Teaacher's Role in Language Teaaching

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Teaacher's Role in Language Teaaching Powered By Docstoc
                                Heru Purwanto (10142018)
                              Muh. Saeful effendi (10142019)

        Teaching and learning are complex processes. It involves many aspects. The two main
important aspects are the teacher and learner. An English teacher is someone who responsible
in conducting English lesson. He or she has important roles in teaching activities. Teacher’s
roles in teaching activities have been improving. Teacher should be able to play different roles
in conducting the lesson from one activity to another as if they were actors on the stage.
Through this paper, the writer would like to reveal kinds of teacher’s roles proposed by expert
and other aspect related to this. By having small discussion on it, the writer wants to
acknowledge that teacher plays important roles in conducting English lesson.

Key word: teaching, teacher, teacher’s roles
I. Introduction
           Teaching and learning are two concepts which cannot be discussed
   separately. Brown states that learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of a
   subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction. Similarly, teaching may be
   defined as showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving
   instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing
   to know or understand (Brown, 2000: 7). From the definition, it can be inferred that
   teaching is guiding and facilitating learning. The teacher is enabling the learners to
   learn, setting the condition of learning and managing the process. The
   understanding of how the learns learn will determine the philosophy used, teaching
   styles, approaches, methods, and classroom techniques.

           As the agent of changes, teacher plays important roles. The roles may
   change from one activity to another. The varieties of the roles depend on the
   classroom situation and teacher’s characteristics. In the classroom, a teacher is
   asked to play many roles. The possibilities are being an authority figure, a leader, a
   director, manager and even such roles as a friend, a partner and a parent. Some of
   these roles will be more prominent than others, especially in the eyes of student,

  depending on the type of course, on the student and also on the teacher’s
  characteristics. In enhancing teacher’s effectiveness, a teacher should be fluent at
  making the change.

II. Discussion
  A. The Roles of a Teacher
                  Teacher’s roles may be defined as role of teacher in using several
      acts, attitudes, or program which supports teacher in conducting the lesson.
      Teachers’ roles are varying one to another. An old-fashioned teacher will only
      stand at the front all the time controlling affairs and transferring knowledge to
      the student. Meanwhile, some expert state that teaching is not merely
      transferring knowledge from the teacher to student. But it also about creating
      condition in which, somehow, student learn for themselves. In some occasions
      a teacher will want to be at the front of the class to motivate, instruct, or explain
      something to the whole class. There is nothing wrong with that, but variation is
      needed to have more comfortable classroom.
                  In having some variation of teachers’ roles Palmer (2001: 57-56)
      propose some teachers’ roles. They are as the following.
      1. Facilitator
                       In the Oxford Advanced Learns’ Dictionary facilitator means
         person or thing that facilitate. It means that facilitator makes something
         possible or easier. In English teaching, teachers who act as facilitator should
         ease student in learning English. In this type of classroom learners are given
         tasks to work on and where, in the process of performing these needs special
         qualities including maturity, intuition, educational skill (to develop students’
         awareness of language and learning), an openness to student input, and a
         greater tolerance of uncertainty.
      2. Controller
                       Controller means a person who manages or directs something.
         When teachers act as controllers they are in charge of the class and of the
         activity. Controllers take the roll, tell student things, organize drills, read
         aloud, and in various other ways exemplify the qualities of a teacher-fronted

  classroom. Controller role is effective if teacher give announcement, explain
  theory, order something, etc. But, by being a controller a teachers must be
  careful since as controller there some disadvantages. Those are:
   a. It denies student access to their own experiential learning by focusing
      everything on the teacher.
   b. It cuts down on opportunities for student to speak because when the
      class is acting as a whole group, fewer individuals have a chance to say
      anything at all.
   c. Over-reliance on transmission can result in a lack of variety in activities
      and classroom atmosphere.
3. Organizer
               One the most important roles that teacher have to perform is that
  organizing students to various activities. There are four main activities.
  There are four main activities for being an organizer.
   a. First all, teacher should get the student involved, engaged, and ready. In
      this part, teacher inform student about the activity; the form, the
      procedure, the media, etc. By having this instruction, teachers want the
      student do activity because they need it (they know the rationale for the
      activity) instead of just doing something because the teacher says so.
   b. After the student grasp about the information, the teacher should start or
      initiate the activity. In this part, learners need to know how much time
      they have got and exactly when they should start. It will limit the
      student not being far away from the track.
   c. Teachers stop the activity when the student have finished and/ or when
      other factors show the teacher an the student that it is time to stop. After
      that teachers should think about ‘content feedback’.

      The role of organizer can be summarized as follows

   Engage                instruct (demonstrate)            initiate
   organize feedback

4. Assessor
              As a process, learning needs to be assessed. It will see how far
  student master the target. Teacher should assess, give feedback and
  correction and grade student in various ways. In doing the assessment,
  teacher must be fair. Mistake is always a mistake. But teacher must
  remember that there must be a reason for the mistake and it should be
  informed to the student. Teachers must build good communication to inform
  student’ improvement.
5. Prompter
              As prompter, at first, teachers let the student work alone.
  Teachers want to encourage student to think creatively, for example in a
  role-play activity. When students cannot continue the dialogue teachers
  cannot help directly. Teachers just give some guidance. When teachers
  prompt, they need to do it sensitively and encouragingly. If, on the other
  hand, teachers are retiring, teachers may not supply the right amount of
6. Participant
              As teachers, they can also be participant in the learners’ activity.
  Teacher can get involved for example in the role play, discussion, group
  working activities etc. by being themselves. They are the participants of the
  discussion. It will be more enjoyable rather than being a resource. The
  danger of it is that teacher sometimes becomes too dominant in the
  discussion since they have better ability in English to express their opinion.
7. Resource
              Most of Indonesian teachers’ are resources for their student. If
  they are English teachers, students assume that their teachers are a walk-
  dictionary. Teachers must know everything. I fact, no teacher know
  everything about the language. So to be a good resource, teacher does not
  need to be perfect. Teacher should give the way to get the information rather
  than always explain or gives the information directly so that learners do not
  become over-reliant on the teacher.

