Danaher Industrial Controls Product Training

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					                            SCR Power Controllers
                             SCR Power Controllers
Danaher Industrial
Controls Product

       Matt Cowell
   July 10th & 11th, 2006
                                                                          SCR Power Controllers
           CD Automation – An Introduction

–   CDA was founded in 1987
–   Continuous growth every year to date.
–   Designed and Manufactured in Milan, Italy
–   Sold and supported throughout North America by Danaher
–   CDA have 70% share of SCR business in Italy
–   30% of CDA’s business in Italy is in the plastic extrusion industry
–   Experienced development team with leading edge designs (one of
    the first companies to introduce microprocessor based SCR’s)
–   Compact, robust, integrated, fully functional design encompassing
    some unique value add features
–   High quality product competitively priced
                                                  SCR Power Controllers
                        What is an SCR?

•   An SCR (also known as a
    Thyristor) is a semiconductor
    device used to switch AC
    voltages. Internally it comprises
    two silicon controlled (gated)
    diodes configured in
    antiparallel to switch both
    positive and negative AC
•   An SCR is a solid state
    alternative to a mechanical
    relay or contactor.                   L OAD
                                                                    SCR Power Controllers
                   Why use an SCR?

• An SCR can improve control precision as the switching cycle
  time of an SCR can be much faster than a mechanical
• As an SCR is a solid-state device with no moving parts, SCR’s
  provide increased reliability and longer life..
• Also maintenace is not necessary since there are no moving
• SCR’s themself produce little radiated noise and none audiable.
• SCR’s are the only solution to control complex loads through a
  transformer and special loads where the resistance is prone to
  change with temperature and with age.
                                                                                        SCR Power Controllers
CD Automation – Product features at a glance

  –   Microprocessor based technology
  –   Single, two and three phases supported
  –   Sizes range from 10A to 2600A
  –   Configurable firing modes; Zero Crossing, Single Cycle, Burst
      Firing, Soft Start + Burst, Phase Angle, Delayed Triggering.
  –   Configurable firing inputs; SSR drive, AC Mains, 4-20mA, 4-20mA
      loop powered, 0-10Vdc, Pot, Comm’s
  –   Heater Break and Short Circuit detection (CT’s detect load failure)
  –   Optional feedback for closed loop control
  –   Current Limiting (useful when inrush currents are a problem – Infrared heating)
  –   RS485 communications interface
  –   UL and cUL approved
                                         SCR Power Controllers
    CD Automation – The Product Family

–   CD3000S
–   CD3000M
–   CD3200
–   CD3000E
–   Multidrive
SCR Power Controllers
  1PH Product Ranges
SCR Power Controllers
  2PH Product Ranges
SCR Power Controllers
  3PH Product Ranges
                                                                                SCR Power Controllers
PRODUCT RANGE       1 PH                2 PH                3 PH

CD3000S Family
CD3000S Family
CD3200 (1PH only)
                           10 – 700 A          10 – 700 A          15 – 500 A


                                               25 – 700 A          25 - 500 A


                                                    25 to               25 to
                                                   700 A               500 A

                              1100 to             1100 to             1100 to
High Power                    2600 A              2600 A              2600 A

                                                                              SCR Power Controllers
                            Input types

• SSR drive 0-30VDC
• AC input 110 or 230Vac - This kind of input allows to drive the thyristor
unit by 110 or 230Vac signal. In this way it is possible to substitute the
mechanical contactors.
• 0-10VDC
• 4-20mA
• 4-20 mA Loop powered - With this input it is possible to have a simple
Burst Firing 8 or 16 cycles. The voltage supply for micro is given by 4-20
mA input signal. NO auxiliary voltage request. This option is available on
1ph only up to 110A
• Potentiometer
• Communication input
                                                                                  SCR Power Controllers
                   SINGLE CYCLE FIRING

•   Right to drive low inertia loads
•   More uniform distribution of power with respect to the time
•   This firing mode is the fastest available and the more similar to continuos
    control like phase angle
                                              SCR Power Controllers

