ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

Document Sample
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER Powered By Docstoc
					ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER
   FEASIBILITY STUDY
                     Pr ep ar ed fo r
               T ow n o f F a irh a v e n
 M a s s a c hu s e tt s B o ard of Pu b l i c Wo r k s
              D e c em b er 1 9, 2 00 8
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND COMBINED HEAT AND
         POWER FEASIBILITY STUDY

                             Pr ep ar ed fo r
                     T h e T ow n o f F a ir ha v e n
         M a s s a c hu s e tt s B o ard of Pu b l i c Wo r k s
                       D e c em b er 1 9, 2 00 8




                          1 Corporate Drive
                        Andover, MA 01810

                Pro jec t N umber 135 53 6
Table of Contents                                                                                                     Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................................................ V
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................................................................... V
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................... VII
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................................1
1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................................1-1
    1.1 Study Background ........................................................................................................................................1-1
        1.1.1 Study Overview.................................................................................................................................1-1
        1.1.2 Study Drivers ....................................................................................................................................1-1
    1.2 The Town of Fairhaven, MA .........................................................................................................................1-2
        1.2.1 Fairhaven Sustainability Initiatives and Green Projects ....................................................................1-3
        1.2.2 MTC and Large Onsite Renewables Initiative (LORI) Funding Program ..........................................1-3
    1.3 Existing Conditions at the Fairhaven WWTP ................................................................................................1-3
        1.3.1 Liquid Stream Treatment ..................................................................................................................1-4
        1.3.2 Solids Stream Treatment ..................................................................................................................1-5
        1.3.3 Electricity Use ...................................................................................................................................1-6
    1.4 Study Objectives...........................................................................................................................................1-8
2. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER ........................2-1
    2.1 Anaerobic Digestion......................................................................................................................................2-1
        2.1.1 Process Overview.............................................................................................................................2-1
        2.1.2 Biogas Treatment .............................................................................................................................2-2
    2.2 Combined Heat and Power...........................................................................................................................2-5
        2.2.1 CHP Alternatives ..............................................................................................................................2-5
        2.2.2 Power Generation Equipment...........................................................................................................2-5
3. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVES ...................................................................................................................3-1
    3.1 Alternative Evaluation Process .....................................................................................................................3-1
    3.2 Digester Feedstock Alternatives ...................................................................................................................3-1
        3.2.1 Digester Feedstock 1 - Fairhaven WWTP Sludge Only ....................................................................3-3
        3.2.2 Digester Feedstock 2 – WWTP Sludge + Organic Wastes ...............................................................3-5
        3.2.3 Digester Feedstock 3 – WWTP Sludge + Beverage Waste + FOG + Food Waste...........................3-7
        3.2.4 Summary of Digester Feedstock Alternatives...................................................................................3-8
    3.3 Anaerobic Digestion Process......................................................................................................................3-10
        3.3.1 Digestion Alternatives to be Considered.........................................................................................3-10
        3.3.2 Biogas Storage ...............................................................................................................................3-15
        3.3.3 Digester Mixing System ..................................................................................................................3-17
    3.4 Combined Heat and Power System............................................................................................................3-18
        3.4.1 Biogas Treatment and Power Generation.......................................................................................3-18



                                                                                       iii

                                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
Table of Contents                                                                                                      Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


4. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES .......................................................................................................................4-1
    4.1 Non-Economic Evaluation ............................................................................................................................4-1
        4.1.1 Anaerobic Digester Feedstock..........................................................................................................4-1
        4.1.2 Anaerobic Digester Configuration .....................................................................................................4-6
        4.1.3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System.......................................................................................4-9
    4.2 Economic Evaluation ..................................................................................................................................4-16
        4.2.1 Capital Costs Summary ..................................................................................................................4-16
        4.2.2 Operations and Maintenance Costs Summary ...............................................................................4-18
        4.2.3 Potential Annual Electricity and Sludge Disposal Cost Savings .....................................................4-20
        4.2.4 Opportunities for Renewable Energy Funding and Incentives ........................................................4-22
        4.2.5 Potential Tipping Fee revenue from Imported Waste......................................................................4-26
        4.2.6 Life Cycle Costs..............................................................................................................................4-27
        4.2.7 Payback Period...............................................................................................................................4-29
5. RECOMMENDATIONS...........................................................................................................................................5-1
    5.1 Summary of Evaluation Results....................................................................................................................5-1
        5.1.1 Non-Economic Evaluation.................................................................................................................5-1
        5.1.2 Economic Evaluation ........................................................................................................................5-1
    5.2 Implementation Plan .....................................................................................................................................5-1
        5.2.1 Description of Recommended Alternatives.......................................................................................5-3
6. LIMITATIONS .........................................................................................................................................................6-1
APPENDIX A: FAIRHAVEN WWTP NPDES PERMIT.................................................................................................. A
APPENDIX B: WWTP VS SAMPLING LAB RESULTS................................................................................................. B
APPENDIX C: MA DEP COMMERCIAL WASTE REDUCTION PROGRAM INFORMATION...................................... C
APPENDIX D: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER HEAT LOAD CALCULATIONS .................................................................... D
APPENDIX E: DIGESTER AND CHP CALCULATIONS............................................................................................... E
APPENDIX F: MICROTURBINE AND STIRLING CYCLE ENGINE INSTALLATION AND REFERENCE
   INFORMATION.......................................................................................................................................................F
APPENDIX G: MANUFACTURER’S EQUIPMENT INFORMATION............................................................................. G
REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................................................1




                                                                                        iv

                                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
Table of Contents                                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




LIST OF FIGURES
    Figure 1: Cumulative Budget Impact and Payback for a Phased-Implementation of Digester Feedstocks at a New
                   Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.........................................................................................ES-2
    Figure 2: Existing Site Layout for the Fairhaven WWTP. ......................................................................................1-5
    Figure 3: Average Electricity Costs for Industries in the US from 2002 to 2007....................................................1-7
    Figure 4: The Microbiological Pathways and Products of Anaerobic Digestion.....................................................2-1
    Figure 5: Cross sections of typical high-rate digester configuration. .....................................................................2-2
    Figure 6: Schematic of an advanced biogas treatment system with siloxane removal..........................................2-4
    Figure 7: Process Schematic for a CHP System...................................................................................................2-5
    Figure 8: Schematic of a Typical European Food Waste Pretreatment Process Prior to Anaerobic Digestion. ....3-3
    Figure 9: Conceptual Process Flow Diagram for Anaerobic Digester Configuration Alternatives. ......................3-11
    Figure 10: Typical Bolted Steel Tanks - Aquastore Glass-fused-to-steel Insulated Tanks ..................................3-12
    Figure 11: Heating Requirements for Digestion Configuration and Feedstock Alternatives. ...............................3-14
    Figure 12: Duosphere® Tank-mounted Membrane Gas Storage System installed at the Galion WWTP in Galion,
                   OH. ...............................................................................................................................................3-15
    Figure 13: Duosphere® Stand-alone membrane Gas Storage System by WesTech..........................................3-15
    Figure 14: Cross-section View of a Siemens Dystor® Membrane Gas Holding System......................................3-16
    Figure 15: Mixing Zone Patterns Induced by the Vaughan Rotamix Jet Mixing System. ...................................3-17
    Figure 16: Jet Nozzles Installed as Part of a Vaughan Rotamix Digester Mixing System. ..................................3-18
    Figure 17: A Process Flow Diagram for a Typical Microturbine-based CHP System. .........................................3-20
    Figure 18: Flow Diagram and Layout for a Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System for a 65 kW Capstone
                   Microturbine..................................................................................................................................4-10
    Figure 19: Annual Life Cycle Costs (EUAC) with Potential Savings Included for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP
                   Alternatives...................................................................................................................................4-29
    Figure 20: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 1. ...................................4-30
    Figure 21: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 2A..................................4-31
    Figure 22: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 2B..................................4-32
    Figure 23: Cumulative Budget Impact and Payback for a Phased-Implementation of Digester Feedstocks at a
                   New Anaerobic Digesyion and CHP Facility...................................................................................5-2


LIST OF TABLES
    Table 1: Summary of the Recommendations for a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility. .......................ES-2
    Table 2: Summary of the Economics Associated with the Recommended Alternatives for a New Anaerobic
                  Digestion and CHP Facility..........................................................................................................ES-3
    Table 3: Summary of Major Design and Operations Data for the Fairhaven WWTP.............................................1-4
    Table 4: Fairhaven WWTP Recent Electric Use Summary.1 .................................................................................1-7
    Table 5: Typical WWTP Biogas Characteristics1...................................................................................................2-3
    Table 6: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternative 1. .....................................3-4
    Table 7: Summary of Characteristics1 for Digester Feedstock Alternative 2A and 2B. .........................................3-6




                                                                                       v
                                        Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                       P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Table of Contents                                                                                                   Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


    Table 8: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternative 3. .....................................3-8
    Table 9: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternatives. ......................................3-9
    Table 10: Design assumptions for different anaerobic digestion alternatives......................................................3-10
    Table 11: Estimated Digester Tank Volumes for a Conceptual Feedstock Containing WWTP Sludge...............3-13
    Table 12: Summary of Design Parameters for the Digester Mixing System Alternatives. ...................................3-18
    Table 13: Summary of Power Generation Equipment and Biogas Treatment Information..................................3-19
    Table 14: Available Capacities and Heat Recovery for Electric Power Generation Equipment Technologies. ...3-20
    Table 15: Value of Digester Feedstock Components Shown as Methane Fuel Yield. ..........................................4-2
    Table 16: Nitrogen Concentrations and Loads for Different Digester Feedstock Components. ............................4-3
    Table 17: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of Digester Feedstock Alternatives..........................4-6
    Table 18: Variations in Feedstock Volume Reduction for Digestion Alternatives. .................................................4-7
    Table 19: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of Digester Configuration Alternatives.....................4-9
    Table 20: Summary of Performance Indicators for Power Generation Equipment..............................................4-12
    Table 21: Number of Power Generation Equipment Units that Could be Fueled for Each Digestion Alternative.4-13
    Table 22: Summary of Typical Emissions from Microturbines and Stirling Engines1...........................................4-14
    Table 23: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of CHP Alternatives...............................................4-15
    Table 24: Summary of Capital Costs1 for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives. .......................................4-17
    Table 25: Summary of Annual O&M Costs for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives. ...............................4-18
    Table 26: Summary of the Sludge Disposal and Electricity Costs for the Existing Fairhaven WWTP and a New
                   WWTP with an Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility. ................................................................4-20
    Table 27: Summary of Potential Annual Savings for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.......................4-21
    Table 28: Summary of Applicable Renewable Energy Funding and Incentive Opportunities for a New Anaerobic
                   Digestion and CHP Facility...........................................................................................................4-23
    Table 29: RPS APC Program Rates and Participating Anaerobic Digestion Facilities........................................4-25
    Table 30: Potential Revenue from MA DOER RPS Program. .............................................................................4-26
    Table 31: Estimated Revenue from Tipping Fees for Imported Waste Received at the WWTP for Anaerobic
                   Digestion. .....................................................................................................................................4-26
    Table 32: Summary of Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives. .......................4-28
    Table 33: Summary of Payback Periods for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives....................................4-33
    Table 34: Summary of the Recommendations for a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility. ........................5-4
    Table 35: Summary of the Economics Associated with the Recommended Alternatives for a New Anaerobic
                   Digestion and CHP Facility.............................................................................................................5-5




                                                                                     vi
                                       Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                      P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Table of Contents                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS



                                   BOD5            Five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand
                                   mg/l            Milligrams per Liter
                                   MGD             Million Gallons per Day
                                   RBC             Rotating Biological Contactor
                                   Total P         Total Phosphorus
                                   TSS             Total Suspended Solids
                                   WWTP            Wastewater Treatment Plant




                                                                   vii
                     Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                    P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


This study evaluates multiple alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and combined heat and
power (CHP) facility at the Fairhaven wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Fairhaven, MA.
These alternatives include various anaerobic digester feedstock compositions, anaerobic digestion
configurations, and combined heat and power systems. The study evaluates these alternatives on the
technical and economical feasibility of their implementation and the economical benefits and
sustainability they would provide to the Town of Fairhaven.
The results of this study show that a new anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (CHP)
facility at the WWTP can be feasible if designed, constructed, and operated according to the
recommendations of this study. This study recommends that a two-stage, mesophilic anaerobic
digestion process be developed for the Fairhaven WWTP. Additionally, the Town should further
evaluate operating under a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) configuration. A
TPAD configuration could add capacity to the anaerobic digestion system from the lower residence
time required and could increase the quality of the digested solids produced potentially to a Class A
biosolids product. This must be discussed further with the MA DEP and EPA for acceptance as a
Class A process, and future evaluations must consider future methods of biosolids disposal or re-use
that the Town may pursue.
It is recommended that the WWTP develop a steady-state digestion process using a feedstock
consisting of sludge generated at the WWTP and also seek contractual agreements with local
producers of fats, oil, and grease (FOG) for use in the feedstock once a steady state anaerobic
digestion is developed. This would allow the WWTP to add waste streams to the feedstock to
enhance biogas production gradually as legitimate and long-term sources of degradable organic
wastes are identified or acquired through contractual agreements. The volumes of FOG
recommended in this study coincide with published values for the maximum FOG load that can be
added to a municipal sludge anaerobic digester without upset to the process.
It is also recommended that the WWTP include lean burn IC engines as part of a new, integrated
CHP system, but also evaluate Stirling cycle engines further as the technology progresses. Funding
for a demonstration of Stirling cycle engines once biogas production is at steady state would likely be
available and allow the Town to test the benefits of this relatively new technology at their facility.
After construction of the recommended alternative for anaerobic digestion and CHP, a two-year
operational period using feedstock of sludge generated at the WWTP and local FOG is
recommended. Using this feedstock alone was found to provide a payback of greater than 30-years.
Therefore, during the initial two-year operational period, the Town should identify sources of dairy
waste, cranberry and other beverage production waste, or any other highly degradable organic wastes
that can be digested and enter into contractual agreements with generators of these sources to
import them to the WWTP for digester feedstock enhancement on a long-term (10 years) basis.
Once these imported are included into the digester feedstock, the expected payback period should
drop considerably from over 30-years to approximately 13-years. This is shown in Figure 1.



                                                                     ES 1

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Executive Summary                                                                                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                                                            $10,000,000



                                                                                    Feedstock 2A with phase-in of feedstock 2B
   Cumulative Budget Impact from New Facility, $ per year


                                                             $8,000,000             components
                                                                                    Feedstock 2A only (2-stage mesophilic, IC
                                                                                    Engines)

                                                             $6,000,000




                                                             $4,000,000
                                                                                   2-years into operation: Dairy and
                                                                                   cranberry beverage waste
                                                                                   introduced to digesters with      Payback realized after 13 years
                                                             $2,000,000            feedstock 2A

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Savings or
                                                                                                                                                                                                        earned revenue
                                                                    $0
                                                                           0   2          4          6          8         10         12         14         16         18         20        22      24      26      28    30

                                                                                                                                                                                          20-year loan term ends
                                                            ($2,000,000)




                                                            ($4,000,000)




                                                            ($6,000,000)
                                                                                                                                                  Years


                                                            Figure 1: Cumulative Budget Impact and Payback for a Phased-Implementation of Digester
                                                                          Feedstocks at a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.


Table 1 shows the recommended alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility for the
Fairhaven WWTP.


                          Table 1: Summary of the Recommendations for a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.
  Initial Digester Feedstock (2A)
                                                                                                         Imported Volume,
                                                                                                                                           Flow to digester process,                        Biogas fuel energy
  Components                                                                                                   gal/day
                                                                                                                                                    gal/day                                 production, Btu/hr
                                                                                                           (trucks/week)
  WWTP sludge                                                                                                        0                                    6,967                                   675,908
  FOG                                                                                                          1,000 (1)                                  1,667                                   248,694
  Total, feedstock 2A                                                                                          1,000 (1)                                  8,634                                   924,602




                                                                                                                                 ES 2
                                                                                     Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                                                    P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Executive Summary                                                                                           Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



  Phased-in Digester Feedstock (2B)
                                                  Imported Volume,
                                                                                     Flow to digester process,                       Biogas fuel energy
  Components                                            gal/day
                                                                                              gal/day                                production, Btu/hr
                                                    (trucks/week)
  Feedstock 2A                                           1,000 (1)                                  8,634                                 924,602
  Dairy Waste                                            2,000 (4)                                  2,000                                 512,070
  Cranberry beverage production
                                                         1,199 (2)                                                                        238,242
  waste                                                                                             6,582
  Total, phased-in feedstock 2B                          3,199 (7)                                 17,216                                1,674,914
  Anaerobic Digester Configuration: Alternative 2
                                                      Operating                         Hydraulic Residence                         Digester Tank Volume,
  Description
                                                   temperature, °F                          Time, days                                     gallons
  Two-stage mesophilic                                         --                                 20 (total)                           322,000 (total)
  First stage                                          95 to 105°F                                     10                                 161,000
  Second stage                                         95 to    105°F                                  10                                 161,000
  Combined Heat and Power System: lean Burn IC Engines
                                                                                                                                          Net Electric
  Anaerobic Digester Facility                                                                           Recovered Heat,                   Power
                                                Capacity, kW (# of units)
  Operational Scenario                                                                                  Btu/hr                            generation,
                                                                                                                                          kWhr/yr
  Initial Feedstock (2A)                                            110 (1)                                        501,858                    337,016
  After Phased-in Feedstock (2B)                              64 (1), 110 (1)                                      850,086                    853,356

Table 2 shows the capital, operations and maintenance, potential savings, life cycle costs, and
payback period associated with the recommended alternatives.


                           Table 2: Summary of the Economics Associated with the
                              Recommended Alternatives for a New Anaerobic
                                        Digestion and CHP Facility.

                           Initial Capital Costs1, $                                                                  Value
                                                                       Anaerobic digestion                        3,076,700
                                                                                     CHP system                   1,480,300
                                                                                                  Total           4,557,000
                           Initial Operation and Maintenance Costs2,
                           $/year
                                         Anaerobic digestion & CHP system                                            76,300
                                                                             Sludge Disposal3                        43,700




                                                                           ES 3
                               Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                              P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Executive Summary                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                       Initial Operation and Maintenance Costs2,
                                                                                                                  Value
                       $/year
                                                    Net WWTP Electricity Use4                                   140,100
                                                        Total O&M Costs, $/year                                 260,100
                       Savings, $/year
                                                               Electrical Cost Offset                            50,400
                                                                          Sludge Disposal                       199,800
                                                                                RPS payback                      43,400
                                              Potential Tipping Fee Revenue                                      36,500
                                                               Total Savings, $/ year                           330,100
                       Initial Life Cycle Costs3, $/year
                          Estimated Uniform Annual Costs (EUAC)                                                 671,500
                                   Initial payback (Feedstock 2A), years                                            +30
                                              Payback with phased feedstock
                                                                                                                     13
                                                      implementation, years
Notes:
1. A 30% safety factor was applied to all capital costs to account for potential cost increases due to inflation,
   manufacturer’s estimates, and installation costs unforeseen at this level of study.
2. A 30% safety factor was applied to all maintenance costs to account for potential cost increases due to
   inflation, labor, and operational costs unforeseen at this level of study. Costs included all labor,
   maintenance, and chemical costs associated with equipment and/or process operation.
3. Sludge disposal costs included a 30% safety factor and were based on the conditions of the WWTP’s
   existing contract with Synagro which includes a hauling fee of $0.02 per gallon and a tipping fee at the
   incinerator facility of $320 per dry ton.
4. The net annual electricity costs were calculated based on the annual average electricity cost at the WWTP
   of $0.16/kWhr and included the annual power requirements of a new facility including the annual
   average power use of the existing WWTP from 2006 to 2008 minus the net electric power production for
   each alternative.
5. Development of life cycle costs using via EUAC is described in Section 4.2.6 and used an interest rate of
   7% and a 20-year life of asset assumption.
These alternatives present ways to enhance the benefits of an anaerobic digestion and CHP facility
through potential tipping fee revenue from imported waste, increased volatile solids destruction and
biogas production, and optimized electric power generation from an increase in biogas fuel flow and
use of technology with the highest efficiency available.




                                                                       ES 4
                           Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                          P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
Executive Summary                                                                                     Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


A new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility also provides non-economic benefits in the form of a
sustainable, renewable source of energy production and an overall reduction in green house gas
(GHG) emissions and carbon footprint for the WWTP. Holistically, the recommended alternatives
will improve the overall operations of the existing WWTP by providing a consistent and reliable
method of removing and re-using solids or sludge from liquid stream processes. Currently, the
WWTP experiences high solids inventory (stored sludge) in their secondary treatment system that
results in unnecessarily high blower electric power costs and potential violations of effluent permit
limitations. Without an anaerobic digestion process to send sludge to, the WWTP would need to
design and construct a new sludge storage tank with an approximate capital cost of $1,000,000
including a new concrete storage tank, odor control, and other ancillary equipment. In lieu of an
anaerobic digestion facility, a new sludge storage tank would provide no economic or environmental
benefits, increase electricity use and costs, and create additional odors at the WWTP.




                                                                     ES 5
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

                                              1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 Study Background
Brown and Caldwell has developed the following study in association with the Town of Fairhaven,
MA (Town) to evaluate the feasibility of producing renewable energy for use at the Town’s existing
wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The Town of Fairhaven was awarded a grant from the
Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC) to perform this alternative energy study in May
2008.

1.1.1 Study Overview
Specifically, this study evaluates the technical and economical feasibility of implementing anaerobic
digestion and combined heat and power (CHP) processes to produce methane fuel for power and
heat generation at the WWTP. The anaerobic digestion process is a traditional wastewater solids
treatment process for which Brown and Caldwell has much experience. Recent advances in
technology and changes to the energy market have challenged the conventional wisdom that
anaerobic digestion and CHP is limited to medium and large WWTPs to be economical. This study
suggests some innovative approaches to overcome the high costs typically associated with these
processes and show that they can be used successfully to produce alternative energy at the Town’s
WWTP.

1.1.2 Study Drivers
There were social, economic, and process drivers for this study. These are described in more detail.
Social Drivers – Town of Fairhaven Sustainability Initiative

Sustainability and alternative energy are important initiatives for the Town. The Town formed a
Sustainability Committee in 2007 that organizes an annual Green Energy and Ecology Fair in
Fairhaven and is active in educating and assisting the community in sustainable endeavors. The
Town also has an established track record with renewable energy projects including a privately-
funded wind energy project and a landfill gas-to-energy study funded by the MTC that is currently
being finalized.
The current study is a continuation of the Town’s sustainability and renewable energy initiatives and
will benefit from community support if the alternatives presented and recommended in this study
are implemented.
Economic Drivers

The Town’s WWTP uses a conventional activated sludge process to meet National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) effluent permit requirements for five-day biochemical
oxygen demand (BOD5), and total suspended solids (TSS). The WWTP is discussed in more detail




                                                                      1-1

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


in the subsequent sections of this report. Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process due to
the many large pumps, blowers and mechanical devices used in the treatment process. Aeration
requirements are high for an activated sludge system and blower electric power use often constitutes
the majority of the electricity load and operating costs at the WWTP. The average annual cost for
electricity at the Town’s WWTP from 2006 to 2008 was approximately $190,500. Market trends
suggest that electricity costs will continue to rise, and with potential new effluent nutrient limits the
WWTP is facing in the new NPDES permit, the use of electricity for process operations will likely
rise significantly. This could impact the overall annual municipal energy costs for the Town since the
operation of the WWTP constitutes a significant portion of the municipal energy consumption.
The costs for disposal of solids produced during wastewater treatment are also significant at the
WWTP. The Town has an existing contract with a private company (Synagro) to haul and incinerate
WWTP sludge that was recently renewed. The cost for sludge disposal through December , 2008 is
approximately $243,518. The contract with Synagro also limits the solids concentration of hauled
sludge and prevents the WWTP from significantly reducing sludge volume by dewatering sludge
using the existing belt filter presses (BFP).
Combined, the costs for electric energy use and sludge disposal are relatively high for a small plant
such as Fairhaven. This study will evaluate ways to reduce overall operational costs at the WWTP
through the generation and use of renewable energy, reducing sludge production and hauling costs.
Process Drivers

The anaerobic digestion process would provide a reliable and consistent way to remove and reduce
solids from the WWTP and put them to beneficial use while improving plant operations.
The current contract arrangements for sludge hauling from the WWTP to disposal at can, at times,
prevent operators from wasting and storing sludge produced during physical separation processes.
On occasion, scheduled pickups by the Contractor are unexpectedly cancelled or remove less sludge
than expected from the WWTP; this can increase solids inventory at the WWTP and can potentially
reduce process performance and effluent quality. Having the ability to consistently and reliably
remove solids from the liquid stream and store at the WWTP could effectively reduce solids
inventory in the activated sludge system and their impact to performance and effluent quality.

1.2 The Town of Fairhaven, MA
The Town was settled in 1653 and incorporated in 1812 and is located on the southeast coast of
Massachusetts in Southern Bristol County east across the New Bedford Harbor from the City of
New Bedford. Fairhaven, MA has a population of approximately 16,000 with 6,000 sewer
connections that include services in neighboring Mattapoisett, MA. The Town is governed by a
Board of Selectmen with a “Town Meeting” form of local government.
Public Works in Fairhaven is governed by a five member Board of Public Works Commissioners,
who also serve as the Sewer Advisory Committee by statue. The Board sets policy and establishes
the rules, regulations, fees, and procedures related to management and maintenance within the
Town’s departments of highways, parks and grounds, sewer collection and wastewater treatment,
solid waste, and water.




                                                                       1-2
                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Brown and Caldwell performed this study with the input and support of the Board of Public Works
and its staff, current BPW superintendant Bill Fitzgerald, and the Sewer and Wastewater
Superintendant, Linda Lima.