   8. Tutor
                   As a tutor, a teacher works with individuals or small groups
      since it is difficult to be a tutor in a very large group. In tutorial activities
      learners have a real chance to feel supported and helped, and the general
      class atmosphere is greatly enhanced as a result. But in being a tutor, a
      teacher must be sure that the teacher does not intrude either too much (which
      will impede learner autonomy) or too little (which will be unhelpful).
   9. Observer
                   A teacher who is being an observer especially in oral
      communication will give group or individual feedback. In giving feedback a
      teacher should be careful not to be too intrusive by hanging on their every
      word, by getting too close to them or by officiously writing things down all
      the time. The teacher should avoid drawing attention to her or his self since
      in doing so may well distract learners from the task they are involved in.

B. The Teacher as Performer
           After knowing the roles, teachers should perform the roles correctly. In
   conducting activities, a teacher also has many different performance styles
   depending on the situation. Different teachers act differently and that individual
   teachers vary their behavior, depending upon what they are doing. It suggests
   that instead of just saying what role teachers should be playing, it will also
   describe how they should be playing. Teachers not only need to be aware of the
   roles but also need to be able to use each of these different roles. It is also vitally
   important to consider how teachers actually behave during the performance. The
   following table describes how teachers perform in some activities.

        Activity                          How the teacher should perform
 1. Team game                  Energetically, encouragingly, clearly, fairly
 2. Role-play                  Clearly, encouragingly, retiringly, supportively
 3. Teacher reading aloud      Commandingly, dramatically, interestingly
 4. Whole-class listening      Efficiently, clearly, supportively

C. Teacher as Teaching aid

          Apart from the roles which teachers adopt in the classroom and the way
   that these roles are performed, teachers are also a kind of teaching aid. In
   particular, teachers are especially useful when using mime and gesture, as
   language models and as providers of comprehensible input.

   a. Mime and gesture
      One of the things that teacher are able to do on the spot is to use mime,
      gesture, and expression to convey meaning and atmosphere. Mime and
      expression work best when they are exaggerated since this makes their
      meaning explicit.

   b. Language model
      Mostly, students get their language model from their teachers. It is
      considered easier than getting from the textbooks, reading materials of all
      sort, and from audio tapes. Language model from the teacher is easier to
      grasp because the speed, and the language is suited to the learners’ need.

   c. Provider of comprehensible input
      An issue that confronts many teachers in classroom is how much they
      themselves should talk, and what kind of talk this should be. Teachers must
      be aware of how much they are speaking. They should give students chances
      to practice production rather than listening the teachers all the time.

D. Teachers Play in Teaching English
          Teachers’ roles in the classroom depend on the situation of the
   classroom. Teachers should know themselves, their limitation, the strength and
   weaknesses, like and dislike and then accept the fact that teachers are called
   upon to be many things to many different people. By knowing teachers ability,
   teachers can start playing different kinds of roles. The roles cannot stand alone.

      It is interdependent. It is impossible to play just one teacher role. The varieties
      depend on the method teachers used. For example, Brown (2000: 166-167)
      propose roles of the interactive teachers. For being an interactive teacher,
      someone should be able to act sometimes as controller, director, manager,
      facilitator and also resource. Since one role has strengths and weaknesses,
      teacher should be able to combine it. They must be able to act many different
      roles. If one role fails, teacher can still continue the lesson. It means that
      teachers can be seen as ‘actor on the stage’ who can play different kinds of
      roles wherever and whenever it is needed.

III. Conclusion

           The qualified teachers are equipped with several competencies. One of
    them is applying different kinds of teaching method, techniques and also
    materials. Related to the teaching techniques, teachers’ are provided with many
    kinds of teachers’ roles. Those are facilitator, controller, organizer, assessor,
    prompter, assessor, resource, tutor and observer. The role is dependent. Where
    some activities are difficult to organize without the teacher acting as controller,
    other have no chance of success unless, teachers take a less domineering roles.
    There are times when a teachers acts as controller. On the other time it would be
    more appropriate to act as a resource. It means that teachers should be able in
    using different kinds of teachers’ roles in conducting the lesson. Teacher should be
    able to switch between the various roles. They should be able to choose with one
    is appropriate to the activities and students’ characteristics. They should be aware
    of how to carry out the role and how to carry out the role and how to perform it.

Brown, H. Doughlas. 2001. Teaching by Principles, An Interactive Approach to
        language Pedagogy. Second Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman

_________2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Fourth Edition. New
        York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. England: Pearson
         Education Limited

Hornby, AS. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. London: Oxford
        University Press.

Turney, C. Hatto, N. Laws, K. Sinclair, K. Smith, D. 1992. The Classroom Manager.
         Singapore: Kin Keong Printing.

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Description: Teaching and learning are complex processes. It involves many aspects. The two main important aspects are the teacher and learner. An English teacher is someone who responsible in conducting English lesson. He or she has important roles in teaching activities.