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telemedicine and health

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 22

									     ICT for Development
 e-Health: telemedicine and
health information initiatives

        ICT4D Lecture 8
           Tim Unwin
                 Outline

• The global health agenda
• E-health
   Information
   Delivering practices
• Examples
   Global organisations
   Information and prevention
   Telemedicine
                       Lecture 8
       Health related MDGs

• Goal 4: reduce child mortality
   Target 5: reduce by two-thirds (1990-2015) the
    under-five mortality rate
• Goal 5: Improve maternal health
   Target 6: reduce by three-quarters (1990-2015)
    the maternal mortality ratio
• Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
  diseases
   Target 7: halted by 2015 and begun to reverse
    the spread of HIV/AIDS
   Target 8: halted by 2015 and begun to reverse
    the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
                         Lecture 8
 ICTs and the health agendas

• Three core areas
   Health management systems
   Information and prevention
   Medical practices
• Key drivers
   Experiences from north America and Europe
     Particularly in telemedicine initiatives
   Pharmaceutical industry: the money in medicine
     Expanded markets
     But also a concern to use the potential benefits for
      greater good

                               Lecture 8
 ICTs and the health agendas

• Long experience of ICTs in health
   Theatre, dance, film, video in health education
   ‘Traditional’ telemedicine
     Australian flying doctor service in 1920s
• Potential of new technologies
   Very high cost of medical diagnosis equipment
     Samples and images can be sent digitally
   Use of consultants contacted by ‘phone/digitally
     Saves time at a distance
   Making information relevant and appealing
   Managing large amounts of data

                              Lecture 8
                    E-health

• Information
   Managing health information
     Hospitals
     Diseases
     Maximising health benefits for populations
   Disseminating information on health care and
    prevention
     Health workers
     General public
• Delivering medical practices
   Telemedicine initiatives

                             Lecture 8
Global Health Initiatives and ICT


• World Health                           QuickTime™ and a
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  Organisation
• The Global Fund to fight                               QuickTime™ an d a
                                                TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor


  AIDS, Tuberculosis and                           are need ed to see this picture.




  Malaria
                                                                    QuickTime™ and a


• Roll Back Malaria
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                    Lecture 8
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• e-Health initiatives
   Africa: Health Information Systems (HIS)
    http://www.afro.who.int/his/index.html
      But not particularly active
   South-east Asia
      Telematics and IT programmes
   Americas
      Telemedicine initiatives
• As yet, mainly pilot schemes
   Little evidence of ability to deliver initiatives at
    scale
                                         Lecture 8
                                               QuickTime™ an d a
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• The Global Fund                                   http://www.theglobalfund.org/en

   A financial instrument created in 2002
   $3 billion committed in 128 countries (Feb
    2005)
   Nothing on ICT or e-Health on site!

            QuickTime™ an d a                                                QuickTime™ an d a
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      are need ed to see this p icture .                               are need ed to see this p icture .




                                                        Lecture 8
                                    QuickTime™ and a
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                            are needed to see this picture.




• Malaria kills 1 million people a year
• RBM Partnership
   Launched in 1998 by WHO, UNICEF,
    UNDP and World Bank
      Now has more than 90 partners
• ICT based work
   Multimedia online resources
   http://www.rbm.who.int/cgi-bin/rbm/rbmportal/custom/rbm/home.do

   Mainly use in information dissemination
                                           Lecture 8
   Information disssemination



• Soul City, South Africa
• Imfundo’s support for fight
  against malaria and
  HIV/AIDS



                     Lecture 8
           Soul City South Africa

• Soul City: Institute for Health and
  Development Communication
  http://www.soulcity.org.za

    A South Africa NGO
    Established 1992
    Especial focus on HIV/AIDS
• Different media
    Television
        Six series, each of 13 episodes
    Radio
        Six series, each of 45 episodes in 9
         languages
    Print                       Lecture 8
      Soul City South Africa

• Evaluations
   47% of people in SA say it is
    main source of info about
    HIV/AIDS on TV
   Strong positive correlation
    between behaviour and
    exposure to Soul City
   Soul City is as well known as
    Coca Cola in South Africa
   Materials used in 11 African
    countries
                          Lecture 8
  Imfundo support for malaria

• Imfundo agendas
   Seeking relevance
   Tanzania
                                                                      Qu i ckTi me ™ a nd a

• Personal connections
                                                            TIFF (Un co mp res se d) de c omp res so r
                                                              a re ne ed ed to se e th is pi c tu re.



