CHAPTER 29 A World without Walls Globalization and the West

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CHAPTER 29 A World without Walls Globalization and the West Powered By Docstoc
					    CHAPTER
  Twenty-nine
  A World without Walls:
Globalization and the West
Introduction

 • An age of globalization
Introduction
 • Definitions and characteristics
    • The Internet as stunning transformation of global
      communications and knowledge
    • New possibilities and new vulnerabilities
    • Integration
       • New political, social, economic, and cultural global networks
       • New technologies, new economic imperatives, changing laws
       • Information crosses national boundaries
    • Global exchange can be independent of national control
    • Economics
       • Asian nations emerged as industrial giants
       • Reorganization of economic enterprises from banking and
         commerce to manufacturing
       • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • The International Criminal Court
    • New forms of politics
Introduction

 • The effects of globalization
   • Did not necessarily produce peace, equality,
     or homogeneity
   • No uniform, leveling process
   • Worldwide inequality has increased
   • Obstacles and resistance
   • New kinds of cultural blending, new forms of
     sociability
 • The new stage of globalization
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of
Money, Ideas, and Peoples
 • Money
   • A transformation of the world’s economy
   • Rapid integration of markets since the 1970s
   • Overturning economic agreements made since
     World War II
   • Crucial shift in monetary policy (1971)
      • United States abandoned the postwar gold standard
      • Allowed the dollar to range freely
      • Regulations on currencies, international banking, and
        lending faded away
      • Creation of the IMF and the World Bank
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of
Money, Ideas, and Peoples
 • Money
   • Neoliberalism
      • Stressed the value of free markets and profit incentives
      • Sharp restraints on budget deficits and social welfare
        programs
   • A network of local, national, and regional
     economies
      • Export trade flourished
      • Technological advances and high technology
      • More industrial jobs in the postcolonial world
          • Asia, India, Latin America, and elsewhere
      • Exchange and use of goods became more complex
          • Led to a broader interchange of cultures
          • Deep political effects
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of Money,
Ideas, and Peoples
 • Widespread flow of information
    • New commercial and cultural importance of
      information itself
    • The Internet
      •   Entrepreneurs with utopian ambitions
      •   All kinds of information published quickly and easily
      •   Grassroots activism
      •   Political struggles
           • Satellite television—revolts in Eastern Europe in 1989
           • Fax machines—Chinese demonstrators at Tiananmen
             Square
    • Bill Gates and Microsoft
    • Corporate headquarters remained in the West
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of Money,
Ideas, and Peoples
 • Peoples
    • Free flow of labor as central aspect of
      globalization
    • After 1945, a widespread migration of peoples
       • Changes in everyday life
       • Europe, Arabic states, and the United States
    • Multiculturalism
       • New blends of music, food, language, and other
         forms of popular culture
       • Raised tense questions of citizenship
       • Effects
          • Xenophobic backlash and bigotry
          • New conceptions of civil rights and cultural belonging
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of
Money, Ideas, and Peoples
 • Demographics and global health
   • Population
      • From 1800 to 1950 the population tripled to 3 billion
        people
      • From 1960 to 2000 the population doubled to 6 billion
        people
      • Causes for growth
          • Improvements in basic standards of health
          • Improving urban-industrial environment in postcolonial
            regions
      • Strained social services, public health facilities, and urban
        infrastructures
   • Demographic crisis
      • Longer life spans, welfare programs, rising healthcare
        costs
      • Population decline—Italy, Scandinavia, and Russia
Liquid Modernity? The Flow of
Money, Ideas, and Peoples
 • Demographics and global health
    • Public health and medicine
       • New threats and new treatments
       • Exposure to epidemic diseases a new reality of globalization
       • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) first appeared at
         the end of the 1970s
       • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) appeared in 2003
    • Medical research
       •   Discovery of DNA (1953)
       •   Mapping the human genome
       •   Genetic engineering
       •   Dolly (1997)
       •   New questions
            • Who governs genetic advances?
            • Saving lives and cultural preferences
            • Ethics, citizenship, and humanity
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics in the
Global Age

