Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 1 THE CYPRUS PROBLEM An Analysis of CAUSES AND EVENTS AND THE PROSPECTS OF A SOLUTION By Jesus Δ Zeus Third Edition November 1992 When the book was mounted on the Internet, some polishing was carried out to include some further details, after a more educated insight was acquired on certain aspects of the events before the last day of publication. However, no updating has been carried out to include developments or historic events after October 1992. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 2 CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 3 THE CRUX OF THE MATTER CHAPTER II 12 THE PEOPLE - THEIR ETHNIC IDENTITIES Hellenism and the Greeks 12 Turanism and the Turks 21 Cyprus and the Cypriots 25 CHAPTER III 27 HISTORICAL RUNDOWN Prelude 27 The awkward Republic and Makarios‟ Dilemma 29 The Coup and the Invasion 33 The American factor 41 Winners and losers 44 CHAPTER IV 45 PROSPECTS AND THE FINAL SOLUTION 45 Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 3 CHAPTER I THE CRUX OF THE MATTER In this book you will read the impartial truth on the issue, not only in the account of events, at the level we refer to as „ground level‟, but also above or behind the scenes, at „level one‟ and, for the first time, even further above this level, „level two‟, where History and the collective affairs of men are charted. My first motive behind this venture is to do justice to the TRUTH and also to be fair to both the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. I believe that, unless each side sees and admits its own follies and wrong doings of the past and recognizes the good points and fair justice of the other side, Trust and Good Will cannot be re-established between the two communities and there can be no long-lasting or viable solution to the problem. I do this out of compassion for both communities because they both deserve it. The majority of people on both sides of the line are very nice and deserve a better fate. Most of you reading this book have met and like the Greek Cypriot people and, having listened to our plight, cannot fail to sympathize with us. Though you may have heard some Greek Cypriots refer to the other side as the „stinking Turks‟, I assure you that if you chance to visit the other side, you will discover that the Turkish Cypriots are just as nice and just as hospitable as the Greek Cypriots. Most probably you will like the Greek Cypriots more, but this is not because we are better; it is rather due to the fact that you have more in common with us, our culture and character being closer to your own Eurochristian culture. Most probably you may have heard quite a bit about our problem from Greek Cypriot friends and acquaintances or people you have met in tourist shops and restaurants. However, you have mostly been listening to people talking through their emotions and bitter passions, voicing their own righteousness and exaggerating the vileness and barbarism of the Turks. If you chance to listen to stories on the other side, you will be hearing about the Greek atrocities and barbarism, voiced with similar emotions and bitter passions. We are on both sides very emotional people and both sides, especially the Greek side, suffer from a serious handicap which has brought so much misery to us and so many tragedies to the Greek nation, mostly started by our side. The handicap is this: We tend to knock at the door of irrelevant people looking for sympathetic ears to listen to our misfortunes and grievances against our neighbours and cry our heart out on every shoulder sympathetically offered. This sympathy has caused us more harm than good throughout our recent history because it works like this: Encouraged by the sympathy we find, we tend to exaggerate our grievances, sometimes rather grossly, to the point of turning our complaint into an accusation and, further, in a mood of inflated self-righteousness, to present our case in a way that is far from the Truth. Our listeners don‟t believe our entire story but, out of politeness on the unofficial level or out of diplomacy on the official level, they refrain from contradicting us outright, even on points that are obviously not true. Thus, through lack of contradiction, our exaggerations are reflected back to us and we end up believing our own lies. Our history books are full of such inaccuracies and, in bringing up our children, we poison their minds and their hearts with a lot of falsehood and build in their psyche boundaries of hatred, with our own worth and glorious justice grossly inflated on one side of the boundary Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 4 and the barbarism and vileness of our enemies on the other side of the fence similarly exaggerated. So, as you may have heard some Greeks refer to the other side as „the stinking Turks‟ you may also hear some Turks referring to us as „the stinking Greeks‟. I have listened to many speakers, both adults and pupils, on national occasions on both sides of the fence, and felt terribly depressed by the amount of poison I see, instilled into successive generations by their parents, teachers and priests or hodjas. It is a shameful crime. Thank God that not all of us think like that; that not all of us strive to strengthen the boundaries of falsehood and hatred in us and our children. Thank God twice that those who do not think like that are the majority and I am not just a solitary voice in the wilderness; the majority of Cypriots, especially the generation that have lived before the events and through the events and remember, know and admit the truth and voice it in private conversations. Thank God thrice that a few out of this majority have the courage to place their life on the line and speak openly and publicly of the Truth, however hurting it may be for some. There are many who will hate me for this and there are many who will call me names of shame. In spite of these I chose to stand by the Truth and believe that this Truth will free the minds and hearts of many from the dark clouds of wrong emotions and bitter passions. I do this, not out of an urge to voice my own thoughts and emotions but out of duty and after cool calculation of the benefit that this Truth will eventually bring to the people involved. (I am a displaced person myself, from Dhicomo Kyrenia). In everyday life, the Turkish Cypriots were just as fair to us as we were to them; I would say even fairer, if any different. Mr. Pavlos Xioutas, a retired high school head master, highly respected for his folkloric wisdom, in an interview broadcast of CyBC in the Fall of 1987, recalls the good old times, when he was posted in Yialousa in the Karpas area. He remembers how, in the building of the Greek gymnasium there, as well as in the building of Greek schools and churches in other mixed villages, the Turkish Cypriots offered not only money but voluntary free labour as well. These and similar gestures on behalf of the Turkish Cypriots show not only fairness but generosity as well, considering that the Turkish Cypriot community has been the poorer of the two communities in Cyprus. It is unfortunately true that Mr. Xioutas cannot remember similar gestures on behalf of the Greek Cypriots. It is however true that, in matters other than religious or educational, most of the Greek Cypriots were just as fair to the Turks. When the Turkish Cypriots of Morphou left their homes and property, preferring the security of the enclaves west of Morphou, the Greek Cypriot farmers of Morphou formed a committee that undertook to look after the Turkish Cypriot orchards and opened accounts for the Turkish Cypriot owners, to deposit the profits. So, when the Turkish Cypriots returned home, they found their orchards in good condition and some money in the bank too. It is obvious that both our island and our people are very nice and there seems to be no apparent reason why we should not be able to live amicably together. This is what baffles many of the friends of Cyprus, like Lord Thomson who was recently interviewed on CyBC. These people miss the crux of the issue entirely. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 5 The problem does not arise in private everyday life. When involved in their personal and private everyday relations, the Cypriots, and people in general, can always find ways of living amicably together. Where does the problem lie then? Many people will quickly come up with the easy answer: It is the fault of the politicians. They are the „bad guys‟. How completely wrong! It is not the politicians. Politicians are mostly ordinary nice people themselves who are trying to figure out what the common interest is or what their people expect them to do and try to do it to the best of their ability. Of course, they are the ones who make the most serious mistakes, because they are the ones who make the most serious decisions. The real problem with the politicians is that, in spite of their intelligence and calibre, they are not quite able to handle AUTHORITY competently. And they cannot handle authority because the real Authorities at level two, who chart their course, control them blindfolded, without even allowing them to realize that they, the politicians, are not the ones who decide or chart the course of events. Another easy and widely favoured answer is to blame it all on the Americans. There is a kind of hysteria in the world today to blame everything on the Americans, even the actions of the communist reactionaries in post-revolutionary Iran and the religious killings in Mecca. Many are those who say that the Americans put the Turks upto it, hoping that Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots would grant them a base of their own in the part of Cyprus under Turkish control. This is not only untrue but completely unreasonable as well. If America wished to have a base of her own on Cyprus, the easy and reasonable thing to do would be to befriend the Cyprus government and shower her with a little gold. (Makarios was never anti-American). Being accused as the enemies of the Republic of Cyprus, they dare not make things worse for themselves by building a military base in the Turkish-controlled area. (Our government knows this very well). This is the same topsy-turvy thinking according to which America supports Israel in order to secure her own interests in Arab oil. But the best, the only way to secure these interests is to befriend the Arabs and abandon Israel. It is precisely by supporting Israel that America puts her own interests in the Middle East in jeopardy. (America does not have a base on Cyprus and never asked for one, because NATO-wise, Cyprus is considered as „British turf‟. The Americans have always used the British facilities on the Island.) Then, if it is not the politicians and it is not the Americans, which are the real causes of this conflict, and others like it? At ground level, these conflicts start from the nice ordinary people (including the nice and full-of-good-intentions politicians). Yes, these selfsame nice people, who live very amicably together in everyday life, suddenly change to aggressive and stupid people when they are involved in collective issues. When a nice, intelligent and peace loving individual gets involved in a collective issue, big or small, he or she becomes a political person. His individual consciousness and individual intelligence are pushed aside and his or her thoughts and actions are taken over by a collective consciousness, which has a Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 6 much narrower and explicit intelligence and which is more dynamic and more effective, precisely because it is simpler, explicit, free of reason, (though it gives rise to complicated rationalizations that bog the mind of the controlled individual), and because it is hidden, working always by means of „action loops‟ or engrams in the subconscious. The Authorities at level two, who chart the collective affairs of men, control and steer people through this collective consciousness, which is inculcated into the minds of children, mostly by the age of six by their parents, (mainly their mothers), and is completed by the age of twelve by their teachers and priests or hodjas. These Authorities at level two are religious (or ethnicoreligious). Many people are misled to believe that the causes of conflicts are economic, because economics are frequently used by the Authorities at level two as a means to control things at the lower levels, taking advantage of Man‟s needs or greed. Let us take as a first example a situation in Northern Ireland: Two Irish farmers, one Catholic and the other Protestant, have their farms right next to each other. They are very good neighbours, borrowing each other‟s tools and sharing a pint or two at the local. One evening there is a hot argument between Catholics and Protestants at the pub about the recent troubles in the nearby town. The argument is so hot that our two farmers are trapped in expressing themselves and getting involved on opposite sides. In the heat of the argument, they exchange some harsh words. For weeks after the incident they are not on speaking terms, until one of them has the courage to break the ice and suggest that they stop acting stupid or childish. Much later, when they remember over a pint, they cannot understand what had happened to them; how two nice intelligent people could have behaved like they did. They know it is silly; but this does not prevent them from falling into the same trap a second time. For a second example, let us go back to the Second World War and the events that led to it: In the 1936 referendum 96.8 % of the German people, (98.8 % of a 98 % turnout), very intelligent and educated people, doctors, lawyers, judges, university professors etc, voted for National Socialism and Hitler. We all know the inhuman (?) story all too well. At the end of the war, most Germans were wondering what had happened to them; how could they have behaved the way they did? How did Hitler mesmerize them? Everything was blamed on Hitler, as they suspected nothing about higher Authorities. But Hitler was an ordinary ephemeral man, 100% devoted to a cause and 100% expendable. Nobody asks what had happened to him; who, or which power mesmerized him; which power or Authority caused the depression and accentuated the polarization of national or racial feeling to prepare the ground for the events. Here again, the Authorities at level two were religious and their final target was the extermination of the Jews. What is referred to today as Anti-Semitism was actually Anti-Jewism. The Germans did not persecute any Arabs, as we know from their relations with Egypt and the other Arab countries. This is why Hitler had to adopt a new flag, not the traditional German flag but that of Kaileh, the Authority at level two, which controlled not only him but also the whole Eurochristian World. The central shrine of this Authority is on Kailas Mountain in Tibet, but has its headquarters for the area of Europe and the West in Switzerland, with annexes in Scandinavia, and uses England as its leading spokesman. It is clear from Hitler‟s Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 7 writings that he never saw these countries as his enemies. He considered England as his natural ally that would share with him World power and control. The Authority would obviously protect its own headquarters from the war. What went wrong is that this Authority pushed Hitler too fast. The Sanctuary of Zeus was already on the wing and the Old Authority was in a great hurry. It was this rush that sparked the war. When Hitler moved against Poland, he was keeping his fingers crossed that England would not declare war; but England did. This was not held against Hitler. In the confusion that followed however, Hitler made the mistake of invading Norway. The tables were turned on Hitler precisely on the 15th of April 1940, when he invaded Norway. (The „Majestic 12‟, the level one equivalent of the Committee of the twelve Zodiac Lords at level two that control Planetary Administration, usually convened for controlling the War in a castle between Geneva and Montreux in Switzerland. On this day, they convened once in a Manor House in Hamburg and decided to abandon Hitler. They thence concentrated on directing him to exterminate as many Jews as possible). Had the progress of National Socialism been slower and no war came before 1950, the National Socialist parties in England and most other European countries, as well as in Central and South America, would have taken over control and those people who were later abhorred by the Jewish holocaust would have done exactly the same; and they would never understand why, though they would certainly delve into complicated rationalizations in the aftermath, trying to explain their actions. Having failed to exterminate the Jews by frontal attack and direct persecution, the same Authority adopted the „Trojan horse‟ tactics. It moved the Eurochristian World to establish Israel, the final and subtlest enemy of the Jews. So, the state of Israel was born “with Jewish blood but Eurochristian heart”, or “with Trojan blood and German heart”. (Nostradamus: quatrain V, verse 74) You may think this example is not directly relevant to our present issue and that we are steering off course. But this story is very relevant. It is precisely this unfinished business of the Second War that introduced the era of Ethnicoreligious polarization after the end of Eurochristian colonial rule, with a hot line separating the two poles of the dipole. This hot line starts from Bulgaria, goes down the Ebros and the East Aegean, through Cyprus and Lebanon and ends in Israel. This is the line of conflict and of the birth-labour that will give birth to the first phase of a New World. Cyprus is right on this line and if Greece and Turkey were not members of NATO and under American influence, both militarily and economically, there would be hot conflicts between the two and Cyprus would certainly end up with a problem like the Lebanese, only much worse. Of course, people who cannot see with their minds, which are shrouded in emotions of unhappiness and bitter passions, can only know the tragedy that has hit them and not the one that might have or could have hit them. What can you say to these people? It is certainly too much to tell them that “they should be grateful for their misery”, (even if it is absolutely true). The Greek Cypriots make every attempt to confine the issue to one of “invasion of one country by another”. Though the issue thus stated is legally and officially very true, to present it as “THE PROBLEM” is both superficial and non-substantial. And it is superficial because the Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 