1.2.1 Fairhaven Sustainability Initiatives and Green Projects
The Town benefits from strong community support for sustainability and has a track record of
proactively pursuing and performing alternative and renewable energy projects.
As mentioned, the Fairhaven Board of Selectmen appointed a Sustainability Committee in 2007.
The Committee’s objective is to help develop and support systems that reduce global warming and
enhance revenue for the Town. The Sustainability Committee meets regularly to recommend actions
that would create a sustainable future for the community. In October 2008 the Committee hosted its
inaugural Energy and Ecology Fair in Fairhaven that was designed to bring people with an interest in
learning more about being “green” together with people who work in “green” industries.
The Town has supported alternative and renewable energy projects in the past. These include a
privately-funded wind energy project that recently provided recommendations for constructing a
wind turbine next to the Town’s WWTP that could provide up to 20 percent of the WWTP’s
electricity needs. The Town also initiated a landfill gas-to-energy study funded by the MTC that is
currently being finalized.
These projects and the efforts of the Sustainability Committee demonstrate the Town’s support of
green and sustainable initiatives.

1.2.2 MTC and Large Onsite Renewables Initiative (LORI) Funding
      Program
The MTC is a quasi-public state agency with an objective to advance technology-based solutions that
lead to economic growth and to a cleaner environment in Massachusetts. The MTC was recently
reorganized under one entity through the Massachusetts Department of Energy resources (MA
DOER) to better manage the grant award process and help municipalities. The MTC provides
financial support for feasibility studies such as this and design and construction projects for
alternative and renewable energy production through the Renewable Energy Trust (RET). The RET
is funded by municipal ratepayers through a surcharge on utility bills.
There are several different funding programs for alternative energy projects under the MTC that are
available for municipalities, private companies, entrepreneurs, and institutions for projects that
evaluate wind energy, fuel cells, hydroelectric power, and energy from biomass (landfill gas, digester
biogas). This project was eligible for the Large Onsite Renewables Initiative (LORI) program that is
applicable to projects that can produce greater than 10 kilowatts (kW) of power onsite.

1.3 Existing Conditions at the Fairhaven WWTP
The Town owns and operates a conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant.
The WWTP was built in 1969 and was last upgraded in 1989. An upgrade to the headworks is
currently being implemented. Table 3 lists some of the major characteristics of the influent
wastewater received at the WWTP.




                                                                      1-3
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




                     Table 3: Summary of Major Design and Operations Data for
                                      the Fairhaven WWTP.

                                          Parameter                                                        Value
                    Influent Flow, MGD
                                                                           Design                             5.0
                                                             Average Daily                                    2.7
                                                     Peak Wet Weather                                       16.0
                    Influent Concentrations1, mg/L
                                             BOD, Annual Average                                             111
                                                TSS, Annual Average                                          120
Notes:
1. Annual average influent solids concentrations were based on historical data from 2006 to 2008 provided
   by the WWTP.
As shown, the WWTP is currently operating approximately 46% under the design capacity. The
WWTP effluent outfall discharges to the Inner Harbor of the New Bedford Harbor. The effluent
discharge requirements for the WWTP are detailed in the Town’s NPDES permit shown in
Appendix A. The NPDES permit expired in 2004, and the Town is awaiting a new NPDES to be
issued by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP). Limits on
effluent total nitrogen are expected in the new permit and upgrades to the WWTP to meet these
potential limits are currently being considered by the Town as part of a future upgrade to the
WWTP. Note that the annual average BOD and TSS concentrations are lower than what is typical
for a small WWTP and might indicate issues with inflow and infiltration (I/I) in the Town’s sewer
collection system at the time of this study.

1.3.1 Liquid Stream Treatment
A site layout showing the existing liquid stream treatment processes at the WWTP is presented in
Figure 2.
The processes shown in Figure 2 are described in more detail by the following:
  Headworks: Two ½-inch climber screens rated at 16 MGD each and a grit removal system with
  chain buckets rated at 2.7 gallons per minute (19 cubic feet per hour)
  Primary settling: Two 65-foot diameter circular primary clarifiers with an 11.5-foot sidewater
  depth and 550,000 gallons capacity
  Secondary treatment: activated sludge – Two trains of six aeration basins operated in plug flow
  mode each 40-foot long by 40-foot wide (1,600 square feet surface area) with a sidewater depth
  of 13-feet and 930,000 gallons of capacity




                                                                       1-4
                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


    Secondary/final settling: Two 75-foot diameter circular clarifiers with 13-foot sidewater depth
    and two 45-foot circular clarifiers with 10-foot sidewater depth not in use
    Disinfection: 480/277 volt, 3-phase Trojan Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system with 253.7
    nanometer UV wavelength and 65 percent UV transmission
    Wet weather treatment: X gallon equalization basin




                                   Figure 2: Existing Site Layout for the Fairhaven WWTP.



1.3.2 Solids Stream Treatment
The WWTP produces primary and secondary sludge during clarification in the liquid treatment
process. Sludge consists of solid material held in suspension (measured as total suspended solids or
TSS) in wastewater that is settled out by gravity using sedimentation tanks or clarifiers. Primary
sludge contains mostly non-biological solids that is typically fibrous and contains a large quantity of




                                                                       1-5
                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


degradable organic material and some inert inorganic material. Primary sludge produced at the
WWTP is thickened in the primary clarifiers and then pumped to the primary sludge well.
Secondary or waste-activated sludge (WAS) is produced from the suspended and soluble organic
material that remains after primary clarification and consists largely of the biological mass grown
during aeration. The WAS consists of the biological solids that have settled by gravity in secondary
clarifiers downstream of the aeration basins or activated sludge system. WAS produced at the
WWTP is pumped to gravity belt thickeners (GBTs) to remove free water and thickened to a
concentration ranging from 5 to 6 percent total solids. Thickened WAS (TWAS) is stored in the
thickened waste well and then combined and stored with primary sludge in the sludge blending well
before final disposal. Historical data from 2004 to 2008 showed that the combined sludge had a
concentration of 4 to 6 percent total solids.

The existing sludge storage facilities include the following:
  Primary sludge well: 35,000 gallons
  Thickened waste well: 25,000 gallons
  Sludge blending well: 28,000 gallons


The Town has contracted with Synagro, Inc. for sludge hauling and disposal. Synagro hauls the
combined sludge from the WWTP to their incinerator facility in Woonsocket, RI. The current
disposal contract with Synagro is effective until July 2009 and is based on the following costs for
disposal:
   Hauling: $0.02 per gallon
   Incineration (Tipping Fee): $319.21 per dry ton
The contract with Synagro also puts a limit to the solids concentration that haulers can accept and
penalizes the Town for solids concentrations above or below this range. Per the contract, the
acceptable solids concentration range is 2 to 7 percent.
The contract conditions between the Town and Synagro do not allow dewatering of sludge above 7
percent total solids. This prevents the WWTP from reducing their sludge disposal volume and
hauling costs through the use of their two existing belt filter presses. Due to inflation, market
responses from the unstable price of fossil fuel, and the financial crisis occurring in the US at the
time of this study, these sludge disposal costs are likely going to increase in the future. It is
unknown at this time how much sludge disposal costs would increase from these impacts.

1.3.3 Electricity Use
The average electricity costs in the US have increased over 25 percent in the last five years, as shown
in Figure 3. The Town of Fairhaven and many communities in New England pay some of the
highest electricity costs in the US at almost $0.16 per kWhr and more than double the national
average.




                                                                       1-6
                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                             Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




                  Figure 3: Average Electricity Costs for Industries in the US from 2002 to 2007.
The WWTP consumed 70,400 to 151,300 kilowatt-hours (kWhr) of electricity each month from
January 2006 to September 2008 as supplied by NStar, the local electric utility. A summary of the
WWTP electric use is shown in Table 4, based on a review of NStar electric bills.


                            Table 4: Fairhaven WWTP Recent Electric Use Summary.1
                             Electricity Use                                                               Electricity Costs
                                                                                                   Total
                       Average              Maximum                     Maximum                                           Annual
                                                                                                  Annual                                 Max Month
      Year             Monthly,             Monthly,                     Month                                          Average Rate,
                                                                                                 Electricity                            Rate, $/kWhr
                        kWhr                 kWhr                        Costs, $                                         $/kWhr
                                                                                                  Cost, $
      2006              108,238         151,300 (May)                27,671 (May)                  226,302                     0.172      0.187 (Jan)
      2007               93,902         107,540 (Apr)                 15,922 (Feb)                 154,803                     0.138      0.157 (Jun)
      20082              87,809         106,740 (Aug)                 19,839 (July)                129,245                     0.163      0.201 (Jul)
    Average2                                151,300                      27,871
                         97,453                                                                    190,552                     0.157      0.201 (Jul)
  (2006-2008)                              (May 2008)                  (May 2008)
Notes:
1. The minimum average and maximum uses are per copies of the WWTP electric bills from NStar.

2. Information was not received for all months in 2008, but the above is considered representative.




                                                                            1-7
                               Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                              P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
1: Introduction                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Electric bills from 2006 to 2008 indicate that the average unit cost of NStar electricity did not
significantly vary seasonally for the Fairhaven WWTP for the period in which data was available.
The average cost per unit of electricity for the seven cold weather months of October through April
was $0.157 per kWhr. The average electricity cost during the five warm weather months of May
through September was $ 0.158 per kWhr. The annual average electric price paid to NStar for
electricity was about $0.157 per kWhr from 2006 to September 2008.
The WWTP was one of the first small treatment facilities to enroll in the EPA Energy Star
Benchmarking Program in 2006. The results of the program showed that the WWTP was energy
efficient and no major recommendations for process or equipment modifications to improve energy
efficiency.

1.4 Study Objectives
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of
implementing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (CHP) processes to produce
methane fuel for power generation at the WWTP. The Town wants to determine if producing
alternative energy from wastewater solids and other potential sources can be a cost-effective way to
continue their sustainable initiatives. The Town also recognizes the potential reductions in sludge
production and sludge disposal costs that the anaerobic digestion process can provide and wants to
evaluate these benefits in kind with renewable energy production.
Additionally, this study describes the holistic impacts an anaerobic digestion facility will have on the
existing WWTP and its ability to reduce solids inventory or storage within liquid stream treatment
processes and treat influent wastewater effectively to meet current and future permit limits. This is
important not only for day to day operations and the impacts a new solids treatment process will
have on operations staff, but equally because of the nutrient limits expected to be included in the
new NPDES permit by the EPA.




                                                                      1-8
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

   2. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND
               COMBINED HEAT AND POWER


2.1 Anaerobic Digestion

2.1.1 Process Overview
The anaerobic digestion process is one of the oldest processes to stabilize concentrated wastewater
solids or sludge. Sludge is stabilized to destroy pathogenic organisms, reduce odors, and inhibit the
potential for putrefaction or further breakdown and release of odors during sludge disposal or reuse.
Stabilization is accomplished through digestion by reducing the volatile or organic content of the
sludge (represented by the concentration of “volatile solids”) biologically. During the anaerobic
digestion process, the microorganisms present in wastewater sludge decompose organic matter in
the absence of oxygen to produce a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4),
referred to as “biogas”. The amount of organic matter available in wastewater sludge is determined
by the volatile solids (VS) concentration, with the balance consisting of inorganic, “inert” solid
matter. Thus, sludge with a higher VS concentration has the potential to produce higher quantities
of biogas during the digestion process than sludge with a lower VS concentration. Figure 4 shows
the microbial pathways and chemical products produced during the anaerobic digestion process.




           Figure 4: The Microbiological Pathways and Products of Anaerobic Digestion.




                                                                      2-1

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Primary sludge typically has a higher VS concentration than secondary or biological sludge (WAS)
because a portion of the VS in WAS has been oxidized during aeration in an activated sludge or
similar secondary treatment process. Other waste streams or feedstocks can provide a good source
of VS for digestion and biogas production. These include sources produced through commercial
and industrial processes, such as fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurants and other food serving
and processing establishments, food waste, and beverage waste among others. The properties of
possible digester feedstocks evaluated in this study are discussed in a later section of this report.
The process is carried out in airtight, heated reactor vessels as sludge is fed continuously (flow
through) or intermittently (batch feed) and retained for a certain period of time determined by the
level of treatment required. Typically, two types of configurations are used: standard-rate and high-
rate. Standard-rate digester reactors are unheated and unmixed, resulting in stratification of the
digester volume. This configuration is rarely used in new digestion facilities. Hydraulic retention
times (HRT) for standard-rate digestion can range from 30 to 60 days. High-rate digesters are
heated and completely mixed and have an HRT of 15 days or more. Figure 5 shows a typical cross
section of a high rate digester configuration.




                        Figure 5: Cross sections of typical high-rate digester configuration.
Heating required for high-rate digestion varies depending on the operating temperature. Optimum
temperatures are in the mesophilic range of 95 to 105°F (35 to 41°C) or the thermophilic range of
120 to 135°F (49 to 57°C). Although thermophilic digestion requires more heat and is typically less
stable than mesophilic digestion, thermophilic digestion takes less time and usually can produce 15
to 20 percent more biogas than the mesophilic process. This is because biological reaction rates are
increased at higher temperatures.

2.1.2 Biogas Treatment
The biogas that could be produced using anaerobic digestion at the Fairhaven WWTP is expected to
be similar to typical anaerobic sludge biogas produced by mesophilic sludge digesters at other
municipal treatment plants. Typical digester biogas is saturated with water vapor, is at a temperature
very close to the process operation, and pressure of 8 to 12 inches water column (0.3 to 0.4 psig). In




                                                                             2-2
                                Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                               P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


a thermophilic system, the biogas holds 8 to 12 times the water vapor; this is due to greatly increased
saturation vapor pressures at the higher operating temperatures. The raw biogas produced during
the digestion process contains contaminants that can be removed to improve the fuel quality for the
selected power generation equipment and also to optimize performance of the CHP system. A
summary of typical biogas, based on the results of laboratory analyses from several representative
plants is presented in Table 5.


                               Table 5: Typical WWTP Biogas Characteristics1.

         Constituent or Parameter                                    Units                               Value                      Remarks
      Gas pressure,                                                   psig4                            0.3 to 0.4
      Methane, CH4                                                  percent                             60 to 68                    Dry biogas
      Carbon dioxide, CO2                                           percent                             30 to 38                    Dry biogas
                                                                                                                                   As produced,
      Water vapor, H2O                                              percent                               5 to 6
                                                                                                                                    mesophilic
      Nitrogen, N2                                                  percent                             0.5 to 2                    Dry biogas
      Hydrogen sulfide, H2S                                parts per million                         50 to 3000                    Varies widely
      Siloxanes                                            parts per million                            0.3 to 6                   Varies widely
      Particulates with a mass > 10                                                                 Unknown,
                                                                      ppm5                                                            Varies
      microns                                                                                      but expected
      Temperature (mesophilic)                           degrees Fahrenheit                             95 to 98                   As produced
      Temperature (thermophilic)                         degrees Fahrenheit                          125 to 140                    As produced
      Specific gravity                                        dimensionless                         0.90 to 0.93                 Based on air =1.0
      Higher or gross heating value2                      Btu per cubic foot                         620 to 680                     Dry biogas
      Lower or net heating value3                         Btu per cubic foot                         550 to 600                     Dry biogas
          Notes:
          1. Based on the typical biogas analysis at many wastewater treatment plants.
          2. The higher heat value includes the energy required to vaporize the water formed chemically by
             the combustion of the fuel. Methane has a higher heating value of 1010 Btu per cubic foot.
             Natural gas utilities sell gas per its higher heating value.
          3. The lower heat value does not include the energy required to vaporize the water formed in the
             chemical reaction by the combustion of the fuel. Methane has a lower heating value of 909 Btu
             per cubic foot. The fuel consumption of cogeneration equipment, by convention, is per the
             fuel’s lower heating value.
          4. The abbreviation Psig is pressure, in pounds per square inch, gage.
          5. The abbreviation ppm is parts per million; ppb is parts per billion




                                                                         2-3
                            Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                           P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


A biogas treatment system can range in complexity depending on the fuel quality specifications
required by the gas use or power generation equipment. One common system configurations
designed to remove these contaminants may include the following components:
    Mechanical moisture separators/"knock-out" pots – removal of free water
    Iron sponge or chemical scrubber – hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduction
    Gas cooler, heat exchanger, and moisture separator - refrigerated gas cooling to approximately 40°F to
    remove water vapor
    Centrifugal blower – gas pressurization ranging from 2 to 80 psig and re-heating
    Vapor-phase activated carbon - siloxane removal
    Filtration – remove particulates
Siloxanes are man-made volatile organic chemicals containing silica, oxygen, and alkanes
(hydrocarbons) that are found in many personal care and home care products such as deodorants,
shampoos, water-proofing compounds, dyes and hand lotions. They are very troublesome when
combusted because they form deposits on moving parts and reduce the efficiency of most
combustion engines. Two of the five most common digester siloxanes are water soluble and can be
removed with water. The remaining siloxanes must be removed through adsorption by activated
carbon.
An advanced biogas treatment system is shown in Figure 6 and includes activated carbon vessels for
advanced siloxane removal. The system is used to cool biogas down to approximately 40°F, in which
over 90 percent of the water is condensed as well as some of the soluble siloxanes. The gas cooler
can be a simple, single-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The small centrifugal gas blower only
adds about 3 or 4 psig of gas pressure to the gas, as well as 30 to 40 degrees F worth of heat, via the
heat of compression. This provides all the gas pressure needed for most of today’s gas engines,
including Stirling Engines. However, microturbines can require up to 80 psig of pressure and
require a compressor.




          Figure 6: Schematic of an advanced biogas treatment system with siloxane removal.




                                                                         2-4
                            Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                           P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



2.2 Combined Heat and Power
By definition, the CHP process at a WWTP produces both usable heat energy and electric power
from the same fuel source. Note that the term “combined heat and power” used in this study also is
used by the EPA and, particularly in Europe, where municipal and commercial biogas-fueled
projects are extremely common. The EPA defines CHP as the “simultaneous production of
electricity and heat from a single fuel source, such as natural gas, biomass, biogas, coal, waste heat,
or oil”. CHP is an integrated energy production system that is site specific to the fuel source (in this
study, biogas), the power generation equipment, and the heat recovery system.
In most WWTP applications, biogas is used to fuel power generation equipment to produce
electricity and heat from the exhaust or other source is recovered for use elsewhere at the WWTP.
Recovered heat can be used for treatment processes and to heat buildings, but is typically used in the
anaerobic digestion process to heat the influent digester feedstock to the desired operating
temperature. Figure 7 shows a process flow diagram for a typical WWTP CHP system.




                            Figure 7: Process Schematic for a CHP System.

2.2.1 CHP Alternatives
The alternatives for CHP were developed based on new and proven biogas fueled equipment, with
the appropriate accessories and auxiliaries required by that technology. The alternatives were based
on actual equipment with known experience with low energy-content gas mixtures such as WWTP
biogas or municipal landfill gas. An ideal CHP system would operate continuously and consume all
plant biogas to produce all heat needs, along with a substantial portion of the WWTP electricity
needs.

2.2.2 Power Generation Equipment
Based the potential biogas production for the different alternatives developed for this study, and a
typical lower heating valve for methane gas of 909 Btu per cubic foot, an approximate size range for
power generation of 50 kW to 200 kW was calculated. This range limits the applicable power




                                                                      2-5
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


generation equipment to: microturbines, Stirling cycle engine generators, and small internal
combustion (IC) engine generators. These are discussed in more detail in the following sections.
Microturbine Background

Microturbines are small, high-speed combustion gas turbine generators produced in sizes of 43 kW
to 250 kW. For improved electric power generation efficiency, microturbines include a specialized
recuperator, or high temperature gas-to-air heat exchanger to help capture a portion of the exhaust
heat for warming the combustion air. Some microturbines were developed from high-speed
turbochargers originally developed for large reciprocating engines, and some microturbines have
innovative air bearings for reduced maintenance.
A gas turbine is a type of rotating machine that produces mechanical power from the expansion of a
combusted fuel. A microturbine is a very small combustion gas turbine packaged with an electric
generator and an exhaust gas recuperator for improved electric power production. Gas turbines first
debuted in about 1939, but microturbines were only introduced in about 1995. The Capstone
microturbine may have been one of the first microturbines, and it is clearly the most publicized and
well-known. Other microturbine suppliers include Ingersoll Rand. The Capstone microturbine unit
has a power generation efficiency of approximately 26 percent.
Stirling Cycle Engine Generator Background

The Stirling Cycle was developed in 1816, but has not been widely used until recently. The Stirling
Biopower PowerUnit™ is an engine-generator package that includes an external combustion
Stirling-cycle engine, a low-energy-content-fuel-fired combustion system, an induction generator, an
engine control system, a weather-protective enclosure with integral ventilation system, and other
supporting electrical equipment for grid parallel operation.
The PowerUnit’s technology is centered on a four-cylinder Stirling engine. A Stirling engine is a
heat engine. The heat can be provided from an external heat source or be produced by the
combustion of a wide variety of fuels within the integral combustor. This heat is maintained at a
constant temperature in one section of the engine, where heat is transferred to pressurized
hydrogen. As the hydrogen expands, it pushes the pistons. In the low-temperature section of the
engine, the hydrogen is cooled by heat-storage devices and liquid coolers. As it expands and
contracts, the hydrogen drives the reciprocating motion of the pistons, which is converted to rotary
motion via a swash plate that powers a small, standard induction electrical generator. The hydrogen-
cooling process also generates heat that can be used as combined heat and power in ancillary
processes.
The base PowerUnit™ is designed for operation on biogas and is rated at 43 kW of nominal electric
power output and produces 65 kW to 79 kW of extractable heat with the optional combined heat
and power (CHP). The Stirling power unit reportedly has an electric power generation efficiency of
approximately 28 percent.
Internal Combustion Engine Generator Background

Spark-ignition internal combustion engines have been producing electric power at WWTP in the US
since the 1920s. IC engines are a proven and well-establsihed technology that is available from
several manufacturers. Lean-burn, spark-ignition, internal combustion engines are available in sizes




                                                                      2-6
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
2: Technical Overview                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


from about 150 kW to over 6000 kW. Currently, lean-burn engines are, by far, the most popular
type WWTP biogas fuel prime mover, because of their low cost per unit power produced, relatively
high efficiencies, extensive proven track record, and acceptable exhaust emissions. Lean-burn
engines offer the advantages of good fuel economy and the ability to use low pressure biogas, at 2
psig or less. This helps reduce the cost and complexity of fuel compression. Internal combustion
engine generators have an expected power generation efficiency of approximately 30 to 34 percent.




                                                                      2-7
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

                     3. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVES


3.1 Alternative Evaluation Process
In the next sections, alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power
systems at the Fairhaven WWTP are introduced and developed in more detail. These alternatives
represent the different designs that were conceptualized to meet the objectives of this study. In
review, the objectives of this study were summarized by the following:
1. Evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of implementing anaerobic digestion and CHP
   to produce methane fuel for electric power generation at the WWTP, and
2. Evaluate the holistic impacts anaerobic digestion and CHP will have on the existing WWTP
   performance and effluent quality.
The objectives of this study were used to guide the development process and will be evident in the
alternatives presented for evaluation on non-cost and cost criteria in the next section.

3.2 Digester Feedstock Alternatives
The conceptual design of the anaerobic digestion and CHP facility for the Fairhaven WWTP
depends heavily on the characteristics of the feedstock supplied to the digestion process, and as a
result, the potential digester biogas production. Three digester feedstock alternatives were
developed and evaluated in this study using different types of waste organic solids including:
   Digester Feedstock 1 – Fairhaven WWTP Sludge
   Digester Feedstock 2 – WWTP Sludge + Beverage and Dairy Waste + Fats, oils and grease
   (FOG)
   Digester Feedstock 3 – WWTP Sludge + Beverage and Dairy Waste + FOG + Food Waste

These feedstock alternatives differed in their characteristics and the quantity of digester biogas that
can potentially be generated from them. They also differed in the way they can be introduced into
the digestion process. The level of complexity increases as different waste streams are added
because of the goal to provide a relatively consistent and homogeneous feedstock to the digestion
process. Different waste types must be blended as they are received and some types, like food
waste, require pretreatment in the form of screening and maceration to create a slurry from high
solids concentration loads.
It is important to note that possibly the most difficult and impactful part of the development of
conceptual designs was the identification and characterization of digester feedstock alternatives.
Identifying available waste sources for digestion locally and acquiring good data for these sources
proved to be challenging. In some cases, the individuals responsible for management of a particular
waste stream were resistant to providing any information. Others expressed enthusiasm for the
opportunity to take part in beneficial reuse of their waste stream and the possibility of lower disposal



                                                                      3-1

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


costs and potential payment as these waste streams will likely become commodities. These issues
are expressed here to emphasize that these challenges may persist as future projects are developed
and that there are no guarantees associated with the availability of the waste sources identified in this
study.
The co-digestion of wastewater sludge with other waste organic sources has been practiced for years
in many parts of Europe, but it is a relatively new modification to traditional anaerobic digestion in
the US. We are aware of several municipal WWTPs in the US that are currently researching and
implementing co-digestion at existing digester facilities. These facilities include:
   East Bay Municipal Utilities District (EBMUD), Oakland, CA
   Riverside, CA
   Inland Empire Utility Agency, Chino, CA
   Tacoma, WA
   Des Moines, IA
   Oxnard, CA
   South Bayside Discharge Authority, Redwood City, CA

Supplemental organic wastes that have been considered and tested include FOG, food, beverage,
brewery (yeasts), dairy waste, and food flavor waste and de-icing fluid used at airports. Typically, the
main driver for co-digestion at WWTPs is to enhance biogas production by adding highly degradable
organic wastes to the main municipal sludge load. Thus, the value of a feedstock relates to the
amount of biogas that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of the organic material in the
feedstock. In addition, the WWTP must have the ability to economically and beneficially use the
added biogas, typically in a CHP system.
In general, the potential biogas yield varies between different organic wastes and this is shown by the
wastes considered in this study. Beverage waste from a local cranberry beverage production facility
is shown to have properties similar to wastewater sludge because the beverage waste is generated
from an activated sludge system at the facility. Dairy waste from a large dairy product facility has a
higher biogas yield than wastewater sludge because of its volatility and high organic content.
FOG offers some of the highest biogas yield for an organic waste due to its very high organic and
volatile content. Additionally, FOG has been shown to enhance the digestion and biogas
production of wastewater sludge when co-digested (Schafer, 2007). This has been attributed to a
symbiotic relationship between FOG and wastewater sludge during anaerobic digestion that
enhances biological activity by satisfying a trace metal deficiency and/or through an improved
carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio in the sludge. This enhanced biological activity has been shown to
increase volatile solids consumption, volume reduction, and biogas production. Limits to the
quantity of FOG that can be included in a digester feedstock are defined by the percentage of
volatile solids (VS) contributed by FOG compared to the overall VS load. Initial studies have
shown this limit to be approximately 30 percent and that increasing the VS load from FOG beyond
this amount may increase the risk for upset in the digestion process (Schafer, 2007).
The degree of pretreatment required for food waste prior to co-digestion with other wastes can be
significant. Screening and separation of debris such as silverware, glass, plates, etc. may be needed




                                                                               3-2
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


to protect downstream equipment depending on the source of the food waste. This debris is
typically associated with post-consumer waste from sources like restaurants and cafeterias. Quality
control measures can be taken to remove debris at the source, but in some cases this is not cost-
effective for the waste generator and often allows debris to pass into the feedstock. Limiting
acceptable food waste to pre-consumer waste from grocery stores and food processing plants that
typically do not contain debris can be a more effective way to prevent debris in the feedstock and
avoid onsite screening and separation.
Regardless of the quality of food waste, the high solids content and bulk of the received mixture
may require dilution or concentration, made into a slurry and pumped homogeneously before
digesting or combining with other wastes prior to digestion. European designs like the one shown
in Figure 8 use “hydro-pulpers” and cyclone separators to pre-process food waste into a suitable
feedstock.




