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Unit 3 Outline of Notes • Into the 20th Century • Unit 3 • Into the 20th Century • 1867: U.S. buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million dollars • 1894: Pullman Palace Car Company goes on strike. • 1898: U.S. declares war on Spain. Teddy Roosevelt leads the Rough Riders to Victory! • 1900: Dr. Walter Reed discovers mosquitoes spread yellow fever. • 1901: Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President • Chapter 11 Seward’s Folly • William Henry Seward: Made a deal to purchase Alaska from the Russians for 7.2 Million Dollars, or about 2 cents per acre. • Seward’s Folly or Seward’s Ice Box: Many People felt that Seward wasted the nation’s money and that we had no need for that cold, far off land. • Russian America: Russian’s were the first to explore Alaska. They sent explorer Vitus Bering to find out what was east of the Siberian Sea, this sea is later called the Bering Sea. • Archipelago: a chain of Islands • Aleuts: An Alaskan Indian Tribe whose names means island. • Aleutians: A chain of islands on Alaska’s Pacific Coast. • Chapter 11 Seward’s Folly • Russian American: Russian colonies in North America. War in 1850 with England leaves Russia very poor. • Alaska becomes a U.S. territory: October 18, 1867. They have a big parade in Sitka. • Official Government: No government in Alaska for the next 17 years after it becomes a territory. No laws, no courts, no taxes to pay for roads, schools, etc. American’s living in Alaska ask Congress to set up a government. They finally do in 1884. • Gold Rush: Prospectors find gold on the beach. Mainlanders seeking their fortune get on ships headed to Alaska. • Nome, Alaska: this is where gold is first found. By 1900 millions of dollars in gold is found there. • Greatest Bargain in History: Seward’s Folly turns out to be the best 7.2 million the U.S. ever spent. • Dog Sled: a method of travel used in Alaska. • Chapter 12 War With Spain • U.S.S. Maine Battleship: Feb. 15, 1898, U.S.S. Maine is anchored in Havana Harbor in Cuba, on a “friendly visit”. President McKinley sent the Maine there to protect Americans and their property in Cuba. At 9:40 the U.S.S. Maine explodes, 260 men die. • The Press: U.S. newspaper headlines state “REMEMBER THE MAINE” this becomes rallying cry of America. • Anti-Spanish Feelings: Americans calling for war with Spain. Cuba was under Spanish rule. Cuban people starving while Spanish land owners lived well. Cuban rebels begin to fight Spanish. • New York Journal: owned by William Randolph Hearst becomes locked in a circulation was with another N.Y. newspaper. • Chapter 12 War with Spain • New York World: owned by Joseph Pulitzer. Both N.Y. papers start to use sensational headlines to sell papers. Some of the headlines were not entirely true • Yellow journalism: The use of unfair methods to attract or influence readers to buy a paper. • The U.S. Declares War: April 25 1898, U.S. declares war on Spain. • President McKinley: He did not want to go to war. He had no choice when the Navy’s official report blamed the explosion on Spain. The report was not entirely true to this day it can still not be proven whether the Maine’s boiler blew up or it was bombed. • War Starts: Starts in the Philippines, a Spanish Colony. 18,000 Americans already stationed there. Poorly trained, had old rifles and were wearing wool uniforms in a jungle atmosphere. These men were sick and hundreds died from malaria. • Chapter 12 War With Spain • Rough Riders: A horse mounted regiment led by Teddy Roosevelt. That actually had to fight on foot in Cuba because there was no room for most of the horses on the transport ships. • Block Houses: Forts built on top of Kettle and San Juan Hill by the Spanish. Rough Riders were able to charge up San Juan Hill and take it under heavy fire. • Armistice: Temporary peace agreement to end a war. • America’s Broad Reach: War showed that the U.S. was a world power. A treaty with Spain gave America control of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. • Hawaii: becomes an U.S. Territory as a result of war. • Chapter 12 War With Spain • Teddy Roosevelt: formed a group of volunteers that became the First Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, Helped win the Spanish-American War. • Guantanamo Bay: 1903 Treaty gave the U.S. a lease to occupy and use a Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba forever. The Lease was renewed in 1934 and the U.S. still uses it today. • Chapter 13 Panama Canal • U.S.S. Oregon: Sets new speed record going around South America but it wasn’t fast enough. A shortcut was needed. An idea was to build the Panama Canal. • Isthmus: a narrow strip of land with water on each side connecting two larger bodies of land. • Bargaining With Colombia: Panama is considered part of Colombia. • Treaty: Sec. of State Hay asks Colombia for a treaty. He asked them to sell a stretch of land 6 miles long to the U.S. to make a Canal Zone that would be controlled for 100 years by the U.S. Colombia stalls and wouldn’t approve the treaty. • Panamanians: People of Panama were unhappy under Colombian rule. Columbia has soldiers march into the City of Colon to protect their interests. • Chapter 13 Panama Canal • Colon: Columbia sends soldiers in to Colon to stop the uprising by the Panamanian people. • USS Nashville: U.S. Battleships sent to Colon the day before the revolt starts to aid Panama. Columbian soldiers couldn’t out fight the U.S. Navy. So Panama declares themselves an independent nation called the Republic of Panama. Colombia lost the revolt and receives nothing. • Trouble in Panama: U.S. starts to build the Panama Canal in 1904. There were many problems. • Yellow Fever: A disease spread by mosquitoes that thousand die from. • Chapter 13 Panama Canal • John Stevens: An engineer hired by President Roosevelt to fix all the problems at the Panama Canal. • Dr. Walter Reed/Dr. William Gorgas: The doctors in charge of getting rid of Yellow Fever in Panama. • Canal Zone: the area around the 51 mile long Panama Canal. • Locks: Locks are elevators for ships. Water is pumped in or out to raise or lower ships to meet certain levels. • Chapter 13 Panama Canal • Panama Canal: John Stevens