Skills of Interviewing by dandanhuanghuang



          Skills of Interviewing

Chris Jarvis


           Key skill & activity for managers & HRM
           Interpersonal communication
           Cognition/information processing
           Perception (selective)
           Problem-analysis & decision-making
               (managerial behaviour)

Chris Jarvis                                          2

           Interview Experience

           What is the best & worst experience that you
               have had
                 As an interviewer
                 As an interviewee
           What made these experiences – best/worst?
           What would have prevented & improved the
               worst experience?

Chris Jarvis                                               3

           The interview

           More than just a conversation
           "…. A specialist form of two-way
               communication conducted for a
               task-related purpose." (Whetton 1995)

Chris Jarvis                                           4

           Expectations and propositions

           Information generated via the interview process
               provides data for decision-making

           Training enhances performance – both as an
               interviewer and interviewee

Chris Jarvis                                                  5

           Types of interview

               Research/information gathering
Chris Jarvis                                     6

           Common approaches

           Stress (validity?)

Chris Jarvis                     7


            Your role as a decision-maker/actor
            Interview purposes & objectives
            Structure and content
            Environment (physical and psychological)
            The interviewer – NPower, NAch, NRelate
            Data collection and processing strategies
            The communication exchange (interviewer-
             interviewee) – explicit, implicit, verbal and non-verbal
            Organisational policy and expectations
Chris Jarvis                                                            8

           The Selection Interview

           Preparation and organisation
           The interview process
           Interviewing skills
           Discrimination between candidates
           Finalising the decision & "contract"

Chris Jarvis                                       9

           Preparation Products

                Job descriptions & authorisation
                Job criteria - competencies
                Personnel specification (profile/model of ideal candidate)
                   Essentials - desirables - disqualifiers
                Applicant information from various data sources
                Selector preparation and appreciation of
                      role demands, choices, constraints, ambiguities, priorities, overloads,
                       pressures/conflicts, organisational change
                      the social milieu - rules and tensions
                Selector egoism, the political process of “justifying” the selection.

Chris Jarvis                                                                                 10

           The Psychometric-Objective Model

                Eternal optimism
                Smooth programmed administration
                Measured, controlled, predictable, systematic search often using
                 psychometric techniques
                Match evidence of qualities to job

               Compare with social process approach
                Interplay between selection events
                Social and ritual aspects. Audition. Power vetting
                Candidate & selector feelings/responses
                Intra organisational negotiation & adjustment
                Candidate - given fair opportunity or “club” scrutiny

Chris Jarvis                                                                        11

           Interview Strategies

               •   Frank and friendly vs. Interrogation & stress
                    • Simulate stress. Put on the spot? Validity? Spurious appeal?
               •   Strengths and weaknesses of
                    • individual interview
                    • sequential interviews
                    • panel interviews
               •   Biographical journey
                    • Critical events and experiences - what, why, how, options,
                       plans, outcomes?
                    • Problem-solving - “imaging yourself as ...what would you do
               •   GASP

Chris Jarvis                                                                         12

           The GASP Interview

       Greeting                Interviewer Preparation

       Acquiring Information
       Supplying Information

Chris Jarvis                                              13

           GASP – Greeting & rapport

          Genuine positive regard – Move towards
          Calm, neutral, no interruptions, safe.
          Maintain rapport
                seating voice, eye contact, warmth and body
              Preparation & “contract of interest & expectation”
              Smooth gear change

Chris Jarvis                                                    14

           GASP - Acquiring Information

                Listen more - talk less.
                Objectivity, bias, stereotyping & premature judgement
                Not adversarial. Halo, horns and doppleganger
                Taking notes
                Question carefully (preparation)
                   well-structured, open-ended questions
                   probe and link
                   direct, leading, trick and taboo questions
                Emphasise biography/experience, explanation/analysis
                Mental agility and hypothetical questions
                Interview flow with control: - agenda, space, time
                Summarise periodically and conclude
Chris Jarvis                                                             15

           Asking questions

           Open-ended, well-sequenced, well-structured
           Tell me about …..Six honest serving men
           Closed (pros & cons?)
           Probe, link and follow-up (control)
           Leading (candidate adaptation)

Chris Jarvis                                              16

           GASP - Journey

                Recent & significant jobs/projects
                   contributions, events/phases, initiatives, products, achievements,
                      decisions. Strengths and gaps
                Competencies from REAL experience
                   knowledge/understanding, analytical skill, written/numeric,
                      specialist & technical.
                     attitudes & values, drives & motivation
                Interpersonal relations – visualise with others
                Education, training, learning & development
                Personal & domestic topics - relevance/irrelevant
                Applicant’s questions about
                   the organisation and the job - current & prospective
                   terms of employment
Chris Jarvis                                                                       17

           GASP: Supplying Information

           cutting it short (horns/halo, premature judgement)
           equal opportunity to all candidates
           intimation of acceptance (verbal + non-verbal)
           Potential for misunderstanding. No promises.
           Communicating a decision
                hints to attractive candidates (in a competitive situation)
                intra-organisational bargaining
                the decision in writing
                subject to references
           Career advice to rejected candidates? Culture?
Chris Jarvis                                                                   18

           GASP: Parting

         Signal closure - NVC plus
         maintain concentration
         clarify future steps - the selection schedule
                dates - holidays and availabilities
                phone, post
         stand up, move, parting courtesies

Chris Jarvis                                              19
           The Good Interviewer?