             Figure 8: Schematic of a Typical European Food Waste Pretreatment Process Prior to Anaerobic Digestion.

Companies like Biotechnische Abfallverwertung GmbH & Co. KG (BTA) and Linde-KCA have
been designing and constructing food waste digestion facilities in Europe and in some parts of Asia
for decades and much of the approaches to food waste digestion in the US has been adopted from
these designs or has been used directly. These processes can be costly to design, construct, and
operate and can significantly increase the overall project cost of a municipal digestion facility. These
processes will be discussed in more detail in the following sections.
The values for the characteristics determined for each digester feedstock alternative were used to
calculate digester tank volumes and biogas production for the conceptual anaerobic digestion facility
at the Fairhaven WWTP.

3.2.1 Digester Feedstock 1 - Fairhaven WWTP Sludge Only
The Fairhaven WWTP currently produces primary and secondary sludge from the liquid stream
treatment processes. Historical data for these sludge loads was evaluated to determine their
suitability for biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The sludge characteristics that are
important include daily sludge load (pounds per day), solids concentration (percent total solids,
%TS), and volatile solids concentration (%VS). Table 6 shows a summary of the characteristics of
the existing sludge produced at the Fairhaven WWTP used in this study that define “Digester
Feedstock 1”.




                                                                               3-3
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



         Table 6: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternative 1.

                                                            Quantities
                                                                                                                               VS
                                                                     Total solids                    Flow to              concentration4,     VS Load,
      Type              Produced,              Pounds               concentration,                                           percent         pounds per
                                                                                                     digester,
                         gallons               per day,                percent                                                                  day
                                                                                                      gallons
                         per day                 dry
                                                                                                     per day2

                                                                               3.9
 Primary sludge3           5,826                 1,890                                                  3,777                          84        1,588

       Secondary
                          19,143                 1,597                         1.0                      3,191                          80        1,277
          sludge3
      Total               24,969                 3,487                          --                      6,968                          --        2,865
Digester
                           6,967                 3,487                         6.0                      6,968                          83        2,865
Feedstock 12
Notes:
1. These are preliminary data for planning purposes only and should be refined further for future analysis
   and design work
2. It was assumed that all feedstock components would be blended and thickened prior to digestion; sludge
   loads were calculated on a dry pound basis with a total solids concentration of 6%.
3. Historical sludge characteristics were determined based on WWTP data from January, 2004 to May, 2008.
4. Volatile solids concentration data were generated from the June, 2008 three-day sludge sampling event at
   the Fairhaven WWTP conducted as part of this study. Lab results from this sampling event are shown in
   Appendix B.


Primary sludge from the Fairhaven WWTP had a higher concentration and volatile content than
secondary sludge, which is fairly typical for WWTP sludge. The differences between the total wet
pounds and gallons for each sludge compared to those listed for Digester Feedstock 1 existed
because it was assumed that combined sludge would be thickened before digestion. The volumetric
flow rate (gal/d) for Digester Feedstock 1 was based on the sum of the average generation rates (dry
lbs/d) of primary and secondary sludge at the WWTP with an assumed concentration of 6 percent
total solids. The VS concentration was based on actual data from the combined primary and
secondary sludge at the WWTP. Note that also, the combined VS load from primary and secondary
sludge was very close to what was calculated for the combined sludge VS load in Digester
Feedstock 1.




                                                                               3-4
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



3.2.2 Digester Feedstock 2 – WWTP Sludge + Organic Wastes
Conceptually, Digester Feedstock 2 consisted of a mixture of degradable organic waste from three
different local sources and the existing sludge load from the WWTP. These included the following:
   Beverage processing waste - secondary sludge from an industrial WWTP treating waste from a
   cranberry beverage production plant
   Dairy waste – expired fluid milk and off-specification milk products
   FOG – waste fats, oil, and grease from local restaurants, markets and food processing plants

These sources were identified through discussions with actual waste producers that provided
planning-level data on the characteristics and quantities of available waste that could be delivered to
the Fairhaven WWTP for digestion. Information from past Brown and Caldwell projects evaluating
the co-digestion of FOG with wastewater sludge was also used.
Overall, FOG was considered a more reliable feedstock component than cranberry beverage and
dairy waste. FOG is an abundant waste in a community like Fairhaven with several food-serving
establishments, while the long-term availability of beverage and dairy waste is uncertain because they
are controlled by major corporate production facilities. These corporations have existing methods
of disposal and may not commit their waste to an anaerobic digestion facility at the Town’s WWTP
on a long-term basis due to improvements in their disposal methods or to other less costly options.
In addition, the Fairhaven Board of Public Works recently passed FOG regulations requiring
outdoor grease traps. The goal is to prevent plug ups of the sanitary sewer system. The material
collected in these traps will need to be collected and processed and could potentially be used as a
feedstock component.
Because of the difference in reliability of the organic wastes, Digester Feedstock 2 was split into two
alternatives for evaluation:
    Digester Feedstock 2A: wastewater sludge and FOG,
    Digester Feedstock 2B: wastewater sludge, FOG, cranberry beverage and dairy wastes.

The amount of FOG included in Digester Feedstock 2A is twice the amount considered for
Digester Feedstock 2B. Table 7 shows a summary of the data used in this study that define Digester
Feedstock 2A & 2B.




                                                                               3-5
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




           Table 7: Summary of Characteristics1 for Digester Feedstock Alternative 2A and 2B.

                                                               Quantities
                                                                                                                                               VS
                            Produced Pounds                Flow to        VS
                                             Total solids                                                                                     Load,
       Waste Type               or     per                 digester, concentration2,
                                            concentration,                                                                                   pounds
                            received, day,                  gallons     percent
                                               percent                                                                                       per day
                             gal/day   dry                 per day2
     Digester Feedstock 2A
     WWTP sludge                 24,969              3,487                        6                     6,968                           83     2,865
                 FOG             1,000                834                        10                     1,667                           95      792
            Total                25,970              4,321                       62                     8,635                           --     3,687
     Digester Feedstock 2B
     WWTP sludge                 24,969              3,487                        6                     6,967                           83     2,865
                 FOG              600                 500                        10                     1,000                           95      475
                Dairy3           2,000              2,6003                      <1                      2,000                           90     2,600
             Beverage            1,199               1,200                       12                     2,398                           85     1,020
            Total                28,769              7,787                       62                    12,365                           --     6,990
Notes:
1. These are preliminary data for planning purposes only and should be refined further for future analysis
   and design work
2. It was assumed that all feedstock components would be blended and thickened prior to digestion; sludge
   loads were calculated on a dry pound basis with a total solids concentration of 6%.
3. Dairy waste is a liquid stream that contributes to dry solids mass only through biological growth during
   digestion. For this study, dairy waste COD mass will be used for “dry” mass and VS load because
   essentially all of the COD mass is degradable.
The addition of 1000 gallons of received FOG waste to the wastewater sludge increased the
potential VS load of the digester feedstock by approximately 27 percent. Adding 600 gallons of
FOG with other waste sources such as dairy and beverage waste to the wastewater sludge increased
the potential VS load of the digester feedstock by approximately 78 percent.




                                                                                3-6
                                   Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                  P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



3.2.3 Digester Feedstock 3 – WWTP Sludge + Beverage Waste + FOG +
      Food Waste
Data obtained from the “Food Waste Database”, developed by the Massachusetts Department of
Environmental Protection (MA DEP), was used to determine the characteristics of Digester
Feedstock 3. Staff from the MA DEP Commercial Waste Reduction Program queried the database
for available food waste within a 30-mile radius around the Fairhaven WWTP. The query identified
the location and name of food waste producers, characterized the type of food waste (restaurant,
institution, grocery store, etc.) and provided quantities of food waste in the local community.
The food waste quantity data was estimated by the MA DEP staff using assumptions for waste
production based on the size of the producer, pounds of food waste produced per person, and other
assumptions. The equation shown below is an example of the methods used by MA DEP to
estimate food production for supermarkets:
                   Food waste (lbs/year) = N of employees * 3,000 lbs/employee/yr
The final report was titled, “Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of Food Waste and Food
Waste Generators in Massachusetts”, and the complete data set generated for this study from the
MA DEP is shown in Appendix C.
Overall, the amount of available food waste in the area targeted by MA DEP is significant. In total,
over 228,000 pounds per day of food waste was shown to be available. Almost 8,000 pounds per
day of food waste was available in Fairhaven alone. Because of the enormous amount of food waste
production estimated by the MA DEP and the unknowns associated with the actual amount of
available food waste compared to these estimations, a 25% “availability” factor was applied to the
data. Additionally, the food waste considered for digester feedstock 3 was limited to those major
cities and towns within 10 miles of the Fairhaven WWTP including: Acushnet, Dartmouth,
Fairhaven, Fall River, Mattapoisett, and New Bedford.
Assumptions for food waste characteristics were developed from work performed by Brown and
Caldwell and the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). These assumptions and the data used
from the MA DEP food waste database were used to define the characteristics shown in Table 8 for
Digester Feedstock 3.




                                                                               3-7
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




         Table 8: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternative 3.

                                                          Quantities
                                                                                                                                      VS           VS
  Waste         Produced or                                                                             Flow to                  concentration2, Load,
                                                                       Total solids                                                 percent
  Type            received                Pounds per                                                    digester,                                pounds
                                                                      concentration,
                 gallons per               day, dry                                                    gallons per                               per day
                                                                         percent
                     day                                                                                   day2
  WWTP
                    24,970                     3,487                              6                         6,968                      83          2,865
   sludge
     FOG              600                        500                             10                         1,000                      95           475
    Dairy4           2,000                     2,600                            <1                          2,000                      90          2600
 Beverage            1,199                     1,200                             12                         2,398                      85          1,020
     Food
                     1,214                     3,293                            255                         6,582                      85          2,799
    Waste3
   Total            29,983                    11,080                             62                        18,948                      --          9,789
Notes:
1. These are preliminary data for planning purposes only and should be refined further for future analysis
   and design work
2. It was assumed that all feedstock components would be blended and thickened prior to digestion; sludge
   loads were calculated on a dry pound basis with a total solids concentration of 6%.
3. Includes a 25% availability factor for total quantity of food waste estimated for the six major cities and
   towns around the Fairhaven WWTP.
4. Dairy waste is a liquid stream that contributes to dry solids mass only through biological growth during
   digestion. For this study, dairy waste COD mass will be used for “dry” mass and VS load because
   essentially all of the COD mass is degradable.
5. All food waste received at the Fairhaven WWTP would have to be diluted down from high solids
   concentration and processed (i.e. “hydropulped”) before it blended with other feedstock wastes.
Adding 600 gallons of FOG with other waste sources like dairy, beverage, and food waste to the
wastewater sludge increased the potential VS load of the digester feedstock by approximately 78
percent.

3.2.4 Summary of Digester Feedstock Alternatives
Table 9 shows a summary of the characteristics of the three digester feedstock alternatives
developed for this study.




                                                                               3-8
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



         Table 9: Summary of Characteristics1 for Conceptual Digester Feedstock Alternatives.

                                                                                        Imported                             Flow to
                                                             Imported                                                                        VS Load,
                                                                                      Truckloads per                         digester,
Alternative             Components                            gallons                                                                       pounds per
                                                                                      week, # trucks4                       gallons per
                                                              per day3                                                                         day
                                                                                      (approximate)                             day2
1                      WWTP sludge                                   0                             0                             6,968         2,865
                       WWTP sludge                                   0                             1
2A                           FOG                                  600                              1                             8,634         3,687
                             Total                                600                              1
                       WWTP sludge                                   0                             0
                             FOG                                  600                              1
                         Dairy waste                             2,000                             4
2B                                                                                                                              12,366         6,990
                    Cranberry beverage
                                                                 1,199                             2
                     production waste
                             Total                               3,799                             7
                       WWTP sludge                                   0                             0
                             FOG                                  600                              1
                         Dairy waste                             2,000                             4
3                   Cranberry beverage                                                                                          18,947         9,789
                                                                 1,199                             2
                     processing waste
                         Food waste                              1,214                             2
                             Total                               5,013                             9
Notes:
1. These are preliminary data for planning purposes only and should be refined further for future analysis
   and design work
2. It was assumed that all feedstock alternatives would be thickened prior to digestion and sludge loads were
   calculated on a dry pound basis with a total solids concentration of 6%.
3. Based on a five-day work week at the WWTP.
4. Based on a typical tanker truck capacity of 3,000 gallons per truck.
The addition of cranberry beverage and dairy waste to the digester feedstock resulted in the highest
net weekly increase in received truckloads at the plant (4). Adding FOG or food waste resulted in
only one additional truckload per week received at the plant. The value of adding organic wastes to




                                                                               3-9
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


the wastewater sludge to enhance the digester feedstock is shown by the increase in VS load as feed
flow increases from Digester Feedstock 1 to 3. Overall, Digester Feedstock 3 could provide the
highest amount of volatile solids for digestion and has the highest biogas production potential of all
feedstock alternatives. As the following sections will show, these differences in feedstock
characteristics directly impact the difference in potential biogas production from each feedstock.

3.3 Anaerobic Digestion Process

3.3.1 Digestion Alternatives to be Considered
This study evaluates single-stage and two-stage high-rate anaerobic digestion alternatives in the
mesophilic and thermophilic temperature ranges. The conceptual design assumptions for each
digestion alternative are shown in Table 10. Note that each “stage” represents a digester tank.


                Table 10: Design assumptions for different anaerobic digestion alternatives.

                                                            Operating                                      Hydraulic Retention
                                                         Temperature, °F(°C)                                  Time, days                         Estimated
  Alternative           Description
                                                                                                        1st              2nd                      VSR, %
                                                        1st stage             2nd stage                                                Overall
                                                                                                       stage            stage
                        Single-stage
        1                                               100 (38)                     --                  15                --            15         50
                        mesophilic
                         Two-stage
        2                                               100 (38)               100 (38)                  10               10             20         55
                         mesophilic
                         Single-stage
        3                                               135 (57)                     --                   9                --            9          50
                        thermophilic
                         Two-stage
        4              thermophilic/                    135 (57)               100 (38)                   8               10             18         65
                         mesophilic


A conceptual process flow diagram showing the digester configuration alternatives is presented in
Figure 9.




                                                                              3-10
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




   Figure 9: Conceptual Process Flow Diagram for Anaerobic Digester Configuration Alternatives.
The four alternatives for digestion present configurations that differ in many aspects of design and
performance. The major design and performance elements are discussed in the following sections
and include:
    Tank volume
    Heating requirements
    Biogas production and solids reduction
Impact to Required Digester Reactor Volume

The digester tank volume requirements differ for each alternative due to the hydraulic residence time
(HRT) assumed for each stage of digestion. As shown in Table 10, increasing operating temperature
and the number of stages reduces the required HRT for individual stages. Required digester tank
volume for each stage is calculated by multiplying the daily digester influent feed (feedstock) by the
HRT. A safety factor of 30 percent was also included in the tank volume calculation for the purpose
of this study. A discussion of digester feedstock alternatives and design assumptions for feed rates
and tank volumes associated with these alternatives is discussed in the following section.
The digester feedstock information and the digester design assumptions were used to determine the
digester tank sizes required for the digestion alternatives described using a feedstock containing only
sludge generated at the Fairhaven WWTP. Conceptual digester tank sizes were estimated using the
following equation:




                                                                              3-11
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


 Volume = HRT (days) * conceptual feedstock daily flow (gal/day) *1.3 (30% safety factor)
The digester tank sizes required for the conceptual WWTP sludge feedstock were rounded to the
nearest 1,000 gallon. The type of digester tanks considered in this study were bolted steel tanks
typically used for digestion in industrial waste applications and occasionally for wastewater and
sludge storage in municipal WWTP applications. These tanks are widely available through US
manufacturers with corrosion resistant interior from glass-fused-to-steel surfaces or epoxy coatings.
Figure 10 shows a typical bolted steel tank similar to the tank designs considered in this study.




         Figure 10: Typical Bolted Steel Tanks - Aquastore Glass-fused-to-steel Insulated Tanks


Estimated tank volumes are shown in Table 11 and were used to acquire budgetary costs from
manufacturers for new bolted steel digester tanks. The useful service life for steel tanks are typically
in the range of 25 to 30 years, compared to approximately 50 years for concrete digester vessels.
The development of the LCA for each digestion alternative using these and other costs is discussed
in the following sections.




                                                                              3-12
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
  3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




   Table 11: Estimated Digester Tank Volumes for a Conceptual Feedstock Containing WWTP Sludge.

                                                                                                                                                Alternative 4
                                                            Alternative 1                    Alternative 2                    Alternative 3
                                                                                                                                                  (Two-stage
          Digester Configuration                            (Single-stage                    (Single-stage                     (Two-stage
                                                                                                                                                thermophilic/
                                                             mesophilic)                     thermophilic)                     mesophilic)
                                                                                                                                                 mesophilic)
                                                                                   Estimated digester tank volume, gallons
Digester Feedstock 1
                                   First Stage                  136,000                           91,000                          82,000           73,000
                             Second stage                             0                           91,000                                 0         91,000
Digester Feedstock 2A
                                   First Stage                  169,000                          113,000                         101,000           90,000
                             Second stage                             0                          113,000                                 0        113,000
Digester Feedstock 2B
                                   First Stage                  242,000                          161,000                         145,000          129,000
                             Second stage                             0                          161,000                                 0        161,000
Digester Feedstock 3
                                   First Stage                  370,000                          247,000                         222,000          197,000
                             Second stage                             0                          247,000                                 0        247,000
  Overall, increasing feedstock volume led to increased digester tank volumes for all digestion
  configuration alternatives. The difference in required tank volumes was evident between each
  digestion and feedstock alternative. Individual tank volume is less for two-stage systems, but the
  overall tank volume is significantly greater for two-stage digestion compared to single-stage systems
  for the same feedstock. The effect of increasing operating temperature is shown by the decrease in
  required tank volume in single and two-stage systems. This is due to the lower HRT required for
  thermophilic digestion (135°F) compared to mesophilic digestion (100°F).
  Impact to Heating Requirements

  The heat load for anaerobic digestion process makes up the majority of the required energy.
  Heating requirements include the energy needed to bring the digester feedstock to operating
  temperatures in either the mesophilic or thermophilic range and the amount needed to maintain
  these temperatures during the full digestion period. Heat losses through tank walls, ceilings, and
  piping contribute to the heat maintenance requirements and can be significant during the cold winter
  days in New England.




                                                                                3-13
                                    Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                   P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                                   Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


The required heat loads were calculated for each digester configuration and feedstock alternative and
include estimates for heat loss through insulated steel digester tank walls. These calculations are
shown in detail in Appendix D and the results of these calculations are shown graphically in Figure
11.

                                 900,000

                                               Feedstock 1
                                 800,000       Feedstock 2A
                                               Feedstock 2B
                                               Feedstock 3
                                 700,000
    Required Heat Load, BTU/hr




                                 600,000


                                 500,000


                                 400,000


                                 300,000


                                 200,000


                                 100,000


                                      0
                                               Alternative 1                              Alternative 2                                 Alternative 3               Alternative 4
                                                                                                     Digestion Configuration


                                 Figure 11: Heating Requirements for Digestion Configuration and Feedstock Alternatives.
The heat required to account for heat lost from each digester tank was greater than the difference in
heat load between mesophilic (100°F) and thermophilic (135°F) operating temperatures. This
caused the most significant heat load increases to occur when additional digester tanks were added
for a two-stage system, as shown between alternatives 1 and 2, and alternatives 3 and 4. The highest
heat load was shown for Digester Feedstock 3 because of the large volume associated with the
combination of wastewater sludge, beverage and dairy waste, FOG, and food waste.
Depending on the volume and operating temperature, some if not all of the heat load required for
anaerobic digestion can be acquired through heat recovery from operating power generation
equipment as part of the CHP system. If more heat is required than available through heat recovery,
then a net heat load exists for digestion that requires supplemental heat. Supplemental heat is
commonly provided by a natural gas-fueled boiler. .




                                                                                                3-14
                                                    Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                   P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



3.3.2 Biogas Storage
A biogas storage system covers the digester vessel, but is primarily required to provide a constant gas
pressure to the CHP system. Biogas is typically generated at an uneven rate during the anaerobic
digestion process and its variability is increased when different feedstock components are added
such as FOG and food waste. Generally, biogas treatment and combustion equipment require a
relatively constant pressure that can be supplied by using a biogas storage system.
The use of bolted steel tanks for digesters is accompanied by the use of innovative or non-traditional
biogas storage options. The headspace under a fixed or floating cover of traditional anaerobic
digesters provides very limited biogas storage space. Membrane biogas storage systems act as a
digester cover with the benefits of biogas storage and can be installed on top of a new or existing
digester tank or as a stand alone structure. Figures 12 and 13 show examples of current membrane
gas storage systems on new and retrofitted to existing anaerobic digester vessels.




Figure 12: Duosphere® Tank-mounted Membrane Gas Storage System installed at the Galion WWTP
                                      in Galion, OH.




            Figure 13: Duosphere® Stand-alone membrane Gas Storage System by WesTech.




                                                                              3-15
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


The different types of flexible membrane gas storage systems are generally similar in design and
operation, but differ greatly in their footprint required. A tank-mounted system is located on top of
a digester tank and does not use additional area whereas a stand-alone system can take up an area
equal to the digester footprint. Because of the limited availability of space at the Fairhaven WWTP,
tank-mounted membrane biogas storage systems will be considered for evaluation.
A typical tank-mounted membrane biogas storage system is dome-shaped and includes two durable
membranes. The outer air membrane remains inflated with air in a fixed position and is cable
restrained to the digester tank to ensure system integrity and allow operating pressures up to 16-
inches of water column. The inner membrane moves freely as it stores or releases biogas generated
from the anaerobic digestion process. The membranes are sealed tight to the digestion tank wall and
prevent odors from escaping. Figure 14 shows a cross section of a tank-mounted membrane biogas
storage system.




          Figure 14: Cross-section View of a Siemens Dystor® Membrane Gas Holding System.
A relatively low, compressed air handling system is used to maintain a preset operating pressure
between the two membranes. A blower or fan supplies pressurized air to the air chamber when
biogas is withdrawn and a pressure air control valve vents air to accommodate increasing biogas
volumes. By automatically equalizing the pressure, the pressurized air system keeps the outer
membrane inflated, while exerting a constant pressure on the stored biogas. Ideally, biogas is
withdrawn from a storage system at a location furthest from the liquid level within the digester
vessel. The biogas withdrawal location can be limited with membrane storage systems due to
geometry and the variability of its shape as pressure varies.
Membrane gas storage systems are installed and operating at several anaerobic digestion facilities in
the US. The leading manufacturers of membrane gas storage systems are Siemens (Dystor®) and
WesTech (Duosphere®) and each offers manufacturer’s installation. The Dystor design has existed
for approximately 15 to 20 years, while Duosphere had their first cover installation on an anaerobic
digestion vessel within the last 12 months (November 2007 -2008) of this study. The Duosphere
membrane is thicker and typically carries a longer manufacturer’s guarantee than the Dystor
membrane.




                                                                              3-16
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


The conceptual design for the anaerobic digestion process includes a membrane gas storage system
because of its automated operation and control and its ability to adjust quickly and automatically to
variable gas volume and pressures and sludge levels.

3.3.3 Digester Mixing System
The use of a tank-mounted membrane biogas storage system in the conceptual design limits the
options for digester mixing to systems that do not require equipment penetrating or mounted on the
roof of a digester tank. This excludes traditional draft tube mixing systems and mechanical mixers.
The applicable digester mixing systems include gas mixing, peripheral draft tubes with heating
jackets, and jet or pump mixing. Gas mixing systems have been installed in the past and in many
cases have shown problems completely mixing digester contents. Jet or pump mixing can provide
better mixing than a gas mixing system, but requires the placement of nozzles within the digester
that may require draining the digester vessel for maintenance or due to failure. Foaming of the
digester contents at the surface is also a potential maintenance issue that must be considered with
the other potential issues identified during future design.
A jet mixing system uses an arrangement of nozzles mounted near the floor of the digester and
multiple pumps to circulate the digester contents and create a vertical mixing zone throughout the
digester. Vaughan manufactures a jet mixing system, the Rotamix system, for cylindrical digester
tanks that uses chopper pumps and, according to Vaughan, induces two zones of rotation within the
digester in the vertical and horizontal directions. It can create both a uniform field of flow (zone 1),
where the contents rotate as a solid unit with the highest velocity at the outside, and a “vortical” or a
vertical-axis vortex field of flow (zone 2), where high velocities are present at the center of the
digester. A schematic of these flow patterns is shown in Figure 15.




         Figure 15: Mixing Zone Patterns Induced by the Vaughan Rotamix Jet Mixing System.

