                             Politics&Government
ANPR                                           See Automatic Number Plate Recognition.
augmented reality
Automatic Number Plate Recognition             Software which processes video camera data to read vehicle number plates.
battlefield network                            Large scale network gathering information from soldiers, vehicles, and maps to provi
biometrics
black boxes                                    Closed system whose internal operation cannot be inspected.
black list                                     List of banned web sites in a filtering system.
Children Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
Closed Circuit Television cameras
codes of conduct
content rating                                 System whereby web site content is categorised so that filters can block it if necessa
cyber-terrorism                                Using computer hacking techniques to commit acts of terrorism.
cyber-warfare                                  Using computer hacking techniques to commit acts of war.
Denial of Service attack
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Direct Recording Electronic                    Voting machines where users cast votes by touching a screen.
DMCA                                           See Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
DNA database
DNS
DNS Poisoning
DRE voting machine                             See Direct Recording Electronic.
drone                                          See Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
e-passport                                     Passport with a microchip containing biometric features, and RFID technology to tran
e-petition
electronic voting                              Any use of IT to count or cast votes in an election.
false negative
false positive
filter                                         Software which blocks some Internet content, based on a series of rules or lists of co
firewall
future warrior                                 See wired soldier.
GPS
Internet voting                                See online voting.
Internet Watch Foundation                      Organisation that works with British ISPs to block access to illegal content on the Inte
IP address
IWF                                            See Internet Watch Foundation.
keyword filter                                 Filter that blocks web pages containing specified key words.
micro-payments
mission creep                                  When the use of an IT system extends beyond its original purpose.
mixed reality                                  Combination of virtual reality and real life training.
online voting                                  Casting votes over the Internet.
open government                                Use of IT to publish data about government operations, improving transparency.
optical scanning electronic voting system      Voting machines which count paper ballots cast by voters.
PNDRE                                          See Public Network Direct Recording Electronic.
precision guided weapons                       Weapons that use IT to improve their accuracy or effectiveness.
Public Network Direct Recording Electronic     Voting machines where users cast votes over a network like the Internet.
RFID
simulation
smart weapons                                  See precision guided weapons.
software verification
tactile feedback
UAV                                            See Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
URL
virtual environment
virtual reality
virtual reality headset


                                                  Page 125
                                             Politics&Government
Voter Verified Paper Audit Trails
VVPAT                                          See Voter Verified Paper Audit Trails.
weighted filter
white list                                     List of allowed web sites in a filtering system.
wired soldiers




Include in glossary but not chapter review
cultural diversity
OMR
open source




                                                  Page 126
                                                                    Politics&Government



o camera data to read vehicle number plates.
nformation from soldiers, vehicles, and maps to provide an overall view of the battlefield.

operation cannot be inspected.




 nt is categorised so that filters can block it if necessary.
ques to commit acts of terrorism.
ques to commit acts of war.


ast votes by touching a screen.




aining biometric features, and RFID technology to transmit these to immigration control.




 ernet content, based on a series of rules or lists of content.




 tish ISPs to block access to illegal content on the Internet.


ntaining specified key words.

extends beyond its original purpose.


government operations, improving transparency.
aper ballots cast by voters.

e their accuracy or effectiveness.
ast votes over a network like the Internet.




                                                                         Page 127
Politics&Government




     Page 128
      Politics&Government
289




           Page 129
                                   IT Systems in Organizations
information system (IS) managers
analyst
database administrator
development manager
network manager
programmer
support staff


ANALYSIS STAGE
business case
client
constraints
CP
Critical Path
data collection
end-user
feasibility study
functional requirements
Gantt chart
milestones
non-functional requirements
organisational IT policies
PERT chart
project goals
project management methodology
project management software
project manager
project plan
requirements specification
scope
SWOT
technical documentation
user documentation


DESIGN STAGE
attributes
cardinality
Data Flow Diagram
data structure
DFD
entities
entity relationship diagram
ERD
outputs
processes
prototype interface
relationships
system context diagram
user interface


IMPLEMENTATION
alpha testing
bugs


                                           Page 130
                                        IT Systems in Organizations
Capability Maturity Model Integration
CMMI
Frequently Asked Questions
implementation
load testing
online lessons
prototypes
quality assurance methods
quality control processes
software testers
test plan
training
tutorial
user manual

TESTING
beta tester
beta testing
bug tracking system
handover
user acceptance testing

INSTALLATION
changeover
delivery
deployment
direct changeover
installation
parallel running
phased changeover