presented a workable plan to Congress. They accepted it. He resigned and Congress assigns Col. Goethals to replace him. • Col. George W. Goethals: man in charge of completing John Steven’s plans. Took 7 years of workers digging out, millions of tons of rock and earth to complete the canal. • A Man, A Plan, A Canal: Politicians planned to send the battleship Oregon through the canal first but it never happened, WWI broke out. The Panama Canal becomes very important to America’s defenses and is still considered one of the greatest engineering feats of all time. • Chapter 14 Jane Addams • Jane Addams: Born Sept. 6, 1860, in Cedarville, Illinois. She graduated from Rockford College for Women. • Education for Women: Many people thought that educating women was dangerous. Women didn’t need education, they were just going to have babies and take care of their husbands and house. • Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania: Jane Addams decided to go to medical school after graduating from college. Later she decides medicine isn’t for her. • Two trips to Europe: Jane Addams goes to Europe twice. In London she visits the poor side of town. What she sees there has a huge impact on her. She decides she is going to help the poor, but she doesn’t know how. On her second trip to London she visits a place called Settlement House. This house helps the poor. She decides to start her own house in the U.S. She calls it Hull house • Chapter 14 Jane Addams • Settlement House: A place that helped the poor. • Philanthropist: A person who works to help mankind. • Canon Barnett: The founder of London’s first Settlement House. • Toynbee Hall: The name of London’s first Settlement House. It had workshops, classes, meeting rooms and a library for the poor. • Hull House: The name Jane Addam’s gave to her Settlement House, in 1888. Addams and her best friend Elizabeth Starr rented a run-down mansion in Chicago and offered English, crafts, music and vocational training classes to the poor. • Chapter 14 Jane Addams • Neighborhood Issues: Addam’s fought to improve the lives of the people in her poor neighborhood. She became a well-known leader. • Child Abuse: Addam’s successfully fought the garment industry by getting laws passed to protect children workers. • Child Workers: Children often as young as 7 or 8 had to work 12-14 days before Jane Addams fought to have laws passed to protect them. • Ward: A Neighborhood political area. • Garbage Inspector: Jane Addams became a ward garbage inspector after she repeatedly reported sanitation law violations that embarrassed city officials. • Chapter 14 Jane Addams • National Issues: Addams campaigns across the country for Teddy Roosevelt. She felt that the Republican Party pledged itself to protect children and the poor. Some politicians felt that Addams had no right to voice her opinion. They told her to mind her own business. • Twenty Years at Hull House: The name Addams’ autobiography was published in 1910. She wrote about her years there and it became a best seller. • Woodrow Wilson: Despite Addams campaigning for Roosevelt he was defeated by Woodrow Wilson. • Women’s Suffrage: Addam’s turned her attention to the cause of Women’s Suffrage. She postponed her Suffrage activities when WWI broke out in 1914. • Women’s League for Peace: Addam’s voted president of the League. She urged women to pressure the government into negotiating for peace in WWI. She urged President Wilson to establish peace. • Jane Addam’s won the Nobel Prize for Peace • Chapter 15 Teddy Roosevelt • Theodore Roosevelt: Born Oct. 27, 1858. He was a sickly child who grew up to be president. He once gave a speech while running for President minutes after he had been shot and a bullet was lodged in his lung. • Assembly: another word for legislature. • Reformer: Roosevelt elected to New York State Assembly at age of 23. His strong opposition to corruption in government made him known as a reformer. • Typhoid Fever: February 14, 1884, Roosevelt’s mother dies of typhoid fever and his wife dies from complications of child birth. • Home on the Range: Roosevelt known as a cowboy from working on his ranch where he goes to get over the loss of his wife and mother. • Chapter 15 Teddy Roosevelt • Old Four-Eyes: Roosevelt was nicknamed old four eyes because he wore very thick glasses. • Blizzards of 1886 and 1887: Roosevelt’s cattle die in a blizzard and he gave up ranching and returned to New York, ran for mayor but was defeated, he started to write history books instead. • Fighting Corruption: Roosevelt comes out of political retirement in 1889. President Harrison appoints him to a commission to keep him quiet. • U.S. Civil Service Commission: Roosevelt takes over to make sure that government employees are hired because of their ability and not as a reward. • War Hero: Roosevelt and the Roughrider's charge up San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War, his picture is published in the Newspaper and this makes him one of them most famous men in America. • Chapter 15 Teddy Roosevelt • Vice President Roosevelt: His fame got him nominated as Vice-President under McKinley. McKinley is assassinated in office and Roosevelt becomes president. • Progressive: Roosevelt was considered a Progressive because he believed he could improve the way American’s lived by governmental reform. • Miner’s Strike: PA miners’ strike for higher wages and better working conditions, mine owners refuse to bargain. Schools and hospitals are forced to close because there is no fuel. Finally Roosevelt threatens to send in the army unless owners agree to arbitration. • Chapter15 Teddy Roosevelt • Arbitration: a settlement of a dispute by a person chosen to hear both sides and make a decision. • Consumers: people who buy goods and services for personal needs. Roosevelt supports laws that protect consumers from impure foods and medicine. • “Big Stick Diplomacy” Roosevelt believed that the U.S. should “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Meaning that the country should always be willing to talk about peace but be ready to use force if necessary. • Jan. 6, 1919: Roosevelt died at the age of 61 after becoming weakened from a fever he got in Brazil.
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