  • Postcolonial relationships
    • Former colonies gained independence and
      new kinds of cultural and political authority
    • ―Postcolonial‖ underlines the fact that
      colonialism’s legacies outlasted
      independence
    • Varied results
       • Industrial success and democratization
       • Ethnic slaughter and new forms of absolutism
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics
in the Global Age
 • Emancipation and ethnic conflict in Africa
   • Most colonies obtained independence while
     their infrastructure was deteriorating
   • Cold war brought few improvements
      • Homegrown and externally imposed corruption,
        poverty, and civil war
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics
in the Global Age
 • Emancipation and ethnic conflict in Africa
    • South Africa
       • The politics of apartheid sponsored by the white minority
         government
       • Nelson Mandela led the African National Congress (ANC)
           • Imprisoned in 1962
       • Intense repression and violent conflict
       • Mandela was released from prison in 1990
           • Resumed leadership of the ANC
           • Turned toward renewed public demonstrations and negotiation
       • F. W. de Klerk succeeded Pieter Botha
       • De Klerk and Mandela began direct talks to establish majority
         rule in March 1992
       • Mandela chosen as country’s first black president in May 1994
           • Defused the climate of organized racial violence
           • Popular among blacks and whites
           • A living symbol of a new political culture
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics
in the Global Age
 • Emancipation and ethnic conflict in Africa
   • Rwanda
      • Conflict between Hutu and Tutsi populations
      • Highly organized campaign of genocide directed
        at the Tutsi
      • Eight hundred thousand dead in a matter of
        weeks
      • International pressure
         • Forced those who had participated in the genocide to
           flee to Zaire
         • Became hired mercenaries in a many-sided civil war
      • Public services, normal trade, and basic health
        collapsed in Zaire
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics in the
Global Age

  • Economic power on the Pacific rim
    • East Asia as a center of industrial and
      manufacturing production
    • China
       • World’s leading heavy industrial producer by
         2000
       • State-owned companies produced products
         cheaply and in bulk to sell in the United
         States and Europe
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics in the
Global Age

  • Economic power on the Pacific rim
    • The ―Tigers‖
       • Japan led the way—an ―economic miracle‖
         • Most influential model of success
         • Firms concentrated on efficiency and technical
           reliability of their products
         • State subsidies supported the success of
           Japanese firms
         • Well-funded programs of technical education
         • Collective loyalty among civil servants and
           managers
After Empire: Postcolonial Politics in the
Global Age

  • Economic power on the Pacific rim
    • Boom and bust
       • 1990s showed enormous slowdown in
         growth and near collapse of several
         currencies
       • Japan—rising production costs, overvalued
         stocks, rampant speculation in real estate
         markets
       • Indonesia
          • Inflation and unemployment
          • Reignited sharp ethnic conflicts
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil, and
Political Islam in the Middle East

