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Articulation and the Vocal Tract Chapter 8 (PowerPoint)

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					Articulation and the Vocal Tract
            Chapter 8
      Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D.
             Audiologist
                  Oral Cavity
•   Anatomy
•   Lips
•   Oral cavity
•   Teeth
•   Hard palate
•   Soft palate
•   Uvula
•   Tonsils
•   Tongue
Which is not a part of the oral cavity?
A. Uvula
B. Soft palate
C. Pharynx
D. Lips
E. Hard palate                    Senteo Question
                                   To s et the properties right click and select
                                   Senteo Question Object->Properties...
            Lips
• Anatomy

  – FAS
Cupid bow is:
A. Upper lip
B. Lower lip
C. Chin
D. Nose
E. A novel      Senteo Question
                To s et the properties right click and select
                Senteo Question Object->Properties...
            Facial Muscles
• Anatomy

• Facial muscles
Which muscle helps round the lips?
A. Obicularis oculi
B. Obicularis oris
C. Obicularis oracle
D. Obicularis occipital
                               Senteo Question
                               To s et the properties right click and select
                               Senteo Question Object->Properties...
            Teeth
• Anatomy
          Dental Occlusion
• Types
                  Hard Palate
• Anatomy

  – Oral cavity

  – Hard palate
            Soft Palate
• Anatomy
            Tongue
• Anatomy
       Function of Soft Palate
• Velopharyngeal port
  – nasality
         Speech Production
• Phonemes (sound units of language)
  – Consonants (s, z)
    • Voiced
    • Unvoiced
  – Vowels (e)
  – Diphthongs (oy)
    Production of Consonants
• Place of production
  – Where major constriction occurs in vocal tract
• Manner of production
  – How consonant is produced
• Voicing
  – Voiced or unvoiced
          Place of Production
•   Bilabial
•   Labiodental
•   Dental
•   Alveolar
•   Palatal
•   Velar
•   Glottal
        Manner of Production
•   Stops
•   Fricatives
•   Africates
•   Nasals
•   Semivowels
              Alphabet Soup
1.   26 letters of alphabet
2.   Only list consonants
3.   Digraph consonants
4.   Other consonants
                 Bilabial


                             dental
                             Labio-


                                      Dental
                                      Inter-


                                                   Alveolar



                                                                  Palatal



                                                                                Velar



                                                                                            Glottal
             p b                               t d                          k g
Stops


                            f v       Ө        s z                                      h
Fricatives



Affricates


             m                                 n                            ŋ
Nasals


             w hw                              l r            j
Semivowels
Source Filter
                Fo
                (source produced
                at vocal folds)



                Formants (F1, F2,
                F3, …) created by
                vocal tract resonance




                Source which is
                emphasized and not
                modulated by vocal tract
                resonance (F1, F2, F3,
                shown at left)
 Vocal Tract Resonators (Filter)
• Tube open at both ends
  – ½ resonator


• Tube closed at one end
  and open at the other
  – ¼ resonator
           Vocal Tract (Filter)
• Approximately 17.2
  cm for males
• 5/6 the length for
  females
• Children roughly half
  the length of adult
  male


     Assignment
  Formant with Tongue Position

More pictorials
Vowel Formants
        Chart Vowel Formants
• Acoustics and Tongue Position
• Video Clip
Lip Rounding
Vowel Spectrograph
Diphthongs
             Consonants
• Intensity (loudness cues)
• Frequency (pitch cues)
• Duration (length of sound cues)
Audiogram
Place of Production
       Stops
Produced with a closure within the oral cavity, a
build up of pressure behind this closure and a
release of the closure allowing the air to be rapidly
expelled.

Acoustically these events can be divided into five
components:
   1. Occlusion
   2. Transient
   3. Frication
   4. Aspiration
   5. Transition

More info
    Fricatives
Fricative production involves two articulators
being brought together and held close
enough for the escaping air to become
turbulent creating an aperiodic (noise)
sound. Maybe be voiced or unvoiced.
The closure phase of fricatives is
characterized by the continuant noisy
aperiodic component. The characteristics of
the noise are the result of the position of the
constriction, the shape of the orifice, and the
aerodynamic forces of the air stream.
Acoustic characteristics include:
High frequency hiss, long duration, weak to
moderate intensity
    Affricates
• Stop with a fricative release – but
  palatal.
• Combination of stop and fricative
  characteristics.
• Closure, burst followed by short silence
  then frication
• The affricates can be distinguished from
  the fricatives by the presence of closure
  and by the duration of noise which is
  longer for the fricatives.
• The shorter the duration of noise, the
  shorter the silence necessary to elicit
  an affricate response.
• Affricates have a shorter rise time than
  fricatives. Rise time is the time from
  onset to peak intensity of frication.
Nasals
   • Like the oral tract, the nasal
     tract has its own resonant
     frequencies or formants.
   • The most commonly reported
     nasal formants occur at 300Hz,
     1kHz, 2.2 kHz, 2.9kHz, 4kHz.
   • Antiresonances enter whenever
     there is a side branch in the
     main acoustic pathway. An
     antiresonance or zero serves to
     decrease the spectral energy at
     specific frequencies by
     absorbing the sound at or near
     the antiresonant frequencies.
     These cumulatively have the
     effect of reducing the total
     amplitude of the sound
     generated.
     Approximates (Semivowels)
Approximants are consonants most
  similar to vowels in their articulation
  and hence their acoustic structure.
  Articulation involves one articulator
  approaching another but without the
  tract becoming narrowed to such an
  extent that turbulent airflow occurs.
Like vowels, approximants are:
• highly resonant
• produced with a relatively open vocal
  tract
• characterized by identifiable formant
  structures
• continuant sounds since there is no
  occlusion or momentary stoppage of
  the air stream
• non turbulent due to lack of
  constriction
• oral sounds
Connected Speech
Place of Production Cues
Manner of Production

				
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