MAINTENANCE STAGE
adaptive maintenance
corrective maintenance
incident escalation
Incident management system
incident tracking system
internal support
maintenance
perfective maintenance
phase out

preventative maintenance
regression testing
support
training

DEVELOPMENT APPROACH & Methodologies
acceptance testing
agile development
PMBoK
PRINCE2
procurement
project initiation document
SSADM
user acceptance testing


                                                Page 131
                                     IT Systems in Organizations
waterfall development


MISC
Custom / bespoke software
emulator
IDE
Integrated Development Environment
legacy system
off-the-shelf software
SDLC
source code
System development lifecycle
virtual machine




                                             Page 132
                                         IT Systems in Organizations
Person responsible for all IT purchases, deployments, and systems within an organisation.
In project development, person who documents the current system, finding its problems and areas for improvement

In project development, person who oversees programmers as they create the system specified in the design.


Staff who train users and help them with problems as they occur



Analysis of the benefits and problems of a proposed IT project.
Person or organisation who commissions an IT project.
Limitations within which an IT system must work.
See Critical Path.
Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.
Used to find information about an existing system during the development of a new system.
Person who will use an IT project one it is finished.
Examination of a proposed system to see if its creation is possible.
Specific features and functions that a proposed IT system must have.
Used to chart the stages of a planned IT project and the people responsible for each stage.
Key points during project development, such as the completion of a stage.
Conditions that a proposed IT system must meet, such as working on certain hardware or giving results within a certain time.
Policies governing the appropriate use of IT, data integrity, security procedures, and other aspects of IT use with an organisation.
Charting system to show the inter-dependencies in projects.
Clear statement of the intentions of a proposed IT project.
Systems and techniques designed to encourage successful projects and avoid project failure.
Software to help plan, manage, and guide the process of IT project development.
Person with overall responsibility for an IT project.
Clear definition of the goals, scope, and schedule of a proposed IT project.
Clear list of the functional and non-functional requirements for a proposed IT project.
Clear definition of the boundaries of an IT project.
Analysis method sometimes used when creating a business case.
Documentation intended for programmers and developers of an IT system.
Documentation intended for users of an IT system, helping them understand and use it.



Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Property of a relationship in an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.

See Data Flow Diagram.
Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.
See Entity Relationship Diagram.


Early version of a user interface to get feedback about its effectiveness.

High level DFD of a system.




Initial testing of an IT system.



                                                  Page 133
                                        IT Systems in Organizations
Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.
See Capability Maturity Model Integration.

Stage in the SDLC where the system is created (programmed).
Testing of an IT system with the amount of work it can be expected to process in real world conditions.


In project development, used to ensure the whole development team are following standardised best practises.
Processes to ensure code produced by programmers followed accepted best practices.
People who perform alpha, beta, and acceptance testing.
List of all tests and test data that should be tried with a system.




See beta testing.
Testing of an IT system once all features have been added and only bugs need to be worked out.
Used to track and manage bugs in a piece of software.
Point at which the developers of a system formally pass it to the client.
Tests performed by a client before formally accepting an IT system from the developers.


Moving from an old system to a new IT system.

Stage in the SDLC where the system is deployed at the client's site.
Immediate removal of an old system and complete replacement with a new IT system.
See deployment.
Running the old system and the new system side by side.
One part of an organisation switches to a new IT system to test it, while others remain using the old system.




Moving a problem with an IT project to a higher level if it cannot be solved.
See incident tracking system.
Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.
Support for an IT system provided within an organisation.
Alterations made to a system after it has been formally handed over.

Gradually removing an old IT system from use.


Testing to ensuring changes to an IT system did not break any previously working functionality.




See user acceptance testing.
Development method that focuses on creating small, working parts of a project at regular intervals.
Project Management Body of Knowledge. A project management methodology.
PRojects IN Controlled Environments 2. A project management methodology.

Document used in PRINCE2 to describe the key features of an IT project.
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. A project management methodology.



                                                 Page 134
                                         IT Systems in Organizations
Development method that focuses on completing each stage of the SDLC for the entire project before moving onto the next.



Software created specific for an individual or organisation.

See Integrated Development Environment.




                                                  Page 135
                                                           IT Systems in Organizations
                                                                                     309
g its problems and areas for improvement

e the system specified in the design.




ain hardware or giving results within a certain time.
dures, and other aspects of IT use with an organisation.




                                                                   Page 136
                                        IT Systems in Organizations




cess in real world conditions.


ollowing standardised best practises.




need to be worked out.




hers remain using the old system.




oject at regular intervals.




                                                Page 137
                                                      IT Systems in Organizations
for the entire project before moving onto the next.