      •   Right to drive infrared lamp
          medium and long waves
      •   More uniform distribution of
          power with respect to the time
      •   Packet Wave’s number adjustable
          from 1 to 255
      •   Minimum resolution is 1 cycle (20
                                             SCR Power Controllers

          •   Zero crossing firing is used
              - Single cycle
              - Burst firing
          •   Reduction of electromagnetic
                                                                  SCR Power Controllers

         •   Automatic delayed triggering of thyristor
             from zero voltage crossing
         •   Specially suited to switch ON/OFF inductive
             loads (transformer)
         •   The first time that the unit is fired on it starts
             in phase angle for few cycles. CD3000M
             detects the delay of current vector in
             respect to voltage vector and this value is
             memorized. Thus the unit switches on with
             delay respect voltage when current value is
                                                    SCR Power Controllers

             •   Specially suited to drive low
                 inductive loads that have small
                 overcurrent when are fired ON
             •   If there is a big inrush current
                 due to the load type use
                 CD3000M with current limit
             •   Suitable to drive short wave
                 infrared lamp
                                                                                                        SCR Power Controllers
    Value Add Features – Current Limit

Thyristor unit & Transformer
It’possible to use SCR on the primary.
Attention to this connection must be paid because the inrush current when transformer is switched on
        can be up to 20 times the nominal current. This over current causes fuse failure or thyristor

           Phase Angle plus Soft Start and Current Limit are required. (CD3200)

           To switch ON-OFF the transformer can be used DT firing that automatically
            switches ON-OFF when current value is zero. (CD3000M)
                                                                            SCR Power Controllers
     Value Add Features – Feedback

•   If supply voltage fluctuation changes the power to the load. To
    overcome this effect the voltage supplied to the load is measured and
    compared with power demand from controller, the error signal is used
    to automatically hold the power at the demanded level.

•   With V feed back the input signal is proportional to the output
    voltage (Load Voltage)

•   With I feed back the input signal is proportional to the value of
    the current to the load.

•   With VxI feed back the input is proportional to the power to the
                                              SCR Power Controllers
Value Add Features – Configuration software
                                                                   SCR Power Controllers
    Value Add Features – Heater Break


•   Alarm setting via frontal pushbutton
•   Alarm status available on serial comms, relay output and led
•   Adjustable sensitivity
                                               SCR Power Controllers
     Value Add Features – Short Circuit


•   Setting by pushbutton
•   Alarm by LED , Contact and Serial comms
•   Sensitivity adjustable by serial comms
                                                                                                                  SCR Power Controllers
        Value Add Features – CD KP (Keypad)
                                                        CD Thyr ist or unit
                                                        inside cubicl e

 Local / Remote access
 Set Point adjustment
                                                                   CD-KP Ter m  inal
                                                   CD-KP           on f r ont door

 Scroll display of:                                                                   Pc f or conf igur at ion

     - Set Point Power
     - Actual Power
     - Current
     - Voltage
   Display indication for:
     - Heater Break Alarm
     - ON – OFF                                              RS-485 ModBUS


 Comply with EMC, CE Marked
 Plug-In connector on front KEY – PAD to use software configurator.
     - Possibility for expert to read all parameters of thyristor unit.
     - Possibility for expert to change configuration parameters.
   Retransmission (0/4-20mA or 0-10V) of one of this parameters:
    - Power request – power – Current - Voltage
                                                          SCR Power Controllers
Value Add Features – CD Easy 1

           CD Easy is used for maintenance people
              that is not confident with a PC.
             Few seconds and you can configure your
               CD Next or thyristor unit.
             Push button to save configuration.
             Push button to download configuration.
             You can save inside CD Easy the
              temperature controller’s configuration or
              to copy it from a similar loop and
              download in a new one (Clone facility).

