past present future
open If you went to Spain, I'm sure you had a If he has lots of money, he must be If I go to Spain, I'll see a bull-fight.
terrific holiday. quite happy.
IF + present
IF + past IF + present
IF + present perfect
unreal If you had gone to Spain, you would If he had lots of money, he would If I went to Spain, I could see a
have had a terrific holiday. buy a Ferrari. bullfight.
IF + past perfect IF + past IF + past
reference possible? IF + the other part of the sentence
Type I future possible Present (Continuous) will + Infinitive
should ["przypadkiem"] Imperative [tryb rozkazuj¹cy]
Type II present or (almost) Past (Continuous) would + Infinitive
future unreal ["were" possible for all persons]
could + Infinitive
Type III past unreal Past Perfect (Continuous) would + Perfect Infinitive
could + Perfect Infinitive
Mixed Type II [general present] Type III [past]
Type III [past] Type II [present]
Type 0 present or possible Present (Continuous) anything that makes sense
past Past (Continuous)
Present Perfect (Continuous)
a. If she marries him, she will be unhappy. Type I
If she married him, she would be unhappy. Type II
If she had married him, she would have been unhappy. Type III
If she had married him, she would be unhappy. Mixed
If she wants to marry him, she must be out of her mind! 0 present
If she wanted to marry him, she must have been out of her mind! 0 past
on condition (that) I'll lend him the money on condition (that) he pays me back by May.
provided / providing (that) You can camp here provided (that) you leave no mess.
as long as You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.
suppose / supposing (that) Suppose (that) we miss the train, what shall we do?
unless [ = if not] Don't call me unless you need help.
You'll be late unless you leave this minute.
36 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form:
1. I (come) ______________ to her party if she (invite) ______________ me.
2. I (not, talk) ______________ to him if he (not, apologize) ______________ for what he said a few days ago.
3. John (go) ______________ abroad this summer if he (earn) ______________ a lot of money.
4. I (visit) ______________ you if you (visit) ______________ me first.
5. Jim (give up) ______________ his studies if he (not, pass) ______________ this exam.
6. I (not, go) ______________ to the cinema tomorrow if I (be) ______________ busy.
7. If it (be) ______________ cold tomorrow, we (stay) ______________ at home.
8. If he (not, give up) ______________ smoking, he (ruin) ______________ his health soon.
9. She (be) ______________ unhappy if you (not, come) ______________ to her party.
10. If the lift (still, not work) ______________, we (have to) ______________ use the stairs.
11. If I (find) ______________ your notebook, I (give) ______________ you a ring.
12. If Jack (refuse) ______________ to help, we (have to) ______________ manage without him.
13. If he (win) ____________ he (get) ____________ $1,000; if he (come) ____________ second he (get) ____________ $500.
14. That book is overdue. If you (not take) ___________ it back to the library tomorrow, you (have to) ___________ pay a fine.
15. If he (get) ______________ a work permit, he (stay) ______________ for another six months.
37 Make conditional sentences:
EXAMPLE: Probably it will rain tomorrow, and I'll stay at home.
If it rains tomorrow, I'll stay at home.
1. I hope it will be warm on Saturday and we'll go swimming.
2. I think the weather will be beautiful and we'll go for a walk.
3. Maybe Mike will lend us the money and we'll buy that computer.
4. I hope that Jake and Ann will bring some CDs to the party and that we'll listen to them.
5. Probably Alice will marry Tom, and then he will be very happy.
6. I hope I'll pass the exam and go to university next October.
7. I'll marry him but he must agree to let me go on working after marriage.
8. Don't put the glasses into very hot water because they'll crack.
9. I expect it will freeze tonight and the roads will be slippery.
10. I hope Tom will help us because otherwise the job will take us hours.
38 Complete the sentences:
1. We wouldn't have any money if we ____________________. (not, work)
2. What ____________________ if I pressed that red button? (happen)
3. Mark and Liz would be very disappointed if I ____________________ to their party. (not, come)
4. What would you do if you ____________________ a lot of money? (win)
5. I'm sure she ____________________ if you explained the situation to her. (understand)
6. If you ____________________ up smoking, you would feel much better. (give)
7. If I ____________________ my old car, I would have more money to buy a new one. (sell)
8. What would you do if you ____________________ a wallet in the street? ~ I ____________________ it to the police. (find;
9. He's staying at the Savoy in London. ~ Is he very rich? ~ I suppose he is. If he were a poor man, he ____________________
at the Savoy. (not, stay)
10. If I ____________________ a university degree, I would now be sitting in a comfortable office instead of standing at a street
corner selling newspapers. (have)