The use of chopper pumps can help break up conglomerated particles in the digester and increase
surface area allowing better contact and interaction between microbes, organic solids, and nutrients.
The chopper pumps can also help prevent clogging of the high velocity jet nozzles. Figure 16 shows
an image of the Rotamix jet nozzles installed within a digester.




                                                                              3-17
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




          Figure 16: Jet Nozzles Installed as Part of a Vaughan Rotamix Digester Mixing System.
The Rotamix system is sized based on the dimensions of the digester tank being mixed and specifies
the number and flow rate of the chopper pumps and the number of jet nozzles required to fully mix
the digester contents. Table 12 summarizes the design parameters for the Rotamix mixing system
alternatives evaluated as part of the conceptual design for this study.


          Table 12: Summary of Design Parameters for the Digester Mixing System Alternatives.

                                  Tank Dimensions                                                             Mixing Pump Specifications
 Mixing
                                 Diameter,                                  No. of                                                      Recirculation
 System            Type                                 Water
                                    ft                                      Nozzles              Number                    Type          flow rate,     HP
Alternative                                            Level, ft
                                                                                                                                            gpm

      A           Jet                 30                    13                    2                     1               Chopper             450         10
      B          Mixing               40                    22                    4                     1               Chopper             1070        20



3.4 Combined Heat and Power System

3.4.1 Biogas Treatment and Power Generation
The treatment system required for biogas depends directly on the type of power generation
equipment it fuels. Therefore, the biogas treatment system and power generation equipment were
integrated to better evaluate each system as they would be designed, installed and operated at the
Fairhaven WWTP. The fuel specification requirements for microturbines mandate the need for gas
pressurization to 80 psig for water removal, and for siloxane removal. Table 13 summarizes the
performance characteristics of the power generation alternatives and the required biogas treatment.




                                                                               3-18
                                   Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                  P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



        Table 13: Summary of Power Generation Equipment and Biogas Treatment Information.

                                                                                    Power Generation Technology
   Equipment Information
                                                                                                       Stirling Cycle                  Small Lean Burn IC
                                                            Microturbine
                                                                                                           Engine                            Engine
Available Unit Capacities, kW
                                                              65 and 250                                          43                        110 to 250
Efficiency, %
                                                                      26                                          28                         30 to 34
 Fuel Gas Requirements and
   Treatment Equipment
Moisture removal

Typical equipment                                                                                    Refrigerated gas                  Refrigerated gas
                                                         Refrigerated gas
                                                                                                     dryer or similar                  dryer or similar
                                                              dryer
                                                                                                     cooling to 40°F                   cooling to 40°F
Gas pressure required
                    Fuel pressure, psi
                                                                      80                                          25                          2 to 5
               Pressurization device
                                                                                                                                         Centrifugal gas
                                                         Gas compressor                             Gas compressor
                                                                                                                                            blower
     Typical power required for
          biogas flow range, HP                                       10                                           5                            2
Hydrogen sulfide control
    Maximum level allowed, ppm
                                                                      ---                                         ---                      600 to 1,000
                  Typical equipment
                                                      Iron salts added to                                                               Iron salts added to
                                                                                                  Iron salts added to
                                                     digester, followed by                                                             digester followed by
                                                                                                       digester
                                                         iron sponge                                                                       iron sponge
         Typical Siloxane Removal                                                                   Optional per gas
                                                        Activated carbon                                                                Activated carbon
                        equipment                                                                     quality and
                                                          (temp. swing                                                                    (temp. swing
                                                                                                      equipment
                                                       adsorption system)                                                              adsorption system)
                                                                                                     maintenance
 The digestion alternatives presented in previous sections produced a range of available methane
 production levels from biogas. Based on the available methane fuel, power output per unit and the
 efficiency of each type of power generation equipment, each digestion alternative could fuel
 different numbers of equipment units with treated biogas. An increase in the number of power
 generation equipment units results in higher capital costs, but also yields more recoverable heat per
 unit and better turndown that can be used for process needs. Figure 17 shows a process flow
 diagram for a typical microturbine heat recovery system.




                                                                              3-19
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
3: Development of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




            Figure 17: A Process Flow Diagram for a Typical Microturbine-based CHP System.
IC engine models are available over a range of capacities and a single unit could be used for each
combination of digester feedstock and configuration alternative. It was assumed for this study that
the recovered heat from the CHP system would be primarily used to satisfy digester heat load
requirements. Table 14 shows the available capacities and recoverable heat for each power
generation technology evaluated in this study.


      Table 14: Available Capacities and Heat Recovery for Electric Power Generation Equipment
                                            Technologies.

                                                      Capstone                        Stirling
               Technology                                                                                         MAN Lean Burn IC Engine
                                                     Microturbine                    BioPower
     Power Output Capacity, kW                                 65                           43                      64                  110       150
        Recoverable Heat, Btu/hr                          260,000                      240,000                 348,228                 501,858   798,876
The amount of recoverable heat varies for each technology because of their design and their electric
power output capacity. For example, a 100 kW IC engine would produce more recoverable heat
than a 100-kW microturbine because of its mechanics and would also produce more heat than a 75
kW IC engine because of the difference in exhaust gas flow and engine volume.
The number of units that could be fueled using biogas will also differ for each type of electric power
generation equipment because of their available capacities and variations in the estimated amount of
biogas fuel for each digester alternative. Because of the variations shown for available capacities,
recoverable heat per equipment unit, and the amount of biogas fuel generated for each digester
alternative, the amount of recoverable heat available from the CHP system varied for each
alternative. This impacted the overall heat load and costs for each digester and feedstock alternative
and will be discussed in more detail in the evaluation section.




                                                                              3-20
                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

                      4. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES


4.1 Non-Economic Evaluation
Several alternatives for anaerobic digestion and CHP are presented in this study. These alternatives
have several non-cost related advantages and disadvantages that impact their value to the design and
operation of a new digestion and CHP facility. Evaluation criteria were developed for the major
design elements based on Brown and Caldwell’s experience with similar facilities and input from the
Fairhaven WWTP staff. These criteria were used to screen alternatives and streamline the life cycle
cost analysis for alternatives.

4.1.1 Anaerobic Digester Feedstock
The digester feedstock evaluation criteria were the following:
  Feedstock value: Biogas yield and nitrogen load
  Reliability of waste source
  Pre-processing requirements
The alternatives for digester feedstock alternatives evaluated were:
  Digester Feedstock 1: WWTP sludge
  Digester Feedstock 2A: WWTP sludge and FOG,
  Digester Feedstock 2B: WWTP sludge, FOG, beverage and dairy wastes
  Digester Feedstock 3: WWTP sludge, FOG, beverage and dairy wastes, food waste
Feedstock Value: Biogas Yield and Nitrogen Load

The Town and staff at the WWTP is concerned with any negative impacts from increasing the
volume of waste received at the WWTP from outside sources. However, the Town supports the
import of materials that could enhance the biogas yield and volatile solids destruction of the
feedstock during anaerobic digestion. The proximity of neighboring residences and increased vehicle
traffic associated with the import of certain wastes are important considerations in the assessment of
alternatives. Although a digestion and CHP facility would be municipally-owned and operated, these
concerns remain important to the Town and to this study. For this evaluation, the value of each
feedstock will be evaluated according to the biogas “yield”. The yield refers to the amount of
methane produced per unit volume of flow of the feedstock.
The difference between the volumes of imported organic wastes for each feedstock alternative was
shown to be significant. Food waste offered the highest available volume of received waste at the
highest concentration. Assumptions for receivable volume of FOG were low because of the
unknown quantities of locally available FOG, but the value of FOG for digestion enhancement was
the highest for all the organic wastes considered in this study. One way to evaluate the value of a
digester feedstock component is to compare the amount of methane gas yield per gallon of received



                                                                      4-1

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


waste. Using this method, Table 15 shows the potential value of each feedstock component and
each feedstock.


             Table 15: Value of Digester Feedstock Components Shown as Methane Fuel Yield.

                                                                                    Average daily methane
                                       Digester feed flow,                                                                            Yield, cubic feet of
Feedstock Component                                                                   production, cubic
                                            gal/day                                                                                   methane/gallon fed
                                                                                         feett/day1
            WWTP sludge                             6,967                                          15,518                                     2.2
          WWTP sludge
        w/FOG synergy2                              6,967                                          17,856                                     2.6
                         FOG                       1,0003                                           3,940                                     4.0
     Cranberry beverage
                  waste                             2,398                                           6,290                                     2.6
                Dairy waste                         2,000                                          13,520                                     6.8
                Food waste                          6,582                                          19,106                                     2.9
                                          Feedstock flow,                           Average daily methane                             Yield, cubic feet of
Feedstock
                                             gal/day                                 production, ft3/day1                             methane/gallon fed
   Digester Feedstock 1                             6,967                                          15,518                                     2.2
      Digester Feedstock
          Alternative 2A                            8,634                                          24,412                                     2.8
      Digester Feedstock
          Alternative 2B                           12,366                                          41,596                                     3.4
      Digester Feedstock
            Alternative 3                          18,947                                          60,702                                     3.2
Notes:
1. Methane production from biogas varied from 588 to 2,605 ft3/hr for each of the digestion configuration
   alternatives. For this comparison, the methane production was averaged over Alternatives 1 through 4.
2. The volatile solids reduction of wastewater sludge during anaerobic digestion is increased when FOG is
   added to the digester feedstock as described in Section 3.2..
3. Methane yield for FOG was independent of the feed volume.
In terms of individual feedstock components, dairy waste and FOG provide the highest methane
yield per gallon of liquid fed to an anaerobic digester. The methane yield for cranberry beverage and
food waste were similar. Note the difference in methane yield for wastewater sludge when FOG is
included in the feedstock.




                                                                              4-2
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Overall, Digester Feedstock 2B provided the highest methane yield (3.4 cubic feet of methane per
gallon of liquid), showing that the organic waste sources of FOG, cranberry beverage and dairy
waste combined with wastewater sludge produce the greatest amount of potential power production
for the volume processed. Note the boost in yield shown from adding FOG to wastewater sludge
demonstrated by Digester Feedstock 2A.
Although these organic wastes are highly degradable and provided high VS loads, the water removed
from these wastes during thickening is recycled and treated in the WWTP liquid stream. Nutrients
(nitrogen and phosphorus) become concentrated in the recycle streams from thickening and
dewatering operations. These loads may be significant because the WWTP will likely face a lower
total nitrogen (TN) effluent limit in the next NPDES permit cycle expected in 2009. Table 16
shows the nitrogen load that each organic waste considered in this study would contribute to the
WWTP liquid stream compared to the sludge produced at the WWTP.


                       Table 16: Nitrogen Concentrations and Loads for Different Digester
                                            Feedstock Components.

                                                                                                                                  TN Load
                                                               Typical TN                         Processed
                                                                                                                                     from
                Feedstock component                           concentration,                      flow rate,
                                                                                                                                 processing,
                                                                 lbs/gal                           gal/day
                                                                                                                                   lbs/day
                           Wastewater sludge                           0.015                          24,970                          375
                                        FOG-2A                          NA                             1,000                          NA
                                       FOG -2B                          NA                              600                           NA
                                   Dairy waste                         0.042                           2,000                          84
                 Cranberry beverage waste                               NA                             1,199                          NA
                                    Food waste                          0.42                           1,214                          510
                Feedstock                                                  TN Load from processing, lbs/day
                       Digester Feedstock 1                                                             375
                     Digester Feedstock 2A                                                              NA
                     Digester Feedstock 2B                                                              459
                       Digester Feedstock 3                                                             969

The nitrogen loads shown in Table 16 are highly conservative estimates and do not consider loss to
digested sludge and to the WWTP effluent. The highest potential nitrogen load was contributed by
food waste. The nitrogen contribution by FOG is unknown at this time because of limited available
data on the nitrogen content in FOG. The nitrogen contributions by dairy waste were much lower




                                                                              4-3
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


than food waste and wastewater sludge. Dairy waste offers the least amount of nutrient impacts to
the WWTP liquid stream.
Although much of the nitrogen loads contributed by each feedstock component will remain with the
digested sludge, a portion of the loads will be returned to the liquid stream. The concentration of
nitrogen in the return stream depends on the type of thickening and/or dewatering equipment used.
Overall, the estimates shown in Table 17 suggest that food waste would contribute the highest
additional nitrogen load to the WWTP, while dairy and FOG waste would contribute the least.
Overall, FOG and dairy waste may be the most valuable feedstock components based on the
volume of received waste and the balance between potential methane production and nitrogen loads
to the WWTP. However, more research must be performed to determine the potential nitrogen
load to the WWTP from FOG.
Reliability of Waste Source

There is a certain level of unreliability for securing or obtaining all of the organic wastes considered
for digestion in this study. Unforeseeable problems with existing solids treatment operations such as
thickening and pumping could even lessen the reliability of sludge generated at the WWTP.
Suppliers of the imported organic wastes considered in this study may not have an interest in
sending food waste to a digester facility if they have ongoing satisfactory long-term contracts for
disposal.
Overall, FOG was considered the most reliable waste stream in the local community because of its
potential for consistent delivery, and strong potential for long term availability at local food-serving
establishments. There are over 20 restaurants that exist between the town of Fairhaven and its
neighbors Acushnet and Dartmouth that likely generate FOG in quantities that satisfy the imported
waste volumes estimated for feedstocks 2A, 2B, and 3. FOG disposal is costly to producers because
of pumping and hauling fees from contracted haulers. Providing a less costly disposal option for
producers could ensure long term delivery of FOG for anaerobic digestion. Accepting FOG for
digestion also provides secondary benefits by reducing the amount of FOG entering the Town’s
sewer collection system leading to reduced system maintenance and a reduction in blockages and
potential sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) from grease buildup.
Beverage and dairy waste were considered less reliable because of the longer hauling distances and
the potential for the producers to use the wastes beneficially through their own means. As an
example, some dairy waste producers are in the process of implementing upgrades to existing
anaerobic digestion facilities that would allow use of excess waste as feedstock to produce methane
for use in new CHP systems onsite.
Food waste may also be considered a less reliable feedstock component because the current disposal
methods used by waste generators identified in the MA DEP Food Waste database are subject to the
vagaries of the local solid waste collection market. Without proper management at the source, food
waste has the potential to require added processing to screen-out debris (plates, glass, silverware,
etc.) that could affect the digestion process.
Pre-processing Requirements

The organic wastes considered in this study have different physical properties than typical
wastewater sludge and require some level of pretreatment before they can be fed to the digestion




                                                                              4-4
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


process. These differences include solids concentration, density, and viscosity. Some imported
waste may also contain debris in the form of glass, metals, or other large inorganic materials that
could clog or damage downstream equipment. This debris must be removed through screening or
other methods and the feedstock must be blended to ensure that a homogenous feedstock is
consistently fed to the digestion process.
Digester Feedstock 1 represents the alternative with the least amount of pre-treatment because it
consists of sludge from the WWTP and does not contain any external waste. The existing thickened
waste well could be enlarged to add capacity and converted to a feedstock holding and mixing tank
upstream of a new digestion process.
Receiving FOG at the WWTP requires additional liquid storage capacity to feedstock holding and
blending as well as heating to keep grease from congealing to tank walls and within pipes and
equipment. The digester feedstock must be preheated to at least 100°F for mesophilic digestion and
this heating step would prevent FOG from congealing if placed directly into the feedstock storage
tank upon receipt. However, because of potentially inconsistent delivery times and differences in
concentration in consideration of Digester Feedstock 2A, it may be best to receive and store FOG
in a separate tank with the ability to decant excess water from the bottom of the tank and control
the blending of FOG with other wastes including wastewater sludge. A separate FOG tank would
need a mixing system and a heat source to maintain the FOG at 100°F to keep from congealing, but
because of the small volume of FOG considered in Digester Feedstock 2A and 2B the tank would
be relatively small in comparison to the existing thickened waste and primary wells. A tracking
system could also be added to document the source and the time and volume of delivered waste.
A separate holding and mixing tank would be needed for receiving multiple organic wastes at the
WWTP, such as dairy and cranberry beverage wastes. This is due to the waste delivery schedule and
the need to remove potential debris in milk and beverage waste like plastic bottles and caps.
Feedstock 2B would require a small heated tank for holding received FOG and a larger tank for
accepting and holding dairy and cranberry beverage waste.
Food waste would require the greatest amount of pre-processing. As previously mentioned,
packaged pre-processing systems have been developed for the digestion of food waste such as
BTA’s “hydro-pulping” system. The high solids concentration (approximately 25% TS) and large
size of food waste material requires these pre-processing systems aside from any holding tanks
needed for FOG and other received wastes. Digester Feedstock 3 represents the highest level of
pre-processing out of all alternatives.
Feedstock Evaluation Summary

Table 17 shows the results of the non-cost evaluation for digester feedstock alternatives based on a
rating scale of:
    Poor (P): -1 point
    Satisfactory (S): 1 point
    Exceptional (E): 2 points
These ratings represent the overall feasibility of using a specific feedstock in a new anaerobic
digestion process at the WWTP.




                                                                              4-5
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




    Table 17: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of Digester Feedstock Alternatives.

                                                               Nitrogen                                                                      Overall
          Feedstock                      Yield                                             Reliability                Pre-processing
                                                                Load                                                                         Rating
     Digester Feedstock 1                -1 (P)                    1 (S)                        2 (E)                           1 (S)            3
  Digester Feedstock 2A                   1 (S)                    1 (S)                        1 (S)                           1 (S)            4
   Digester Feedstock 2B                 2 (E)                     1 (S)                       -1 (P)                           1 (S)            3
     Digester Feedstock 3                2 (E)                    -1 (P)                        1 (S)                          -1 (P)            -1
The non-cost evaluation of digester feedstock alternatives showed that Digester Feedstock 2A was
the highest-rated and should be considered first for anaerobic digestion. Digester Feedstocks 1 and
2B were also rated highly and will be evaluated further with alternative 2A in a life cycle cost
analysis.
Digester Feedstock 3 was rated the lowest and will not be evaluated further in this study. The low
rating was due to the high food waste content and the potential nitrogen load it could add to the
liquid stream of the WWTP, the uncertain reliability as a consistently high quality source without
source control measures, and the higher level of pre-processing required to blend food waste with
other components of the feedstock.

4.1.2 Anaerobic Digester Configuration
The digester configuration evaluation criteria were the following:
  Solids reduction
  Redundancy and Reliability
The alternatives for anaerobic digester configuration evaluated were:
  Alternative 1: Single stage, mesophilic temperature (100°F)
  Alternative 2: Two-stage, mesophilic temperature (100°F)
  Alternative 3: Single-stage, thermophilic temperature (135°F)
  Alternative 4: Two-stage, thermophilic (135°F) and mesophilic temperature

Solids Reduction

Solids reduction is one of the greatest benefits provided to a WWTP from the anaerobic digestion
process, next to biogas and electric power production, due to the high sludge disposal costs
municipalities are faced with.
As discussed in previous sections, increasing volatile solids reduction (VSR) increases the amount of
volatile solids destroyed during digestion and reduces the overall amount of digested material
produced. This has a direct impact on required storage volume, the size and operation time
required for thickening and dewatering equipment, and most importantly the disposal volume and




                                                                              4-6
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


costs. In the previous section, it was shown that increasing VSR through the digestion configuration
was accompanied with higher heat loads and lower net energy yield. Table 18 shows the impact of
digester configuration on overall solids reduction based on a mass balance performed for each
feedstock alternative. The mass balance is included with other calculations for this study in
Appendix E.


               Table 18: Variations in Feedstock Volume Reduction for Digestion Alternatives.

                                     Overall Reduction in Volume1 from Anaerobic Digestion, percent
   Digester                      Digester                             Digester                               Digester
                                                                                                                                        Average
   Configuration                Feedstock 1                         Feedstock 2A                           Feedstock 2B
   Alternative 1
                                         12                                    29                                    36                     26
   (1-stage,100°F)
   Alternative 2
                                         18                                    34                                    41                     31
   (1-stage,135°F)
   Alternative 3
                                         12                                    29                                    36                     26
   (2-stage, 100°F)
   Alternative 4
                                         31                                    37                                    44                     37
   (2-stage, TPAD)
Notes:
1. Volume reduction was based on the initial volume of liquid digester feedstock and the volume of liquid
   digested, unthickened sludge in gallons.


Alternative 4 provided the highest potential for overall volume reduction through anaerobic
digestion. This alternative is a two-stage system operating at thermophilic (stage 1) and mesophilic
(stage 2) temperatures, also known as “temperature-phased anaerobic digestion” or TPAD. The
TPAD configuration represents one of the most complex configurations for anaerobic digestion.
The effect of adding an additional stage is clear between the average reduction for Alternatives 1 and
2 and between Alternatives 3 and 4, respectively.
Digestion Alternatives 1 and 3 provided the same volume reduction because it was assumed that
they would provide equal VSR. Estimates for biogas production were also equal for Alternatives 1
and 3, as shown previously in Table 18. The single difference between Alternative 1 and 3 was
operating temperature.     Recall that increasing operating temperature from mesophilic to
thermophilic only reduces the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and required tank volume, and was
not assumed to have an effect on VSR in this study.
The impact of feedstock composition is shown again in Table 18. As mentioned, the addition of
FOG significantly increases the overall VSR of wastewater sludge because of enhanced biological
activity. Adding organic wastes with high VS content and degradability such as dairy waste also
contribute to the overall reduction in volume. Similar to findings for biogas production, Digester




                                                                              4-7
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Feedstock 2B was shown to provide the highest overall reduction in volume. Digester Feedstock 1
paired with configuration Alternatives 1, 2, and 3 showed the least overall volume reduction.
Redundancy and Reliability

One of the most important design aspects for any new process at a WWTP is reliability. The
Fairhaven WWTP has no existing digester infrastructure. Process upsets and downtime can and will
occur at facilities with an experienced staff and a robust digestion process. Issues causing digester
upset and downtime can include:
   Reductions in or loss of biological activity due to toxicity, temperature fluctuations, or nutrient
   deficiency
   Auxiliary system failure: biogas collection and treatment, mixing, heating, etc.
   Tank maintenance: interior cleaning to remove solids buildup (2-3 yr frequency)
Evaluating ways to increase the reliability of the anaerobic digestion process and reduce the amount
of downtime are of significant value to this study, especially with respect to the current issues with
solids inventory at the WWTP. Faster reaction rates occur with thermophilic digestion and the
process can satisfy pathogen destruction at lower HRTs, which also lowers the required tank
volume. Mesophilic digestion is generally a more stable than thermophilic because of the lower
temperature and the bacteria population that thrives at mesophilic temperatures is generally
considered to be more resilient to process variations.
Redundancy in digester tank volume would allow WWTP staff to continue operation of the
digestion process at reduced performance to help reduce the impacts of an inoperable digester.
Two-stage configurations offer digester process redundancy that single stage configurations cannot
and also reduce the potential for pathogen short-circuiting through digester tanks during feeding and
discharge sequences.
Digester configuration Alternative 2 offers the most reliability of all configurations and also
provided the redundancy of a two-stage system with equal tank volumes. Configuration 4 offers
partial redundancy with a two-stage system and include two tanks of unequal volume (1
thermophilic, 1 mesophilic).
Digester Configuration Evaluation Summary

Table 19 shows the results of the non-cost evaluation of digester configuration alternatives based on
a rating scale of:
    Poor (P): -1 point
    Satisfactory (S): 1 point
    Exceptional (E): 2 points
These ratings represent the overall feasibility of using a specific configuration in a new anaerobic
digestion process at the WWTP.




                                                                              4-8
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                     Table 19: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of Digester
                                        Configuration Alternatives.

           Digester                        Solids                                                                                     Overall
                                                                           Reliability                    Redundancy
           Configuration                 Reduction                                                                                    Rating
           Alternative 1
                                              1 (S)                            1 (S)                            -1 (P)                  1
           (1-stage,100°F)
           Alternative 2
                                              1 (S)                            2 (E)                             2 (E)                  5
           (1-stage,135°F)
           Alternative 3
                                              1 (S)                            -1 (P)                           -1 (P)                  -1
           (2-stage, 100°F)
           Alternative 4
           (2-stage,                          2 (E)                            1 (S)                             1 (S)                  4
           TPAD)
The non-cost evaluation of digester configuration alternatives showed that Alternative 2 is the
highest-rated and should be considered first for anaerobic digestion. Alternative 4 is also rated
highly. Alternative 1 received an undistinguished rating, but presented the simplest configuration
for anaerobic digestion that may provide a starting point for the WWTP if the Town proceeds with
implementation of the process. Alternatives 1, 2, and 4 were evaluated further in a life cycle cost
analysis.
Digester configuration Alternative 3 (single stage, thermophilic) was rated the lowest and will not be
evaluated further in this study. The low rating was due to the low reliability and the lack of
redundancy.

4.1.3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System
The CHP system evaluation criteria were the following:
  Biogas treatment
  Performance: Electric power output, recoverable heat, and emissions
  Track record
The alternatives for the integrated CHP systems evaluated were:
  Microturbines
  Stirling cycle engines
  Lean burn internal combustion (IC) engines
The electric power generation technologies listed were selected for evaluation because they offer
equipment that have operated successfully using biogas and similar fuel (landfill gas) and also
provide capacities that are applicable to the low biogas fuel flows shown for this study.




                                                                              4-9
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



Biogas Treatment

The level of biogas conditioning and treatment needed to efficiently and safely use biogas as a fuel
for power generation depends on the type of power generation equipment. A higher level is needed
for microturbines compared to Stirling cycle and IC engines because of requirements for higher gas
pressure (approximately 80 psig) and low siloxane concentrations (<5 ppb). These conditioning and
treatment steps add capital and O&M costs and a level of complexity to the use of a microturbine
when compared to the Stirling cycle and IC engine. Figure 18 shows a flow diagram and layout for a
typical biogas conditioning and treatment system provided by the manufacturer for a 65 kW
Capstone Microturbine. The complexity also increases the chances of individual treatment
component and system downtime and lowers the overall reliability of using microturbines. A
Stirling cycle engine might be able to better handle variations in biogas quality than a microturbine
or IC engine system because of its external combustion mechanism.




       Figure 18: Flow Diagram and Layout for a Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System for a 65 kW
                                      Capstone Microturbine.




