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Information Management

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					Information Management

        LIS 387.8
         2/1/99
    Martha Richardson
            IM Approaches
• Unstructured information

• Intellectual capital or knowledge

• Structured information on paper

• Structured information in computers
       Unstructured Information
•   Printed sources  Computerized
•   Ad hoc
•   Library skills
•   Passive
•   Value-added
•   Centralized vs. non-centralized
            Intellectual Capital
•   Hire skills
•   Offer training
•   Groupware
•   Discussion lists
•   Difficult to keep current
•   Inherently human
Structured Information on Paper
• Dominated by records management
  – Early document registries
  – Full life-cycle management

• Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980

• Information resource management
 Structured information on paper
• Information resource management
  – Measure and manage cost
  – Establish efficient storage and retrieval
    mechanisms
  – Increase organizational awareness of value and
    use
  – Establish policy and accountability
  – Integrate management of multiple information
    types
 Structured information on paper
• Failure of information resource
  management
  – IRM objectives vs. real-world environments
  – Technology management
• Contribution of information resource
  management
  – information has economic value
  – treat information as valuable resource
 Structured information on paper
• Information has value only if it is used
• Volume and complexity overwhelming
  –   paper
  –   computer tapes
  –   microfiche
  –   diskettes; CD-ROMs
  –   audiotapes
  –   videotapes
       Structured information in
              computers
• Present most popular approach
• Computerization can:
  –   Reduce paper
  –   Direct information use
  –   Distribute knowledge
  –   Reduce personnel

• Not!
     Structured information in
            computers
• Managed computer-based data
• Failed to recognize “information” as
  valuable
• Reduced redundancy
• Separated data from applications
• Built information architectures
• Developed information engineering
  methodology
       Structured information in
              computers
• Information Engineering
  –   creates barriers to communications
  –   technical orientation difficult for users
  –   projects frequently uncompleted
  –   if completed, never implemented
  –   takes too long to model enterprise
    Information = Technology?
• Organizational structures
  – Chief information officer and Information
    Center
• Librarians
  – Focus on computer-based resources
• IT press
  – InformationWeek and InfoWorld
        Information Characteristics
•
    Humans prefer information that:
    –   involves sequence and causality
    –   involves humor
    –   is visually rich
    –   relevant to work or life
       Executive information
• Prefer verbal communication
  – 2/3 from human sources
     • most face-to-face
     • rest by telephone
  – 1/3 structured documents from external
    environment
• Almost none get information from
  computers
  Information ecology attributes
• Integration of diverse types of information

• Recognition of evolutionary change

• Emphasis on observation and description

• Focus on people and information behavior
  Integration of diverse types of
            information
• Computers capture, access, and manipulate
  – structured & unstructured
  – text, video, & audio

• Must plan systems to incorporate diverse
  information sources, formats, and
  perspectives
   Recognition of evolutionary
             change
• Information systems must be flexible
• Change will occur
  – rules, regulations, laws
• Reduce development time
  – Rapid application development
  – Lean development
   Emphasis on observation and
          description
• Describe existing environment
  –   who has what information
  –   how is information supported
  –   how is information used
  –   what is organization’s purpose
• Understand existing processes
  – what happens today
  – how can that be used for predicting tomorrow
Focus on people and information
           behavior
• Production and distribution of information
  received primary focus
• Use by recipients unknown
• Need to develop positive information
  cultures
• Learn how workers seek, share, structure,
  and make sense of information
  Model of information ecology
• External environment


• Organizational environment


• Informational environment
      Informational environment
•   Information Strategy
•   Information Politics
•   Information Behavior and Culture
•   Information Staff
•   Information Processes
•   Information Architecture
    Informational environment
• Information Strategy
  – Develop high-level set of basic principles for
    information use
• Information Politics
  – Recognize political structure of organization
• Information Behavior and Culture
  – Encourage positive information sharing
    behaviors
    Informational environment
• Information Staff
  – Recognize and encourage human skills to
    interpret and analyze information
• Information Processes
  – Identify preferences for acquiring,
    understanding, and using information
• Information Architecture
  – Map or locate information within the
    organization
   Organizational environment
• Business situation

• Technology investment

• Physical arrangement
      Organizational environment
• Business situation

  –   Business strategy
  –   Business processes
  –   Organization culture
  –   Human resources
   Organizational environment
• Technology investment

  – Basic infrastructure in place

  – Select appropriate applications

  – Focus on information initiatives
   Organizational environment
• Physical arrangement

  – Physical proximity increases information
    sharing

  – Physical appearence of information effects
    transmission
       External environment
• Business markets


• Technology markets


• Information markets
        External environment
• Business markets

• Changes in business conditions effecting
  information
  – customers, suppliers, competitors, business
    partners, regulators
        External environment
• Technology markets

  – Availability of products at a given time

  – Determination of best value
       External environment
• Information Markets

  – Buy
  – Generate
  – Sell
            Ecology “Web”
• Change in one environment effects the
  others

• Aligning technology with business
  strategies not enough

• Anticipating all events not possible
        Information Strategy
• Focus on information topics with greatest
  payoff
• Develop better tools for understanding
  information
• Focus on “big picture”
• Place information within business planning
  framework
               IM Processes
•   Formulate the problem
•   Identify information needs
•   Locate or capture appropriate information
•   Analyze and interpret
•   Manipulate and package
•   Distribute
•   Store and dispose
•   Use
                Adding value
• Value is added to information when it is

  –   Credible
  –   Offers guidance
  –   Is scarce
  –   Accessible
  –   Has weight
           Information audit
• Used to clarify location of information

• Interviewed creators and users of
  information

• Focused on how to improve information
  processes

				
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