8 invasion is the result and not the cause of the problem. The problem has been at the UN since 1963, there has been a peace keeping UN force in Cyprus since 1964 and there have been inter-communal talks on the issue since 1968. The invasion came as the big confrontation that put an end to the little conflicts. Everything has been quiet ever since, with very minor incidents, whilst in nearby Lebanon there have been the continual conflicts that you all know so well, with 140,000 dead, officially, and nearer 200,000 unofficially, in the same time. The difference between Cyprus and Lebanon is that here we have a dividing line between the two communities, guarded by two disciplined armies, by far the strongest being the winner of the last round, whilst in Lebanon there is no sharp dividing line and, most importantly, the weapons and command are in the hands of militia; a multi-headed militia not under the state discipline. A similar situation existed in Cyprus before the National Guard was set up. Confining the issue as stated above and presenting it as „the problem‟ at the UN and other international fora, as well as with individual governments, we get a lot of support for our case. But, like the issue, this support is confined to a mere legality, being similarly superficial and non-substantial. No nation or international body will make a substantial and serious move to convince Turkey to withdraw form Cyprus and abandon the Turkish Cypriots to their fate, good or bad. Though none of these international bodies or countries understands the Cyprus problem fully, they are not so naïve as to believe that the problem is as simple as that. And having nothing else, we hang on to this non-substantial legality as the internationally recognized and legal state, and get increasingly frustrated, bewildered and desperate. We cannot understand why, with all this international support and justice on our side (!), nothing is done by anybody to improve the situation. In spite of the good old days and the similarities between the two people, recent events and the atrocities committed by both sides have put a lot of water between them. Among many Greek Cypriots bitterness is so great, that what they really want is not a united Cyprus where they would share authority with the Turkish Cypriots. What they want is their home back. They want the Turks to leave and the Northern part of Cyprus returned. To share authority on the island with the Turkish Cypriots is a painful compromise. Were the military odds reversed today in our favour, there would be war tomorrow, to regain what has been lost. We chose to negotiate only because we are the weaker side. In their 3500-year long history, the Greeks never negotiated when they were the stronger side, or even thought they were the stronger side. (This is what brought about the Asia Minor disaster in 1922). We campaign for justice when we are the weaker side. If the power relationship between Greece and Turkey were the reverse of what it is, I wonder how much we would concede to the Turks and what would have been the fate of the Turkish Cypriots in 1963-64. If the invasion of the island is not the Crux of the problem, then WHAT is? We have already explained it partly. We are now going to elaborate: Cyprus is a new state with two distinct people, whose ethnic identities, very much older that the state, and their collective consciousnesses are not only different but counterpoised. Two people whose national history, education and tradition set them apart as traditional enemies. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 9 The State of Cyprus was less than three-and-a-half years old when it was steered onto the rocks. Not only is the State of Cyprus very young. UN, the organization that gives it legal existence, is itself very young and has no real power to safeguard the sovereignty and national integrity of its members. Beneath this young statehood lie two distinct and much older Ethnic Identities and, what‟s more important, loyalty to these separate national identities receives a much higher priority than the loyalty to the state identity. This is really the CRUX of the problem. Thus, though we had a new independent state, with its own flag, its National Anthem was, and still is, the National Anthem of Greece (!). The two communities celebrated separately the National days of Greece and Turkey respectively as their national days. Each individual kept at home, and used for his national occasions, not the Cypriot flag but either the Greek or the Turkish one. So, the problem is the curious nature of the state of Cyprus. The definition of a genuine, legitimate and viable state, with full independence and sovereignty in both internal and external matters, should necessarily include in its functions the safeguard of law and justice for all its citizens on all issues including national and ethnic issues, and to protect the national boundaries and the national integrity of its people. That is, the definition and boundaries of a genuine legitimate state should coincide with those of the Nation. People of different ethnic groups can form a nation only if the loyalties to the separate ethnic identities receive a far lower priority than the state or collective national identity. Thus the Chinese, the Greeks, the Turks, the Irish, the Russians and the many other ethnic groups in the USA can celebrate their own national days, (called „ethnic‟ instead of „national‟), whilst giving their American national identity priority way above their ethnic loyalty. Otherwise, they can never be a part of the American Nation. If the American constitution made definite distinctions among the various ethnic groups, allowing loyalties to the ethnic identity to supersede loyalty to the state, then the USA would not be a genuine Nation. In Cyprus, unfortunately, loyalty to national or ethnic identity supersedes by far the loyalty to the state, in the collective consciousnesses on both sides. Thus, the state of Cyprus does not fulfil the definition of a genuine State/Nation. And this is not merely a matter of celebrations and flags and national anthem. It cannot uphold law and order and cannot safeguard the lives of its citizens against crimes committed on ethnic issues. The following example of a real incident, out of many like it, demonstrates very clearly the failure of the State to uphold law and order and to safeguard lives; and further, to give a feeling of security to its citizens, especially those of the counterpoised minority. (There would be no problem and no insecurity if the minority did not care about ethnic priorities). In 1964, just after the 1963-64 troubles and killings, when many Turkish Cypriots moved into armed enclaves, two Greek Cypriot policemen were shot dead when they entered the Turkish enclave of Old Famagusta, in front of the eyes of people, including Turkish Cypriot policeman serving in the State police force. Nobody could come forward as witness and no inquires could even be held to bring the killers to justice. Even the Turkish Cypriot policemen could not come forward and report. It was not only very difficult for them. It was unthinkable. Ethnic loyalties receive such high priority over and above loyalty to the state that, a Turkish Cypriot policeman, serving in the State police and paid by the State, would be considered a traitor if he reported Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 10 the killers. He would definitely be killed and his whole family would be branded and in danger. And it was the same the other way round; where the crime was the killing of Turks by Greeks, in an ethnic issue. In such cases, the state cannot enforce the law. And when the state cannot enforce the law, people take the law in their hands and become a lynching mob. This is exactly what happened in this and all other cases like it. So the above incident evolved as follows: Some Greek Cypriots, following instructions from a police sergeant in charge of the police station of a nearby village, rounded up seven Turkish Cypriots, (the least probable to be guilty, as they were people who worked with Greek Cypriots either in a bank in the Greek sector of Famagusta or in the NAAFI), and the said sergeant, acting as judge-and-jury, had them shot and buried in a couple of hours. One of them, father of two children, was pleading for his life saying: “Ask Antonis Zakos from this village; he will tell you about me; he knows me; we are friends”. Police headquarters in Nicosia were informed by a witness from the village to assure them of the innocence of the victims. Police headquarters rang up the sergeant, while the victims were still alive. The sergeant was heard saying “they have already been executed” and, as soon as he put down the receiver, he gave an order to that effect. Actually, the sergeant‟s words in Greek idiom may be also translated as “consider them executed already” or “consider it done”. Again, as in the first incident, there have been no charges and no prosecuting. The said sergeant still holds a rank in the Cyprus police force. Anybody that dared bring charges against the sergeant or the accomplices would run the danger of being shot as a traitor. Again, loyalty to the Ethnic Identity overrided loyalty to the State. This is very tragic because even the majority of the people who feel responsible are forced to act irresponsibly by keeping quiet, out of fear of the irresponsible minority who would take action against them. There will even be a few that will call me a traitor for recording the incident, even 26 years after it took place. Of course you could live safely if you belonged to one of the smaller minorities that do not claim any share in authority, or just a guest or visitor. The Turkish Cypriots could live safely also, if they didn‟t voice their ethnic claims and accepted a minority status like the Maronites or the Armenians. What the Greek Cypriots fail to understand it this: Why can‟t the Turkish Cypriots accept a minority status, just like the other two minorities mentioned. But the Armenians and the Maronites are Christians and not the traditional enemies of the Greeks. Furthermore, they are such small minorities, with nobody backing them, and cannot hope to hold their ground in case of ethnic conflict. Look at how the Armenians and Maronites are involved as the „phalangists‟ in the Lebanese conflict. Look at what is happening in Nagorno Karabach. The Turkish Cypriots will definitely not accept a minority status when they know that the Turks are the majority in the area; and a strong one at that. Would the Greek Cypriots accept a minority status? Cyprus, as an island, has a natural geographic boundary. But so do Crete and all other islands. Over and above these geographic Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 11 boundaries however, there are Ethnic boundaries, which in our case take priority, as proven. Cyprus, Greece and Asia Minor or Turkey were once part of the Greek World and most of the people now called Turks are the descendants of the once many Greek peoples in Asia Minor, as well as many other Ethnic groups. How would the Greeks feel if these areas, including Cyprus and Greece, were united into one single republic, with the Turks exercising majority rule and the Turkish national anthem as that of this state? How ridiculous! How unthinkable! This is exactly how the Turkish Cypriots feel. It wouldn‟t be so bad, if the two peoples were not counterpoised as traditional enemies. So, though most of the people on both sides come from the same mixture of racial stock, and though they are of similar temperament and could live amicably together, they definitely face serious problems when they attempt to share authority. This is what happened in Cyprus and we ended up with two heads in the same hat. When this happens and the counterpoised ethnic groups foster mistrust and suspicion of each other, aggravated and accentuated by killings and other atrocities on both sides, then you get either a situation like in Cyprus, with the two separated by a strong and disciplined force, or a situation like in Lebanon, where it is not safe to go down to the market place with your baby in the pram and be sure to bring it back all in one piece. And this defines the cause of the problem and the CRUX of it. Is there no solution then? Of course there is; and not a difficult one. But we have to go to the real causes; not the legalities of the issue. We need knowledge and understanding of the causes. As these are the diverse and counterpoised ethnic consciousnesses, not born with but inculcated into every new generation, we are going to examine in the next chapter precisely these ethnic identities. In a later chapter, we shall suggest ways in which this inculcated poison can be spit out, or at least how we can stop dishing it to future generations. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 12 CHAPTER II THE PEOPLE - THEIR ETHNIC IDENTITIES Hellenism and the Greeks The Hellenes are first mentioned in Book II of the Iliad, Hellas, „the city of beautiful women‟ being one of the six city-states that contributed to Achilles‟ army. According to the account of the book, the Hellenes numbered less than one thousand (1000) in a total of the Greek army of more than one hundred thousand (100000); they were less than 1% of the Greeks. Though the inculcated Ethnic identity evolved round the Danaan warrior idiosyncrasy, warlike, glory-hunting, courageous, marked by strife and internal conflict, many other elements went into the formation of the overall Greek character, contributed by the other peoples that make up the racial mixture called „Greeks‟. So, though „Greeks‟ and „Hellenes‟ are today used as synonyms, a definite distinction must be made in our analysis of the character, as there are attributes in the Greek character, hospitality, the art of finery, philosophy and the easy-going every-day temperament you meet in the Greek people, that are mainly Ionian in origin and are quite different from the Danaan attributes mentioned. Even in the myth about the Hellenes, we see a mixed origin. „Hellene‟ means „born of fire‟, Hella being the Hyperborean Deity of Chthonic Fire, form which come words like „Hell‟ and „Hello‟. The Danaans called the first Ionians they met west of Iolkos „Hellenes‟ because of their auburn-red hair. However, this Hellene‟s mother, is given in the story as Pyrrha, an Ionian word meaning the same. Her children are the „Pyrrhies‟. These were enslaved by the Danaans (Dorians and Achaeans) and we meet them later in both Sparta and Pericles‟ Athens, where most of the slaves, more than 250.000, were of this race. Another origin of these Pyrrhies was Thrace. The Thracians were also auburn-haired Adamite-Ionians. Thrace was the sister of Europa that migrated from Asia Minor across the Aegean around 2750 BCE, alluded to in Greek Mythology in the „abduction of Europa‟ by Zeus. The Spartans and the Athenians went marauding all over Greece and the Aegean, foraging for slaves and booty. From the names „Danaans‟ and „Achaeans‟, mainly used to describe the people of the Trojan expedition, it can be surmised that by then most of the ruling kings were of Northern Danaan origin, whom the Southeastern people feared and mistrusted, according to Laocoon. “Beware of the Danaans even when come bearing gifts”. The elements that constitute the Greek Ethnic identity are historical, religious, traditional, mythological and linguistic, and are inculcated onto a substratum of a varied racial mixture. So, in an effort to give at least an outline of the origin and character of these people, we must go back as far as these elements can be traced. The area of the Middle East has been inhabited for many tens of thousands of years but we shall only go back as far as necessary to include only what goes into today‟s Greek Ethnic identity. We shall go back to around 9000 BCE, to the last colonization of the planet (the Adamite), very simplistically described in Genesis, and we shall refer to the people that inhabited the area before as the „indigenous mixture‟. The colony was started in the highlands of far NE Asia Minor. Around 5000 BCE some of them moved east and helped in the peaceful establishment of the civilizations of the Indus River valley and the Central Asian river cultures. Later, when the Aryans destroyed these cultures, they dispersed further east. The rebel prince Cain is a Spiritual type and he is the same as Kaileh, Saturn or Cronos. Those of this race mainly referred to in Genesis stayed behind and gradually mixed with the indigenous people of Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 13 the Middle East. These are the ADAMITES, the AUBURN people. „Adam‟ (Chaldean word) and „Phoenix‟ (Ionian word) are synonyms and mean „Auburn-Red‟. The Adamites that are mentioned in the Bible make up only the royal or divine race that ruled eventually over the indigenous mixture. The genealogy of Abraham is only that of the ruling race and not the indigenous or servant races. (If you read the Bible more carefully, you will be able to figure this out for yourselves. Abraham had numerous such subjects. He put up an army out of these, with which he defeated the combined army of four kings to liberate his nephew Lot). The same is true for the descendants of king Shiva in the Indian history and mythology. These Adamas can be met in the very ancient epic poetry and sagas of Armenia. (These are the Heroes, the Angels and the Gods mentioned in these epic sagas and are all described as „fair‟, „blue-eyed‟ and „auburn-haired‟). These „sons of God Jeus‟ had a very scientific language, the Adamite or Japhetite- Ionian, which evolved into Modern Greek. This Adamite language is scientifically ideographic; that is, every letter is a scientific symbol and its pronunciation is an attempt to render its scientific meaning phonetically as closely as possible. Etymologically primary words like, Agape-Love, Chaos, Eros, Uranus, Gaia, Eos- Dawn, Jhwh-Jove, ζηωη-Zoë-Life etc are physical formulae constructed to convey the compound scientific meaning of the letters used, just like Chemical formulae of compounds are made up of the symbols of the elements they contain. (The Germanic languages are Atlantoid languages of the Danaan ruling caste of Atlantis). With the migration of the Adamites into the Eastern continent and the Aryan invasion later, both languages influenced the subsequent evolution of the older Indian language. This is why Sanskrit and the European, (Adamite and Atlantoid), share some similarities and are referred to as „Indo-European‟. This sacred language is our greatest scientific inheritance, and if we could understand the scientific thought, effort and knowledge that went into its formulation, we would be