                                                        SCR Power Controllers
Value Add Features – CD Easy 2

“Write Pushbutton”
                                                         SCR Power Controllers
Value Add Features – CD Easy & CD KP

            THYRISTOR          CD-KP on
            UNIT inside        front cabinet

             UNIT inside
             cabinet           CD-KP on
                               front cabinet

    You don’t need to open the door            CD-EASY
    of the cabinet
                                                                       SCR Power Controllers
      Points of Attention - Fuses
We recommend appropriate use of fuses with all CDAutomation
SCR’s for protection against short circuits. Attention must be made
to select the correct I²t value of the fuse which must be
sufficiently than that of the SCR. The same caution must be taken if
Circuit Breaker is used.
                                                                             SCR Power Controllers
    Points of Attention – Ambient Temperature

     The CD Automation units are designed
     to obtain high performances in small

                                         K     I =I xK
                                                MAX    NOM






                                         Forced air ventilated units are 0
                                                        40   50    60   7           80
                                         protected with a thermal sensor
                                         that will shutdown the SCR in
To work properly, you must guarantee a   the event of an overtemperature
good air circulation in the cabinet      condition
                                                                                SCR Power Controllers
      Points of Attention – Initial Power-up

BVerify that load current equal or less than nominal;

    For resistive load   For inductive load

 I=P       tot            I =P        o

          V                       Vs
 verify that there is no short circuito
                                     c load;
  verify that main voltage is equal or less than the nominal rating;
  verify that all auxiliary connections are correct
 Fan voltage must be equal than the nominal voltage (230V std, 120 optional)
                                                                                SCR Power Controllers
        SCR vs SSR supporting arguments -1

CD Automation                        Watlow VPAC SCRs

• Small frontal Area (mm2)           • Big frontal Area (mm2)
                 2x10A       1.800                      10A       16.100
                 15A         3.600                       _        16.800
                 25A         3.600                      25A       16.800
                 35A         6.240                       _        19.200
                 45A         6.240                      45A       19.200
Total         21.480                                Total              88.100
• Average frontal area 1             • Average frontal area =
                                            88.100/21.480 = 4,1
• Example W      H      D            • Example      W     H      D
  Cabinet 800 x 2.000 x 400           4 of Cabinet 800 x 2.000 x 400

                Cabinet cost $ 600                   Cabinet with watlow
                  Save $ 1.800                          cost $ 2.400
                                                                                           SCR Power Controllers
      SCR vs SSR supporting arguments - 2

CD 3000 Features                             Solid State Relay

• IP 20 Protection.                          • NO Protection or you have to
• Snubber inside the unit.                      use a frontal plastic cover.
• Variable dependent resistor VDR.           • NO Snubber.
• Heatsink and components already mounted.   • NO VDR you have to buy and wire it.
• Heatsink already properly sized.           • Heatsink you have to buy and to drill the
• No labour cost.                            mounting holes.
                                             • You have to smear silicon grease.
                                             •Time required to mount the SSR.
                                             •Time required to calculate heatsink.
                                             • Labour cost.
                                                                                            SCR Power Controllers
     SCR vs SSR supporting arguments - 3

CD 3000 Features                                  Solid State Relay

• Heater Break Alarm.                             • NO HB
• Constant current drain at                       • NO
   different SSR input signal.
   From 4 to 24V DC                               • SSR only with zero crossing.

• Cabinet look is more
   professional.                                  • Fuse + Fuse holder mounted above SSR.
• Fuse + Fuse holder mounted above the CD 3000.

                      Lost                                   Lost
                     Space                                  Space
                                                                 SCR Power Controllers
 SCR vs SSR supporting arguments - 4
Solid State Relay Rating
                                           We use SSR units
 50 A                  50 A                   with an amps
                                               code of 50 A


  CD Automation’s unit give nominal current at 45°C at
  continuous service. SSR current rating isn’t comparable with
  this CDA rating.
  Infact the nominal current depends on:
  • The heatsink dissipation
  • The working temperature
                                                SCR Power Controllers
   SCR vs SSR supporting arguments - 5

Solid State Relay Rating
How to compare and explain to your customer ?