                                                              Page 138
                                             AI & Robotics
Artificial Intelligence
AI                            See Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence       Creating a system that produces results comparable to human intelligence.
Artificial Neural Network     AI system that attempts to mimic the neurons and synapses in the human brain.
Boolean logic                 Logic in which clauses can have one of two states – such as yes or no, true or false.
brute force searching         See searching.
CAPTCHA                       System designed to create text that is unreadable to a computer but understandable to a person, to
chaining                      Use of logical statements to come to a conclusion.
Chinese Room, the             Thought experiment dealing with the idea of knowledge.
computational intelligence    Approach that tries to create systems that think and learn in the same way humans do.
confidence interval           Level of certainty in an answer a pattern recognition system provides.
expert system shell           Software used to create expert systems.
expert systems                Software designed to make the same decisions that a human expert would, in a given knowledge d
feedback loop                 Use of previous answers (right or wrong) to improve the decision making process next time.
fuzzy logic                   Logic in which items can have multiple values. Used in AI.
fuzzy set theory              System in which items can be partial or complete members of a set. Used in AI.
hand writing recognition      System to recognise human writing and convert it to text.
heuristics                    General rules for performing a task, used to improve the perform of searching algorithms in AI appli
IF-THEN rule                  See inference rule.
inference engine              Part of an expert system which attempts to relate the users input with knowledge stored in the know
inference rule                Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key con
knowledge base                Area of an expert system where all facts about the knowledge domain are stored.
knowledge domain              Area of knowledge in which an expert system specialises.
knowledge engineer            Programmer responsible for entering expert knowledge into an expert system.
knowledge representation      Different techniques for representing concepts and their relationships inside a computer system.
logic                         See Boolean logic.
machine learning              Technique for making a computer produce better results by learning from past experiences.
machine translation           Technique for automatically translating one human language into another.
natural language processing   Techniques for processing human languages to enable a computer to understand their meaning.
neural networks               See Artificial Neural Network.
pattern recognition           Computational Intelligence technique where computers are trained on examples and learn to recog
Searching                     AI technique that considers all possible solutions, looking for the best.
set theory                    Mathematical theory used in some AI techniques.
speech recognition            Computer system that can process spoken language and understand its meaning.
training data                 Example data used in a pattern recognition system.
Turing test                   Proposed test to see if a computer is intelligent or not.
user interface                Part of an expert system that accepts users inputs and presents answers.

Robotics
android                       Robot designed to look like a human, with lifelike skin and other features.
autonomous                    Robot which operates without human intervention.
camera                        Common input device in robotics.
clamps                        Common output device in robotics.
claws                         Common output device in robotics.
computer vision               Techniques to let computers and robots see and understand the world around them.
heat sensor                   Common input device in robotics.
humanoid                      Robot designed generally like a human – bipedal, upright, and arms, and a head.
humidity sensor               Common input device in robotics.
infrared sensor               Common input device in robotics.
lasers                        Common input device in robotics.
light sensor                  Common input device in robotics.
lights                        Common output device in robotics.
magnetism sensor              Common input device in robotics.
motors                        Common output device in robotics.
pH sensor                     Common input device in robotics.
pressure sensor               Common input device in robotics.


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                                 AI & Robotics
proximity sensor   Common input device in robotics.
radar              Common input device in robotics.
relays             Common output device in robotics.
robot              Computerised device that performs manual or physical tasks, either autonomously or under remote
robotic arm        Common output device in robotics.
robotic fingers    Common output device in robotics.
sensors
sirens             Common output device in robotics.
sound sensor       Common input device in robotics.
speakers           Common output device in robotics.
tracks             Common output device in robotics.
wheels             Common output device in robotics.




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                                                                       AI & Robotics



mparable to human intelligence.
 s and synapses in the human brain.
 states – such as yes or no, true or false.

 dable to a computer but understandable to a person, to reduce spam.


 ink and learn in the same way humans do.
 ognition system provides.

ons that a human expert would, in a given knowledge domain.
mprove the decision making process next time.

 plete members of a set. Used in AI.

 improve the perform of searching algorithms in AI applications.

 elate the users input with knowledge stored in the knowledge base.
 ert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
 ut the knowledge domain are stored.

 knowledge into an expert system.
 ts and their relationships inside a computer system.

 etter results by learning from past experiences.
human language into another.
s to enable a computer to understand their meaning.

 computers are trained on examples and learn to recognise similarities between them.
 ions, looking for the best.

 anguage and understand its meaning.


 nputs and presents answers.


 elike skin and other features.




 and understand the world around them.

 edal, upright, and arms, and a head.




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                                                                  AI & Robotics




or physical tasks, either autonomously or under remote control.




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