introduced to a very advanced science, dealing with six-dimensional space, or twin-phase space, infinite number of out-of-phase spatially overlapping Universes, travelling beyond the speed of light for solar distances and instant „space- jumping‟ for inter-solar and intergalactic distances, as well as the Origin of Life and the coding and construction of the bodies of sentient beings and their functions. Though today‟s man has added nothing basically new to this language, not even a single letter, he fails to appreciate what great task and advanced scientific know-how went into its formulation and remains blind to its scientific content that would open his mind to much wider scientific horizons than the narrow-mindedness that blinds him. The loss is so great that I consider the day to which the origin of this language can be traced and lost, as the beginning of the dark ages of man. These coincide with Man‟s written history and religion. After the Flood, the remnant of the Adamites dispersed and established ruling classes and started royal families over the indigenous older races. The Flood was not as universal as believed. It was confined to the highlands around and towards the NE of Erzurum and was drained by the Choluh into the Black Sea, the Karasu-Euphrates into the Persian Gulf and the Kura and Aras Rivers into the Caspian Sea. As the remnant of the people involved dispersed, they carried the story with them wherever they established themselves as the ruling class and so the story became universal. The written language was the well-guarded secret of the Priesthood of the descendants of the firstborn of Noah, given as Japheth or Iapetos in the simplistic version of the Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 14 creation of the Adamite colony, referred to in the Bible as the first people on Earth. It is wrongly thought that Shem was the first-born of Noah. If you read the original version of the Septuagint Bible in Greek, chapter 10, verse 21, and notice the moods of the nouns and adjectives, it will be clear to you that the eldest is Japheth. Japheth moved west, traversed the plateau of Asia Minor and he and his descendants finally settled in the west part of the peninsula, in a triangular area, having one side along the Aegean coast from Marmara to Halicarnassos or Bodrum, (including the eastern Aegean islands), and the easternmost vertex east of Hierapolis or Pamukkale. They called this land „Asia‟, which means „Holy land‟, and the route they followed „Anatole‟, which is a gematric cryptogram meaning both „Holy Road‟ and „East‟. The area they traversed, as well as the area they settled in, was already inhabited by a mixture of people who had a linear writing of earlier Mesopotamian origin, similar to the Sumeric, and worshiped the Female or Lunar deities of Ishtar, Artemis, Hecate, Cybelle and so on. The Adamas did not have or need a religion, as they possessed higher scientific knowledge about the Universe and the Authorities, or Gods, (who are merely more advanced than the rest of the human race by virtue of the higher science they possess). As their descendants increased and mixed with the indigenous races, they tended to adopt the religion of the inferior people with whom they intermarried. It was then thought necessary by the Adamas or Japhetites to introduce a new organized religion, with Jeus (Zeus) as the head of the new Pantheon. The very first temples of the Japhetites were the houses of congregation of the chosen and were known as the „Temples of the Two Witnesses‟, the High Priest and the King, who shared between them the Authority of the original Patriarchs. Around 2750 BC, the descendants of the Japhetite or Ionian people, (Ion or Iawan was the son of Japheth), moved south and west. This migration is given in the paraphrase of the abduction of Europa by Zeus, followed by the exodus of her brothers, who came out of Asia in search of their sister. (Before 2750 BC there was no Phoenicia on the East coast of the Mediterranean. The original Phoenike was the rugged peninsula of later Lycia in southwest Turkey, opposite the Greek island of Castellorizo). The brothers as mentioned in the Greek mythology were: Cadmus, who established a kingdom at Thebes, after ousting the dynasty of the Dragons, (killing all but five of them, that brought his eventual downfall), Cilix (or, according to the Bible, Tarshish), who established the kingdom of Cilicia on the Southeastern coast of the peninsula, (including Cyprus, which was then called Alasia and not Cyprus), with Tarsus as its capital and Phoenix, who, “after wondering fruitlessly round the Mediterranean coast in search of his sister”, established a colony and a kingdom on the Eastern Mediterranean coast, Phoenicia. The kingdom was actually established on the island of Tyre, where a temple of the Two Witnesses survived until the whole island was utterly destroyed by Alexander the Macedon. The coast known as Phoenicia was only a colony on which the kingdom of Tyre ruled and depended for supplies. „Phoenix‟ means „Auburn-red‟ just like „Adam‟. The common origin of Cadmus and Phoenix is Asia the Holy land. This is also the origin of Ptah, who established Memphis, (Hikuptah-Aegyptos-Egypt), and Thebes in Egypt at about the same time. Ever since, Khem was also referred to as Egypt by the Ionians and, later, by all the Greeks. This is why the Pharaohs referred to the Tyrian and the Cadmian Phoenicians as their brothers. Greek history-Mythology mentions both the Cadmian and the Tyrian Phoenicians as the people who introduced the Modern Greek (and European) writing. The origin could not have been Lebanese coastal Phoenicia. Neither could it have come from Mesopotamia, the Arabian Desert or Egypt. These people never used this language. It is unthinkable that a people would invent or introduce a language and a writing Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 15 from somewhere for use by another people and not for their own use. The Ionians of Cadmus were also known as „Phoenicians‟, the „Phoenicians of Boeotia‟, according to Herodotus. In most of the places they emigrated to, the Japhetite people or Ionians met earlier settlements. They went as far as the British Isles and Scandinavia. They took with them their language and their arts and crafts, including the keeled boat. The arts and crafts and the oral language were to some degree adopted by the peoples they ruled in the West. However, not many people could read or write and the written language, as well as the sciences, remained the exclusive property and privilege of the priesthood. For the rest of the people, these arts, like the holy writing, were mysteries. Like in Asia Minor, so in the Aegean and its West coastal settlements there was in use a linear writing similar to the Sumeric, carried to Mycenae and other centres through Asia Minor. So, civilization came to Mycenae from the East and not the other way round though, later, Mycenae developed the crafts and there was a two-way traffic of civilization and culture. Ever since the creation of the Adamite colony, the clash between the Old Chief and the coming new Authority was imminent. When migrations brought the two domains to each other‟s boundaries, war was inevitable and strategies were adopted. The Old Chief, (his real name is Calicastia), has the idiosyncrasy of the top predator, the Dragon. As Planetary Prince, he has the authority of the supreme weapon of Death and Desolation, the Cross; (sometimes depicted as a Swastika for additional potency). Jeus relies more on endurance, and the tools of maintenance and healing, or reconstruction, referred to in the book of Revelations as the „Key of David‟. Peace and Goodwill among Men can only be established through endurance and not by means of aggression and War. Jesus-the-Lamb is a key figure in this contest. Apart form the natural properties of the cross, the world „τΑΤΡΟ‟, which means „cross‟ or „crucifix‟ in Greek, is a ritualistic gematric cryptogram that sums to 777. The Northern deity of Fire, ΥΔΛΛΑ in Greek as well as ΗΑΠΔΣΟ are also gematric cryptograms that sum to 666, and ΗΖΟΤ is yet another ritualistic gematric cryptogram with sum equal to 888. The two Authorities at level two are referred to in Greek mythology as Cronos and Zeus. (*See cryptograms at end of section). As the two Authorities have to fight with different weapons, they choose different strategies. The Ionians, the „lambs‟, cannot stand up to the Hyperboreans, the Dragons, or the Hellenes, in the games of war. It is not in the nature of the lambs to fight such a war against the dragons; they always end up as the losers or slain. The Hyperboreans, and after them the Romans and the Hellenes, are a much more disciplined people, of a more masculine temperament, of sustained and disciplined aggression, naturally better in organisational and administrative skills, more courageous and more effective in the games of war than the milder and more refined Ionians. The Old Chief, as the Planetary Prince, has the advantage of first choice and recruits the best human material available on the planet, as far as their ability, discipline and natural tenacity in war is concerned. The people of Zeus, the Ionians, are milder people inclined towards spiritual endeavours rather than war and he has to choose the rest of his camp from what is left over. As the races left for him to choose from are mixed and degenerate, he has to do a lot of sifting and a long and arduous training and hardening and resifting in order to give his small camp the tenacity and endurance required in order to prevail in the end. The Old Chief made his move towards the end of the 20th century BC. This is when Zeus moved east and made the Covenant with Abraham. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 16 The Hyperboreans moving south and the Ionians moving west, met for the first time in the plain of Thessaly, west of the Ionian city of Iolkos, in a small settlement on the road to Dodona. This was the first time that the Northern people called the Ionian chieftain of that small settlement „Hellene‟ because of his auburn appearance. This was also the first time that the Northerners came across the story of the Flood, carried by the Ionians to Thessaly, but modified as it passed orally form generation to generation among the locals of that place. So, the first „Hellene‟ was actually an auburn Ionian. The Northerners however, with their superior weapons and more aggressive nature, soon became the overlords or ruling class in the areas they settled and, as history is written to suit the rulers, history, tradition, religion and all elements that go into the inculcated collective consciousness evolved accordingly. In this way, the collective ethnic identity evolved round the character of the Northern warlike ruling class, though in everyday life, the character of the more spiritual and more refined Ionians was generally the dominating feature. (You will understand the difference if you compare the Greeks with the Romans, in which the Ionian influence was almost absent. You can still see it today, though it writes no history). Parallel offshoots of these same Hyperboreans are the Aryans, who bypassed the Caspian and destroyed the Dravidian culture of the Saraswati-Indus River valley, including cities like Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro, which had been established with the help of the Adamites emigrating east, the Hittites, who destroyed the upper Mesopotamian civilization in Eastern Turkey, also established under the guidance of the Adamites and the Hyksos, the avant-garde of the Hittites, who went as far as Egypt in search of the descendents of Abraham. (Notice that all these Hyperboreans used the same superior weapons, the longer sword, the compounded bow, the mail shirt and the horse-driven chariot). At the beginning, the Northerners settled in the west and the central parts of the Greek peninsula. Those settled Epirus around Dodona called the redhead Ionians of the area „Sellenes‟ (Hellenes; these are the Selloi). They also settled the rugged inland areas of Greece and Northern Peloponnese, (these are the Dorians and Achaeans). This was because there were well-established strongholds all along the East coast of the peninsula. By the 15th century however, they managed to take over control of these strongholds as well, and the older owners of these places became slaves of the new ruling class, who offered them military protection and wrote their history for them in exchange for their land. By the end of the 13th century, (just after they destroyed the Ionian Iolkos) they were all set to make the decisive move against the heart of the Ionians, their sacred land of Asia and the Sanctuary of Zeus. This was always the target of the plans of the Old Chief. Helen of Dorian Sparta, (more commonly referred to as „Helen of Troy‟), was the pivot and signal of this expedition. During the ten years of the Trojan War, all the land of Asia and all its temples, including the High Sanctuary, were utterly destroyed and plundered for booty and provisions for the Achaean army (and for the Trojans). Some of the booty and the daughters of the temple priests and other Ionian nobles were the prize of dissent between the Achaean chieftains. At the end of the ten years, the city of Troy was sacked and completely gutted. The victory did not come after ten years of direct attack, but by the well-known trick of the Trojan horse, not a wooden horse but the enemy from within (in this case the Aeneids), which has set the pattern for the most effective and subtle enemy from within, that we all know so well. Thus, Ion-the-Phoenix was burnt to ashes, together with the high Sanctuary, by the fire of the Hellenes. Many of the survivors moved south to the rugged coast of Lycia and from there they dispersed in all directions, quietly settling in the Ionian or Phoenician colonies established earlier. The higher priesthood emigrated with their Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 17 holy books to Thebes in Egypt, established earlier by their brothers. There they coined the prophecy of the Phoenix, the auburn bird that will one day be reborn out of its ashes. This was the end of the Ionians as a pure race. What was later referred to as Ionians is a racial mixture, with the Ionian spirit and character of finery, hospitality and philosophy silently and patiently gaining ground in the evolution of the Greek character of everyday life, and shaping spirits and minds like that of Pythagoras of old and Elytis of today, whilst retreating in the background when the inculcated collective consciousness is turned on, as the Danaan identity that fights the Greek wars and writes the Greek National History. Hence the contrasting two aspects of the Greek character; the Ionian you meet in the philosophic writings and everyday life of the Greeks, especially the Cypriots and those of the Aegean Islands, and the Danaan you meet in wars, politics and national occasions, as well as in History books. After the Trojan War, the Achaean princes moved on to colonize the rest of the Ionian world. We meet them in Cyprus, where they are said to have built the cities of Salamis and Chitroi and Tamassos and Kyrenia and Amathus and Epeia etc. But the only tools these Achaeans brought with them were the tools of war and their superiority in combat as veterans of the Trojan War. It is more correct to say that they conquered the place and had the conquered build their cities for them. They brought with them a more masculine architecture and a more disciplined organizational ability that gave its character to the new city-kingdoms that flourished under their rule to great prominence. For the next three or four centuries, there is a complete historical and cultural blank. Then, in the beginning of the 8th century, dawns a new era and a new culture, with the appearance of the Homeric and Hesiod‟s poems and the establishment of the Olympic games, an expression of the Danaan aggressively competitive idiosyncrasy. Though the Greek History-making process is dominated by the Danaan Identity, now embracing the whole of the Greek world as the „Hellenic Commonwealth‟, the spirit that begins to dominate the cultural evolution is the Ionian. The two together strike their finest balance in the Classical Athenian epoch. The holy writing makes its appearance in the 8th century in a form influenced by elements of the older linear writing, and evolves into what is known as „Classical Greek‟. As the Ionian spirit blossoms into the golden era of Athenian culture, the Dragons move again. Alexander the Macedon was not actually a Macedon. Olympias, his mother, was a Selloian princess from Epirus. She was a Dryad-Maenad and a Dragoness or Pythoness, and married Philip so that her son with her hierophant Nectanebo, the Egyptian Hermic priest, would be born heir to the Macedonian throne. She brought her orgiastic practices into the Macedonian palace and soon Philip became repulsed by her voodoo and kept prudently out of her quarters, satisfying himself with his concubines. It is in a mystic dragonic ritual that Nectanebo impregnates Olympias, while Philip peeps curiously through the parting in the doors of Olympia‟s chambers, trying to figure out the commotions. In order to keep Alexander (the child), she makes up the story that, during that night, she was wakened by a strong tremor and found a Dragon lying along her body and, by the shiver that she felt, she knew that she had miraculously conceived of the Divine Dragon and that her son would become a great conqueror of the World. Thus, Alexander was proclaimed by his mother as the „Son of the Dragon god‟. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 18 When she is sent back to her father in Epirus, she takes young Alexander with her and instils in him contempt for Philip. When they return to the Macedonian court, in her impatience to set her son on the throne and on his glorious mission, she has Philip assassinated. Alexander starts early in life. With him comes the beginning of the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic era put a final end to the glory of Athens and to what we refer to as the spirit of our great ancestors. This era is the dark ages of Greek history and, though many books have been written on it and Alexander, nothing much is taught in our schools about it, other than the conquests of Alexander. Notice also that the only places that Alexander destroyed completely were the cities of the brothers of Europa Cadmus and Phoenix, Thebes and Tyre respectively, which gave Europe its Adamite-Ionian language. Quite aptly, Alexander‟s banner was that of Kaileh: a black cross with slim arms having short transverse dashes, (I forget the exact number), on white and red background, identical in theme with Hitler‟s swastika. You can see this banner of Alexander in a coloured freeze from Paestus, now in the Naples‟ museum. His attack signal flag was a plain red cloth. The banner was hung by its shorter side from a pole, so that the longer side was vertical. At about the same time (336 BCE), the Crescent was adopted by Byzantium as its flag. Thus, Death (cross) and Hades (lunar) stepped onto the scene simultaneously. Then came the Romans. The stage was set and ready to swallow up the newborn exponent of lord Jeus, the head of his new Sanctuary. The instrument of execution that Cronos or Calicastia-the-Dragon used was the cross on the hill of the Scull (Cranium). The first followers of Jesus were Jews and „god-fearing‟ Jewish sympathizers. Calicastia- cum-Hermes, through the Romans, systematically exterminated this mainly Jewish fellowship of Jesus and, when none of the true fellowship of Jesus was left, Hermes, through his Dryad priestess Helen and his son Constantine, established his own Mystic religion out of the totally non-Jewish Pauline Christianity, under the cross and his staff of the Dragon initiation. This is a religion of the ritual crucifixion of Jesus. You only need to look inside old Byzantine churches to realize whose churches they really are. The artistic theme of their interior is dominated by Dragons and flying serpents. The spiritual authority of this religion is symbolised by the Hermic staff with the two dragons, carried by the higher clergy of the Greek Orthodox Church. (The kerykeion of god Hermes was topped by two wings like the wings on his sandals and helmet. Hermes the Egyptian mystic had nothing to do with god Hermes. The Egyptian saw to it that the two were deliberately confused). The image of Jesus is permanently nailed to the cross with the sign “Jesus-the-Nazarene-King of the Jews”, (a voodoo ritual of black witchcraft against Jesus and the Jews), and under it are placed the images of the saints, while Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 19 their bones are built in the structure of the altar, in the manner that nails and hair of the voodoo victims are incorporated in the voodoo dolls. The cross, Calicastia‟s mark and weapon of desolation, by which Jesus was executed, becomes the symbol of the new Byzantine Church, while both the cross and the crescent are combined together into the symbol of the Byzantine faith, the Anchor, complete with the Dragon himself in the form of a thick rope round the stem of the Anchor. (You can also see both these symbols on the domes of the Russian churches, the crescent at the base of the cross signifying that the Russian Church is of Byzantine Orthodox and not Roman Catholic origin. The same two symbols are unwittingly combined to form the new emblem and flag of Communist Russia. That is exactly what the Sickle-and-hammer-and-star stands for, although the Chiefs of the Russian proletariat who adopted it never consciously intended it. It is the work of the Authority at level two who, not being able to hold the Russians any longer in his right hand, apparently let go of them, when he was prepared to receive them in his left hand. Russia was and remains the stronghold of the Byzantine Church and by the end of the century she will resume this role openly again. Watch her future role in Christian-Islamic polarisation). Another point that demonstrates whose Church the Byzantine is is the fact that all names met in history, literature, mythology and religion, including the names of all gods and angels, are given in this Church except the two that Calicastia-the-Dragon hates: Those of Jesus and Zeus. (This is why I make a point of writing this book in the names of these two great personages, which I have adopted). The name of Jesus was substituted by „Christ‟, which is not anybody‟s name but could stand for any christened king. Alexander‟s lifespan of 33 years was adopted as the lifespan of this Hermic Christ; (Jesus was crucified at the age of 47 years and 8 months). The 25th of December, Saturnia, was adopted as the birthday of Christ and Easter for the Byzantine Church is the festival of ritual fire, and called „Lampra‟, which is another word meaning „Great Fire‟, with the tradition of lighting bonfires and fire-works during this greatest festival of Greek Orthodox Christendom. The presence of the spirit of Hella or Iapetos (the 666 Titan of Fire) is demonstrated by the creation of the „Holy flame‟ (Revelations 13) at the Greek Easter, only by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. The „Holy Sepulchre‟, a tomb, was established as the holiest shrine of all Christendom, which is supposed to be the religion of Jesus or the religion of Life and Resurrection. As the great Elytis says, “the body of May has been buried by the Magi in a pelagic tomb; they keep it locked up in an abyssal well ... “. The Jevian spirit is held bound to the cross in this Synagogue of the Dragon, just like the Golden Fleece, what remained of the Sacrificial Lamb. (As mentioned in our mythology, the Sacrificial Lamb carried the children of Nefeli on his back, but Helle was dropped when the Lamb was flying over what is known as the Hellespond. This myth is prophetic, not historic). Jason is none other than Jesus (888) and the Crushing Rocks or Symplegades are the entrance to Final Death, i.e. the Cross or Stavros (777). This Synagogue, though presented as the Church of Christ (which should mean Jesus), is in fact a House of organized black witchcraft against Jesus and his Saints. Since the establishment of the Hellenic Authority at level two, the Greek people have been prevented from understanding the real spirituality of the pantheon of Zeus. They turned true scientific religion into Idolatry. They persecuted the best of their children, like Pythagoras (leaving nothing of his writings), and any ray of spirituality was only preserved in mysteries imported back from Egypt. Similarly, they failed to understand the spirituality of the teachings of Jesus and they have been tricked into converting his Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 20 fellowship also into ritualistic Idolatry, performing voodoo witchcraft against him and his Saints, believing all the time that, in this way, they are offering him worship. They don‟t know what they are doing. And this Byzantine faith and practice makes up the greatest part of today‟s Hellenic ethnic identity, through which the Dragon or Saturn charts and steers our tragic destiny. We Greeks have always been his prime target and his first victims. So, „Hellenism‟ is not a race but an inculcated ethnic identity. Unlike a Nation based on a common race, which unites people in healthy patriotism, an Ethnos is based on „Ethos‟ (traditions), cultural heritage and beliefs, many of them false. To maintain the Ethnic bond, the inculcated ethnic identity has to be continuously pumped up, exaggerating glorious aspects of history and hiding the inglorious truth. This leads to chauvinism. This is particularly true for the Greeks, who hog glory even from their conquerors, like Alexander, (whom they have adopted as their ancestor!), and the Romans, (calling themselves „Romioe‟). It is even truer for the Turks, whose inculcated Ethnic identity has to compete with an environment dominated by relics of a non-Turkish cultural heritage, mostly Greco-Roman. *Gematric or numeric cryptograms: ΥΔΛΛΑ = Υ+Δ+Λ+Λ+Α = 600+5++30+30+1= 666 ΗΑΠΔΣΟ = Η+Α+Π+Δ+Σ+Ο+ = 10+1+80+5+300+70+200 = 666 τΑΤΡΟ = τ+Α+Τ+Ρ+Ο+ = 6+1+400+100+70+200 = 777 ΗΖΟΤ = Η+Ζ++Ο+Τ+ = 10+8+200+70+400+200 = 888 Α=1,Β=2,Γ=3,Γ=4,Δ=5,τ=6,Ε=7,Ζ=8,Θ=9 Η=10,Κ=20,Λ=30,Μ=40,Ν=50,Ξ=60,Ο=70,Π=80,Κόππα=90 Ρ=100,=200,Σ=300,Τ=400,Φ=500,Υ=600,Φ=700,Χ=800,ανπί=900 Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 21 Turanism and the Turks This is a much shorter section because the story is the same for the most part. The racial mixture is very much the same in West and South Turkey as it is in the Aegean, Greece and Cyprus. The central plateau has a substantial proportion of Hittites and the East and Northeast has a mixture of Urartu, Kurds, Scythians, Paphlagonians, Armenians etc. The Turks are latecomers from Central Asia. The Turks (descendants of the Asena – Grey Wolves or Iron Craftsmen –) started their move west in the 6th century (first Turkish embassy to Byzantine emperor Justin II in 567). Waves of Türkic conquerors alternated with waves of pastoral nomads and displaced people of various races and religions. Among the displaced there were also some carrying the Torah under their arm and calling themselves „the Children of Abraham‟. Some of the Türkic pastoral nomads turned north, reaching as far as Finland, some settled East of the Caspian Sea and others on its North and West, up to present Ukraine, forming the famous kingdom of Khazaria. Tracing their ancestry further back, the Türkic peoples believe themselves to be descendents of Noah‟s son Japheth through his son Gomer, brother of Javan, the Patriarch of the Ionians. This tradition may be close to the truth, deviating from it in that it is based on the biblical story that Adam was the first ever human on the planet and Noah‟s family the only survivors of the Great Flood and, hence, all subsequent peoples have to be accounted for as descendents of Noah. It would be however closer to the truth to consider the Türkic people or, more precisely, the ruling caste, as descendents of the Adamites, partly from migrations East before the Flood as well as after. The Göktürks, („Celestial Türks‟), out of whom came the kings of Khazaria, are described as having a fair complexion, blue-eyes and auburn hair. These are the features of the pure Adamites as appearing also in the pure Ionian-Phoenicians and the pure Semites. The Chaldean word „Adam‟ and the Ionian word „Phoenix‟ are synonyms and mean „auburn-red‟. So, the Ionian-Phoenicians and the Göktürks are Adamite brothers. Keep in mind however that Peoples and Nations are named after their Rulers and that the overwhelming majority of people bearing the Ethnic name are of a very broad, much older and more primitive indigenous racial mixture. Having given the origins of the Türkic peoples, we will hence confine ourselves to the inhabitants of Turkey, a somewhat different ethic mixture and called „Turkish‟ instead of Türkic for distinction: The Turks of primary importance for our story are the Osmanli or Ottoman Turks of Bursa, who followed the Seljuk Turks of Konya (1071). These are the Turks that established the independent Ottoman state in 1299, completed the conquest of Asia Minor by the 14th century and finally the whole Byzantine Empire in the 15th century; (Constantinople was taken in 1453). By the time the conquest of the Byzantine Empire began, the Turks had adopted the Islamic religion, (Khazaria adopted the Jewish faith, brought by the Israelites dispersed earlier into Central Asia by the Assyrians) and, as these were times of Islamic fervour, the Turkish conquest was accompanied by conversion to Islam and an adoption of the Turkish language and the Turkish way of administration. Like the Northern Hellenes in Greece, the Turks in Asia Minor conquered, established their rule over previous peoples of the land and began writing their History for them and inculcating a new ethnic identity in them though, unlike the Hyperborean Hellenes, they did not practice slavery, as this was not allowed by Islam or their older nomadic traditions. This conversion was rather loose, (and in some areas this is evident even today), because of the „millet‟ system of government exercised by the Ottomans, Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 22 which allowed extensive autonomy of the older ethnic or religious groups and, later, granted privileges to the Christians, including a separate Constitution for the Armenians. Though the Turkish invaders from Central Asia carried among their various totems and banners one like the horns of a bull on a pole, (resembling a crescent), with streamers hanging from it, it was after the conquest of Constantinople that the Turks adopted the Crescent-and-Star as their flag. So, in effect the older Byzantine, or rather still older Lunar Deities of Asia Minor, still persist as the Authority at level 2 in Asia Minor, divorced from the Authority of the Cross. The Turks do not use the word „Hellenes‟ for the Greeks. The Greeks, who are variably called Hellenes, Greki or Greeks by the Eurochristian world, are still called Ionians or Yunans by the Turks and all the people of the Middle East and North Africa. In addition to the racial mixture in Asia Minor, Ionians, Hittites etc, originally converted by the conquering Turks, many more Greeks and other people of the Balkans were later brought under the same umbrella because of two things. The Turkish rulers collected the most beautiful girls from all over the Ottoman Empire for their harems and also to be sold as wives to the rich Turks. Further, the Turks collected the choicest male children at the age of two or three, from Greece and the other Balkans as well as Armenia and transformed them into the most faithful Turks and the best and most trusted soldiers of the Sultan‟s guard. These are what are known as the „Yeni Tsiari‟ (new soldiers). These later had families and their descendants continue to enrich the Turkish population. I frequently put this question to many Greeks: “What were the Yeni Tsiari, Greeks or Turks?” Many answer “Greeks”. If it is so, then the choicest of Greeks are now called Turks. Like the Hellenic Identity, the Turanic Identity in the very great majority of the people carrying it, is not born with but inculcated. So, the Yeni Tsiari and their descendants may have Greek or Yugoslav ancestry but they are certainly Turks, just like the Ionians, the Bythenians, the Mysians, the Carians, the Lycians, the Cilicians, the Phrygians and the other peoples of Asia Minor converted before them. Genetic studies by the North London University on the races of the Eastern Mediterranean showed the following: With the mid-Aegean islands taken as the reference for the Greek bloodline (and estimated at 97% pure Greek), the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey are 93% Greek, Cyprus 93% Greek and mainland Greece only 73% Greek. The rest of mainland Greeks are of either aggressive Hyperborean origin or of the rest of the Balkan stock, Slavonic etc. In my travels in Turkey, from the Iraqi boarder along the South, along the Mediterranean coast, up the Aegean coast to Marmara and Istanbul and as far inland as Pamukkale, I hardly met any people with what are generally considered as „Turkoman‟ or Mongolian features; only one here and one there. There are a few Turkomans in Turkey, further inland, but the rest of the Turks do not consider themselves as Turkomans. My visit to Turkey was in 1983. I made a point of telling everybody I met that I was a Greek Cypriot, in order to see his reaction. They were all very friendly and very hospitable. When I walked across the road to a shop in Pergama, the shopkeeper exclaimed as I entered, before I could say a word: - “You are a Greek Cypriot. Hosh geldin! (Welcome!)” When I asked him how he guessed, I was surprised to find out Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 23 how well versed he was in history and folklore. He told me of the people of the North, of Pontus and the Lazi, who, he said, are the descendants of the Cypriots taken there by Emperor Justinian during the long droughts in Cyprus. Those that became fairly rich preferred to stay behind when the rest returned. The Lazi are their descendents. Then he pointed to a young man coming from the restaurant across the road and said: - “There is a pure Kalamaras (mainland Greek)”. He called the man in and remarked: - “Hey, aren‟t you a Kalamaras?” The man, tall, of classical built, with curly hair and blue eyes, smiled with embarrassment and asked not be teased. Then the shopkeeper pointed to a short compact man walking down the road and he said. “That is a pure Cretan”. Then he added: - “As for me, from my mother‟s side I am 50% Yugoslav and from my father‟s side 25% Cretan and 25% Turk ... or something. Take a look around Pergama. You will see no Turks here”. And so I discovered. I visited the Asclepieion with its neat and well-preserved small amphitheatre. The old spring of the therapeuterion still flows from the same old spout, on the same old marble, now with a big hollow in the middle, dissolved away by running water for more than 2000 years. On the acropolis, as you enter to ascend to the altar of Zeus and the temple of Athena, you read the story of the place and of king Attalus. Turkish? Hellenic? What indeed! The Turks of Kush-Adasi are so glad to receive the Greek visitors and they are more at home with them (like brothers) than with any other nationality. The people of Seljuk and those of Aydin were so nice to me. And yet, amidst my emotions, I could not avoid the thought that these nice people would be swift to cut my throat, when the Turanic ethnic Identity was turned on and their nice and hospitable nature was pushed to the side. There were many who criticized this state of affairs and said “enough”. Yet, in the schools, (it was end of October, before the day of the Turkish republic), I also saw the kids going through the process. “Ne mutlu Türküm diyene” (how happy to be called Turk), and other Ethnic slogans with huge letters right across the school buildings; and the kids, wearing plastic helmets and carrying plastic weapons, drumming and marching behind the Red-and-crescent. On my return from such a visit to a school in Alanya to my hotel, I sat and watched TV, always tuned to CyBC. Before the news, “Bellapais ... I don‟t forget”; then a program by Olympic airlines about holidays in Greece, followed by a patriotic Greek film, partly documentary, about the rejection of Mussolini‟s ultimatum by Greece and the march and fighting in Albania; a program full of the Greek national anthem and other thuria. And this, in a hotel above a promenade bathing in Red-and-Crescent, and having as its guests one Greek Cypriot and a few Germans. I felt funny and a bit uneasy. I asked the man at the reception that he need not keep the TV tuned to CyBC just for me and added that all this show was just... „tamba tumba‟ for me. He said it was not for me. They preferred the programs of the CyBC and added ... “Anyway, our „tamba tumba‟ is worse than yours”, and we smiled it off. These Ionians on the Turkish coast of the Aegean and the Mediterranean are less diluted than the Ionians in mainland Greece. Yet they suffer from a very serious disadvantage: They don‟t share the language of their great ancestors, their greatest heritage and, though purer, they cannot communicate