39 Make conditional sentences:
1. I can't go for a walk. I have a lot of work to do.
2. I can't phone him because I don't know his number.
3. We can never understand his English. He speaks too fast.
4. The weather is horrible, so we can't go for a walk.
5. I won't buy a dog. I don't live in a big house.
6. John can't go abroad. He hasn't got a passport.
7. We don't visit you very often because you live so far away.
8. This book is so expensive that I'm not going to buy it.
9. I have to work tomorrow evening, so I can't meet you.
10. She's very shy; that's why she doesn't enjoy parties.
11. He doesn't help me, possibly because I never ask him for help.
13. I can't drive so we can't take the car.
14. I don't have much time so I read very little.
15. I think you should sell it.
40 Complete the sentences:
1. Peter, as a child, ate a lot. He was very fat.
If he _____n't_______________ so much, he ____________________ thinner.
2. Mike didn't do the shopping because he forgot to take the money.
He ___________________ the shopping if he _____n't______________ to take the money.
3. I didn't go to the match because I lost my ticket.
I ___________________ to the match if I _____n't______________ my ticket.
4. Ann got up very early yesterday, and she was very sleepy all day.
If she _____n't______________ so early, she _____n't______________ so sleepy.
5. I didn't come to visit you because I didn't know you were in hospital.
If I ____________________ you were in hospital, I ____________________ to visit you.
6. The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
The accident _____n't_______________ if the driver in front _____n't______________ so suddenly.
7. Tom was late for the interview, and he didn't get the job.
If he _____n't______________ late for the interview, he ____________________ the job.
8. She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine.
If she ____________________ the fine, she _____n't_______________ sent to prison.
9. He didn't tell me he was a vegetarian till halfway through the meal.
If he ____________________ me earlier, I ____________________ him something more suitable.
41 Make conditional sentences:
1. I didn't telephone John, so he didn't know about the meeting.
2. I didn't take a taxi because I didn't have any money on me.
3. I didn't pay the mechanic enough, so he didn't do his job well.
4. I forgot to lock the door, and my flat was robbed.
5. I didn't watch the milk, and it boiled over.
6. Jack didn't listen to my advice, and he got into trouble.
7. I didn't tell you about it because you didn't ask.
8. He had the accident because he was driving too fast.
9. I didn't see the signal, so I didn't stop.
10. We only came by bus because there were no taxis.
11. We didn't visit the museum because we didn't have enough time.
12. We missed the train because we were using an out-of-date timetable.
13. It was raining. That's the only reason I didn't take the children to the beach.
14. He wasn't looking where he was going. That's why he was run over.
15. The champion didn't take the fight seriously at first; perhaps that's why he didn't win it.
42 Make conditional sentences:
1. Jack has spent all his money gambling. Now he's very poor.
If he __________________________ all his money gambling, he __________________________ poor now.
2. Sue had a big talent for tennis, but she didn't practise enough. Now she plays tennis only at weekends.
If she __________________________ more, she __________________________ a tennis star now.
3. The Jacksons won a lot of money in a lottery. That's why they can afford to travel all over the world.
If they __________________________ in a lottery, they __________________________ all over the world.
4. Jim has some medical training. He was able to help old Mr Samson yesterday.
He __________________________ old Mr Samson if he __________________________ any medical training.
5. Robert is in prison now because he broke into several houses and stole lots of money.
If he __________________________ into several houses, he __________________________ in prison now.
6. It was the drug, not the disease, that killed him.
He __________still________________ alive if he __________________________ that drug.
7. She didn't talk much at the meeting because she's very shy.
If she __________________________ so shy, she __________________________ more.
8. He's angry with me because I forgot to tell him that the meeting had been cancelled.
If I __________________________ to tell him, he __________________________ with me.
43 Put the verbs in Past Simple or Past Perfect:
1. She wouldn't be so lonely ...
... if she (know) _______________________ more people.
... if she (not, move) _______________________ away from home.
2. They would be much better off ...
... if they (not, buy) _______________________ such a big house.
... if they both (have) _______________________ jobs.