                                                                             4-10
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



Performance

In this study, performance is indicated by the net electric power generation of the integrated CHP
system, the amount of recoverable heat, and the compatibility or match between the available power
from biogas fuel and the power output capacity of each equipment unit. Net electric power
generation refers to the available electric power generation from biogas fuel after energy use for
biogas treatment is subtracted. Typically in CHP applications, the full capacity output of the electric
power generator is matched to the biogas fuel production as best as possible. Ideally, little biogas is
left unutilized because excess biogas fuel must be flared or wasted. When the biogas fuel production
is lower than the full capacity of the electric power equipment, is common to supplement the biogas
with natural gas diluted with air to match the low heating value of approximately 600 Btu per cubic
foot. This requires an air blending system that can be expensive (up to $300,000 for all units), and
matching the equipment capacity with the biogas production is preferred.
Some equipment can also be run with a biogas fuel flow lower than full capacity. This is known as
turndown, and IC engines can operate under turndown with small reductions in efficiency of 1 to 2
percent. Microturbines have relatively poor turndown and are often turned on or off when biogas
fuel production reaches the capacity of an additional unit or drops below the capacity of a single
unit. Since microturbines operate at extremely high shaft speeds (30,000 to 65,000 revolutions per
minute), constant starting and stopping can significantly reduce service life.
Performance can be also affected by environmental conditions. Microturbines are sensitive to
ambient air temperature and can experience increased performance when the ambient air is cool and
more dense. But when the ambient air temperature rises above 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees
Celsius) efficiency and power output will drop off. Microturbines.
Table 20 summarizes the overall performance of the electric power generation technologies
considered.




                                                                             4-11
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                      Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




              Table 20: Summary of Performance Indicators for Power Generation Equipment.

                                     Digester Feedstock                                                                         1            2A         2B
                      Available Biogas Fuel Energy1, Btu/hr                                                               605,557          936,179 1,591,094
                                    Maximum
                                     Biogas                                                      Energy
   Electric                                                              Available
                                 2    Fuel                                                       Use for
    Power              Efficiency ,                                      Capacity                                        Net Electric Power Generation
                                     Energy                                                      Biogas
  Generation            percent                                          per unit,                                       from Biogas2 Fuel Energy, kW
                                     use per                                                   Treatment,
  Technology                                                               kW
                                      unit,                                                     kW (HP)
                                    BTU/hr

Microturbines                   26                853,250                      65                  11 (15)                     34            59        109

 Stirling Cycle
                                28                524,139                      43                    4 (5)                     44            72        125
         engine

                                                  642,447                      64

      IC engine                 34               1,104,206                    110                   8 (10)                     51            84        149


                                                 1,505,735                    150

Notes:
1. Available biogas fuel energy is averaged across digester configuration alternatives 1 to 4.
2. The efficiency ratings and capacities shown are based on manufacturer’s data at the standard ISO rating
   point (59°F) and Brown and Caldwell project experience. Actual output may differ for installed
   equipment.
By comparison, the IC engine shows the highest net electric power output because of its higher
efficiency. The Stirling cycle engine outperforms the microturbine in net electric power generation
because of its slightly higher efficiency and its much lower power needs for biogas treatment.
For the majority of digestion alternatives in this study, the Stirling cycle engine will also provide
more recoverable heat than microturbines because more units are necessary for the biogas quantities
calculated than for microturbines. The required number of equipment units for each electric power
generation technology and the amount of recovered heat they can provide at full capacity is shown
in Table 21. Additional Stirling cycle engines would provide more heat recovery than a microturbine
for the same amount of available biogas fuel. The IC engine provides the greatest variety in
available capacities for low biogas fuel flow applications and, therefore, only a single unit is needed
for the biogas fuel flows determined for each digestion alternative.




                                                                                  4-12
                                      Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                     P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




      Table 21: Number of Power Generation Equipment Units that Could be Fueled for Each Digestion
                                             Alternative.

                                        Equipment Power Output Capacity (Number of Units Required)
Digester                          Alternative 1                                          Alternative 2                                      Alternative 4
Configuration                   (1-stage, 100°F)                                       (2-stage, 135°F)                                   (2-stage, TPAD)

Digester
                           1             2A                 2B                   1                2A                 2B               1         2A          2B
Feedstock
Number of Equipment Units
Microturbines               1              1                  2                  1                  1                  2              1         1             2
 Stirling Cycle
                           1               2                  3                  1                  2                  3              1         2             3
     engine
  IC Engine1               1               1                  1                  1                  1                  1              1         1             1
Maximum Required Digester Heat Load, BTU/hr
                       195,270 341,019 423,737 235,959 377,864 480,264 314,141 459,754 606,773
Maximum Recoverable Heat from CHP System, Btu/hr
Microturbines 260,000 260,000 520,000 260,000 260,000 520,000 260,000 260,000 520,000
 Stirling Cycle
                       240,000 480,000 720,000 240,000 480,000 720,000 240,000 480,000 720,000
     engine
  IC Engine1           348,228 348,228 348,228 501,858 501,858 501,858 798,876 798,876 798,876
Lower emissions provide value in the form of lower environmental impact and carbon footprint.
Microturbines and Stirling engines have the potential for extremely low emissions compared to
typical emissions from lean burn IC engine technologies. However, no economic value is gained
from low emissions as long as each technology complies with the local air permitting requirements.
All of the electric power generation technologies evaluated in this study meet the MA DEP
emissions requirements. A summary of the exhaust emissions for each electric power generation
technology is shown in Table 22.




                                                                             4-13
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




            Table 22: Summary of Typical Emissions from Microturbines and Stirling Engines1.

                                                                                                                                             VOC,
                                NOx, lb/MWhr2                          CO, lb/MWhr2                           CO2, lb/MWhr2
                                                                                                                                          lb/MWhr2
                                   (ppmv)                                 (ppmv)                                 (ppmv)
                                                                                                                                            (ppmv)
Electric Power Technology Emissions
         Microturbine                        1                                     45                                       --                  --
          Stirling cycle
                                            1                                       6                                   1,774                  <1
                 engine
             IC Engine                 <3,500                                  <4,000                                       --                  --
Notes:
1. The emissions shown are based on manufacturer’s data. Actual emissions may differ for installed
   equipment.
2. Conversion from volumetric emission rate (ppmv at 15% O2) to output based rate (lbs/MWh) for both
   NOx and CO based on conversion multipliers provided by Capstone Turbine Corporation and corrected
   for differences in efficiency.
Track Record

Operating experience is an important criterion for new equipment technology but also for mature
equipment that is new to a WWTP and staff. Overall, IC engines have by far the most operating
installations with positive track records using biogas or similar fuel such as landfill gas. Out of the
two major manufacturers who supply lean burn IC engines in the small electric power output
capacity range of this study, MAN and Deutz, the Deutz engines have more of operation time and
installations in the US but less of a range in available capacities. Both MAN and Deutz have
positive track records for their European installations.
Stirling Biopower currently has one existing installation of a 55 kW Stirling engine at the City of
Corvallis’ WWTP in Corvallis, Oregon using biogas from an anaerobic digestion process.
According to Stirling Biopower, their new power unit, called the “FlexGen” series, has over 250,000
test hours in lab and field environments via two global test fleets of approximately 30 units that were
sent to operate on a variety of gaseous fuels, largely methane from wastewater treatment plants and
landfills. Reference and contact information for the existing FlexGen installation as well as a
testimonial by Stirling Biopower on the reliability and operational experience of their new Stirling
cycle engines is shown in Appendix F.
Capstone is the original manufacturer of the microturbine. Capstone claims it has over 20 million
operating hours overall using biogas, landfill gas, natural gas and other fuels. A full installation list
of Capstone’s existing microturbines in operation is shown in Appendix F. Brown and Caldwell has
design experience with microturbines and through client contact have discovered that in some cases
service life can be limited to two years. Several microturbine manufacturers have also failed in




                                                                             4-14
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


recent years or have stopped manufacturing microturbines with low power output. Recently,
Ingersoll Rand decided to halt production of microturbines in the 75 kW and maintain production
of only their 250 kW capacity models due to market restrictions, according to the manufacturer’s
representatives.
Overall, microturbines demonstrated an advantage over the Stirling cycle engine in regards to
operational experience and the number of existing and operating installations using biogas fuel.
However, the potential instability of the microturbine manufacturing market and known examples
of low service life lessens the advantage of the microturbine’s experience over the Stirling cycle
engine in regards to overall track record. Although there have been many microturbine installations
within the last five to ten years, experience suggests that many of these installations are not
operating successfully or, in some cases, have failed. Although it has only one existing installation,
the currently operating Stirling Biopower FlexGen unit has a positive track record with the Corvallis
WWTP and the manufacturer has been showing consistent improvements to the design of the unit
over the last few years.
 CHP Evaluation Summary

Table 23 shows the results of the non-cost evaluation of CHP alternatives based on a rating scale of:
  Poor (P): -1 point
  Satisfactory (S): 1 point
  Exceptional (E): 2 points
These ratings represent the overall feasibility of using a specific and integrated CHP system in
conjunction with a new anaerobic digestion facility at the WWTP.


               Table 23: Summary of Results for the Non-Cost Evaluation of CHP Alternatives.

                                                Net
       CHP System                   Biogas    Electrical Recoverable                                                                  Track      Overall
                                                                                                                     Emissions
       Alternatives                Treatment Output from Heat Output                                                                  Record     Rating
                                               Biogas
              Capstone
                                       -1 (P)                      1 (S)                        1 (S)                      1 (S)      -1 (P)         2
   Microturbine, 65 kW
        Stirling BioPower
                                        2 (E)                      1 (S)                        1 (S)                      1 (S)      -1 (P)         4
         FlexGen, 43 kW
    MAN Lean burn IC
                                        1 (S)                      2 (E)                        2 (E)                      1 (S)      2 (E)          8
   engine, 64 to 150 kW
The non-cost evaluation of digester configuration alternatives showed that a CHP system integrated
with an IC engine would provide the highest-rated CHP alternative. However, an integrated Stirling
cycle engine system rated decently as well. Microturbines were rated the lowest of all electric power
technologies and will not be evaluated further in a life cycle cost analysis. CHP systems including
the IC engine and Stirling cycle engine will be evaluated further in a life cycle cost analysis.




                                                                             4-15
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


The non-cost evaluation of digester configuration alternatives showed that a CHP system integrated
with an IC engine would provide the highest-rated CHP alternative. However, an integrated Stirling
cycle engine system rated decently as well. Microturbines were rated the lowest of all electric power
technologies and will not be evaluated further in a life cycle cost analysis. CHP systems including
the IC engine and Stirling cycle engine will be evaluated further in a life cycle cost analysis.

4.2 Economic Evaluation
The alternatives that met non-cost criteria were evaluated further through a life cycle cost analysis.
In review, the alternatives that met non-cost criteria included:
   Digester feedstock
    • Digester Feedstock 1: WWTP sludge
    • Digester Feedstock 2A: WWTP sludge and FOG,
    • Digester Feedstock 2B: WWTP sludge, FOG, beverage and dairy wastes
    Digester configuration
    • Alternative 1: Single-stage, mesophilic temperature (100°F)
    • Alternative 2: Two-stage, mesophilic temperature (100°F)
    • Alternative 4: Two-stage, thermophilic (135°F) and mesophilic temperature
    CHP System
    • Stirling engines
    • Small capacity lean burn IC engines
Information provided by manufacturers in design proposals and through personal communication in
addition to Brown and Caldwell experience was used to perform the life cycle cost analysis (LCA).

4.2.1 Capital Costs Summary
Capital costs were developed for each alternative from manufacturer’s information and Brown and
Caldwell project experience. Table 24 shows a summary of the capital costs used for the LCA.




                                                                             4-16
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
                                   Table 24: Summary of Capital Costs1 for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.
         Digester Feedstock                          Feedstock 1                                                  Feedstock 2A                                         Feedstock 2B
         Digester Configuration,
                                            Alt. 1        Alt. 2                Alt. 4               Alt. 1               Alt. 2              Alt. 4         Alt. 1        Alt. 2       Alt. 4
         $
         Anaerobic Digestion
         Receiving station1             0            0                     0                     29,900                29,900              29,900          29,900        29,900       29,900
         New thickener                  260,000      260,000               260,000               520,000               520,000             520,000         520,000       520,000      520,000
         Thick. sludge storage    3     75,400       75,400                75,400                93,600                93,600              93,600          128,700       128,700      128,700
         Digester   tanks3              397,800      650,650               586,300               439,400               661,050             593,775         707,850       1,151,150    1,036,750
         Digester mixing                45,630       91,260                91,260                45,630                91,260              91,260          45,630        91,260       91,260
         Heat exchangers                22,100       22,100                22,100                24,700                24,700              24,700          31,200        31,200       31,200
         Digested sludge     storage2   58,500       58,500                58,500                91,000                91,000              91,000          58,500        58,500       58,500
         Biogas storage                 533,000      1,066,000             1,066,000             533,000               1,066,000           1,066,000       533,000       1,066,000    1,066,000
         Subtotal, $                    1,392,430    2,223,910             2,159,560             1,777,230             2,577,510           2,510,235       2,054,780     3,076,710    2,962,310
         CHP   System4
         Stirling cycle engine
         system                         897,000      669,728               669,728               1,222,000             1,222,000           1,222,000       1,592,500     1,592,500    1,592,500
         IC Engine system               1,040,910    813,638               813,638               1,247,870             1,247,870           1,247,870       1,480,323     1,480,323    1,480,323
         Total Capital Costs, $
         w/Stirling cycle engine        2,289,430    2,893,638             2,829,288             2,999,230             3,799,510           3,732,235       3,647,280     4,669,210    4,554,810
         w /IC engine                   2,433,340    3,037,548             2,973,198             3,025,100             3,825,380           3,758,105       3,535,103     4,557,033    4,442,633

Notes:
1.   A 30% safety factor was applied to all capital costs to account for potential cost increases due to inflation, manufacturer’s estimates, and installation costs
     unforeseen at this level of study.
2.   A receiving station was included for digester feedstock alternatives involving tanks or a developed facility for the acceptance of wastes from sources outside
     of the WWTP.
3.   All storage and digester tanks were assumed to be insulated bolted steel tanks with costs in dollars per gallon calculated from budget pricing provided by
     manufacturers including Aquastore and Columbian Tec Tank. Foundations, gas piping, and gas safety (including flares) is not included.
4.   Includes the cost for a biogas treatment system, biogas flare, and new steel building with a concrete floor. Electrical interconnection and paralleling costs are
     not included.




                                                                                                  4-17

                                                      Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                     P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
       4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                      Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



       Differences between capital costs are driven by digester feedstock flow and the total volume of
       digester tanks required. Using digester feedstock 1 with configuration alternative 1, single-stage
       mesophilic anaerobic digestion, is shown to have the lowest total capital cost alternative because it
       uses the lowest volume feedstock and requires the least amount of digester tanks and electric power
       generation units. The combination of digester feedstock 2B in a two-stage mesophilic digestion
       configuration (alternative 2) represents the highest total capital costs because it includes the highest
       feedstock volume, highest overall digester tank volume, and several electric power generation units.
       The additional capital costs for using a two-tank system is evident when comparing total capital
       costs for digester configuration alternative 1 with alternatives 2 and 4. This difference is over
       $500,000 for all feedstock scenarios. Also, the cost of a receiving station is not included for
       Feedstock 1 since no external sources for digester feedstock are accepted for this alternative.

       4.2.2 Operations and Maintenance Costs Summary
       O&M costs were developed for each alternative from manufacturer’s information and Brown and
       Caldwell project experience. Table 25 shows a summary of the annual O&M costs used for the
       LCA.


                     Table 25: Summary of Annual O&M Costs for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.
Digester Feedstock                                Feedstock 1                                             Feedstock 2A                                     Feedstock 2B
Digester Configuration             Alt. 1              Alt. 2              Alt. 4             Alt. 1            Alt. 2            Alt. 4          Alt. 1       Alt. 2     Alt. 4
Annual Maintenance Costs, $/year
Anaerobic Digestion
Receiving station1                     0                  0                   0               2500              2500               2500           2500         2500       2500
Thickening                        2,500                2,500              2,500               2,500             2,500             2,500           2,500       2,500       2,500
Tank and pump O&M                 6,800                9,100              8,200               8,450            11,300            10,150           12,100      16,100      14,500
Net Digester heating   costs2
w/Stirling engines                     0               2,017              3,669                  0                 0                 5              0            0          0
w/IC engine                            0                  0               1,508                  0                 0                 0              0            0          0
Anaerobic Digestion
Subtotal
w/Stirling engines                 9300               13617               14369              13450             16300              15155           17100       21100       19500
w/IC engine                        9300               11600               12208              13450             16300              15150           17100       21100       19500
CHP System
Stirling engine and biogas
treatment                         28,283              28,611             29,268              30,468            30,796            30,993           34,392      34,836      35,102
IC engine and biogas
treatment                         39,196              39,616             40,455              41,989            42,409            42,660           47,005      47,572      47,913




                                                                                         4-18

                                             Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                            P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
       4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                      Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




Digester Feedstock                                Feedstock 1                                             Feedstock 2A                                      Feedstock 2B
Digester Configuration             Alt. 1              Alt. 2              Alt. 4             Alt. 1            Alt. 2            Alt. 4           Alt. 1       Alt. 2      Alt. 4

New Facility Subtotal with Safety Factor Included3
w/Stirling engines                48,858              54,897             56,728              57,093            61,225            59,993           66,939       72,717      70,983
w/IC engine                       63,045              66,581             68,462              72,071            76,321            75,154           83,336       89,274      87,636
Sludge disposal4                  47,056              43,718             37,042              47,047            43,709            41,706           60,667       56,152      53,443
Net Annual Electricity Costs5
w/Stirling engines               173,693             188,045            177,538             153,148           160,965           157,813           90,366       96,331      92,068
w/IC engine                      164,046             176,936            163,507             133,776           140,132           136,103           53,528       57,517      52,069
Net Total O&M Costs, $/year
w/Stirling engine                269,607             286,660            271,308             257,288           265,899           259,512           217,972     225,200      216,494
w/IC engine                      227,091             243,517            231,969             205,847           216,453           211,257           136,864     146,791      139,705

       Notes:
       1. A receiving station was included for digester feedstock alternatives involving tanks or a developed facility
          for the acceptance of wastes from sources outside of the WWTP.
       2. Net digester heating costs were calculated using the net heating requirements in Btu/hr for cold days
          when influent wastewater was expected to be less than 59°F (15°C) and were calculated as the heat load
          required minus the recovered heat from the CHP system. Net heating was assumed to be provided by a
          natural gas-fueled boiler. It was estimated that heat load would be required 130 days per year for 20
          hours per day at $8.00 per million Btu.
       3. A 30% safety factor was applied to all maintenance costs to account for potential cost increases due to
          inflation, labor, and operational costs unforeseen at this level of study. Costs included all labor,
          maintenance, and chemical costs associated with equipment and/or process operation.
       4. Sludge disposal costs included a 30% safety factor and were based on the conditions of the WWTP’s
          existing contract with Synagro which includes a hauling fee of $0.02 per gallon and a tipping fee at the
          incinerator facility of $320 per dry ton.
       5. The net annual electricity costs were calculated based on the annual average electricity cost at the WWTP
          of $0.16/kWhr and included the annual power requirements of a new facility including the annual
          average power use of the existing WWTP from 2006 to 2008 minus the net electric power production for
          each alternative.
       The annual O&M costs are similar between digester feedstock alternatives. The effect of adding an
       additional digester tank is shown when comparing the O&M costs for digester configuration
       alternative 1, which is a single-stage system, with alternatives 2 and 4, which are two-stage systems.
       The additional tank increases the costs associated with mixing power needs and heat loss. A
       significant reduction in sludge disposal costs is shown for all alternatives.




                                                                                         4-19
                                             Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                            P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
  4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



   4.2.3 Potential Annual Electricity and Sludge Disposal Cost Savings
   The potential savings from electricity production and sludge volume reduction gained from the
   digestion and CHP alternatives was not evident in the O&M costs shown in Table 25. The new
   electricity and sludge disposal costs from the existing WWTP and for the WWTP with a new
   anaerobic digestion and CHP facility are shown in Table 26. The new annual electricity costs are
   lower than the electricity costs for the existing WWTP for every alternative. The new electricity costs
   include the total power needs for the new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility, the existing annual
   average power use from the existing WWTP, plus the reduction in electric power purchase due to
   the electrical power produced from the CHP system using biogas.


 Table 26: Summary of the Sludge Disposal and Electricity Costs for the Existing Fairhaven WWTP and a
                      New WWTP with an Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.
Existing Annual Costs at WWTP
Average annual utility linepower costs (2006 to 2007),
                                                                                                                          190,552
                                               $/year
 Average annual sludge disposal costs (2004 to 2007),
                                                                                                                          243,518
                                              $/year
Digester
                                    Feedstock 1                                            Feedstock 2A                                           Feedstock 2B
Feedstock
Digester
                          Alt. 1         Alt. 2              Alt. 4            Alt. 1            Alt. 2            Alt. 4                Alt. 1      Alt. 2      Alt. 4
Configuration
New WWTP Annual Electricity Costs1, $/year (according to CHP Alternative used)
      Stirling cycle
            engines     173,693        188,045             177,538           153,148           160,965            157,813            90,366         96,331       92,068
       IC Engines       164,046        176,936             163,507           133,776           140,132            136,103            53,528         57,517       52,069
New Annual Sludge Disposal2 Costs, $/year
Sludge Disposal,
$/yr                     47,056         43,718              37,042            47,047            43,709             41,706            60,667         56,152       53,443

   Notes:
   1. New electricity costs were based on the annual average electricity cost for the Town of Fairhaven from
      2006 to 2008 of $0.16/kWhr and included electric power offsets from a CHP system.
   2. It was assumed the existing sludge disposal method would be continued until new options for sludge
      disposal were evaluated by the Town. Sludge disposal costs included a 30% safety factor and were based
      on the conditions of the WWTP’s existing contract with Synagro which includes a hauling fee of $0.02
      per gallon and a tipping fee at the incinerator facility of $320 per dry ton.




                                                                                4-20
                                    Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                   P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
  4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


  The potential electrical power cost offset and annual sludge disposal savings from a new facility were
  calculated for each alternative based on the historical costs for electricity use and sludge disposal at
  the WWTP. These are shown in Table 27.
  Currently, the WWTP routinely stores secondary sludge in their secondary clarifiers because they
  lack sufficient sludge storage facilities and contracted sludge disposal can routinely be limited or
  unavailable. The WWTP also provides excess aeration in their secondary process and is likely
  nitrifying ammonia in raw wastewater to nitrate and nitrite. By storing settled biological solids in the
  secondary clarifiers because the WWTP lacks sludge storage structures with sufficient capacity, the
  microorganisms within the settled, stored solids can and will use up dissolved oxygen and any
  remaining carbon sources or BOD. When the remaining carbon sources or BOD is consumed, the
  microorganisms will start to consume cell material to stay alive and the rate of decay will proceed
  faster than the growth rate. This process is called endogenous respiration and results in a decrease
  in microbial cell mass and overall sludge volume.
  Although the endogenous respiration phenomenon causes a reduction in overall mass, it is at the
  expense of excess or extended aeration. This requires aeration and blower electric power use
  beyond what is needed to meet existing NPDES permit limits for BOD and adds unnecessary
  operational costs. A new anaerobic digestion facility would eliminate the need for storing sludge in
  the secondary clarifiers by allowing staff to remove sludge from the secondary clarifiers on a regular
  schedule. Therefore, a new anaerobic digestion facility would eliminate the need for approximately
  half of the aeration currently supplied to the secondary process and reduce the operations cost
  associated with running a single 100 horsepower (HP) positive displacement blower for the aeration
  system. The calculated electric power cost offset associated with taking a single 100-HP blower off-
  line is included in the potential annual savings shown in Table 27.


      Table 27: Summary of Potential Annual Savings for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.
Digester Feedstock                      Feedstock 1                                         Feedstock 2A                                          Feedstock 2B
Digester
                              Alt. 1         Alt. 2           Alt. 4            Alt. 1            Alt. 2             Alt. 4              Alt. 1      Alt. 2       Alt. 4
Configuration
Potential Annual Electricity Cost Offset, $/year
From biogas-fueled CHP System1
 Stirling cycle engines      16,860          2,508           13,014            37,404            29,588             32,739           100,187         94,221      98,484
            IC Engines       26,507         13,616           27,045            56,776            50,421             54,449           137,024        133,035      138,484
From 100HP Blower off-line2
                            104,559        104,559          104,559           104,559           104,559           104,559           104,559        104,559       104,559
Potential Annual Sludge Disposal Cost Savings3, $/year
                            196,462        199,800          206,476           196,471           199,809           201,812           182,851        187,366       190,075




                                                                                4-21
                                    Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                   P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Notes:
1. Electrical cost offset was calculated as the new annual electricity costs for the WWTP with a new
   anaerobic digestion and CHP facility subtracted from the annual average electricity costs for the existing
   WWTP. New electricity costs were based on the annual average electricity cost for the Town of
   Fairhaven from 2006 to 2008 of $0.16/kWhr.
2. Assumes a single 100-HP positive displacement running 24-hours per day for 365 days per year is taken
   off-line.
3. For cost calculations, it was assumed the existing sludge disposal method would be continued until new
   options for sludge disposal are determined by the Town. Sludge disposal costs were based on the
   conditions of the WWTP’s existing contract with Synagro which includes a hauling fee of $0.02 per
   gallon and a tipping fee at the incinerator facility of $320 per dry ton.
The electrical cost offset is significantly greater for digester feedstock 2B because of the amount of
additional biogas that the highly degradable material in the feedstock generates during anaerobic
digestion. IC engines are shown to offer more of an electrical cost offset than the Stirling cycle
engine because of their higher efficiency.
The annual sludge disposal savings were similar for all digestion feedstock and configuration
alternatives. The TPAD configuration (alternative 4) provides the greatest amount of sludge
volume reduction and yields the highest disposal savings.
The electricity cost offset from taking a single 100-HP blower off-line is the same for every
alternative.