with the great Jevian spirit. In 1987, Turkey applied to UNESCO asking their help to procure the return of the treasures of Croesus from the New York museum because, as she claimed, these are Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 24 part of the Turkish Cultural Heritage. On the surface, this sounds quite ridiculous to anyone‟s ears, especially to Greek ears; it sounded so to me. Croesus was a Phrygian; he spoke Phrygian and Greek and had never even heard the word „Turk‟. Yet, deeper thought reveals the underlying truth. Where are the descendants of Croesus? (And of Ion and of Attalus and ... and…). They are there and call themselves „Turks‟. And, when they remember their true ancestors and wish to be true heirs, they are entitled to their heritage. But the cultural heritage is not a number of gold and silver cups, or the ruins. The most important cultural heritage is the spirit of their God, and this spirit is carried in their history and traditions, (they have some of these; Turkish wedding traditions and folk dancing are the same as those of Cyprus and the Aegean islands), religion and above all, their language. This language is their most important cultural heritage and they don‟t need the help of UNESCO to claim it. This language is NOT Hellenic. It is the language of Gomer, the Patriarch of the GökTürks, and his brother Yavan, the Patriarch of the Ionians (Yunans) and its origin is Asia Minor, around Erzurum. The way home was pointed out by Kemal Attatürk, who did much more than most realize. Not only he established the new Turkish nation; in the process, he cleared the sacred land of Asia from the Byzantine Synagogue. This is the same land in which the spirit of Jesus prevented Paul and Luke from preaching (Acts 16), and is also the same land in which are found the seven Churches to which the spirit of Jesus sent his messages in the Apocalypse. He abolished the black robe for Turkish women, (the black of Female Hades worn by women, as the black robe of Male Death is worn by his priests), and declared Islam not compulsory and not the official religion of the Turkish state. He further introduced the writing of the Adamites, as a first step to further change. Unfortunately he died too early and, as it is the case with the work of all great men, the work he started was not continued by his successors, as they feared that carrying the process of change further, they might interfere with the work of the great man and commit sacrilege. Attatürk had a mixed ancestry: GökTürkic, Ionian and Jewish. He was a man of very modern liberal views. After ousting the Sultan and putting an end to the Ottoman rule, his dream was to ally with the Greeks for the formation of a new order of things in the area, starting with an Aegean alliance. If the Greeks offered a friendly hand to Attatürk instead of launching a military campaign and an expansion war into Turkey, this dream might materialize. With Greece and Turkey as allies, British rule in Cyprus would have ended then and Cyprus would be part of this alliance and not in its present predicament. Attatürk gave the Turks a new Ethnic Identity. However, they find it difficult to define this new Turkish Identity. The only defining elements they have are Attatürk‟s writings and their Byzantine flag; hence their obvious efforts to exhibit these in a very profound way everywhere possible. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 25 Cyprus and the Cypriots The history and culture of Cyprus is closely linked with that of the Greek world, both before and after the Trojan War. The great link is language and religion. The Cypriot dialect, though today not rich enough in vocabulary to satisfy the needs of conceptual and abstract thinking, preserves the original pronunciation and word forms like no other dialect in the Greek world. This is where one should start, if one wishes to study the scientific thought and scientific knowledge that went into the formulation of the Greek language. Because of her position, Cyprus was conquered by many conquerors and was part of all the Empires that rose and fell in this area of the World: The Assyrians, the Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Persians, the Ptolemies, the Romans and Byzantines, the Crusaders, the Lousinians, Genoese and Venetians, the Ottomans in 1571 and finally the British in 1878. Everybody who had a horse rode this way. And yet, it is said in one of the poems written for Cyprus that “She changed many Masters but she did not change her Heart”. To understand the Cypriot Heart and Character and, most importantly, to understand which Authority at level two charts her fate, we shall recourse through some important aspects of her religion and tradition and some affiliated historical details that make Cyprus quite unique. Cyprus is the Island of Venus, the Goddess of Sexual Love, (which is not quite what is meant when it is said that “God is Love”; Agape-Love and Eros-Love are two directly opposite principles; the first is non-associative, outgoing and indiscriminate whilst the second is associative, possessive and very discriminate, even when it has nothing to do with sex). Tradition says that Venus was born in Paphos. Cyprus is also the Island of Panayia, the Virgin Lady. This is a Female Deity that comprises elements of all other Female Deities. She is addressed as the „Holiest‟ or „Saintliest‟ (Panayia), „Wider than Heaven‟, „Mother of God‟, yet an „Immaculate Virgin‟. Though she was formed round the name of the mother of Jesus, her composite personality comprises attributes from most Female Deities, Rea Cybelle, Era, Gaia etc. Her Virgin attribute, like the doctrine of the „Immaculate Conception‟, may have its origin in Saint Helen. Helen was Constantius‟ concubine and, when Emperor Diocletian had Constantius send her away without her son, (later Emperor Constantine), she reverted to a life of extreme chastity. Yet, the Virgin, like Venus and the other Female Deities, is venerated on Fridays (Venerdi). On Lent Fridays, all Masses and hymn singing are dedicated to her. In these „hailings‟, she is hailed as the „Unbrided Bride‟ (or Unwedded Bride), and the „Invincible general of the Empire‟. So, Cyprus, being at the same time the Island of Venus and the Island of the Great Virgin, bears in her heart the conflict between sex obsession and chastity. In addition to this, Panayia gives Cyprus her Mother culture. [She says she is „mother to all‟. My father was conceived by his mother (of her husband of course) after supplications to Panayia, 10 years after her menopause, at 53, on the day of the Enunciation (25th of March) after she dressed up for morning Mass, and my father was born on Christmas day, circumcised by birth]. During the conflict in Constantinople between the Icon-worshippers and the Icon abolitionists, many Icon-worshippers were exiled to Cyprus, where they established their stronghold. With them emigrated Panayia and established herself mainly towards the Paphos side of the Troodos Mountains, the most famous Serpentine or Ophiolithic Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 26 formation in the world. Ever since, all the Ethnarchs (Archbishops) of Cyprus have come from her monasteries in Troodos and most of them are Paphians. We should explain this term „Ethnarch‟ because this is a detail that makes Cyprus very very unique. „Ethnarch‟ means „Ethnic Head‟, with both secular and religious authority. This came about as follows: - In 488, the Byzantine Emperor granted the Archbishop of Cyprus the privilege to be his own imperial head, (Autocephalous). Ever since, the Cypriot archbishops have, to this day, Roman Imperial Authority. They wear a Roman Emperor‟s red tunic, they sign in red ink and, instead of the Hermic hieratic staff with the two dragonheads, they carry a Byzantine Emperor‟s sceptre, topped by the Orb, (just like the Orb of the Holy Roman Emperors and the Kings of England). So, Cyprus is the one and only place in the World where there has been an uninterrupted line of Roman Emperors to this day. Cyprus is the last hold of the Roman Empire, with the double-headed eagle of East-and-West Roman Empire still figuring as her emblem, which you can see at every Cypriot National Guard post, and wonder what it stands for. With Makarios, Roman Imperial Authority in Cyprus came to a head. After him, secular authority was transferred to one of his ministers, Mr. Kyprianou, and now to Mr. Vassiliou, basically a Marketing technocrat. In addition to being a Marketing technocrat, Mr. Vassiliou was also christened with Byzantine authority. You see, as soon as Mr. Vassiliou was elected president, on his visit to Athens, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Saviour, the highest award of the Greek Church and Greece. A couple of weeks later, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, (the man representative of the Fire-666 Titan), came to Cyprus and awarded him the Grand Cross of the Holy Sepulchre, the highest award in Byzantine Christendom; and these, over and above his christening by the Cypriot Archbishop. Now, it should be plain to everybody that an award or an epathlon is awarded at the end of a race or a distinguished career and not at the beginning. What is bestowed at the beginning is a chrism. So, even if he did not ask for it, Vassiliou was landed with the baton and the chrism of Byzantine Authority. The Turkish Cypriots descend partly from emigration form Turkey after 1571 and the same process mentioned for Asia Minor. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 27 CHAPTER III HISTORICAL RUNDOWN Prelude The end of the Second World War saw the emergence of two new super powers, America and Russia. The old Colonial powers became second-magnitude powers and a new and quite different era of world control began to dawn. The new spirit was one of liberty and the chance to become rich, like the Americans, whose involvement was so decisive in the outcome of the war but, though American money was pouring everywhere both East and West, the Communist System in the East was too young and too strong to let go and tightened its grip by suppressing dictatorially the uneasiness and greed of free enterprise. With America the new leader in the West, it began to be obvious that the old Colonial powers could not hold on to their colonies for very much longer. This was the beginning of the end of the old Administrative Colonialism and the dawning of a new and much worse kind, the Economic or Commercial Colonialism that Europe and the rest of the Industrial Nations are today exercising on the rest of the World. It works by virtue of the gross disparity of wages in the production of internationally exchanged goods. The industrial countries, which are mostly the old Colonial powers, dictate and control this disparity in their favour. Thus, for the goods that are exported by the industrial countries, the wages are of the order of £250 a week. The rest of the countries which import these industrial goods have to balance their books by exporting raw materials and agricultural produce, working with wages of the order of £30 to £50 a week; in some ex-colonies, like Zimbabwe, as low as $3 a week. It does not matter what wages are paid in other sectors of their economy. However hard they try, they are always in deficit. They try to increase their productivity by importing more and more industrial goods, with the result that their deficit increases even further, and they are drawn into a vicious circle out of which there is no escape. And, unlike the old Administrative Colonialism which they resented and fought, keeping at least their pride, with this new Colonialism they ask for more and more because of basic needs or induced greed, becoming eventually volunteer slaves to Commercialism and Marketing and the Industrial and Commercial elite. The only other way left for evening out things is for the non-industrialists to become tourism employees (servants) to the industrial and commercial elite. This new Colonialism knows no boundaries and is even exercised between different working classes of the same country. As an example of this „Internal Economic Colonialism‟, let us take a look at some wages in America, (summer 1985): Farm worker - $3.75 an hour, box-office girl - $8 an hour, the mechanical worker who changes your engine oil - $25 an hour, the A/C technician - $35 an hour, the trouble- shooting plumber - $75 an hour and for the Marketeers and Real Estate people, (the latter absolutely non-productive), the sky is the limit. The old Colonial Powers were a bit slow to catch on to this new idea and tried to hold on to their colonial possessions as long as possible, especially those of strategic importance. Cyprus was such a colony of great strategic importance for the British and, in spite of the repeated promises, Britain was in no way ready to let go of her, though other colonies were granted independence, without having to fight for it. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 28 After repeated efforts by Greece and the Greek Cypriots through their Ethnarchy, directly or through the UN, Britain refused to yield to the long-standing demand of the Cypriots for Union with Greece, (ENOSIS), for which Britain had made repeated promises in the past. So, on the first of April 1955 started an armed struggle headed by Makarios as the overall leader and with Colonel Grivas called in to undertake command of the guerrilla warfare. Though EOKA, (the organization of Greek Cypriot Fighters), included in her ranks some of the very best men of Cyprus, visionaries embracing in their aspirations the freedom and welfare of all Cypriots, (as one can see from Kyriakos Matsis‟ writings), as the aim was the Union with Greece and not Independence, they considered that the fighting was the responsibility of the Ethnic party (right wing) of the Greek Cypriots and they excluded the Turks and the Communists from the endeavour. Makarios with the other bishops and members of the Ethnarchy were soon exiled to the Seychelles. After more than two years of unsuccessful attempts by Britain to quell the uprising, the British resorted to their old tactics of „divide-and-rule‟, for which they are so famous. (Actually, to be fair, the British make use of existing divisions, which they accentuate and steer for their purpose. This is not something remarkably intelligent. Everybody knows the method and everybody can use it but not everybody does. Some people give priority to morality or their own conscience than to practical expedience). So, in 1957, TMT, the Turkish equivalent of EOKA was formed with the demand for TAXIM (partition), as a counterpoise to the Greek demand for ENOSIS. And, with Makarios conveniently isolated in the Seychelles, the British could work on him as they saw fit, magnifying in his mind the catastrophic outcome if the pursue for ENOSIS was continued. They suggested instead a kind of Independence, „as a first step‟. In spite of his cunning, Makarios fell for it. He gave the order for the termination of the struggle and Grivas who, as a career soldier was always obedient to political authority, obeyed and instructed his men to that effect and they followed his orders as they had sworn to do. When Makarios went to Zurich and London and saw the draft of the conditions of the proposed independence, and realized that this did not have the looks of „a first step‟, he bit his fingers. He changed his mind and refused to accept it. Later however, he realized that he was too far committed and, the way things had proceeded already, it was too late to turn back. So, we ended up with a kind of independence and the establishment of the Republic of Cyprus in August 1960, with the British securing sovereignty over two large military bases and two smaller ones on Cyprus soil; a situation much better for them than having Cyprus as a colony, with the responsibility and problems that went with it. (I believe that, if the British had thought of this convenient solution a few years earlier, there would not have been any armed struggle, no „divide and rule‟ and today‟s problems might be partly avoided or delayed; they would still come up however, as we entered the period of Religious and Ethnic polarization we see today in the Middle East). Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 29 The awkward Republic and Makarios‟ dilemma The Republic of Cyprus was landed with a very awkward Constitution that stressed the distinction between the two ethnic communities and included in its clauses the seeds of future dissension. When such a distinction has to be made between two communities sharing authority in one state, we end up with two heads in the same hat. Whatever one does, it is impossible to make it fair for both sides. If one provides for straight majority democracy, then the minority in effect has no chance in issues where the interests of the two communities do not coincide. This is not fair for the minority, and safeguards have to be provided for the minority. Then these safeguards turn into privileges for the minority, as they can control all important issues. The majority resents this. This is exactly what happened in Cyprus. The Turkish minority of 18% was granted 30% of all posts in the civil service, 40% in the State police, and 30% in both the executive and the legislative bodies of the State, (15 out of the 50 seats in parliament). That meant that 8 Turkish MPs could hold or overrule any major controversial issue. In addition, the President was to be Greek and the Vice President Turkish and the latter had the power of Veto in controversial issues. It is true to say that in the three years of the normal life of the Republic, these safeguards were not made use of, but it is also true to say that the Greeks were careful not to bring forward any issue that might cause such a situation. Britain, Greece and Turkey signed as Guarantors. Britain has her bases here and Greece and Turkey stationed a small contingent each as Guarantor Powers. Makarios had to face an additional problem apart from this awkward constitution. His vision and moral commitment to the Nation, (as well as his sacred oath since his years as a monk), was the Union with Greece and this „as a first step‟ solution did not leave him much room to manoeuvre. Further, there was a rift between him and the other bishops, who accused him of “selling the aspirations of the Greek Cypriots cheap” in exchange for the Presidency. And there were many others who accused him of similar things and that he broke his sacred oath. Makarios tried to figure a way out of this terrible dilemma and in this he was unlucky to have some bad advisors, who thought that the problem was quite simple. That, since we are a very big majority, we could proceed through „Self Determination‟ and after a few years declare ENOSIS. Ah, but the Constitution with its safeguards ruled out this possibility. So, the Constitution had to be revised first. But certainly the Turks wouldn‟t accept this proposition either. Yes but, (and this is where the very bad advice came), being the majority, and having easier access to arms, we could prepare to block by force any kind of Turkish reaction to the move. There were, and still are, some patriots who think that, as we are the majority, the formation of militia or, as they say, converting every house into a „fortress‟, is the sure way to victory. The same people are at it today. They don‟t have the rudimentary intelligence to realize that, after we turn every house into a fortress, the next step is to turn all these fortresses into ruins. (This is exactly what has happened in Lebanon but these people never learn). In addition to this, Makarios, being one of the pioneers of the non-aligned movement, valued this movement far above its real worth. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 30 So, Makarios, in the autumn of 1960, gave instructions for a Greek Cypriot militia to be formed, commanded mostly by ex-EOKA leaders. (The originator of this idea was one of Makarios‟ unofficial associates, Nicos Theodorou from Lapithos. I don‟t know the guy. I thought it was Lyssarides but Makarios corrected me.) The Turks got wind of this and tried to equip themselves accordingly for their defence. However, being much fewer and having less access to arms provisions, it was clear right from the start that they didn‟t stand a chance. Their supply points were a fairly good one at Kokkina, (that‟s the little bit under Turkish control standing on its own at the very west of the occupied area), and one not so good on the south coast of the Karpas peninsula. (The Turkish defence ministry even formed a special office, on Mr. Denktash‟s request, which tried to prepare the Turkish Cypriots for the coming events that were foreseen, even by staging some provocations, like the bombings of two mosques in 1962. However, in spite of these attempts, the Turkish Cypriots were mostly caught in their sleep by the Greek Cypriot militia in December 1963.) When Makarios was satisfied that things were ready, he approached the British with his intentions that seemed to fall in line with their promises to him in the Seychelles. The British shrugged their shoulders; (they knew very well what would happen). From there Makarios went to the Greek government, then headed by George Papandreou. Papandreou turned him down outright, as this would involve Greece in catastrophic adventures. By this time, America had taken an active interest in the case and, being the head of NATO and not wanting any upset of the east wing of the alliance, involving Greece and Turkey, was exerting pressure on both countries to play it cool and not to involve themselves or to encourage any situation in Cyprus that might damage or strain their relations. Makarios was adamant. The newspapers of the Fall of 1963 are witness to the arguments between the two men, Papandreou accusing Makarios that “we agree to one thing and you do another”. So, towards the end of 1963, Makarios made public his plans for one-sided revision of thirteen (13) points of the Constitution, in a way that would pave the road for Self Determination. This came much earlier than the Turkish Cypriots anticipated and they were not prepared. Their only reaction was their MPs‟ abstention from the assembly convened to vote on the budget. The Greek Cypriot militia, as instructed from above, moved swiftly on all points in the main towns and there was a real massacre of the Turkish Cypriots in the Northern suburbs of Nicosia by Sampson‟s militia, while they were watching television or taking a bath or something, catching them completely unprepared. Most of the Turkish missing persons date from that time. Greek Cypriots refer to those events as „the Turkish Cypriot armed insurrection‟. This is definitely far from the truth. The Turkish Cypriots would be more than stupid to attempt anything like that, being greatly outnumbered and ill equipped. Their „insurrection‟ was that their MPs protested for the proposed revision of the Constitution, by not attending the parliamentary assembly that was convened to vote on the budget, as stated above. I lived and followed those events very closely. It is indicative that the Turkish Cypriots did not make any attempts to advance on any front. Those few with guns, mainly hunting shotguns, made makeshift attempts to defend themselves or to delay the Greek Cypriot militia, in order to give families, women and children time to gather together in safer places, which became enclaves for 11 years. The Security Council moved quickly to put an end to this and Makarios was forced to give the order (Dec. 22nd 1963) to the leaders of the militia to stop. So they did, Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 31 obeying his command and falling short of the plan‟s objective, leaving the control of the road to Kyrenia beyond Bogaz to the Turkish Cypriots. This last detail shows that the militia leaders were under Makarios‟ command. With the formation of the Greek Cypriot National Guard in 1964, things became a bit safer for the Turkish Cypriots, as this was ruled by better disciplinary regulations. With Grivas brought in to command the National Guard, an operation was launched to dislodge the Turks from Kokkina and neutralize the arms supply point. The Turkish air force came and bombed the area and aborted the attempt. UN troops were stationed in Cyprus in 1964 and soon progress on the political front came to a halt. This was the time that Makarios launched his „long term struggle‟. Makarios and his associates believed that the Turkish Cypriots would capitulate in the long run, due to economic hardship. It was right after this that a number of Secret Service officials from Greece, among them Demetris Ioannides, were commissioned as confidants to Cyprus in order to help Makarios. Makarios met Ioannides several times and explained to him his firm commitment to ENOSIS and how the Turkish Cypriots were the obstacle to this. Ioannides said that if Makarios wanted the Turkish Cypriots out of the way, it was quite easy to do it, now that they were segregated in enclaves. “If you wish we can poison their water supply?” Makarios got the sarcasm. He chuckled lightly and said: “This is certainly not a serious option”. (Yet, some people today refuse to get it and support that Ioannides seriously suggested the poisoning of the Turkish Cypriots. It was not even feasible). Makarios suggested instead that, if a strong Greek military presence was established on the Island, the National Guard and militia could launch a lightning attack on the Turkish enclaves and declare ENOSIS, having this Greek force to back them up against any reaction from Turkey. When a very well armed Greek Division was subsequently established on the Island, it became clear to the Authority of the Phoenix, the Authority at level 3, that it had to intervene. If it did not, the Greek Cypriot National Guard would launch its attack on the Turkish enclaves and declare ENOSIS, backed by this Greek Division, hoping that Turkey would not be able to react. Makarios was turning it in his mind (not fully decided) for summer 1967. He believed that, though Turkey had a very strong Air force, she was not yet equipped for an invasion. But she was. Turkey would move in and a second „Asia Minor Disaster‟ would follow, with no Greek Cypriots left alive on the Island. So, the Phoenix laid down plans to avoid this eventuality. The Authority of the Phoenix started its plans with the coup in Greece, which brought the Junta to power in April 1967. At the beginning Makarios tried to establish good relations with the Junta, hoping that these good relations would keep his plans for the Greek Division in Cyprus on schedule. He soon realized that the Junta‟s plans clashed with his and, further, that he could not disregard the them like he did with Papandreou and get away with it. He feared that the Junta would use this Greek force to topple him. Actually the Junta did want him out of the way, not necessarily dead. Soon, the political front in Cyprus split in two and attempts were made against Makarios‟ life. At the end of summer 1967, Denktash, who was declared „undesired person‟ in Cyprus, landed secretly on the Southern beach of Karpas. He was arrested and taken for questioning. Makarios then had him brought to the Presidential palace, where he had a long private talk with him, and Denktash left for Turkey. On his departure, Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 32 reporters asked him about his talk with Makarios. He replied that he could say no more at the moment other than that he would be returning to Cyprus soon, „the legal way‟, as he put it. (CyBC News). Makarios had convinced him that all would be all right between the two communities and they could come to a good agreement, were his hands not tied up by the threat of the Junta hanging over his head. A couple of weeks later there was an incident at Kofinou, with the involvement of the National Guard, in which a few Turkish Cypriots were killed, (just out of the blue as it seems). There was an argument among the Greek Cypriots whether Grivas ordered the incident or Makarios overruled his objections. There is adequate proof that the latter is the case. The parley between Grivas and Makarios went as follows: Grivas: “As the head of the National Guard I strongly insist that this is unadvisable (αντενδείκνυται)”. Makarios: “But I am the President of the State and I command you to do it”. The Turkish fleet moved halfway across our Northern Sea and threatened to invade Cyprus. They demanded simply that the Greek Division should be withdrawn. Both the Junta and Makarios agreed. The force was withdrawn and in a short while Denktash was back in Cyprus, „the legal way‟. The removal of the Greek Division was the result of cooperation between Makarios and Denktash. This was part of the plans of the Phoenix. (Denktash still honours his gentleman‟s agreement with Makarios and keeps silent about it). Inter-communal talks started, with Glafkos Clerides and Rauf Denktash as the two negotiators. Encouraged by the success of his cooperation with Makarios for the withdrawal of the Greek force, Denktash was willing to make do with very little and meet Makarios more than half way. In July 1968, Clerides came to Makarios with the news that Denktash had agreed with very little, much less than the Zurich agreement. (This was the situation until 1973). Denktash however insisted that, in exchange for his concessions, Makarios should guarantee the continuation of the independent statehood of Cyprus. That is, Makarios should sign the abandonment of Union with Greece. Makarios, sensing that his manoeuvres were working and that Denktash‟s compromise was an indication of further capitulation, replied, (according to Dhekleris, the Greek constitutional advisor at the talks) that the only concession he was willing to make to the Turkish Cypriots, was to include in the new constitution an article safeguarding their civil rights. Makarios‟ words to Clerides were: “Glafko, you see these two hands? I would rather cut them off than sign again a document banning Enosis”. (See interview of President Clerides by Demetris Andreou for the CyBC). Makarios‟ obstinacy left the Phoenix with no other choice but to separate the two communities by a strong disciplined force. So, plans were laid down for the temporary division of the Island. Denktash, who until then was willing to trust Makarios in a very modest deal, realized that there could be no more cooperation with Makarios. He answered to Makarios‟ “willingness to cooperate even with the Devil to accomplish the Greek Cypriot dream”, that this was all „Byzantine Intrigues‟. [The above quotation about “cooperation with the Devil” is from Makarios‟ speech from the archbishopric balcony, shortly after his long talk with Denktash at the presidential palace on their cooperation for the withdrawal of the Greek Division from the Island. The statement was first made by Makarios as a response to an exclamation- question by one of his closest associates, regarding this cooperation with Denktash.] Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 33 The Coup and the Invasion The „long term struggle‟ was beginning to show its results; but not in the way Makarios had expected. The more impatient of the patriots turned against him and, with help from Greece, they formed „EOKA B‟ and started bombing public installations and police stations. They also made several attempts against Makarios‟ life. Makarios, being firmly for ENOSIS himself, could not believe the notion that their objective was ENOSIS but “only his personal demise”; he said so repeatedly. At least he was right that ENOSIS was not the Junta‟s objective. The Junta saw Makarios‟ obstinacy for ENOSIS as the problem; and had made it clear to him. In one of these attempts, „EOKA B‟ men fired with machine guns at point blank against Makarios in his helicopter from a roof opposite its landing pad at the archbishopric, as it was taking off. A shower of bullets got the pilot but none touched Makarios. The pilot lost consciousness and the helicopter started gyrating out of control. Then the pilot regained consciousness for a few seconds to discover that the „runaway helicopter‟ was just over a plot cleared for new construction. He landed the helicopter and lost consciousness again. Makarios, cool as a cucumber, walked out of the helicopter, called a passer-by in a car and took the pilot to the hospital in a very critical condition. He spent six whole months in the hospital. This was a sign that the Lady (Panayia) was still protecting him and guiding him in his aspirations. He always considered himself as her favourite, and his whole life was tied up with her and her number (number 13). He was born on the 13th of August 1913. He entered Kykko monastery at the age of 13, (he and my father, also from Paphos, of a family of priests and Abbots, were novices together). All the important events and landmarks in his life were associated with number 13. That is why the committee in Athens that decided the EOKA armed struggle in Cyprus consisted of 13 members, including Makarios at its head and, when he decided to revise part of the Constitution, he finally chose to revise 13 articles. Ever since his failed attempt for a 13-point revision of the Constitution, intended to open the way for Union with Greece, Makarios was determined to find a way to somehow subdue or oust the Turkish Cypriots. This is why he persuaded Papandreou to gradually establish the Greek division on the island. If the Greek Cypriots attacked the Turkish Cypriot enclaves, with the Greek Division inevitably joining in, as originally planned, Turkey would not need any other excuse to come and do the same here as in Ionia in 1922*. This is why the Phoenix intervened in order to avert this fate for all the Cypriots. With the Greek Division gone, the plan was now to separate the two communities in Cyprus by a strong Turkish force, until the Phoenix is ready for the final solution. Only having Turkey in control, (the very much stronger of the two nations involved), would constitute a stable situation. If the Greeks even thought they had the advantage, at least locally, they might attempt something similar here as in Turkey in 1919. The Greeks are well known in all quarters at level 2, even at level 3, for their glorious follies throughout their 3500-year long history. [*Though the retreating Greek army burnt Manissa, Alashehir and other towns, Kemal Attatürk circulated leaflets in Smyrna that civilians should not be harmed. For this reason, Greek civilians resisted the instigations of the Greek military to burn the city. There is ample evidence in the US National Archives and the Bristol Papers that the torching of Smyrna was mainly the work of the Armenians. (Some Greeks were also involved). Neither the Turkish civilians nor the Turkish army would burn the jewel of their liberated land, with rich stores of badly needed supplies]. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 34 The coup was originally planned for February 1972. This was averted by the direct intervention of President Nixon. The Americans found out about it during a high society party hosted by Mr. Galatariotis, in which both the American and the British Ambassadors were present, as well as Mr. Clerides. The latter heard about it from the British Ambassador and informed the American Ambassador and also pleaded with him to do something to avert it. (Interview of Mr. Clerides, CyBC archives). With Papadopoullos compromised through Dhespinaki, the lady planted in his bosom by level 2, the Phoenix removed him from that key position and replaced him with Demetris Ioannides, who was more securely shielded, and planned the coup all over again for 1974. The Phoenix also kept Nixon busy with Watergate. If the Americans succeeded in averting this coup also, Cyprus would end up with a situation much worse than the Lebanese. (The Lebanese conflict next door should act as a monitor or comparison scenario that shows to the Greek Cypriots what misfortune would surely befall them if the communities were not separated in time by a strong disciplined force. The temporary division of the Island is the much lesser evil by far. However, as I pointed out earlier, people who cannot see with their minds know the tragedy that has hit them and not the one that would definitely hit them.) The British told the Americans a few days before the coup. (The Americans were in the middle of „Watergate‟ then). Kissinger rushed to Washington from his holidays in California and urgently sent Taska to Ioannides with express orders not to go ahead with the coup, (CyBC News), because he knew, from the American interventions in previous Turkish attempts, that this time, with such a drastic move by Greece, Turkey could not be stopped. Ioannides did not even agree to see Taska or any American that had held Greece back from any action in the past. Taska stayed outside Ioannides‟ office while only his two attachés from the American Embassy were allowed to see Ioannides. (CyBC News). (This was the work of the Phoenix). (Taska got the „stick‟ for his failure to see Ioannides: “When an American envoy is sent to see an ally government, he sees her, even if he has to break down the door”; these were Kissinger‟s words to Taska). (CyBC News). Kissinger may have wished Makarios out of the way but he was not so stupid as to try this through a coup by Greece. Is he a wizard in foreign politics and an idiot at the same time? So, the coup in Cyprus took place on the 15th of July 1974. Makarios was its primary objective. Yet, when the presidential palace was surrounded and the rebels gave it all the firepower they had to finish him off, Makarios miraculously found an uncovered gap on the dry riverside of the palace and escaped to Kykko, with the forces that were trying to cut him off closing the road just behind him at every point of the route. (This improbable escape was so unbelievable to be by luck or chance or providence that many insist, “it was part of the plan of the coup”). The second objective of the coup was to put somebody in the presidential seat, anybody that would follow instructions from Greece, so that the solution planned would be achieved in a „family circle‟. With nobody else willing to take the job, the Junta offered it to Sampson as a final choice. [This was Sampson‟s worst week of his life. In spite of appearances, he had no authority whatsoever. He was settled in an almost empty shabby office and was pushed about from all sides, a treatment for which he protested at the top of his voice on several occasions. (He later accepted Makarios‟ fatherly request to stand quiet in a mock trial and face a small sentence, to pacify the public feeling, as „a last patriotic service‟ to his country.)] Though the Phoenix plan was the division of the Island, Ioannides believed that, with Makarios out of the way, he could make the concessions refused by Makarios and bring a solution to the problem. He was not prepared to confront Turkey in any way. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 35 With Makarios still alive and outside Cyprus, the Junta could not use the puppet president. Makarios surveyed the international support for him while in London and, being assured of it, he planned his counter attack against the Junta. When he took the rostrum, in his fury against the Junta, he made some terrible blunders. He said that all was violated in Cyprus, dead lay in the streets, public buildings were shelled by Junta‟s tanks and that even the Turkish Cypriots were in danger. (CyBC News). This sounded like an open invitation for Turkey to take action. (Of course, Turkey had both the fleet and plans for a possible invasion ready years earlier). In fact, the people who were in immediate danger were the staunch supporters of Makarios and a few hard line communists. Some of those listed as „missing persons‟ were killed and buried by the rebels. I know of some who, in fear for their lives, prayed for Turkey to invade. No killings of Turks took place during the coup. Such killings took place during the invasion by vengeful civilian Greeks, a very bad incident being the massacre in the village of Tochni and an even worse by Greeks of Piyi, who massacred all the Turks of Maratha, Aloa and Sandalaris. Turkey decided for the invasion and nobody could stop her. After failing to stop the coup, Kissinger sent Joseph Sisco as an envoy to the Turkish government. He was accepted at the foreign ministry but was only allowed a few minutes, during which he pleaded in vain for cool minds to prevail. (CyBC News and interview of Greek Ambassador in Ankara by Costas Serezis, CyBC archives). No chance. Turkey had been stopped once too often and this was the one chance she could not pass by. It was a golden opportunity. While the invasion force was getting ready, Edgevit visited Wilson, the Head of the third guarantor government, to investigate the possibility of joint action and to figure out the British reaction, should Turkey decide to go it alone. Britain would not take part in a joint action but the reaction of the British government to the second contingency did not give him any cause for apprehension. He made sure that Russia would not take advantage of the situation and that his rear was safe from that end, and proceeded with the invasion. The first part of the Turkish forces landed at 5.30 a.m. of the 20th July 1974 at the „Five Mile‟ point beach, west of Kyrenia, while parachutists were dropped in the Turkish enclave north of Nicosia, to protect the enclave from a possible counter offensive. The first officers to land asked my friend Yiannis, proprietor of the „Golden Rock‟ bar restaurant there, to make them some coffees and then take his family and move out. My friend Yiannis did just that, thanking his good luck. (Porphyris and Pagona of the restaurant higher up on the beach were not as lucky). With its primary objective failed and not being prepared for a possible Greco- Turkish war, the Greek Junta collapsed and Greece was left virtually without a government because Mavros, who was appointed spokesman for the interim government, didn‟t know much and couldn‟t do much. After the three days of the first phase, the three Guarantors and Cyprus convened in Geneva but one talked Chinese and the other Red Indian. Relying on the support of the Third World and the hence stereotype statement of Russia, “We recognise only one legal government on Cyprus and support a United ... da... da... Cyprus”, and being in the illusion that this International moral support was all we needed, we kept telling Turkey that we would not be dictated conditions at gunpoint and Turkey kept coming with more conditions, until she was ready to move. Turkey moved for the Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 36 second phase on the 14th of August east and on the 15th west and by the afternoon of the 16th it was all over. The Greek Cypriot National Guard, with its meagre means, and the small Greek contingent were no match for the 40000 well-equipped Turkish troops, supported by 300 of the most modern NATO tanks and the Turkish Air force. In addition, the boys fighting on the northernmost front were left without support, ignorant of the actual plans of the High Command in Athens and Nicosia. The Greek High Command did not have any new plans after the Junta‟s collapse. The orders were still not to engage the Turkish Army. This would not help the situation; it would make it worse. It could even start a Greco-Turkish war. The Turkish objective was not to kill as many as possible. In many cases they waited for the Greek Cypriots to abandon their homes before they moved into the empty villages. Though there were some very decent Turkish officers, (even a couple of Greek Orthodox officers with a crucifix hung around their neck), who helped many Greek Cypriots to safety, other Turkish officers turned their backs when their soldiers raped right and left, including some tourists, even after the women had been rounded up as prisoners. (There were some very isolated cases of raping on the other side also, like that of young Turkish girls abducted from Tsiaos (or Tsiatos) by „EOKA B‟ bandits and taken to Tricomo, between the first and second phases of the invasion). At first, the behaviour of the Turkish soldiers towards their prisoners was generally decent. Some became viciously brutal when they heard about some Greek atrocities, like the massacre of women and children in Aloa and Sandalaris. The original plans of the invasion did not include the Greek sectors of either Nicosia or Famagusta or Morphou. The Turks went further than planned, where they found the going softer. There was no chalk mark on the ground. Famagusta, without any responsible command, was abandoned by its inhabitants when the Turkish troops came too close for comfort, thinking that this was only temporary, planning to return when it would be safe to do so. They left almost everything as it was, even clothes on the line to dry. The few members of the „EOKA B‟ militia that delayed behind started looting the jewellery shops, “not to leave everything to the Turks”! This was confessed (boasted) to me by one of these looters. So, Varoshia, (the Greek sector of Famagusta), was taken because she was found abandoned, on August 17, after the fighting stopped and after the last cease fire line was agreed at the UN. For this reason, the UN requested that Varoshia should be returned to its owners. The Turks, not having yet realized what they had in their hands and, as Varoshia was not included in their „Attila‟ invasion plans, agreed. Later however, they realized that they could use Varoshia to bargain for other advantages in the final solution of the Cyprus problem. Before an administration was set up, the residential area was stripped, even of doors and windows. By now, the roads are all overgrown, and it is all lying bare like an eerie „Ghost town‟. There were about 3500 Greeks dead in the invasion, (official figures), 1619 missing and 180000 refugees. (Turkish casualties were much more numerous). Later, the Turkish army demanded that the Turkish Cypriots living in the south should be allowed to move north with their lighter belongings, assisted by the UN, or else. And the British? What did they do? Apart from helping evacuate some English people and other foreign tourists, they stood and watched, to the dismay and protest of even some English people, who also lost property in Varoshia. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 37 Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 38 Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 39 Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 40 As for the missing persons listed, (the Turks also have a long list of their own, including many from the 1963 events), none should be considered alive. Some of those listed were killed in the invasion and not accounted for, around 70 were killed by „EOKA B‟ militia during the coup and a few hundred were accounted for but listed as „unaccounted‟. Hundreds were executed later in „clearing operations‟ and some were left unattended to die, after they had been treated for a time in hospitals in the North for serious wounds, when the Turks heard of some atrocities that the Greek Cypriots committed, even during the Turkish Cypriots‟ move to the North. One in particular hurt them most: A Greek Cypriot undertook (on payment) to carry a Turkish lady and her daughters with his car from Limassol to the North. He thought it more patriotic to kill them instead on the way. (CyBC News). The Turks executed many of those rounded up in the „clearing operations‟ (before they were officially recorded as prisoners) and removed the transfusion lines from the wounded and shoved them off their beds, (or killed them), when they heard this. Inhuman? I am afraid it is all too human. (Among these was little Christakis, whom Mr. Denktash, ignorant of the above case, undertook to locate and return to Mr. Clerides. Only then he was told that the boy was dead, but not how.) As the Turkish army swept across the plain to Famagusta, the Karpas, (the Northeast panhandle of the Island), was cut off and its inhabitants remained enclaved; almost 10000 people. Later however, and until 1977, they were systematically ousted, as Turkey brought in many settlers from the mainland to occupy the area and other villages in the North. Today, there are only about 700 Greeks left in three villages in the Karpas and very few elsewhere in the North. Materially they are provided for by us, and the UN visits them to see to their safety. Their everyday life however is rather miserable, as they are surrounded, even in the same villages, by the settlers, who are constantly looking for an opportunity to cause them trouble. The kind of Turks that came across are not those who had a nice organized life and a good home in Turkey; such would not leave their home and business to settle in conquered land. So, you can understand what kind did come. They are now on the increase again, their number exceeding 60000, according to the latest report, and they tend to be a problem even for Turkish Cypriots. They will be a very serious problem in the final solution of the Cyprus question and, should there be any renewed confrontation, the lives of the enclaved would be in serious danger, not from the army but from these settlers. At the moment, there are provisions that the enclaved can travel south to visit their relatives and even sell some of their produce in the South. The other important development until 1977 was the signing of the top-level agreement with Denktash, one of its four points being the Bizonal form of the final solution. Makarios by then was the most unhappy man on the Island and wished he would have died earlier, but he had to be kept alive precisely for the signing of this agreement which, due to his prestige till today among the Greek Cypriots, restricts their manoeuvrability, even if at points it is at variance with the UN resolutions. After he signed this agreement and thus finished the job that the Phoenix had cut out for him, he was allowed to die on the 3rd of August 1977. The rest of what has happened since then does not deserve more than a couple of lines, because it is merely files full of resolutions, communiqués and minutes of talks at various levels, all of them summing up to ZERO substantial content. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 41 The negotiations are stuck mainly on our right to return home, the „political equality‟ of the two communities, the issue of the withdrawal of the Turkish troops and the guarantors. (Naturally, the Greek Cypriots, as the great majority in Cyprus, do not want the guarantors whilst the Turkish Cypriots need them). The withdrawal of the Turkish troops and the dismantling of the Greek Cypriot National Guard in exchange, (the so-called demilitarisation move), has become something of a slogan among the Greek Cypriots, without realizing its implications: If Turkey even contemplated to agree on such an issue, from the moment she contemplates such agreement, and in the time between the agreement and its implementation, she would move to make sure that the Turkish Cypriots would not be left with their pants down; all weapons that could be hidden would be hidden. The Greek Cypriots are sure of this, even if it were not true. So, they would make sure that they would not be caught with their pants down and would hide all weapons they can. All Cypriots agree that this would be so. What some don‟t agree with is that, with all these guns hidden and available to a multi-headed militia on both sides, and with the disciplined armies gone, and with the two communities mixing again before the boundaries in their heads are removed, one or two bombs or shooting incidents are enough to start a Lebanese-type crisis; and worse. The argument by those that disagree that this would be the sure outcome is that “there would be international guarantees”. Silly! How do they expect these guarantees to function in a militia warfare? The mandate of the guarantees would at the most be against external interference. But, in case of militia warfare, they will not be able to do even that. How can such guarantees deal with the Lebanese crisis? How can such guarantees stop Syria from moving into Lebanon, or stop Turkey from coming back, if she sees that the Turkish Cypriots are getting the dirty end of the stick? Silently, the international body will consider her justified. The American factor This is given a place of its own, as it is the most topsy-turvy affair and the most mispresented issue. To understand what the Americans have done and can do and what their true role is in International affairs, one must first understand a little bit more about the Americans; so should the Americans themselves. Although America is a continent of rich and varied beauty, this is not what has always attracted emigrants there. The key word has always been „opportunity‟. The great majority of the so-called „pioneers‟ were aggressive individualists that could not tolerate the „fetters‟ of conformity to rigid Law, rigid traditions and rigid religion and went there hoping to become easily rich and to be able to practice their own personal morality and their own sense of justice; the „Law of the Gun‟ and of „free grabbing‟ for all. This opportunistic and greedy spirit is still very evident among the majority of Americans and is what drives new emigrants there. The foundations of the American Nation were laid by the Spirit of the French revolutionary writers and this, together with the help of the French in the War of Independence, decided the character of the Nation and the Authority at level two that rules its fate. It so happened(!) that the American federation at independence consisted of 13 „American Colonies‟. So a „tricolor‟ flag of 13 stars and 13 stripes of various designs was adopted. (The colonies were: Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 42 Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia). About a century from Independence came the Civil War that was won by the Industrial North Union. The reason was not to abolish slavery, which would be really noble, but to recruit for a different slavery, the wage-slavery, which is very much worse. Instead of apparently enforced slavery, which was obviously and plainly understood and could be fought, we now have an induced wage slavery, where the exploiters of the human being are free from the responsibility and problems that went with the first kind, and where the new slave is lured deeper and deeper into it, works harder and harder under increasing feeling of insecurity and stress, goaded on by the incentive of money, which never seems to be enough because the manipulators of the Economy, (speculators, industrialists and marketeers), devour the lion‟s share, plus a lot more. This change from one form of slavery to the other is exactly of the same spirit as the change from Administrative Colonialism to Economic Colonialism. It is imposed by the same Authority at level two. Money is proving itself the most treacherous and most effective weapon. (Authority has always been based on Wealth Concentration). As the number of states increased to 20, 30, 40 etc, a new Federal flag was designed, with more stars, but number 13 still retained in the stripes. And, with the new French gift of the statue of liberty a hundred years after Independence, the move was completed. The character and attributes of this lady without a husband are: Material affluence, greed-and-grabbing, confusion of morals and utter disrespect of Authority. Lawlessness is covered under a mantle of confusing and complicated legislation that terrifies the ordinary people and which makes the lawyers, who, together with showbiz men and doctors are glamorised and worshiped in America, the most lucrative profession, the best and most highly paid of them being employed by Crime Syndicates. The above, together with the power and diabolical liberty of TV and the Press, chart the inevitable doom of the American society, and all societies to which these attributes are exported. The Americans proclaim themselves to be people with the