               At times
               •   well-prepared
               •   sharp & in focus, specific & rational
               •   at times intuitive as well as systematically analytical & evaluating
                     • picking up nuances and rationalisations
                     • stepping back to see the whole interaction, fitting things together
                        and noting the time left and areas to cover....
               •   Interviewer calmness helps the candidate to relax
               •   clear perception
                     • Positive regard for the other
                     • Aware of self and biases
                     • Use productive silences & seamless asking of questions.
                     • Counteracts habituated boredom in interviews

Chris Jarvis                                                                           20
           Yourself as an interviewer?

               Good Points?


               Interview exercise and analysis.

Chris Jarvis                                  21

               GASP Interview Issues

        Premature decision
                  Tentative, pre-determined views seldom altered at interview
                  accept/reject within 3-4 min. Gather evidence to confirm first impression
        Weak candidates make average candidates look good
        Unstructured interviews
        Propositions
           interview practice alone does not improve performance, training does
        Dramatic performance may not reflect job. Interviewees as actors.
        Panels - defer to influential. Poor correlation when choice is confidential
        Psychometric tests - weak evidence but belief/practice strong.
        Validity of the psychometric-objective model?

Chris Jarvis                                                                                   22

           The Potential for Distortion

                 Halo, horns, doppleganger effects
                 function & dysfunction
           Physical environment
           Psychological state
           Poor listening (active vs. passive listening)
           Lack of interviewer competence
           Defensive uniformities
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                What is it? What form does it take?
                How does it occur?
                Common stereotypes
                Is there positive and negative value?
                Problems of signs, signifiers, interpretation.
                Body language
                Presentation of self - Front - stage and audience
                What dangers for fairness and equity?
Chris Jarvis                                                         24

           Types of interviews – APPRAISAL

           One member of staff (usually a manager)
               appraises aspects of the performance of
               another member of staff (usually a
              Mediation and intervention mechanisms?

Chris Jarvis                                             25

           Types of Appraisal Interview

           Tell and listen
           Tell and sell
           Joint problem-solving
           Mixed model interview

Chris Jarvis                              26

           The appraisal process

            Establishing the agenda
            The Interview
            Action planning
            Pre-interview form filling
            Handling disagreements e.g. grand parenting

Chris Jarvis                                               27

           Types of interviews – COUNSELLING - 1

     The manager as counsellor – equipped for the role?
     Operational vs. personal counselling
     Directive   Non-directive
     Dependency, confusion & responsibility
     Trust and genuine positive regard
     GASP: Mixed model with substantial unstructured component

Chris Jarvis                                                28

           Types of interviews – COUNSELLING - 2

            Opening up & expressing concerns (interviewee)
            Defining "the problems" – how the interviewee sees and
             defines the problem
            Testing reality
            Mirroring assumptions
            Courses of action
            Closure and follow-up

Chris Jarvis                                                      29

           Types of Interviews – COMPLAINT/GRIEVANCE - 1

            Moan, gripe, complaint
            Grievance - a formal complaint made by an employee
               against a colleague or the organisation

            Problems of "policy and procedure"
            Problem perception, information and power/status
            I'm OK, You're not OK. "Now I've got you, you SOS"
            Neutral processing
            Rescue the managers and establish KARMA
Chris Jarvis                                                      30

           Types of Interviews – COMPLAINT/GRIEVANCE - 2

            Verifying the claim rights
            Importance of shared, agreed information
            Safeguards in procedure
            Formality of the interviews
            Recognising "the person" - perception of self and
             acting on the problem
            Equity – the complainant and the "complained about"
               – the discrimination issue

Chris Jarvis                                                       31

           Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 1

                Rights not to be unfairly dismissed
                Natural justice & reasonableness in procedure
                Disciplinary action
                    Formally sanctioned, organisational action in which an
                     individual is informed that their work-related behaviour is not
                Reasons & "fair" dismissal"
                   Conduct, capability, redundancy, statutory rule, some
                   other big reason
                  Automatically unfair.

Chris Jarvis                                                                           32

           Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 2

                Informal, prior supervisory communication & guidance
                Minor conduct which runs counter to express &
                 implied contractual obligations
                From irritation to substantial, non-fulfilment of
                Gross misconduct (severed roots)

Chris Jarvis                                                            33

           Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 3

            Importance of evidence
            Defendant's rights – law & natural justice
            Equitable procedures
            Very formal, systematic interviews
            Representation
            Corrective versus punitive action
            Interview tension and reaction – the "afront"
            Recording and communication

Chris Jarvis                                                 34

           Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 4

            Stress, bullying and constructive dismissal
            Appeals
            Intra-organisational bargaining & authorisation
            Managerial powerlessness
            Consistency of supervision and communication
            The trust/separation puzzle

Chris Jarvis                                                   35

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