4.2.4 Opportunities for Renewable Energy Funding and Incentives
At the time of this study, many sources of private, state, and federal support was available for
alternative energy projects that included “biomass” or biogas as a renewable fuel source from an
anaerobic digestion and CHP system. These programs offer support through grants, loans,
paybacks, tax incentives, and also in the form of expedited permitting. For example, the MTC funds
design and construction projects for renewable energy projects, in addition to funding feasibility
studies.
Through existing relationships with state energy policy makers, research, and internal knowledge at
Brown and Caldwell, several support programs were identified that could be applied to the design,
construction, and operation of a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility at the WWTP. These
programs are summarized in Table 28.




                                                                             4-22
                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
  4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                             Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



Table 28: Summary of Applicable Renewable Energy Funding and Incentive Opportunities for a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.
Name of Program                          Type                          Source                                                                      Description
                                                                                                     Design & construction of qualifying renewable energy systems greater
Large Onsite Renewables Initiative     MA State             MA DOER/MTC -                            than 10 kW; capped at the lesser of $125,000 or 75% of actual cost, and
(LORI)                                  Grant                    RET                                 construction grants capped at the lesser of $275,000 or 75% of actual
                                                                                                     costs
Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) -   MA State             MA DOER/MTC -                            Payment for metered renewable energy generation facilities at an
Alternative Compliance Payments        Payback                   RET                                 adjusted rate; 2008 APC $0.058/kWh
                                                                                                     Federal funding for climate technology research, development,
Climate Change Technology Program       Federal            U.S. Dept. of Energy                      demonstration, and deployment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
(CCTP)                                  Grant                    (DOE)                               while increasing economic growth. Up to $3 billion available, actual
                                                                                                     amount unknown.
                                                                                                     $800 million in new CREB generally for the public sector for financing
                                       Federal                                                       renewable energy projects per the Clean Energy Improvement and
                                                           U.S. Dept. of Energy
Clean Renewable Energy Bonds            Loan                                                         Extension Act of 2008. Available October 3, 2008 through December
                                                                 (DOE)
                                       Program                                                       31, 2009 for anaerobic digestion, PV solar, solar hot water, wind power,
                                                                                                     and other projects.
                                                                                                     $800 million in 0% interest bonds for qualified energy conservation
                                       Federal                                                       bonds for local government agencies per the Clean Energy
                                                           U.S. Dept. of Energy
Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds     Loan                                                         Improvement and Extension Act of 2008. Authorized October 3, 2008
                                                                 (DOE)
                                       Program                                                       for anaerobic digestion, PV solar, solar hot water, wind power, and
                                                                                                     other projects.
                                       MA State
                                                               MA Dept. of                           Renewable-energy CHP systems up to 60 kW eligible for net metering,
                                       Incentive
MA Net Metering Standards                                  Telecommunications                        and net excess generation (NEG) purchased at the utility's average
                                        /utility
                                                            and Energy (DTE)                         monthly market price of generation
                                       bill credit




                                                                                          4-23

                                              Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                             P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



Potential funding for new municipal infrastructure and renewable energy projects from the recently
proposed Economic Stimulus Package should be monitored as well for application to a new
anaerobic digestion and CHP project for the Town. The Stimulus package proposed by President-
elect Barack Obama includes up to $500 billion and reportedly targets projects that 1) help local
government meet mandates, 2) create jobs, and 3)can be undertaken over the next few years. The
Town’s district congressman, Representative Barney Frank, will play a key role in the
implementation of any stimulus package funding and the Town should meet with him regarding the
recommendations of this study and other proposed municipal projects.
The MTC LORI program should be solicited for design and construction grants if the Town plans
moves forward with the recommendations of this study. These grants would help lessen the initial
project cost impact on the Town from a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility.
The RPS Alternative Compliance Payment (ACP) program is the longest running incentive program
for renewable energy facilities. A facility that meets the criteria established for the RPS program
receives payback for all power produced through a metered renewable energy generation system
regardless of whether the power is used at the site or put back on the grid. The APC rate is adjusted
annually according to the consumer product index (CPI) from the previous year and has increased
17 percent since 2003. Table 29 shows the APC rates established for the RPS program since 2002
and lists the new anaerobic digester facilities currently participating in the RPS APC program.




                                                                             4-24

                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                   Table 29: RPS APC Program Rates and Participating Anaerobic Digestion
                                               Facilities.

                                Year                           CPI from Previous                              ACP Rate, $/kWWh
                                                                     Year1
                                2002                                         188.2                                              NA
                                2003                                         193.5                                           $0.050
                                2004                                         200.2                                         $0.05141
                                2005                                         207.5                                         $0.05319
                                2006                                         215.0                                         $0.05513
                                2007                                       220.512                                         $0.05712
                                2008                                           NA                                          $0.05858
                           Existing Facilities in Massachusetts in the RPS APC Program
                                                               Renewable Energy                               Nameplate Capacity
                          Plant - Unit
                                                                  Fuel/Tech                                         kW
                   Deer Island Treatment
                                                                Anaerobic Digester                                           18000
                        Plant - STG
                      Blue Spruce Farm                          Anaerobic Digester                                              274
                   Berkshire Cow Power,
                                                                Anaerobic Digester                                              600
                    LLC (Richford, VT)
                  Green Mountain Dairy
                  Farm, LLC (Sheldon,                           Anaerobic Digester                                              330
                         VT)

Notes:
1. For this purpose, the DOER is using the “Consumer Price Index - All Urban Consumers, Northeast
   Region All Items, Not Seasonally Adjusted.” Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, on-line via
   http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?cu. Note that the annual CPI is presented there to the third
   decimal place for 2007, compared with only one in previous years.
The annual payback for the operation of a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility from the RPS
APC program was estimated for the power output calculated for the remaining alternatives. These
paybacks are shown in Table 30 and will be included in the overall LCA for the alternatives.
Overall, Digester Feedstock 2B provides the most payback for power production through the RPS
program.




                                                                              4-25

                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                   Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                                Table 30: Potential Revenue from MA DOER RPS Program.

                     2008 RPS payback rate, $/kWhr                                                                            0.058
   Feedstock
                                Digester Feedstock 1                             Digester Feedstock 2A                                  Digester Feedstock 2B
   Alternative
   Digester
                           Alt. 1          Alt. 2            Alt. 4            Alt. 1           Alt. 2            Alt. 4            Alt. 1       Alt. 2   Alt. 4
 Configuration
Potential Annual Revenue from RPS Rebate for Onsite Electricity Production, $/year
 w/Stirling cycle
         engines          19,233          21,156           25,002            32,031            33,954            35,108            55,017     57,618      59,179
    w/IC engines          24,583          27,041           31,958            40,942            43,400            44,875            70,322     73,647      75,642

4.2.5 Potential Tipping Fee revenue from Imported Waste
The most unpredictable source of cost savings is by far the potential revenue from imported waste
received at the WWTP for anaerobic digestion. The wastes evaluated in this study included locally-
generated fats, oil, and grease (FOG), dairy waste, and cranberry beverage production waste.
Tipping fees were estimated for these waste sources based on limited information in published
literature and are presented in this study for planning purposes only. These tipping fees are in no
way guaranteed and must be negotiated with waste generators if and when contracts for waste
acceptance at the WWTP are developed. Table 31 shows an example of the potential tipping fee
revenue that could be generated from imported waste to the WWTP for anaerobic digestion.


              Table 31: Estimated Revenue from Tipping Fees for Imported Waste Received at
                                   the WWTP for Anaerobic Digestion.

                                                                            Estimated Imported
            Waste source                                                                                                       Estimated Tipping
                                                                            Volume, gallons/day
                                                                                                                                 Fee1, $/gallon
            Digester feedstock                                         DF 1              DF 2A               DF2B
            FOG                                                            0              1,000                600                        0.10
            Dairy Waste                                                    0                  0               2,000                       0.02
            Cranberry beverage production
            waste                                                          0                  0               1,199                       0.02
            Estimated Annual Revenue from Imported Waste Tipping Fees, $/year
            Digester feedstock 1                                                                                  0
            Digester feedstock 2A                                                                            36,500
            Digester feedstock 2B                                                                            45,253




                                                                               4-26

                                   Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                  P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


           Notes:
           1. Estimates for tipping fees for imported waste and potential annual revenue from receipt of these
              wastes at the Fairhaven WWTP are based on limited published data in literature and are for
              planning purposes only. This study does not in any way guarantee these estimates.
Low tipping fees were assumed for dairy waste and cranberry beverage production waste because
there is much lower confidence in the ability to import these wastes in general and at a high fee in
comparison with FOG. The company providing information on dairy waste indicated they might
have anaerobic digestion and CHP capacity for this waste at their processing facility in the near
future. Therefore, little confidence could be given for a high tipping fee revenue from imported
dairy waste. The company providing information for cranberry beverage production waste indicated
that no onsite waste disposal or re-use facilities exist and that this waste is hauled off-site for
contracted composting. The company indicated they are interested in evaluating alternatives to
contracted composting, and therefore the same, low tipping fee was also assigned to cranberry
beverage production waste.
In terms of FOG, frying process waste (from a fryolator) is considered a commodity in the biofuels
market for the production of biodiesel. This may significantly impact the availability and cost of
FOG waste in the future. Grease trap waste may provide a more reliable, less costly supply that can
be acquired easier than frying waste. The Town currently mandates the pumping-out of grease traps
and these FOG sources could be easily collected by the Town or an independent hauler and
imported to the WWTP.
Digester feedstock 1 provides no potential revenue from tipping fees because it consists solely of
sludge generated at the Fairhaven WWTP and does not include any imported waste. Imported
wastes have the potential to generate significant revenue for the Town, as shown by the revenue
estimated for digester feedstock 2A and 2B which conceptually consist of different volumes of FOG
and dairy and cranberry beverage production waste.

4.2.6 Life Cycle Costs
The life cycle cost analysis (LCA) was performed using the capital and annual O&M costs presented
in subsequent sections in the equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) formula (Lindeburh, 1992).
These included costs for purchasing capital equipment and the annual electricity use and labor costs
associated with each alternative. The results of the LCA were used to compare and evaluate the
remaining alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility at the WWTP. The EUAC
for each alternative was calculated using the following parameters:
EUAC = Capital Cost (A/P, i, n) + Annual Operation Costs
Where:
A: Annual Amount
P: Present Worth
A/P: Discounting factor (dimensionless)
i: interest rate (percent,%)




                                                                             4-27

                                 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
  4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


  n: life of asset (years)
  The life of the overall anaerobic digestion and CHP system was defined as 20 years. The following
  parameters were defined for the LCA (Lindeburgh, 1992):
  n: 20 years
  i: 7%
  A/P: 0.0.0944
  The EUAC represents the total annual cost for constructing and operating a new anaerobic
  digestion and CHP facility over a 20-year period with a 7 percent interest rate. The EUAC includes
  current electricity use costs.
  Table 32 shows the EUAC for each alternative without the potential annual savings included. These
  savings are used in this study to determine the payback for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP
  facility.


      Table 32: Summary of Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.
 Digester Feedstock                  Digester Feedstock 1                                Digester Feedstock 2A                               Digester Feedstock 2B
     Digester
                              Alt. 1            Alt. 2             Alt. 4           Alt. 1           Alt. 2            Alt. 4              Alt. 1    Alt. 2    Alt. 4
   Configuration
EUAC1, $/year

       w/Stirling cycle
               engines            485,729        559,819           538,393          540,416          624,572            611,835            562,275   665,973   646,469

          w/IC engines            503,855        573,980           549,681          538,463          621,278            607,728            531,245   633,127   612,533

  Notes:
  1. A 30% safety factor was applied to all capital and maintenance costs to account for potential cost
     increases due to inflation, manufacturer’s estimates, installation costs, labor, and operational costs
     unforeseen at this level of study. Life cycle costs do not include the potential cost savings identified for a
     new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility.
  2. Cost savings included savings that a new anaerobic digestion and CHP process would provide to the
     existing WWTP from electrical offsets, sludge disposal, RPS paybacks, MTC design and construction
     funding, and potential revenue from tipping fees for imported wastes.
  The EUAC represents the total annual life cycle cost of constructing and operating a new anaerobic
  digestion and CHP facility over a period. These life cycle costs are shown graphically in Figure 19.




                                                                                  4-28

                                      Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                     P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



                                   700,000




                                   600,000




                                   500,000
   Life Cycle Costs, $/yr (EUAC)




                                   400,000




                                   300,000                                                                                                      Stirling cycle engine, Feedstock 1
                                                                                                                                                IC engine, Feedstock 1
                                                                                                                                                Stirling cycle engine, Feedstock 2A
                                                                                                                                                IC engine, Feedstock 2A
                                   200,000                                                                                                      Stirling cycle engine, Feedstock 2B
                                                                                                                                                IC engine, Feedstock 2B


                                   100,000




                                        0
                                             Alt 1, Single-stage meso                             Alt 2, Two-stage Meso                                     Alt 4, Two-stage TPAD
                                                                                             Digester Configuration


Figure 19: Annual Life Cycle Costs (EUAC) with Potential Savings Included for Anaerobic Digestion
                                      and CHP Alternatives.
Overall, the annual life cycle costs (EUAC) were similar between feedstock and digester
configurations and varied at most by approximately $160,000. Digester feedstock seemed to affect
life cycle costs greatest. This is due to the increase in feedstock volume and, thus, digester volume
from feedstock 1 to 2B.Life cycle costs also vary significantly between feedstock alternatives and
CHP systems. The lowest life cycle costs are shown for digester alternative 1 using a single-stage
mesophilic digester configuration with a feedstock consisting of WWTP sludge and FOG and a
CHP system with Stirling cycle engines.
Digester configurations 2 and 4 showed the highest life cycle costs, likely because of the high capital
and operational costs associated with a two-tank system.

4.2.7 Payback Period
Although life cycle costs give an indication of the annual costs for construction and operation of a
new facility, these costs represent a worst-case scenario and do not include the significant cost
savings calculated for each alternative. The most significant indication of value for each alternative is
provided by the potential payback period.




                                                                                                   4-29

                                                       Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                      P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                                                                        Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Determination of the payback period for alternatives accounted for all the potential savings
identified in this study including savings from electric power generation from a biogas-fueled CHP
system and offsets from the reduction of imported electricity, reduction in annual sludge disposal
costs, reduction in electric power consumption from taking a single blower offline, MTC design and
construction funding, RPS payback, and potential tipping fee revenue.
Payback was calculated using the following parameters:
Capital Borrowing (Bond) Rate: 2.00%
Term of Loan: 20 years
Annual O&M Cost Inflation Rate: 5.00%
The cumulative budget impacts for alternatives using feedstock 1 are shown in Figure 20. The
budget impact for all alternatives using feedstock 1 is shown as negative beyond the 20-year loan
term and remains negative past the 30-year calculation period. Alternatives using Stirling cycle
engine CHP systems are shown in blue and those with IC engine CHP systems are shown in green.
This indicates that a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility at the WWTP using a feedstock
consisting of only WWTP sludge would not pay for itself or generate revenue after 30-years of
operation.

                                                                                                                                              Years
                                                                       $0




                                                                               0   2   4         6         8        10         12        14        16        18         20        22         24   26   28   30
   Cumulative Budget Impact from New Facility, $ per Year



                                                                       0)
                                                                      00
                                                                  0,
                                                                 50
                                                             2,
                                                            ($


                                                                       0)
                                                                      00
                                                                  0,
                                                                 00
                                                             5,
                                                            ($


                                                                       0)
                                                                      00
                                                                  0,
                                                                 50
                                                             7,
                                                            ($


                                                                           )




                                                                                       Alternative 1, Stirling Cycle
                                                                       00
                                                                      ,0




                                                                                       Alternative 1, IC Engine
                                                                  00
                                                                 ,0
                                                             10




                                                                                       Alternative 2, Stirling Cycle
                                                            ($




                                                                                       Alternative 2, IC Engine
                                                                                       Alternative 4, Stirling Cycle
                                                                           )
                                                                       00
                                                                      ,0




                                                                                       Alternative 4, IC Engine
                                                                  00
                                                                 ,5
                                                             12
                                                            ($



                                                                           )
                                                                       00
                                                                      ,0
                                                                  00
                                                                 ,0
                                                             15
                                                            ($




                                                                 Figure 20: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 1.



                                                                                                                                    4-30

                                                                                        Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                                                       P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                                                                          Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


The cumulative budget impacts for alternatives using feedstock 2A are shown in Figure 21.
Alternatives using Stirling cycle engine CHP systems are shown in blue and those with IC engine
CHP systems are shown in green. The budget impacts from all alternatives using feedstock 2A is
shown as negative beyond the 20-year loan term, and remain negative past the 30-year calculation
period with one exception. Using feedstock 2A with a single-stage mesophilic digester configuration
and a CHP system with IC engines is the only alternative that indicates a payback and revenue after
29 years.
Figure 21 indicates that all alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility at the WWTP
using a feedstock consisting of WWTP sludge and imported FOG would not pay for itself or
generate revenue through savings within the 20-year loan term.

                                                                                                                                                  Years
                                                                        00
                                                                      ,0
                                                                   00
                                                                 ,0
                                                             $2




                                                                                                                                                                           29-year payback realized for
   Cumulative Budget Impact from New Facility, $ per Year




                                                                                                                                                                           1-stage meso (Alt. 1), IC
                                                                                                                                                                               i
                                                                        $0




                                                                               0   2     4         6          8        10         12         14        16         18        20         22      24    26   28   30
                                                                        0)
                                                                      00
                                                                   0,
                                                                 00
                                                             2,
                                                            ($


                                                                           )
                                                                        00
                                                                      ,0
                                                                   00




                                                                                       Alternative 1, Stirling Cycle
                                                              ,0
                                                               4
                                                            ($




                                                                                       Alternative 1, IC Engine
                                                                                       Alternative 2, Stirling Cycle
                                                                                       Alternative 2, IC Engine
                                                                        0)




                                                                                       Alternative 4, Stirling Cycle
                                                                      00
                                                                   0,




                                                                                       Alternative 4, IC Engine
                                                                 00
                                                             6,
                                                            ($


                                                                        0)
                                                                      00
                                                                   0,
                                                                 00
                                                             8,
                                                            ($




                                                              Figure 21: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 2A.


The cumulative budget impacts for alternatives using feedstock 2B are shown in Figure 22. The
budget impact is shown as positive within the 20-year loan term from all alternatives using a
feedstock combination of WWTP sludge, FOG, dairy waste, and cranberry beverage production
waste with one exception (2-stage mesophilic, Stirling cycle CHP system). Figure 22 indicates that
alternatives using a CHP system with IC engines could provide a payback period and revenue within




                                                                                                                                       4-31

                                                                                          Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                                                         P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                                                                         Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


13 years; alternatives using Stirling cycle engines would not pay for themselves or generate revenue
through savings within a 20-year loan term.
Figure 22 indicates that alternatives using feedstock 2B could provide the shortest payback period
with the earliest and highest revenue generation for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility. The
shortest payback period of 6-years is shown using feedstock 2B with a single-stage mesophilic
digester (Alternative 1) and an IC engine CHP system.

                                                                                                                                                    Years
                                                                         0
                                                                         0
                                                                      ,0
                                                                  00




                                                                                     Alternative 1, Stirling Cycle
                                                                 ,0
                                                            $6




                                                                                     Alternative 1, IC Engine
                                                                         0
   Cumulative Budget Impact from New Facility, $ per Year


                                                                        00




                                                                                     Alternative 2, Stirling Cycle
                                                                   0,
                                                                    0
                                                                 ,0




                                                                                     Alternative 2, IC Engine
                                                            $5




                                                                                     Alternative 4, Stirling Cycle
                                                                         0
                                                                     00
                                                                   0,




                                                                                     Alternative 4, IC Engine
                                                                    0
                                                                 ,0
                                                            $4




                                                                                                                                                   IC Engines
                                                                        00
                                                                      ,0
                                                                  00
                                                                 ,0
                                                            $3




                                                                                                       Payback                                                                                Payback
                                                                         0
                                                                        00




                                                                                                          li d                                                                                   li d
                                                                   0,
                                                                    0
                                                                 ,0
                                                            $2

                                                                        00
                                                                      ,0
                                                                  00
                                                                 ,0
                                                            $1

                                                                        $0




                                                                             0   2      4          6          8         10         12         14         16        18         20         22      24     26     28      30
                                                                        0)
                                                                      00
                                                                  0,
                                                                 00
                                                             1,
                                                            ($




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Stirling Cycle
                                                                        0)
                                                                    00




                                                                                                                                                                                                             engines
                                                                  0,
                                                               00
                                                             2,
                                                            ($


                                                                        0)
                                                                      00
                                                                  0,
                                                                 00
                                                             3,
                                                            ($


                                                                        0)
                                                                    00
                                                                  0,
                                                               00
                                                             4,
                                                            ($




                                                             Figure 22: Cumulative Budget Impact of Implementing Alternatives Using Feedstock 2B.




                                                                                                                                     4-32

                                                                                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                                                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
4: Evaluation of Alternatives                                                                                  Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



Table 33 provides a summary of the payback periods in years calculated for each alternative.


          Table 33: Summary of Payback Periods for Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Alternatives.
    Digester
                                 Feedstock 1                                          Feedstock 2A                                         Feedstock 2B
   Feedstock
   Digester
                        Alt. 1        Alt. 2             Alt. 4            Alt. 1            Alt. 2            Alt. 4            Alt. 1       Alt. 2      Alt. 4
 Configuration
 Payback Period, years
   Stirling cycle
                         +30           +30                +30               +30               +30               +30                25          +30         28
         engines
       IC engine         +30           +30                +30                 29              +30               +30                    6        13         10
Overall, a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility using feedstock 2B with IC engines provides the
shortest payback period.




                                                                              4-33

                                  Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                 P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
                                           FEASIBILITY STUDY

                                      5. RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Summary of Evaluation Results

5.1.1 Non-Economic Evaluation
The results of the non-cost evaluation show that using a digester feedstock with FOG included
(feedstock 2A) would provide slightly better benefits than feedstocks 1 and 2B. The non-cost
evaluation also shows that a two-stage digestion configuration would be significantly more beneficial
than a single stage process. Finally, a CHP system using lean burn internal combustion engines is
rated as the most beneficial system for the amount of biogas production estimated for the anaerobic
digestion alternatives.
Overall, the non-cost evaluation shows that the most beneficial alternative for the Fairhaven WWTP
is:
    Digester feedstock including WWTP sludge + FOG (Feedstock 2A)
    Two-stage mesophilic anaerobic digester process (Alternative 2)
    CHP system with lean burn IC engines

5.1.2 Economic Evaluation
The economic evaluation, with focus on payback period, shows that the alternative with the shortest
payback period (6-years) is:
   Digester feedstock including WWTP sludge + FOG + dairy waste + cranberry beverage waste
   (Feedstock 2B)
   Single-stage mesophilic anaerobic digester process (Alternative 1)
   CHP system with lean burn IC engines
Table 33 shows that a new facility using feedstock 2B with a 2-stage mesophilic anaerobic digester
configuration (Alternative 2) and a CHP system with IC engines also provides a reasonable payback
period of 13-years.

5.2 Implementation Plan
A phased-approach to the implementation of a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility is
recommended for the Fairhaven WWTP. Although the recommended alternative using feedstock
2A with a two-stage anaerobic digester configuration and a CHP system with IC engines is
consistent with the non-economic evaluation, the payback period for this alternative is beyond 30-
years. Therefore, it is recommended that the new facility be designed and constructed with the
capacity for feedstock 2B, but initially operated using feedstock 2A components for a period of two-
three years. The volumes of FOG recommended initially for feedstock 2A coincide with published




                                                                      5-1
                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
5: Recommendations                                                                                                                                                 Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


values for the maximum FOG load that can be added to a municipal sludge anaerobic digester
without upset to the process, which are typically less than 30-percent of the overall volatiles olids
load.
This two-year period will allow WWTP staff to become familiar with the operation of a new
anaerobic digestion and CHP facility. By the third year of operation, the WWTP can begin to
phase-in the additional feedstock components associated with feedstock 2B into the process. These
wastes include dairy waste and cranberry beverage production waste that will enhance the benefits of
the new facility by adding potential tipping fee revenue, increasing electricity cost offsets and RPS
payback through increased biogas fuel production and use in the CHP system, and other benefits.
The addition of additional feedstock components is calculated to increase the payback period for a
new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility from over 30-years to approximately 13 years. The change
in annual budget and payback from this phased approach is shown by Figure 23.

                                                            $10,000,000



                                                                                    Feedstock 2A with phase-in of feedstock 2B
   Cumulative Budget Impact from New Facility, $ per year




                                                             $8,000,000             components
                                                                                    Feedstock 2A only (2-stage mesophilic, IC
                                                                                    Engines)

                                                             $6,000,000




                                                             $4,000,000
                                                                                   2-years into operation: Dairy and
                                                                                   cranberry beverage waste
                                                                                   introduced to digesters with      Payback realized after 13 years
                                                             $2,000,000            feedstock 2A

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Savings or
                                                                                                                                                                                                         earned revenue
                                                                    $0
                                                                           0   2          4          6          8         10         12         14         16         18         20         22      24      26      28    30

                                                                                                                                                                                           20-year loan term ends
                                                            ($2,000,000)




                                                            ($4,000,000)




                                                            ($6,000,000)
                                                                                                                                                  Years


                                           Figure 23: Cumulative Budget Impact and Payback for a Phased-Implementation of Digester
                                                         Feedstocks at a New Anaerobic Digesyion and CHP Facility.