noblest ideals and the noblest intensions. They are the greatest readers of the bible. They have instituted bible schools and bible universities for bible studies and degrees. Yet, because of their underlying arrogance and self-righteousness, (having made the deadly fruit of „good‟ and „evil‟ the main item in their staple diet), they have managed through these studies to break up the Christian Church into 2000 denominations. I have travelled most Canadian Provinces and 40 USA states in a search of the old noble spirit. I found a lot of very good Americans. However, even the very best of them, even the most devout Christians and the most friendly or neighbourly, share the basic characteristics of the highly competitive consumer-predator. They are constantly on the lookout for opportunities to become rich or famous. Their idea of achievement or betterment in life is to acquire greater buying power. They are only 4.5% of the World population and they consume 40% of its resources. They are great hero-worshipers, even of manmade heroes like Superman, Spiderman, the Exterminator and even Mickey Mouse. The heroes with which they identify and use as raw models are not those who distinguish themselves for spiritual and moral excellence but those who make it to highly paid stardom in showbiz and in professional sport. Each child‟s dream is to become such a hero himself. The character and attributes of this society are: vanity, insecurity, greed, material affluence, confusion of morals and utter disrespect of authority in any from, may it be Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 43 a policeman, a teacher, a park-keeper, a parent, the ministry. All these attributes are pumped into the kids through cinema, TV, and all means of „education‟ and the way of life; and all this is exported all over the world. After the Second World War, because of the American decisive contribution to the victory of the Allies and because of the truly great American economic and other help to all to recover from the consequences of the war, everybody‟s heart went to America. All Europeans loved everybody and everything that was American. Everybody wanted to be in America; everybody wanted to be an American. Then, America was giving of what she had: - material affluence and dreams of glamour and moral „emancipation‟. America, as the richest and most powerful daughter of Europe, considered it her moral obligation to involve herself in the affairs of the Western World as a strong and rich leader. When the colonies of the older European powers got their independence, America moved in to patron the western way of life and authority in these new states and ended up by paying the damages; in Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East and all areas once under European rule. This time, America tried to export what she hasn‟t got, namely moral guidance and authority. And she failed miserably. Then, all the love for the Americans and the American dream reverted to anti-American hysteria and, though America is to blame for quite a few things in the world because of her clumsiness, incompetence and inferior cunning to the European, most of those, who have already adopted all the attributes she exported, blame her for everything else as well and are constantly trying to kick her in her soft parts; even some of her allies, (especially France; but again, France undermines simply everybody of any power, acts the diplomatic darling and champion to all the „wronged‟ and sells guns to all sides). So, all, including her allies, love America as a provider. Not only she keeps their own defence budget down; she also serves as a market with extremely low import tariffs. But most importantly, she pays for their sins. If one takes a look at the American hand that distributes out dollars, one will see many teeth marks, including one from us. America got involved in the Cyprus problem because of her leadership in NATO, as the one power that could influence both Greece and Turkey. Her worry was the upsetting of the southeast wing of NATO. When troubles started in 1963, she undertook to intervene on all sides in an effort to keep things cool and try to find a solution that would satisfy everybody. As for the kind of solution, America was not very particular. If Cyprus united with Greece and Turkey did not object, America would be happy. If Cyprus remained independent, again America would be happy; if Cyprus was partitioned between Greece and Turkey and everybody involved accepted it, America would not mind; if Cyprus united with Turkey and the Greek Cypriots and Greece did not object, America would not be unhappy. America suggested a number of plans for solving the problem. All of them were rejected by us; some of them simply because they were American. Some plans seemed satisfactory for both Greece and Turkey. One of them provided for the Union of Cyprus with Greece, with a base granted for 50 years to Turkey in the Karpas. Greece accepted it whilst Makarios rejected it, before Turkey had a chance to reject it also. This is when George Papandreou said his famous metaphor: “Makarie, we offer you a block of flats and you turn it down because someone else also will be sharing the laundry room!” Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 44 America stopped Turkey from invading Cyprus a number of times. She is the power that averted the coup planned in 1972. She also tied to stop the Ioannides‟s coup and, having failed this time, she tried to stop the Turkish invasion. Failing to do this, she then tried in conjunction with Britain to stop Greece from sailing her fleet to Cyprus and thus extending the invasion to a Greco-Turkish clash. Greece was persuaded by the English rather than the Americans and the fear that she might end up with a national disaster like the Asia Minor one in 1922, with the last Greeks of Ionia either killed or ousted. All her efforts were of course through diplomatic pressure, the only channels one can use with allies; and, when she finally failed, we accused her for not using her 6th fleet against Turkey. We even accused her of putting Turkey upto it. Winners and losers We the Greek Cypriots are obviously the greatest losers by far and this needs no more comment. Second loser is Turkey; the invasion cost her lives and money; (even in the years after the invasion she spent nearly half a billion dollars a year to maintain her forces here and to support the Turkish Cypriot economy). But above all is the outcry against her from all sides and the obstacles she meets from all sides in her external and economic policy, because of it. Third looser is Greece. She lost a few of her own children here and her relations with Turkey are dangerously strained, because of it. Further, any problem of the Greek Cypriots because of the coup and the invasion is partly her problem too. Fourth loser is America, as the leader of NATO and as the one that always gets the rap. And yes, there are winners too. Russia is the first. Any NATO loss or conflict between NATO allies is profit for her. This is why during the American embargo she stepped in with more than three billion dollars worth of help to Turkey. The reasons are obvious. Britain is the second and the most benefited. With serious trouble between the two communities, nobody can raise a serious point on the status of her bases here. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 45 CHAPTER IV PROSPECTS AND THE FINAL SOLUTION The Cyprus problem has been with the UN for 27 years; that is, since 11 years before the invasion; it is nowhere nearer a solution along this path. It has been to all international fora or forums. (There are some who think that taking it to another such forum suggested by Russia, would make a difference). There is no solution coming from these fora; no chance. If we were doing this with mice and cheese, the mice would have learnt by now; they would have changed tactics by now. It is only the humans that cling to what they haven‟t got. It is the curse left in the bottom of Pandora‟s empty chess. And this bogs the mind with complicated rationalizations that stop it from seeing the true logic of the situation. (Hope turns out to be Man‟s greatest torture of not-havingness). There are those who think that, with Turkey wanting to join the EEC, the latter might be effective in making Turkey leave Cyprus in exchange for membership. There are also those who believe that the new developments in Europe would cause a similar spirit to prevail here and are wondering why Turkey still fails to follow the example. These people fail to see the difference. So, we will first examine the prospects in Europe, in order to see how they could affect the situation here. In Europe, the wall that had been raised between two halves of the SAME NATION by outsiders has been abolished. So are also the barded wires between east and west European countries. All these countries share the same Eurochristian culture. It has nothing in common with our problem; no similarity. On the contrary; any further unification of the Eurochristian world makes the line between it and the Islamic world more profound, and the Moslems more conscious of it. By the end of the century or early next century, Russia will become the backbone, or supporting feet, of capitalistic Europe. Not only this; the Eastern Europeans, with the Russians leading, will become more religious-conscious, after so many years of religious suppression, and Russia will emerge, not only as a strong capitalistic force, but also as a champion of Christianity. Then, have a good look at Europe: - Britain, the lion‟s mouth at one end and Russia, the bear‟s supporting feet at the other; in between a patchy leopard. Ruling authority is exercised by elected governments, (10 diadems on ten horns), but there are still seven royal heads remaining; (count them: 1-Britain, 2-Belgium, 3-Holland, 4- Denmark, 5-Norway, 6-Sweden and 7-Spain), and one of them, that of Spain, cut as unto death and yet healed, (abolished for 40 years and re-established). This is the description of the second „Beast‟ in the 13th chapter of the book of Revelations in the Christian Bible. With Europe thus united, NATO is almost obsolete in European affairs. Europe will try to go it alone. America will look for causes to champion west of the Atlantic and the Middle East. She will also lose part of her influence on Greece and Turkey. When Turkey attempts to join this new Europe, the reaction will come from her own Moslem extremists and not from Greece. In their great majority, the Turks, especially those in the west and south, are not fanatic Islamists. This is the factor that can favour a solution. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 46 The first step in the Cyprus problem is the improvement of Greco-Turkish relations and the establishment of the necessary degree of trust and cooperation, before we move to political issues; a commonweal between Greece and Turkey; something between the British Commonwealth and the EEC. And for this, both Greece and Turkey must be prepared to stay out of Europe. This Commonwealth will then move to a kind of loose Confederation and when this happens, other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean may join the Commonwealth. This may sound very improbable and illusionary but it is the only possible solution and the one that will come. In the meantime, things may get even worse. Greece may clash with Turkey across the Ebros. Then the whole red line down to Famagusta will flare up. Greece will advance on a strip in South Thrace, Turkey‟s artillery may flatten Rhodes, and the line here may move to bring the southeastern part of Cyprus under the Turks. Even after this, if it comes, the solution would still be the Aegean Commonwealth. After the economic, touristic and cultural cooperation, with the new trust established, we can move to the revision of National History books and education on both sides, without running the grave risk of being shot as traitors on either side. Such a move was attempted in 1988 at the Davos meeting between Papandreou and Ozal. Mr. Papandreou, in spite of his hitherto demagogy that “the enemy lies on our East”, was influenced by his new lady-friend Demetra, (now his wife), to try it the other way. Enthusiasm after the first attempt. After a few days, the two premiers met in Brussels and, after this meeting, the statements read as follows: Papandreou: - “When Turkey is ready to join the EEC, she must rest assured that Greece will in no way be the obstacle”. (CyBC News). Ozal: - “We are fully convinced that the problems that Turkey faces in connection with her joining the EEC do not come from Greece”. (CyBC News). Returning from Davos, Papandreou received a hero‟s welcome in Athens. Within two months, three ministerial delegations, headed by their ministers, went from Athens to Ankara and three agreements were signed for economic, touristic and cultural cooperation between the two countries. The climate created by this move was so good, (even enthusiastic), that prompted Ozal to come up with the following, which the climate gave him courage to state publicly: - “It is time that the two countries form a committee of academics from both sides to revise our National History books. Our future generations must not go on being fed the same poison as us. If we did not succeed in living in peace like good neighbours in the past, at least let us give a better chance to our children. (CyBC News). We were off to a good start but the Cypriots did not see „the light at the end of the tunnel‟, though they had been looking for it for a long time. They were immediately at Papandreou‟s throat; (it is usually the pattern with us; one might say, it is the story of our life). They accused him of “abandoning the Cyprus Problem on the shelf”, that he went back on his promises and that he betrayed the Greek Cypriot people. And Papandreou, being the political weathercock that he is, made a 180 0 turn and started talking about vetoing Turkey‟s attempt to join the EEC and that Turkey‟s way to the EEC is through the solution of the Cyprus problem, which has to come first. Words ... words!! Easy, when Turkey‟s readiness to enter the EEC and EEC‟s readiness to accept her as a member are more than 15 years away. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 47 The results of the Davos move must be reappraised and their prospects looked into with greater care and less mistrust. We Greeks and Greek Cypriots must take a serious look at these ideas, because they are the only road to a solution. A solution that not only will make it possible for us to settle later in the North part of Cyprus, if we so choose, but even in Asia Minor. We better take a hard look at this remote possibility, because it is the only one, or the line stays and hurts. Anyway, the Aegean Commonwealth has been decided and we may all consider it a fact. The question is, how much pain its establishment will involve; and this depends on us; the people involved. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 48 Latest developments since first edition When the first edition of this book was being prepared, back in March 1990, the latest attempt was made at reviving the negotiating process. The leaders of the two communities, Vassiliou and Denktash, went to New York to meet the UN Secretary General for what was hoped to be a couple of weeks of serious talks at top level. They looked at each other‟s conditions, they found them mutually unacceptable, said “good bye” and departed, accusing each other of being intransigent; no talks. On his return to Cyprus, Mr. Denktash resigned his post as president of the Turkish Cypriots and stood for re-election, thus asking for a vote of confidence for his policy; and he got it. So, it is more than probable that when he is called to sit at the negotiating table, he will present the same conditions; and they will be met with the same attitude on behalf of the Greek Cypriots. In the light of this development, even the UN were for a long time unwilling, or very cautious to suggest a new round of talks. Today, the very day I am writing this page, 18th Oct. 1990, the UN Secretary General‟s representative in Cyprus is meeting Mr. Denktash, (after having talked with Mr. Vassiliou yesterday), to assess whether there is grounds for restarting the interrupted process of last March. However, at the same time, the Secretary General himself has released a statement saying that he will definitely not call for a resumption of talks “just for the sake of talks”. In this, he is actually reiterating the long-standing point of view of the two communities. Jesus D Zeus The Cyprus Problem 49 October 1992: Latest developments have seen the USA more actively involved, with Mr. Bush staking his reputation on a speedy progress and solution of the problem within six months. This was back in August last year. In July this year we‟ve had proximity and top-level talks in New York, with no results whatsoever. There are new talks scheduled for the end of this month. They are doomed to have the same fate, as the framework put forward by the UN Secretary General is considered unacceptable to both sides. Watching the news on TV on what is happening in ex-Yugoslavia, I cannot help but fear that if the two communities had not been separated in time here, we would be living a worse hell in Cyprus instead of watching it on TV. Irrespective of who is right or wrong in our issue, Turkey, who is the strongest force directly involved, carries the responsibility of keeping the dogs in their cages until the era of Ethnicoreligious polarization completes its cycle. The powers that under the pressure of lobbying are in a hurry to see a solution to the Cyprus problem, whatever that solution may be, should better be patient if they don‟t want to see a holocaust in Cyprus. Guilty conscience, and “we should have known better” will not be any good to us in the aftermath of such a tragedy. Later in the future, with the increase of Islamic Fundamentalism in Turkey, added to the Kurdish uprising, Turkey may have to face a situation similar to that in former Yugoslavia. It is difficult to govern people who wish to be governed. It is impossible to govern those that don‟t wish to be governed. (This is also Shevasnatse‟s problem. I cannot understand why people don‟t see it). What holds Turkey together is her Army and its decisive involvement in the affairs of the State, the so-called „deeper State‟. If Turkey were to face serious internal trouble, nobody can guess what chances Greece and Bulgaria might venture in East Thrace. In the wake of such possibilities, I dare not imagine what would hit us in Cyprus, if the two communities were mixed.
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