  • The Middle East as crossroads
    • Western military, political, and economic
      interests
    • Deep-seated regional conflicts and
      transnational Islamic politics
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • The Arab-Israeli conflict
    • National aspirations of Jewish immigrants
      clash with anticolonial nationalist pan-
      Arabists
    • American mediated peace efforts in the late
      1970s, Soviet leaders remained neutral but
      supportive
    • Anwar Sadat (1918–1981) argued
      coexistence with, rather than destruction of,
      Israel
    • Sadat and Carter broker a peace with
      Israel’s Menachem Begin in 1978
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • The Arab-Israeli conflict
    • Israel and Palestinian Arabs
       • A blend of ethnic and religious nationalism on both sides
       • Younger Palestinians turned to the PLO and radical Islam
    • Intifada (―throwing off‖ or uprising)
       •   Fights escalated into cycles of Palestinian terrorism
       •   International peace brokering
       •   Yasser Arafat
       •   Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin (1922–1995)
    • The second intifada
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Oil, power, and economics
    • Postwar demand for oil skyrocketed
    • Needs, desires, and profits
      • Drew Western corporations and governments to
        the oil-rich states of the Middle East
      • Vast oil reserves discovered in the 1930s and
        1940s
    • Oil a fundamental tool in new struggles over
      political power
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Oil, power, and economics
    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting
      Countries (OPEC)
      •   Founded in 1960
      •   Arab, African, and Latin American nations
      •   Regulating production and pricing of crude oil
      •   Militant politics of some OPEC leaders wanted to
          use oil as a weapon against the West
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Oil, power, and economics
    • The West looks East
      • Treated Middle Eastern oil regions as vital
        strategic center of gravity
      • Constant Great Power diplomacy
      • The West always ready to intervene
         • 1991 Gulf War
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Oil, power, and economics
    • Growing energy demands of postcolonial
      nations
      • China and India
      • Violent conflict inside Middle Eastern oil-
        producing states
         •   Haves and have-nots
         •   Deep resentments
         •   Continued official corruption
         •   New wave of radical politics
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • The rise of political Islam
    • North Africa and the Middle East
      • Criticism of Nasser’s Egypt
         • Powerful new political movement in revolt against
           foreign influence and corruption
         • Denounced Egypt’s government as greedy, brutal, and
           corrupt
    • The roots of the Arab world’s moral failure—
      centuries of colonial contact with the West
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • The rise of political Islam
    • Sayyid Qutb (1906–1966)
       • Arrested several times by Egyptian authorities, ultimately
         executed
       • Ruling Arab elites were at fault
           • The nation’s elites were morally bankrupt
       • Arab elites lived in the pockets of Western imperial and
         corporate powers
           • Caused cultural impurity
           • Eroded authentic Muslim faith
           • Poisoning from without and within
       • Arab societies should reject all Western political and
         cultural ideas
       • Aspired to build a new world upon conservative Islamic
         government
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • The rise of political Islam
    • Radical Islam
      • Combined popular anger, opposition to Western
        forces, and an idealized vision of the past
      • The Muslim Brotherhood
         • Put Qutb’s policies into practice
         • Secretive society rooted in anticolonial politics, charity,
           and fundamentalist Islam
      • More liberal Islamists were fragmented and
        easier to silence
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Iran’s Islamic revolution
    • An example of modernization gone sour
    • Shah Reza Pahlavi—installed by Britain and the
      United States in 1953
       •   Received oil contracts, weapons, and development aid
       •   Thousands of Westerners introduced foreign influences
       •   Challenged traditional local values
       •   New economic and political alternatives
       •   The shah kept these alternatives out of reach
            • Denied democratic representation to middle-class Iranian
              workers and students
            • Governed through a small aristocracy divided by religious
              infighting
            • Secret police and campaign of repression
       • Retired from public life in 1979 and his provisional
         government collapsed
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
    • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
       • Returned from exile in France
       • Supported by nation’s unemployed, deeply religious
         university students
       • Joined by radical Islamists
       • The new regime
           •   Limited economic and political populism
           •   Strict constructions of Islamic law
           •   Restrictions on women’s public life
           •   Prohibition of ideas linked to Western influence
       • Attacked Sunni religious establishment and atheistic
         Soviet communists
       • Attacked Israel and the United States
       • Teheran and the hostage crisis
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Iran, Iraq, and unintended consequences
   of the cold war
    • Iran-Iraqi War (1980–1988)
      • Iraq attacked Iran over control of oil fields
      • Iran defeated
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Iran, Iraq, and unintended consequences of
   the cold war
    • Iraq as the new problem for the West
       • France, Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, and the United
         States supported Iraq in 1980
       • Coalition patronage supported the dictatorship of Saddam
         Hussein
       • Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990
           • Coalition forces conducted a six-week air campaign and
             then a ground war
           • Iraq forced out of Kuwait
       • Results of the Gulf War
           • Encouraged closeness between coalition forces
           • Encouraged anti-American radicals angry at a new Western
             presence
A New Center of Gravity: Israel, Oil,
and Political Islam in the Middle East
 • Iran, Iraq, and unintended consequences of
   the cold war
    • Afghanistan
       • Socialist government of Afghanistan turned against its
         Soviet patrons in 1979
       • Moscow overthrew the Afghan president and installed a
         pro-Soviet faction
       • Soviets at war with militant Islamists (mujahidin)
       • Conflict became a holy war
       • Mujahidin assisted by advanced weapons and training
         given by Western powers
       • Soviets withdrew in 1989
       • Hard-line Islamic factions took over the country
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Terrorist organizations
    • 1980s and 1990s: A new brand of terrorist
      organization
      • Apocalyptic groups called for decisive, world-
        ending conflict
      • Eliminating enemies and martyrdom
      • Origins
         • Groups from social dislocations of the postwar boom
         • Radical religion
      • Divorced themselves from local crises
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Al Qaeda
    • Radical, Islamist umbrella organization
    • Created by leaders of the foreign mujahidin
      who fought against the Soviets in
      Afghanistan
      • Osama bin Laden (b. 1957)—official leader and
        financial supporter
      • Ayman al-Zawahiri (b. 1951)—linked directly to
        Sayyid Qutb
    • Organized broad networks of self-contained
      terrorist cells around the world
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Al Qaeda
    • Goals
      • Did not seek territory or to change governments
        of specific states
      • Sought to destroy Israel, American, European,
        and other non-Islamic systems of government
      • Sought to create an Islamic community held
        together by faith alone
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Al Qaeda
    • September 11, 2001
      • Hijacked airliners hit the Pentagon, leveled the
        World Trade Center in New York
      • Fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania
      • A new brand of terror
         • Deeply indebted to globalization
         • Extreme, opportunistic violence of marginal groups
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Al Qaeda
    • United States’ response
      • Attacked Afghanistan, central haven for al
        Qaeda
      • Routed Taliban forces
      • Did not capture bin Laden
    • Persistent fears
      • Chemical and biological weapons
      • Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Violence Beyond Bounds: War and
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
 • Al Qaeda
    • America-led invasion of Iraq (2003)
      • Hussein deposed and captured in December
        2003
      • No WMD found
    • North Korea
      • Loss of Soviet patronage (1991)
      • Economic disasters
      • Pursued development of nuclear arsenal as
        bargaining chip
Human Rights

 • Citizenship, rights, and law
 • International courts and organizations
 • The globalization of judicial power
Human Rights

 • Human rights and the Western political
   tradition
   • John Locke and natural law as the law of
     reason
   • The English Bill of Rights
   • French Declarations of the Rights of Man
   • Nationalism and human rights
   • World War I, Versailles, and the League of
     Nations
   • World War II and the United Nations
Human Rights

 • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
   (1948)
   • No state should have absolute power over
     its citizens
   • Defined the crime of genocide
   • Established social rights (education, work,
     standard of living)
This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint for Chapter 29.




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