                                                                                                                                   5-2

                                                                                      Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                                                                                     P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
5: Recommendations                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study



5.2.1 Description of Recommended Alternatives
Although a single-stage anaerobic digestion process showed the lowest life cycle costs, a two-stage
digestion process is recommended. A single stage system lacks redundancy and the risk of
downtime associated with a single tank process is too high for a new facility. It is recommended
that a two-stage, mesophilic anaerobic digestion process be developed for the Fairhaven WWTP as
described by digester alternative 2 in this study.
The non-cost and economical benefits of including additional organic wastes in the digester
feedstock were shown through enhanced biogas production and digested sludge volume reduction.
These imported wastes might also provide a significant revenue source to the Town through tipping
fees. It is recommended that the WWTP develop a steady-state digestion process using sludge
generated at the WWTP and also seek contractual agreements with local producers of FOG for use
in the feedstock once a steady state anaerobic digestion is developed.
Thus, feedstock 2A is recommended for the startup of a new facility with the design capacity to
handle the volumes associated with feedstock 2B. This requires the volume of all receiving,
anaerobic digester tanks, and digested sludge storage tanks to include capacity to accommodate the
imported waste and digester feed flow associated with feedstock 2B. This would allow the WWTP
to add waste streams to the feedstock to enhance biogas production gradually as legitimate and long-
term sources of degradable organic wastes are identified or acquired through contractual agreements.
A CHP system using IC engines was shown to be the most beneficial power and heat generation
system. However, it is recommended that Stirling cycle engines also be considered during any future
design of a new anaerobic digestion facility. The manufacturer of the Stirling BioPower FlexGen
unit has shown recent improvements to the Stirling cycle engine and may provide a suitable
alternative to IC engines if efficiency improves or additional funding and incentives become
available for Stirling cycle engines or similar new technologies.
Table 34 shows the recommended alternatives for a new anaerobic digestion and CHP facility for
the Fairhaven WWTP.




                                                                      5-3

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
5: Recommendations                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study




   Table 34: Summary of the Recommendations for a New Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Facility.

  Digester Feedstock: Feedstock 2A
                                                 Imported
                                                                                       Flow to digester                          Biogas fuel energy
  Components                                 Volume, gal/day
                                                                                       process, gal/day                          production, Btu/hr
                                              (trucks/week)
                     WWTP sludge                            0                                    6,967                                675,908
                              FOG                    1,000 (1)                                   1,667                                248,694
             Total, feedstock 2A                     1,000 (1)                                   8,634                                924,602
  Feedstock Components to be phased-in: feedstock 2B
                     Feedstock 2A                    1,000 (1)                                   8,634                                924,602
                      Dairy Waste                    2,000 (4)                                   2,000                                512,070
              Cranberry beverage
                                                     1,199 (2)                                                                        238,242
                production waste                                                                 6,582
      Total, phased-in feedstock
                                                     3,199 (7)                                  17,216                               1,674,914
                              2B
  Anaerobic Digester Configuration: Alternative 2
                                                Operating                          Hydraulic Residence                             Digester Tank
  Description
                                              temperature, °F                          Time, days                                 Volume, gallons
  Two-stage mesophilic                                                                        20 (total)                           322,000 (total)
                        First stage               95 to 105°F                                       10                                161,000
                      Second stage                95 to 105°F                                       10                                161,000
  Combined Heat and Power System
                                                                                                                                       Net Electric
  Electric Power Generation
                                                                                                       Recovered Heat,                   Power
  Technology: Lean Burn IC                     Capacity, kW (# of units)
                                                                                                           Btu/hr                      generation,
  engine
                                                                                                                                        kWhr/yr
  Installed with initial
                                                                110 (1)                                        501,858                    337,016
  feedstock
  Installed after phased-in
                                                          64 (1), 110 (1)                                      850,086                    853,356
  feedstock




                                                                         5-4

                            Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                           P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
5: Recommendations                                                                                    Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Table 35 shows the capital, operations and maintenance, potential savings, life cycle costs, and
payback period associated with the recommended alternatives.


                     Table 35: Summary of the Economics Associated with the
                         Recommended Alternatives for a New Anaerobic
                                   Digestion and CHP Facility.

                     Initial Capital Costs1, $                                                                  Value
                                                                 Anaerobic digestion                         3,076,700
                                                                               CHP system                    1,480,300
                                                                                             Total           4,557,000
                     Initial Operation and Maintenance Costs2,
                     $/year
                                   Anaerobic digestion & CHP system                                            76,300
                                                                       Sludge Disposal3                        43,700
                                                 Net WWTP Electricity Use4                                    140,100
                                                     Total O&M Costs, $/year                                  260,100


                     Savings, $/year
                                                             Electrical Cost Offset                            50,400
                                                                        Sludge Disposal                       199,800
                                                                              RPS payback                      43,400
                                            Potential Tipping Fee Revenue                                      36,500
                                                             Total Savings, $/ year                           330,100
                     Initial Life Cycle Costs3, $/year
                       Estimated Uniform Annual Costs (EUAC)                                                  671,500
                         Initial payback period with feedstock 2A,
                                                                                                                  +30
                                                             years
                                            Payback with phased feedstock
                                                                                                                   13
                                                    implementation, years




                                                                      5-5

                         Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                        P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
5: Recommendations                                                                                       Anaerobic Digestion and CHP Feasibility Study


Notes:
1. A 30% safety factor was applied to all capital costs to account for potential cost increases due to inflation,
   manufacturer’s estimates, and installation costs unforeseen at this level of study.
2. A 30% safety factor was applied to all maintenance costs to account for potential cost increases due to
   inflation, labor, and operational costs unforeseen at this level of study. Costs included all labor,
   maintenance, and chemical costs associated with equipment and/or process operation.
3. Sludge disposal costs included a 30% safety factor and were based on the conditions of the WWTP’s
   existing contract with Synagro which includes a hauling fee of $0.02 per gallon and a tipping fee at the
   incinerator facility of $320 per dry ton.
4. The net annual electricity costs were calculated based on the annual average electricity cost at the WWTP
   of $0.16/kWhr and included the annual power requirements of a new facility including the annual
   average power use of the existing WWTP from 2006 to 2008 minus the net electric power production for
   each alternative.
5. Development of life cycle costs using via EUAC is described in Section 4.2.6 and used an
    interest rate of 7% and a 20-year life of asset assumption.




                                                                         5-6

                            Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                           P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
                                          FEASIBILITY STUDY

                                                6. LIMITATIONS


Report Limitations

This document was prepared solely for the Town of Fairhaven, Massachusetts in accordance with
professional standards at the time the services were performed and in accordance with the contract
between the Town of Fairhaven and Brown and Caldwell. This document is governed by the
specific scope of work authorized by the Town of Fairhaven; it is not intended to be relied upon by
any other party except for regulatory authorities contemplated by the scope of work. We have relied
on information or instructions provided by the Town of Fairhaven and other parties and, unless
otherwise expressly indicated, have made no independent investigation as to the validity,
completeness, or accuracy of such information.




                                                                     6-1
                        Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
                       P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc.
           APPENDIX A: FAIRHAVEN WWTP NPDES PERMIT




                                                A

                                                  .
 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                            Page 1 of 12


                    AUTHORIZATION TO DISCHARGE UNDER THE
              NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM

In compliance with the provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act as amended, (33 U.S.C.
§§1251 et seq.; the "CWA"), and the Massachusetts Clean Waters Act, as amended, (M.G.L.
Chap. 21, §§26-53),

                                     Town of Fairhaven
                             Arsene Street, Fairhaven, MA 02719

is authorized to discharge from the facility located at

                            Fairhaven Wastewater Treatment Plant
                                        Arsene Street
                                    Fairhaven, MA 02719

to receiving water named

   Acushnet River ( New Bedford Inner Harbor; Buzzards Bay Watershed; State Code 95)
in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements and other conditions set forth
herein.

This permit shall become effective 60 days after signature.

This permit and the authorization to discharge expire at midnight, two (2) years from the
effective date.

This permit supersedes the permit issued on September 28, 1989 and modified on March 30,
1990.

This permit consists of 12 pages in Part I including effluent limitations, monitoring requirements,
Attachment A, Marine Chronic Toxicity Test; Attachment B, Sludge Guidance; and 35 pages in
Part II including General Conditions and Definitions.

Signed this 3rd day of April, 2003

/SIGNATURE ON FILE/
_________________________                             __________________________
Director                                             Director
Office of Ecosystem Protection                       Department of Watershed Management
Environmental Protection Agency                      Department of Environmental Protection
Boston, MA                                          Commonwealth of Massachusetts
                                                    Boston, MA
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                                                                    Page 2 of 12

PART I

A. EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS AND MONITORING REQUIREMENTS

1.       During the period beginning the effective date and lasting through expiration, the permittee is authorized to discharge treated
         effluent from outfall serial number 001. Such discharge shall be limited and monitored by the permittee as specified below.

 Effluent Characteristic                Units                    Discharge Limitation                       Monitoring Requirement
                                                       Average       Average        Maximum         Measurement      Sample Type
                                                       Monthly       Weekly         Daily           Frequency
 Flow                                   mgd            5.0 2         ----           Report          Continuous       Recorder
 BOD5 4                                 mg/l           30            45             Report          1/Week           24-Hour Composite5
                                        lbs/day        1252          1878           ------
 TSS 4,12                               mg/l           30            45             Report          1/Week           24-Hour Composite5
                                        lbs/day        1252          1878           -------
 Settleable Solids 1                    ml/l           0.1           ----           0.3             1/Day            24-Hour Composite5
 pH 12                                                 (See Condition I.A.1.b. on Page 6)           1/Day            Grab
 Fecal Coliform Bacteria 1,6,12         cfu/100 ml     88            ----           260             1/Week           Grab
 Total Residual Chlorine1,7             ug/l           61.5          ----           107             3/Day            Grab
 Total Nitrogen                         mg/l           Report        ----           Report          1/Week4          24-Hour Composite5
 ( Total of TKN + Nitrite + Nitrate)    lbs/day        Report        ----           Report

         8,9,11
 LC50                                   %              ----          ----           100             2/year           24-Hour Composite5
 Chronic NOEC 8,10,11                   %              ----          ----           >12.2           2/year           24-Hour Composite5

 Sampling location: Effluent sampling for total residual chlorine and fecal coliform shall be performed at the man-hole location near the
end of the outfall pipe. All other effluent sampling shall be conducted at the distribution box after chlorination. Upon completion of
the ultra-violet disinfection system, all effluent sampling shall be conducted at the outlet of the ultra-violet disinfection system.
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                          Page 3 of 12


Footnotes:

1.     Required for State Certification.

2.    For flow, report maximum and minimum daily rates and total flow for each operating
      date. This is an annual average limit, which shall be reported as a rolling average. The
      first value will be calculated using the monthly average flow for the first full month
      ending after the effective date of the permit and the eleven previous monthly average
      flows. Each subsequent month’s DMR will report the annual average flow for the
      previous 12 months.

3     All required effluent samples shall be collected at the point specified in permit. Any
      change in sampling location must be reviewed and approved in writing by EPA and
      MADEP. All samples shall be tested using the analytical methods found in 40 CFR §136,
      or alternative methods approved by EPA in accordance with the procedures in 40 CFR
      §136. All samples shall be 24 hour composites unless specified as a grab sample in 40
      CFR §136.

4.    Sampling required for influent and effluent.

5.    A 24-hour composite sample will consist of at least twenty four (24) grab samples taken
      over a 24 hour period.

6.    Fecal coliform monitoring will be conducted year round. This is also a State certification
      requirement. This monitoring shall be conducted concurrently with the TRC sampling
      described below. The monthly average limit is expressed as a geometric mean.

7.    The minimum level (ML) for total residual chlorine is defined as 50 ug/l. This value is the
      minimum level for chlorine using EPA approved methods found in the most currently
      approved version of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,
      Method 4500 CL-E and G, or United States Environmental Protection Agency Manual of
      Methods of Analysis of Water and Wastes, Method 330.5. One of these methods must be
      used to determine total residual chlorine. Sample results of 50 ug/l or less shall be
      reported as zero on the discharge monitoring report.

      The permittee is required to complete construction and begin operation of an ultraviolet
      ray (UV) disinfection system by April 1, 2004. The new limits for TRC will not be
      effective until April 1, 2004. During the interim period (from the effective date of the
      permit until April 1, 2004) the previous permit maximum daily limit of of 0.29 mg/l will
      be in effect. However, between October 15, 2003 and April 1, 2004, during the
      construction of the UV disinfection system, the permittee will not be required to disinfect
      its discharge. The permittee shall notify the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries,
      EPA, and MADEP at least two weeks prior to terminating chlorination, and upon
      completion of the UV disinfection system. Upon termination of chlorination, the
      monitoring requirements for TRC shall end, if not used.
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                           Page 4 of 12


8.    The permittee shall conduct chronic (and modified acute) toxicity tests two times per
      year. The chronic test may be used to calculate the acute LC 50 at the 48 hour exposure
      interval. The permittee shall test the Inland silverside and Sea urchin. Toxicity test
      samples shall be collected during the second week of the months of March, and
      September . The test results shall be submitted by the last day of the month following the
      completion of the test. The results are due April 30th and October 31st respectively. The
      tests must be performed in accordance with test procedures and protocols specified in
      Attachment A of this permit.



      Test           Submit              Test Species           Acute Limit      Chronic Limit
      Dates          Results                                    LC50             C-NOEC
      Second         By:
      week in
      March          April 30th          Inland silversde       $ 100%           $ 12.2%
       and            and                    and
      September      October 31st        Sea urchin

                                         See Attachment A

      After submitting four consecutive sets of WET test results, all of which demonstrate
      compliance with the WET permit limits, the permittee may request a reduction in the
      frequency of required WET testing. The permittee is required to continue testing at the
      frequency specified in the permit until notice is received by certified mail from the EPA
      that the WET testing requirement has been changed.

9.    The LC50 is the concentration of effluent which causes mortality to 50% of the test
      organisms. Therefore, a 100% limit means that a sample of 100% effluent (no dilution)
      shall cause no more than a 50% mortality rate.

10.    C-NOEC (chronic-no observed effect concentration) is defined as the highest
      concentration of toxicant or effluent to which organisms are exposed in a life cycle or
      partial life cycle test which causes no adverse effect on growth, survival, or reproduction
      at a specific time of observation as determined from hypothesis testing where the test
      results exhibit a linear dose-response relationship. However, where the test results do not
      exhibit a linear dose-response relationship, the permittee must report the lowest
      concentration where there is no observable effect. The "12.2% or greater" limit is defined
      as a sample which is composed of 12.2% (or greater) effluent, the remainder being
      dilution water. This is a maximum daily limit derived as a percentage of the inverse of the
      dilution factor of 8.2.

11.   If toxicity test(s) using receiving water as diluent show the receiving water to be toxic or
      unreliable, the permittee shall follow procedures outlined in Attachment A Section IV.,
      DILUTION WATER in order to obtain permission to use an alternate dilution water. In
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                             Page 5 of 12

       lieu of individual approvals for alternate dilution water required in Attachment A, EPA-
       New England has developed a Self-Implementing Alternative Dilution Water Guidance
       document (called “Guidance Document”) which may be used to obtain automatic
       approval of an alternate dilution water, including the appropriate species for use with that
       water. If this Guidance document is revoked, the permittee shall revert to obtaining
       approval as outlined in Attachment A. The “Guidance Document” has been sent to all
       permittees with their annual set of DMRs and Revised Updated Instructions for
       Completing EPA’s Pre-Printed NPDES Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) Form 3320-
       1 and is not intended as a direct attachment to this permit. Any modification or
       revocation to this “Guidance Document” will be transmitted to the permittee as part of the
       annual DMR instruction package. However, at any time, the permittee may choose to
       contact EPA-New England directly using the approach outlined in Attachment A

12.    During the use and emptying of the flow equalization units, the following samples shall
      be collected after the flow equalization pumps :

      TSS and pH — TSS shall be a manual composite on the basis of a minimum of 3
                  grab samples during a regular working day; pH shall be a grab sample.

       During the use and emptying of the flow equalization units [when using either
       chlorination and/or ultra violet ray disinfection] , a representative fecal coliform sample
       of the effluent shall be collected at the distribution box after disinfection.

Part I.A.1. (Continued)

       a.     The discharge shall not cause a violation of the water quality standards of the
              receiving waters.

       b.     The pH of the effluent shall not be less than 6.5 nor greater than 8.5 at any time,
              unless these values are exceeded as a result of an approved treatment process.

       c.     The discharge shall not cause objectionable discoloration of the receiving waters.

       d.     The effluent shall contain neither a visible oil sheen, foam, nor floating solids at
              any time.

       e.     The permittee's treatment facility shall maintain a minimum of 85 percent removal
              of both total suspended solids and biochemical oxygen demand. The percent
              removal shall be based on monthly average values.

       f.     When the effluent discharged for a period of 90 consecutive days exceeds 80
              percent of the designed flow, the permittee shall submit to the permitting
              authorities a projection of loadings up to the time when the design capacity of the
              treatment facility will be reached, and a program for maintaining satisfactory
              treatment levels consistent with approved water quality management plans.
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                            Page 6 of 12

       g.     The permittee shall minimize the use of chlorine while maintaining adequate
              bacterial control.

       h.     The results of sampling for any parameter above its required frequency must also
              be reported.

2. All POTWs must provide adequate notice to the Director of the following:

       a.     Any new introduction of pollutants into that POTW from an indirect discharger in
              a primary industry category discharging process water; and

       b.     Any substantial change in the volume or character of pollutants being introduced
              into that POTW by a source introducing pollutants into the POTW at the time of
              issuance of the permit.

       c.     For purposes of this paragraph, adequate notice shall include information on:

              (1) the quantity and quality of effluent introduced into the POTW; and

              (2) any anticipated impact of the change on the quantity or quality of effluent to
              be discharged from the POTW.

3. Prohibitions Concerning Interference and Pass Through:

       a.     Pollutants introduced into POTW's by a non-domestic source (user) shall not pass
              through the POTW or interfere with the operation or performance of the works.

       b.     If, within 30 days after notice of an interference or pass through violation has been
              sent by EPA to the POTW, and to persons or groups who have requested such
              notice, the POTW fails to commence appropriate enforcement action to correct
              the violation, EPA may take appropriate enforcement action.

4. Toxics Control

       a.     The permittee shall not discharge any pollutant or combination of pollutants in
              toxic amounts.

       b.     Any toxic components of the effluent shall not result in any demonstrable harm to
              aquatic life or violate any state or federal water quality standard which has been or
              may be promulgated. Upon promulgation of any such standard, this permit may
              be revised or amended in accordance with such standards.

5. Numerical Effluent Limitations for Toxicants

       EPA or DEP may use the results of the toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted
       pursuant to this permit, as well as national water quality criteria developed pursuant to
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                            Page 7 of 12

       Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), state water quality criteria, and any
       other appropriate information or data, to develop numerical effluent limitations for any
       pollutants, including but not limited to those pollutants listed in Appendix D of 40 CFR
       Part 122.

B. PRETREATMENT

1. Limitations for Industrial Users:

       a. Pollutants introduced into POTW's by a non-domestic source (user) shall not pass
       through the POTW or interfere with the operation or performance of the works.

2. Industrial Pretreatment Program

        Within 120 days of the effective date of the permit, the permittee shall submit the
      results of an industrial user survey including identification of industrial users and the
     character and volume of pollutants contributed to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works
    (POTW) by the industrial users. The industrial user survey shall as a minimum include
   the following :

                  (i)       Industries discharging wastes which are or may be in the future
                           subject to local limitations or the national prohibited discharge
                         standards found in 40 CFR Part 403.5; and

                  (ii)      Industries discharging wastewater from processes in one or more
                          primary industry categories ( See Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 122
                         or Appendix C of 40 CFR Part 403 ).

C. UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGES

The permittee is authorized to discharge only in accordance with the terms and conditions of this
permit and only from outfalls listed in Part I A.1. of this permit. Discharges of wastewater from
any other point sources, including sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are not authorized by this
permit and shall be reported in accordance with Section D.1.e. (1) of the General Requirements of
this permit (Twenty-four hour reporting).

D. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SEWER SYSTEM

Operation and maintenance of the sewer system shall be in compliance with the General
Requirements of Part II and the following terms and conditions:

1. Maintenance Staff

       The permittee shall provide an adequate staff to carry out the operation, maintenance,
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                              Page 8 of 12

       repair, and testing functions required to ensure compliance with the terms and conditions
       of this permit.

2. Preventative Maintenance Program

       The permittee shall maintain an ongoing preventative maintenance program to prevent
       overflows and bypasses caused by malfunctions or failures of the sewer system
       infrastructure. The program shall include an inspection program designed to identify all
       potential and actual unauthorized discharges.

3. Infiltration/Inflow Control Plan:

       The permittee shall develop and implement a plan to control infiltration and inflow (I/I) to
       the separate sewer system. The plan shall be submitted to EPA and MA DEP within six
       months of the effective date of this permit (see page 1 of this permit for the effective date)
       and shall describe the permittee’s program for preventing infiltration/inflow related
       effluent limit violations, and all unauthorized discharges of wastewater, including
       overflows and by-passes due to excessive infiltration/inflow.

       The plan shall include:

       •       An ongoing program to identify and remove sources of infiltration and inflow.
               The program shall include the necessary funding level and the source(s) of
               funding.

       •       An inflow identification and control program that focuses on the disconnection
               and redirection of illegal sump pumps and roof down spouts. Priority should be
               given to removal of public and private inflow sources that are upstream from, and
               potentially contribute to, known areas of sewer system backups and/or overflows.

       •       Identification and prioritization of areas that will provide increased aquifer
               recharge as the result of reduction/elimination of infiltration and inflow to the
               system.

       •       An educational public outreach program for all aspects of I/I control, particularly
               private inflow.

       Reporting Requirements:

       A summary report of all actions taken to minimize I/I during the previous calendar year
       shall be submitted to EPA and the MA DEP annually, by the anniversary date of the
       effective date of this permit. The summary report shall, at a minimum, include:

       •       A map and a description of inspection and maintenance activities conducted and
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                            Page 9 of 12

             corrective actions taken during the previous year.

      •      Expenditures for any infiltration/inflow related maintenance activities and
             corrective actions taken during the previous year.

      •      A map with areas identified for I/I-related investigation/action in the coming year.

      •      A calculation of the annual average I/I, the maximum month I/I for the reporting
             year.

      •      A report of any infiltration/inflow related corrective actions taken as a result of
             unauthorized discharges reported pursuant to 314 CMR 3.19(20) and reported
             pursuant to the Unauthorized Discharges section of this permit.

4. Alternate Power Source

      In order to maintain compliance with the terms and conditions of this permit, the
      permittee shall continue to provide an alternative power source with which to sufficiently
      operate its treatment works (as defined at 40 CFR §122.2).

5. Nitrogen Removal Optimization Study

      The permittee shall complete a Nitrogen Removal Optimization Study within 18 months
      of the effective date of the permit. A scope of work for completing the study shall be
      submitted to EPA and MADEP within 3 months of the effective date of the permit. The
      study shall assess current and future wastewater flows and nitrogen loadings, identify
      alternatives for controlling influent average and/or peak nitrogen loadings, evaluate the
      nitrogen removal performance of the treatment facility, and determine operational criteria
      for achieving the maximum practicable removal of nitrogen at the existing treatment
      facility. Within one month, following EPA and DEP approval of the study, the
      recommendations of the study shall be implemented, and the treatment plant operational
      processes operated to optimize removal of nitrogen, consistent with the recommendations
      of the study.


E. SLUDGE CONDITIONS

1.    The permittee shall comply with all existing federal and state laws and regulations that
      apply to sewage sludge use and disposal practices and with the CWA Section 405(d)
      technical standards.

2.    The permittee shall comply with the more stringent of either the state or federal (40 CFR
      part 503), requirements.
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                          Page 10 of 12

3.   The requirements and technical standards of 40 CFR part 503 apply to facilities which
     perform one or more of the following use or disposal practices.

     a. Land application - the use of sewage sludge to condition or fertilize the soil

     b. Surface disposal - the placement of sewage sludge in a sludge only landfill

     c. Sewage sludge incineration in a sludge only incinerator

4.   The 40 CFR part 503 conditions do not apply to facilities which place sludge within a
     municipal solid waste landfill. These conditions also do not apply to facilities which do
     not dispose of sewage sludge during the life of the permit but rather treat the sludge
     (lagoons- reed beds), or are otherwise excluded under 40 CFR 503.6.

5.   The permittee shall use and comply with the attached (see Attachment B) compliance
     guidance document to determine appropriate conditions. Appropriate conditions contain
     the following elements.

     •      General requirements
     •      Pollutant limitations
     •      Operational Standards (pathogen reduction requirements and vector attraction
            reduction requirements)
     •      Management practices
     •      Record keeping
     •      Monitoring
     •      Reporting

     Depending upon the quality of material produced by a facility, all conditions may not
     apply to the facility.

6.   The permittee shall monitor the pollutant concentrations, pathogen reduction and vector
     attraction reduction at the following frequency. This frequency is based upon the volume
     of sewage sludge generated at the facility in dry metric tons per year

                    less than 290                          1/ year
                    290 to less than1500                   1 /quarter
                    1500 to less than 15000                6 /year
                    15000 +                                1 /month

7.   The permittee shall sample the sewage sludge using the procedures detailed in 40 CFR
     503.8.

8.   The permittee shall submit an annual report containing the information specified in the
     guidance by February 19. Reports shall be submitted to the address contained in the
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                            Page 11 of 12

       reporting section of the permit. Sludge monitoring is not required by the permittee when
       the permittee is not responsible for the ultimate sludge disposal. The permittee must be
       assured that any third party contractor is in compliance with appropriate regulatory
       requirements. In such case, the permittee is required only to submit an annual report on
       February 19 containing the following information:

       C      Name and address of contractor responsible for sludge disposal
       C      Quantity of sludge in dry metric tons removed from the facility by the sludge
              contractor

F. MONITORING AND REPORTING

1.     Reporting

       Monitoring results obtained during each calendar month shall be summarized and
       reported on Discharge Monitoring Report Form(s) postmarked no later than the 15th day
       of the following month.

       Signed and dated originals of these, and all other reports required herein, shall be
       submitted to the Director and the State at the following addresses:

                                Environmental Protection Agency
                                  Water Technical Unit (SEW)
                                         P.O. Box 8127
                                  Boston, Massachusetts 02114

The State Agency is:

                    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
                               Bureau of Resource Protection
                                  Southeast Regional Office
                                    20 Riverside Drive
                                    Lakeville, MA 02347

Signed and dated Discharge Monitoring Report Forms and toxicity test reports required by this
permit shall also be submitted to the State at:

                    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
                            Division of Watershed Management
                          Surface Water Discharge Permit Program
                                 627 Main Street, 2nd Floor
                              Worcester, Massachusetts 01608
NPDES Permit No. MA0100765                                                             Page 12 of 12

G. STATE PERMIT CONDITIONS

This Discharge Permit is issued jointly by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) under Federal and State law,
respectively. As such, all the terms and conditions of this permit are hereby incorporated into
and constitute a discharge permit issued by the Commissioner of the MA DEP pursuant to
M.G.L. Chap.21, §43.