Example: Carlo Gavazzi’s SSR unit of
50 A mounting an heatsink of
2,3°C/W allows a maximum load
current of 25A. See sizing tab.
                                                                   SCR Power Controllers
4.        Applications

                 Tempering furnaces
                 Annealing furnaces and heat treatment equipment
                 Molding equipment
                 Melting furnaces
                 Evacuated furnaces
                 Drying equipment
Heater Control   Baking ovens
                 Food-related equipment
                 Packaging and wrapping equipment
                 Road heaters
                 • Air conditioners
                   Agriculture and livestock industries
                 • Petrochemicals
                   Crystal growing equipment
                   Environmental test equipment
                   Vacuum tubes
                                                     SCR Power Controllers
5.       Applications

                    Leading marks
                    Photo studios
Illumination and
Lighting            Hotels and theaters
                    Fish gathering lights


Power Supply        Induction lamps
                    Crack detection equipment
                    Active charcoal manufacturing
                    Test and inspection
                    Particle accelerators
                    Magnetizing equipment

Motors             Dc Motors
                   Torque motors

Miscellaneus       Clutches
                                                                                       SCR Power Controllers
6.    Specific Examples of Applications
Plastic Molding Equipment

 Since injection machine used to make plastic products require the temperature of
 all parts to be precisely controlled,many control zones are used. Therefore several
 SCR to be used in a injection machine.
                                                                                  SCR Power Controllers
6.   Specific Examples of Applications

   • Extruders are one of the best applications for thyristors units.
   • In Italy we sell 24,000 units in this application.
   • Coextrusion systems are everyday more and more used, we have done
      systems with 120 zones.
   • An important feature on CD Automation Thyristor units is the Heater
      Break alarm.
   • H.B. inside thyristor unit can be An important feature to overcome the non
      availability of H.B. inside C460 MLC9000 module.
                                                                                        SCR Power Controllers

           • This application is tipical for plastic machinary.
           • Actually in Italy is an important application for SCR units, CD3000S and
           • In each chillers can be used from 1 to 4 heating zones.
                                                                                     SCR Power Controllers
Paint Drying Equipment

  Paint drying equipment usually produces heat through infrared lamps. Usually
  drying takes place in a tunnel containing a succession of drying lamps such that
  it is necessary to independently control electric power at the tunnel entrance,
  exit and points in between. Since temperature can be tightly controlled with
  SCR product quality after drying treatment IS greatly improved.
  This type of drying equipment is widely used for plant manufactured products
  including cars and household applications.
                                                                                   SCR Power Controllers
Food Processing

  There are many types of electric ovens used to bake such items as bread and
  confectioneries, depending on the exact type of food involved and the level of
  production necessary. There are ovens which have upper and lower heating
  elements and “tunnel-type” ovens configured for mass production levels which
  utilize a conveyor belt.
  Figure 12 shows a tunnel-type oven. Each item can be consistently and evenly
  baked through the use of SCR.
                                                                                     SCR Power Controllers
Melting Furnaces

   Melting furnaces are electric furnaces meant for the melting and heat maintenance
   of both metallic and non-metallic substances. One typical example of a melting
   furnace for metals is the aluminium melting furnace used as one stage in die
   casting and pressing equipment. Figure 13 shows aluminum die casting
   equipment capable of melting aluminum ingots while maintaining a constant
   internal temperature.
   A heater is used to melt metals such as aluminum and certain alloys which have a
   relatively low melting point. Substances which become conductive when melted,
   such as glass, will themselves heat up if voltage is applied directly. A system
   requiring heaters is said to use “indirect heating”, while a system depending on the
   electrical resistivity of the substance being heated is said to use “direct heatig”
                                                                                     SCR Power Controllers
Ceramic Furnaces

 The growing applications found for ceramics can be seen in everyday life. From
 semiconductors to cars and ceramics products.
 Since the temperatures required to bake such ceramics are extremely high from
 1,500 to l,600°C, the heaters used in such furnaces are made with special materials
 such as molybdenum.
 Special firing and special feed back must be used. Application with special loads
 will be treated during this training.
                                                                                     SCR Power Controllers
DC Power Sources

  Figure 15 illustrates an example of a DC motor driven by an SCR combined
  with a rectifier.
  This cheap solution is used in amusement parks have built-in DC motors which
  take DC voltage supply by the rail. The voltage required varies depending on
  the number of cars running at the same time on rails. By using a feedback
  control system are therefore commonly used for DC constant voltage control.
  By using SCR in this way, it can be assured that all cars will run at a constant

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