   Dr. Alasdair Unwin
    working on malaria in
    suppport of Tanzanian
    Ministry of Health
• CD-ROM on malaria
   In partnership                                           Q uic kT im e™ an d a
                                                                                               T IFF
                                                                                                          Q uic kT im e™ an d a
                                                  T IFF ( Un co m pr e ss e d) d ec o mp r es s or ( Un co m pr e ss e d) d ec o mp r es s or
                                                     a re n ee d ed to s e e th is p ictu r e.    a re n ee d ed to s e e th is p ictu r e.




   ICT4D web-solution
   http://www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/ict4d/                          Q uic kT im e™ an d a                        Q uic kT im e™ an d a


    Malaria.html
                                                                                               T IFF
                                                  T IFF ( Un co m pr e ss e d) d ec o mp r es s or ( Un co m pr e ss e d) d ec o mp r es s or
                                                     a re n ee d ed to s e e th is p ictu r e.    a re n ee d ed to s e e th is p ictu r e.




                                      Lecture 8
  Imfundo and the Interactive
  Health Network - HIV/AIDS
• Database on digital information on HIV/AIDS
   Ready access to a wealth of digital materials
   Searchable by types of user and types of
    information
   Users can provide comments on the resources
   Developed through partnership
   http://hivaids.digitalbrain.com/hivaids/homepage/
    home/



                          Lecture 8
  Delivering medical practices



• Telemedicine in                              QuickTime™ an d a
                                      TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
  South Africa                           are need ed to see this p icture .


• Jiva teledoc in India

                             Satellite link to rural hospital in Mali
                             www.satexpo.it/en/ news-new.php/3?c=42700




                          Lecture 8
 Telemedicine in South Africa

• Telemedicine Research Centre
   Established by Medical Research Council in 1999
   Designed to evaluate relevance of international
    expertise for Africa
   Findings: telemedicine enables
     Access to specialist radiologists within hours rather than
      days
     Improved diagnosis by community service doctors
     Local treatment of some patients, thus reduced transfers
     Reduced professional isolation of doctors in rural areas


                              Lecture 8
 Telemedicine in South Africa

• University of Transkei                     http://telemed.utr.ac.za

   Open Source telemedicine initiative
   Web-links
     Pathology
      • Pathopic (Basel) http://alf3.urz.unibas.ch/pathopic/e/intro.htm
      • Telemedicine
      • Health information
   Online teaching resources
   Potential is there
     But not much evidence of high usage

                                 Lecture 8
Jiva: sustainable healthcare in
          rural India
• Jiva Institute
   Non-profit Research and Development Institute
    founded in 1992
      Health, Education and Social Enterprise
   Health activities
      Ayurveda website - the world’s first
         • Holistic, healing science
        Ayunique - online consulting
        Teledoc - healthcare for all
        Ayurbuyer - online store
        Jiva College of Ayurveda

                                   Lecture 8
                  Jiva Teledoc

• Based in village in Haryana
    Won World Summit Aware
• Practice
    Healthcare workers record
     diagnostic data
    Use Java enhanced mobile
     ‘phones to transmit data
                                                    QuickTime™ and a
    Ayurvedic doctors diagnose and       TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
                                             are neede d to see this picture.
     prescribe treatment
    Medicines are then delivered by
     field workers to patients
    Costs 70 rupees ($1.50 per
     consultation)

                              Lecture 8
   Jiva Teledoc social returns

• Patients have
  affordable treatment
                                                Qui ckTi me™ and a
• Women are treated by               TIFF (Uncompresse d) d eco mpressor
                                        are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture.
  women
• Wider healthcare is
  promoted by field
  workers
• Local workers speak                            Qui ckTi me™ and a
  local languages                     TIFF (Uncompresse d) de co mp re ssor
                                         are ne eded to see th is pi cture.

• Provides some
  employment in rural
  areas
                         Lecture 8
               Conclusions

• Much is technically feasible
   High cost end: telemedicine
   Lower cost: considerable health information
• Importance of combining multi-functional
  access points for information
   The role of Telecentres
• Yet, the potential of e-Health has still to be
  realised
   Why is this?

                         Lecture 8

								
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