3. He'd be much happier ...
... if he (live) _______________________ in a warmer climate.
... if his wife (not, leave) _______________________ him.
... if he (not, spend) _______________________ all his savings.
44 Make conditional sentences:
1. What (byœ zrobi³ gdybyœ zobaczy³) a house on fire?
2. (Jeœli zbijesz) that vase, your mum (bêdzie) mad!
3. Perhaps he (zgodzi³ by siê gdybyœ porozmawia³) to him personally. ~ OK. I'll do it.
4. He married her because he didn't know the truth.
5. (Jeœli zda) the exam, his dad (kupi) him a sports car.
6. We (moglibyœmy pójœæ) for a walk (gdyby nie ogl¹da³) that program at the moment.
7. If we (bring) __________________ a map with us, we (know) __________________ which road to take now.
8. (Na twoim miejscu paliłbym) less.
9. He (obroni³by) himself then (gdyby tylko by³) stronger.
10. (Jeœli przypadkiem bêdê) a little late, just (zacznijcie) without me.
11. Why didn't you call him? ~ I (can, call) ____________________ him if he (give) ____________________ me his number.
12. I'm sure he (zrozumia³by gdybyœ tylko wyjaœni³) to him why you didn't come. ~ You're right. I'll talk to him.
13. (Gdybyœmy nie spóŸnili siê) the train, we (nie czekalibyœmy) on this cold platform now.
14. I wasn't able to help you because you didn't explain your problem to me.
15. She (wybaczy ci jeœli wyœlesz) her some roses.
16. (Gdybym mia³) lots of money, (kupi³bym) a nice house in the country.
17. (Gdybym wsta³) earlier this morning, (nie spóŸni³bym siê) for work.
18. (Gdybyœ posprz¹ta³) your room yesterday, (nie musia³byœ) do it today.
19. (Jeśli nie będziesz wiedział) what to do, just (poproś go o pomoc).
20. (Umówiłbym się z nią wtedy, gdybym nie był) so shy.
21. (Gdyby nie padało, moglibyśmy pójść) for a swim.
22. (Zadzwoniê) him (jeœli znajdê) his number.
23. (Nie mia³by) the accident (gdyby jecha³) more carefully.
45 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form:
1. Jack rang while you were out. ~ Oh, dear. If I (know) ____________________ he was going to ring, I (stay)
____________________ at home.
2. Be careful about the time. If you (spend) ____________________ too long on the first question, you (not, have)
____________________ time to do the others properly.
3. French is essential in this job. All the telephonists speak it. If they (not, know) ____________________ French, they (not,
understand) ____________________ half the callers.
4. Are the jeans dry yet? ~ I'm afraid they're still wet. If you (hang) ____________________ them out, they (be)
____________________ dry now.
5. Tell him to be very careful. If he (not, watch) ____________________ his back, he (put) ____________________ himself in
6. I have no particular desire to win the Football Pools. If I (win) ____________________ an enormous sum, everybody (write)
____________________ to me asking for money.
7. I was late for work again. If I (not, go) ____________________ to bed so late, I (not, oversleep) ____________________.
8. Tell him to bring his bicycle inside. If he (leave) ____________________ it outside, someone (steal)
9. How was the job interview? ~ Not very well, I'm afraid. I (get) ____________________ that job if I (have)
____________________ more experience.
10. Why don't you buy a season ticket? ~ Because I lose everything. If I (buy) ____________________ a season ticket, I (lose)
____________________ it for sure.
1. If she (obieca³a przyjœæ), I'm sure she (bêdzie tu) any moment.
2. If you (nie znasz jej nazwiska), how (zamierzasz znaleźć) her?
3. He (musi czuæ siê) very unhappy if he (obla³) that math test.
4. If (jesteœ zajêty), I (przyjdê) some other time.
5. If he (był tak głupi) to dump you, simply (zapomnij o nim).
6. If he (nie przyszed³) to the meeting, something terrible (musia³o siê zdarzyæ).
7. I (mogê pomóc) you if you (chcesz).
8. If that (by³a) Mary, why (nie zatrzyma³a siê) and say hello?
9. If you (wyszed³eœ) out without a umbrella, no wonder you got wet.
10. If you (podrzewa siê) ice, it melts.
11. If you (masz) an important exam, why (nie uczysz siê)?
12. If you (skoñczy³eœ), I (poproszê) the waiter for the bill.