Each Agency shall have the independent right to enforce the terms and conditions of this Permit.
Any modification, suspension or revocation of this Permit shall be effective only with respect to
the Agency taking such action, and shall not affect the validity or status of this Permit as issued
by the other Agency, unless and until each Agency has concurred in writing with such
modification, suspension or revocation. In the event any portion of this Permit is declared,
invalid, illegal or otherwise issued in violation of State law such permit shall remain in full force
and effect under Federal law as an NPDES Permit issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. In the event this Permit is declared invalid, illegal or otherwise issued in violation of
Federal law, this Permit shall remain in full force and effect under State law as a Permit issued by
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
         APPENDIX B: WWTP VS SAMPLING LAB RESULTS




                                                B

 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
    Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
    P.O.Box 1200
    228 Main Street
    Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

    Telephone: (508) 759-4441
    FAX: (508) 759-4475




e-mail
   To:          Linda Lima                                             From:   e-mail reporting GWA

                Fairhaven, Town of                                     Pages: 13

   e-mail:      fairhavenwpcf@comcast.net                              Date:   06/27/2008 15:57:24

   Re:          118102                                                 CC:


              Urgent                      For Review                      Please Comment              Please Reply



      Comments:




                                Final Project Report for Arsene St. WPCF, Lab ID 118102, Received 06-23-08




 This document is intended only for the use of the person to whom it is
 addressed. It may contain information that is privileged, confidential
 and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If you are not the
 intended recipient, any dissemination, distribution, copying or use of this
 document is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication
 in error, please notify us by telephone at (508) 759-4441 to arrange for
 the destruction or return of the original document to us.


                                                                                   Confidential
                                                                                                                        Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
                                                                                                                                    P.O. Box 1200
                                                                                                                                  228 Main Street
                                                                                                                          Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

                                                                                                                         Telephone (508) 759-4441
                                                                                                                               FAX (508) 759-4475
                                                                                                                     www.groundwateranalytical.com
7           34" 3228


/                  #
               1
9(             -
1               " /( 23456




                           !                                                    "
                                           #                                        $         #              "
                           $               $                %           #           " &                          "
        #

                                                                #                         ' ()        '* (                    "
    +              #                           "
                               #                                    #

                                                                        "                 #       &
##                                                  $           #           "       #                                         "
                   # ,                 $           "                        #

-                                  &                    $                   "                                          #

-              "




.                      #
              /        $

.       0




                                                                                                                           Page 1 of 12
                                                            )*% . / * . *


                                                                                                             !

 ! " #$          %& #$                   '       (       )*% &       '     &                             +
""#"$%&"         '           (                       )*%+*$# $ $$   , %-.$ /   0
    #$                           ,   &    - !                        - !               *         *
"$.-)1- %-$              /               23+$4%+        5              *           *         *

 ! " #$          %& #$                   '       (       )*% &       '     &                             +
""#"$%&%   2     '       (                           )*%+*$# $ $$   , %-.$ /   0
    #$                           ,   &    - !                        - !               *         *
"$.-)14 %-$              /               23+$4%+        5              *           *         *

 ! " #$          %& #$                   '       (       )*% &       '     &                             +
""#"$%&+   '     '       (                           )*%+*$# $ $$   , %-.$ /   0
    #$                           ,   &    - !                        - !               *         *
"$.-)1# %-$              /               23+$4%+        5              *           *         *

 ! " #$          %& #$                   '       (       )*% &       '     &                             +
""#"$%&.   /&2       (                               )*%+*$# $ $$   , %-.$ /   0
    #$                           ,   &    - !                        - !               *         *
"$.-)1% %-$              /               23+$4%+        5              *           *         *




                 /           6               7       87 898 2 : "%$$7 %%# ,                7 2 ;;    2 7 , $%-+%
                                                                                                                   Page 2 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                                    #"!$"               %!5


                   !"                                 #"!$"                %                           &                                !'        (           )   *
                                                         +                                 ,               +(        -                                .           / 0                 1
                                                                  2                                         !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

1     +        %            ,       -       ,     . /    -0                                    0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                              -  $    8                                    2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                            ,       -       , 2         -0                                     0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                                0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                       1          6"55%7!

+ 3   4    %            <                                              -           /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                            / =8      -       8                8                       /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                              $           !
                                        8                 !
                        "               8                             .; '             <




          + 8               9           .         /                   !            !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 3 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                       !$#"%#!          !&"5


           !"#!"                                 !$#"%#! !!&!!                              '                                "(!       )           *   +
                                                     ,                          -               ,)        .                                /           0                   1
                                                          22                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

1     ,        &       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                              0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                         -  $    8                              2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                               0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                 1          6"55%7!

, 3   4    &       <                                            -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                       / =8       -       8         8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                         $            !
                                   8                  !
                   "               8                           .; '         <




          + 8          9           .         /                 !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 4 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                              $"!#"               %!4


                   !" #                             $"!#"            %                           &                                !'        (           )   *
                                                       +                             ,               +(        -                                .           / 0                 1
                                                                                                      !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

1     +        %          ,       -       ,     . /    -0                                0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                            -  $    8                                2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                          ,       -       , 2         -0                                 0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                              0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                   1          6"55%7!

+ 2   3    %         <                                           -           /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                          / =8      -       8            8                       /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                            $           !
                                      8                 !
                     "                8                         .; '             <




          + 8             9           .         /               !            !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 5 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                         #& $' #" !#($5


          !!"!#$ #%                                #& $' #" ##(##                             )                                $*#       +           ,
                                                       -                          .               -+        /                                0           1                   2
                                                            "#                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

2     -          (       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                              0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                           -  $    8                              2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                         ,       -       , 2         -0                               0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                             0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                 1          6"55%7!

- 3   4      (       <                                            -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                         / =8       -       8         8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                           $            !
                                     8                  !
                     "               8                           .; '         <




           + 8           9           .         /                 !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 6 of 12
                                                                !



                                        "        #$             % &              $$#




    !              ) *+                               "-                $#                          *.&+/&*)
         0        *.&+,&*)!


                          ' (       %( %                   )!                $          % *+

        "#                         $%        $                      $                  "#
&                     $                               '

    !    (           ) *+& &+ &,        &-                                                                         $!
         (                                                                   ** ** $           $!




             Groundwater Analytical, Inc., P.O. Box 1200, 228 Main Street, Buzzards Bay, MA 02532
                                                                                                               Page 7 of 12
Page 8 of 12
                                "                               #"

                                                                             !




                                                                                      !                 " #$$%&'$ ()*'$+
                                                !       ,#'-.                /// ()**.+

    0                                                            1                   !                     ( 1! +
                 1!                                             !




             2             3        2
                       2                                                         3           2                                            2

                               24           3              0&"
                 0&"                                                                                                                          )5



                  2                     3       2
                                                                     2                                                   0




                                                                         6
         3
                                                                                                                    3            5-

                                                                                                                     7            0
                                                            2

3            !   8                                  7           0

                                                                                                                             "        6       2
                                                                    "            6       2             2
                                                                                                   2


        3              0
                                                                                                                                  !
8                                                   0




                                    /       ! 1 6 3 )5$$ 55' "                                   6 99        6      " $5%:5
                                                                                                                                 Page 9 of 12
                                                                                                                          ! "                 #$

           %   &       %   ' ( )*      &+   * +     , -#) -#)     .! /0     1 2     0 3 *                             %        &     %
       $     '*       *    & 4* * ( 56 *( * -*2 *' *       '7  , -#) -#).    . 0 .   1 00 3 *                             *
           %   &      %    - '*    * &+   * +     8     )#9) :8 * % -    * 1 00 3 * :       %                         &       -2 5       *
             +        ,     -#) + ! :% -     * ,7   444 1 00 3
!              4* (     ( *( *    * & *   6 8       7       *   ' &   *         7       *    '    %        8       ( *( *           * % ( *6
                  6    ;5 * &  5*     5 *  6            7       * ( *   *   7       *       '         <5       &       '7          = *    5 *
                7     *      '
               4* 5' * 4$             ):       *(




    " 5* 8          )*           (   4*( # >                            *                   5==                      )
                                                                                                                                         Page 10 of 12
                                                                                                  %   1                 %

/           %                                                     "                                   '             "             '
$            '                              '                                         '           %
                                                                  %%% &                   %                 .       '




                          !!
                                                                                " #

                            $                                                                                                                                     ! "       #$
        %            & '                            (             ")*
            %%%            & "         '                     (    (         '

        !        !&             +&              ! ,-              &, !&,-                     ,   ! !&      ,&.,            / +           0
    +            $     1             *" "                                                                                                                     )                  *
                     & "!

, &
                                 2                                                                                      *                 & #+&               ,   &     $
        %             $           %             &           *3
            %%%                 & "                     '               '
                                 2                                                                                           ! "              #   -       &       *              *
&             & '                          1, 1              4              2         ""      #
            %%%                 & "        "                                                                                          '

    5 5              ,!         ! &6 .,                          ! ,
                                     *#) "                                                                                                            )   &




                 /              %                                 #,    #       +             0122# 113 *       !       #     --                  # * 21451
                                                                                                                                                                      Page 11 of 12
                                                                                                          %    )                           %


. ,              @ #                   #                       # + " ++               <               #             #            #7        #    7      #          #        +
              # + +#                  @                      + +7     #7                    # +               , #                               @ # " ++              #7       #
+#               +                  # +                      +    7      #                 #          ; #           #<

                                    ! "          #                                                                       $                              % &   #
          '                                                                 ( )                                               '                                                ( )
                                                                                                                                                                       !"
                        #                                                                                                                                                      $ %
     &        #   ' #                                               !"            (
      #                                                                           )                                                       ' #   * + ,                  !"                      -.
     +                                                                            )                                                   ,                                                    /
(         ,                                                                       /                                               #                                                        /
(             ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        /
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        )
          ,                                                                       /                                                       ' #                          -        #
                  * + ,         0                                   !"                -.                                                                                       $       %
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                            $       %
                                                                                  /                                          '                                                 $       %
                ' #                                                 -   #                                                                                                      $       %
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2            "3. !" )                    0                      0,
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2           4 !, !" )                                           5          ++ 1        2 ' #                                      /
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2          6 "3. !" )                    .                      5          ++ 1        2 ' #                  !"                  (
0               1! ,
                7                    8 #    2                       "0 !" )                                              5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                                                                       5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                  !"            0                                      9                                                                 /
5 # #              #   , # 1! ,   8 # 2                             !" )          (                                      :;           6                                -           #           / $
-                                                                                 )                                      -                                                                 /
" ,                                                                                                                      -                                                                 )
6 &                                                                               /                                      "         +,                                                      /
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "             +                                                   /
6# # 6                                                              -        #        /                                  " ,
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "               ,                                                 /
6# # 6                                                              -        #      /                                    6 &                                                               /
  5                                                                 !"            5(                                     6# # 6
!      ,                                                                          )                                      6# # 6                                        -           #           /
! <                                                                               /                                      6 0 #               * + ,                     !"
! ,                                                                               /                                                  . +                                           $$
!, 7 #                                                                                                                      #           +   #                          -           #
'      ,                                                                    )                                              5                                           !"                  5(
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                               4 !, !" )                                                       + ' #
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                             "0 !" )   (                                                       + ' #                            -           #                 (
' #        ++ < !    +                                              !"                                                        +        ,+ ' #                          -           #
'             #  +                                                                                                            +        ,+ ' #                          !"       (
',       #                                                          !"            (                                                        # (        +1 2                $ = %
> #                     , +                                                                                                                # (        + 18 # 2            $ %
                                                                                                                            # ++ ,                                            /
$                                     % &            #                                                                   !        ,                                           /
          '                                                                 ( )                                          !        ,                                           )
                                                                                                                         ! <                                                  /
                                                                            $ %                                          ! ,                                                  /
     &        # ' #                                                 -        #                                           !      7           , #<#                      !"     (
     ,        ,                                                                   /                                      !# # ,                                               /
                6                                                   -        #        / $         (                      !, 7 #
      #                                                                           /                                      '      ,                                                          /
      #                                                                           )                                      '      ,                                                          )
     +                                                                            /                                      '# ,                                                              /
     +                                                                            )                                      ' #         ++ < !         +                  !"
(             ,                                                                   /                                      ' #                                           !"                  (
(                                                                   !"            (                                      >         ,                                                       /
              ,                                                                   /                                      > #                 # +                               $
          ,                                                                       /                                      > #                 # +                               $
                                                                                                                         > # 5                    +                            $
                                                                                                                         ?                                                                 /




                        . ,               @ #                   #       9                   (                       %"        !#            # (,44       +(       "
                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 12 of 12
    Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
    P.O.Box 1200
    228 Main Street
    Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

    Telephone: (508) 759-4441
    FAX: (508) 759-4475




e-mail
   To:          Linda Lima                                             From:   e-mail reporting GWA

                Fairhaven, Town of                                     Pages: 13

   e-mail:      fairhavenwpcf@comcast.net                              Date:   06/26/2008 15:22:49

   Re:          118040                                                 CC:


              Urgent                      For Review                      Please Comment              Please Reply



      Comments:




                                Final Project Report for Arsene St WPCF, Lab ID 118040, Received 06-19-08




 This document is intended only for the use of the person to whom it is
 addressed. It may contain information that is privileged, confidential
 and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If you are not the
 intended recipient, any dissemination, distribution, copying or use of this
 document is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication
 in error, please notify us by telephone at (508) 759-4441 to arrange for
 the destruction or return of the original document to us.


                                                                                   Confidential
                                                                                                  Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
                                                                                                              P.O. Box 1200
                                                                                                            228 Main Street
                                                                                                    Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

                                                                                                   Telephone (508) 759-4441
                                                                                                         FAX (508) 759-4475
                                                                                               www.groundwateranalytical.com
5       16 1007


-                   !
              /
8&            +
/                 -& 01234




                                        !                           "           !
                        "               "           #           !       $
        !

                                                        !                   % &'        %( &
    )           !
                            !                               !

                                                                            !       $
!!                                          "           !           !
                  ! *               "                           !

+                               $               "                                                !

+




,                   !
            -       "

,       . !




                                                                                                     Page 1 of 12
                                                                )*% . / * . *


                                                                                                                  !

 ! " #$          %& #$                       '       (       )*% &       '     &                              +
""#$%$&"         '           (       )                   *+",+$# # -"   . -/%$ 0   1
    #$                               ,   &    - !                        - !               *        *
"$%*-$2 -/$              0                   342$/#/        5              +           +       $*&"#&$#

 ! " #$          %& #$                       '       (       )*% &       '     &                              +
""#$%$&-   3     '           (       )                   *+",+$# # %2   . -/%$ 0   1
    #$                               ,   &    - !                        - !               *        *
"$%*-$- -/$              0                   342$/#/        5              +           +       $*&"#&$#

 ! " #$          %& #$                       '       (       )*% &       '     &                              +
""#$%$&2   '     '       (       )                       *+",+$# # %2   . -/%$ 0   1
    #$                               ,   &    - !                        - !               *        *
"$%*-$" -/$              0                   342$/#/        5              +           +       $*&"#&$#

 ! " #$          %& #$                       '       (       )*% &       '     &                              +
""#$%$&%   0&3       (       )                           *+",+$# , 22   . -/%$ 0   1
    #$                               ,   &    - !                        - !               *        *
"$%*",# -/$              0                   342$/#/        5              +           +       $*&"#&$#




                 0           6                   7       87 898 3 : "-$$7 --# .                 7 3 ;;    3 7 . $-/2-
                                                                                                                        Page 2 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                        #" $"           #%5#


           ! "                                   #" $"            %&                       '                                &(        )           *   +
                                                    ,                          -               ,)        .                                /           0 1                 2
                                                                                                !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

2     ,        %       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                             0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                         -  $    8                             2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                              0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                1          6"55%7!
, 3   4    %       <                                          -        /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                       / =8      -       8        8                        /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                         $           !
                                   8                 !
                   "               8                         .; '          <




          + 8          9           .         /               !         !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 3 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                          !%# &#!          %'(%


          !"!#!$                                 !%# &#! ! '"(                                 )                                $*!       +           ,   -
                                                     .                             /               .+        0                                1           2                   3
                                                              4                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

3     .        '       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                                 0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                         -  $    8                                 2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                                  0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                    1          6"55%7!
. 5   6    '       <                                               -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                       / =8       -       8            8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                         $            !
                                   8                  !
                   "               8                              .; '         <




          + 8          9           .         /                    !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Page 4 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                        $" %"           $&#$


           ! " #                                 $" %"             &!#                     '                                ()        *           +   ,
                                                    -                          .               -*        /                                0           1 2                 3
                                                         4%                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

3     -        &       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                             0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                         -  $    8                             2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                              0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                1          6"55%7!
- 5   6    &       <                                           -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                       / =8      -       8         8                       /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                         $           !
                                   8                 !
                   "               8                          .; '         <




          + 8          9           .         /                !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 5 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                         #% !& #" !%'(%


          !!"#$# #$                                #% !& #" #&'((                             )                                *+#       ,           -
                                                       .                          /               .,        0                                1           2                   3
                                                            "#                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

3     .          '       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                              0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                           -  $    8                              2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                         ,       -       , 2         -0                               0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                             0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                 1          6"55%7!
. 4   5      '       <                                            -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                         / =8       -       8         8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                           $            !
                                     8                  !
                     "               8                           .; '         <




           + 8           9           .         /                 !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 6 of 12
                                      !"       #$           % &           $$#




    !    (                                                                           !


                          '! (    %( %                  )             $          % *+

        "#                       $%        $                  $                 "#
&                     $                             '

    !    (                             &                          $                      !




             Groundwater Analytical, Inc., P.O. Box 1200, 228 Main Street, Buzzards Bay, MA 02532
                                                                                                    Page 7 of 12
Page 8 of 12
                                "                               #"

                                                                             !




                                                                                      !                 " #$$%&'$ ()*'$+
                                                !       ,#'-.                /// ()**.+

    0                                                            1                   !                     ( 1! +
                 1!                                             !




             2             3        2
                       2                                                         3           2                                            2

                               24           3              0&"
                 0&"                                                                                                                          )5



                  2                     3       2
                                                                     2                                                   0




                                                                         6
         3
                                                                                                                    3            5-

                                                                                                                     7            0
                                                            2

3            !   8                                  7           0

                                                                                                                             "        6       2
                                                                    "            6       2             2
                                                                                                   2


        3              0
                                                                                                                                  !
8                                                   0




                                    /       ! 1 6 3 )5$$ 55' "                                   6 99        6      " $5%:5
                                                                                                                                 Page 9 of 12
                                                                                                                          ! "                 #$

           %   &       %   ' ( )*      &+   * +     , -#) -#)     .! /0     1 2     0 3 *                             %        &     %
       $     '*       *    & 4* * ( 56 *( * -*2 *' *       '7  , -#) -#).    . 0 .   1 00 3 *                             *
           %   &      %    - '*    * &+   * +     8     )#9) :8 * % -    * 1 00 3 * :       %                         &       -2 5       *
             +        ,     -#) + ! :% -     * ,7   444 1 00 3
!              4* (     ( *( *    * & *   6 8       7       *   ' &   *         7       *    '    %        8       ( *( *           * % ( *6
                  6    ;5 * &  5*     5 *  6            7       * ( *   *   7       *       '         <5       &       '7          = *    5 *
                7     *      '
               4* 5' * 4$             ):       *(




    " 5* 8          )*           (   4*( # >                            *                   5==                      )
                                                                                                                                         Page 10 of 12
                                                                                                  %   1                 %

/           %                                                     "                                   '             "             '
$            '                              '                                         '           %
                                                                  %%% &                   %                 .       '




                          !!
                                                                                " #

                            $                                                                                                                                     ! "       #$
        %            & '                            (             ")*
            %%%            & "         '                     (    (         '

        !        !&             +&              ! ,-              &, !&,-                     ,   ! !&      ,&.,            / +           0
    +            $     1             *" "                                                                                                                     )                  *
                     & "!

, &
                                 2                                                                                      *                 & #+&               ,   &     $
        %             $           %             &           *3
            %%%                 & "                     '               '
                                 2                                                                                           ! "              #   -       &       *              *
&             & '                          1, 1              4              2         ""      #
            %%%                 & "        "                                                                                          '

    5 5              ,!         ! &6 .,                          ! ,
                                     *#) "                                                                                                            )   &




                 /              %                                 #,    #       +             0122# 113 *       !       #     --                  # * 21451
                                                                                                                                                                      Page 11 of 12
                                                                                                          %    )                           %


. ,              @ #                   #                       # + " ++               <               #             #            #7        #    7      #          #        +
              # + +#                  @                      + +7     #7                    # +               , #                               @ # " ++              #7       #
+#               +                  # +                      +    7      #                 #          ; #           #<

                                    ! "          #                                                                       $                              % &   #
          '                                                                 ( )                                               '                                                ( )
                                                                                                                                                                       !"
                        #                                                                                                                                                      $ %
     &        #   ' #                                               !"            (
      #                                                                           )                                                       ' #   * + ,                  !"                      -.
     +                                                                            )                                                   ,                                                    /
(         ,                                                                       /                                               #                                                        /
(             ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        /
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        )
          ,                                                                       /                                                       ' #                          -        #
                  * + ,         0                                   !"                -.                                                                                       $       %
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                            $       %
                                                                                  /                                          '                                                 $       %
                ' #                                                 -   #                                                                                                      $       %
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2            "3. !" )                    0                      0,
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2           4 !, !" )                                           5          ++ 1        2 ' #                                      /
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2          6 "3. !" )                    .                      5          ++ 1        2 ' #                  !"                  (
0               1! ,
                7                    8 #    2                       "0 !" )                                              5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                                                                       5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                  !"            0                                      9                                                                 /
5 # #              #   , # 1! ,   8 # 2                             !" )          (                                      :;           6                                -           #           / $
-                                                                                 )                                      -                                                                 /
" ,                                                                                                                      -                                                                 )
6 &                                                                               /                                      "         +,                                                      /
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "             +                                                   /
6# # 6                                                              -        #        /                                  " ,
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "               ,                                                 /
6# # 6                                                              -        #      /                                    6 &                                                               /
  5                                                                 !"            5(                                     6# # 6
!      ,                                                                          )                                      6# # 6                                        -           #           /
! <                                                                               /                                      6 0 #               * + ,                     !"
! ,                                                                               /                                                  . +                                           $$
!, 7 #                                                                                                                      #           +   #                          -           #
'      ,                                                                    )                                              5                                           !"                  5(
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                               4 !, !" )                                                       + ' #
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                             "0 !" )   (                                                       + ' #                            -           #                 (
' #        ++ < !    +                                              !"                                                        +        ,+ ' #                          -           #
'             #  +                                                                                                            +        ,+ ' #                          !"       (
',       #                                                          !"            (                                                        # (        +1 2                $ = %
> #                     , +                                                                                                                # (        + 18 # 2            $ %
                                                                                                                            # ++ ,                                            /
$                                     % &            #                                                                   !        ,                                           /
          '                                                                 ( )                                          !        ,                                           )
                                                                                                                         ! <                                                  /
                                                                            $ %                                          ! ,                                                  /
     &        # ' #                                                 -        #                                           !      7           , #<#                      !"     (
     ,        ,                                                                   /                                      !# # ,                                               /
                6                                                   -        #        / $         (                      !, 7 #
      #                                                                           /                                      '      ,                                                          /
      #                                                                           )                                      '      ,                                                          )
     +                                                                            /                                      '# ,                                                              /
     +                                                                            )                                      ' #         ++ < !         +                  !"
(             ,                                                                   /                                      ' #                                           !"                  (
(                                                                   !"            (                                      >         ,                                                       /
              ,                                                                   /                                      > #                 # +                               $
          ,                                                                       /                                      > #                 # +                               $
                                                                                                                         > # 5                    +                            $
                                                                                                                         ?                                                                 /




                        . ,               @ #                   #       9                   (                       %"        !#            # (,44       +(       "
                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 12 of 12
    Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
    P.O.Box 1200
    228 Main Street
    Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

    Telephone: (508) 759-4441
    FAX: (508) 759-4475




e-mail
   To:          Linda Lima                                             From:   e-mail reporting GWA

                Fairhaven, Town of                                     Pages: 13

   e-mail:      fairhavenwpcf@comcast.net                              Date:   06/27/2008 15:57:07

   Re:          118071                                                 CC:


              Urgent                      For Review                      Please Comment              Please Reply



      Comments:




                                Final Project Report for Arsene Street, WPCF, Lab ID 118071, Received
                                06-20-08




 This document is intended only for the use of the person to whom it is
 addressed. It may contain information that is privileged, confidential
 and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If you are not the
 intended recipient, any dissemination, distribution, copying or use of this
 document is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication
 in error, please notify us by telephone at (508) 759-4441 to arrange for
 the destruction or return of the original document to us.


                                                                                   Confidential
                                                                                                   Groundwater Analytical, Inc.
                                                                                                               P.O. Box 1200
                                                                                                             228 Main Street
                                                                                                     Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

                                                                                                    Telephone (508) 759-4441
                                                                                                          FAX (508) 759-4475
                                                                                                www.groundwateranalytical.com
5           12 1006


-                    !
              /
7&            +
/                 -& 01234




                                         !                           "           !
                         "               "           #           !       $
        !

                                                         !                   % &'        %( &
    )            !
                             !                               !

                                                                             !       $
!!                                           "           !           !
                  ! *                "                           !

+                                $               "                                                !

+




,                    !
             -       "

,       .




                                                                                                      Page 1 of 12
                                                            *+& / 0 + / +


                                                                               !   !                         !

 " # $%          &' $%                   (       )       *+& '       (     '                             ,
""#$%"&"         '           (                       )*+$*$# # ,$   - +./$ 0   1
    $%                           -   '    . "                        . "               +         +
"$/.)%/ +.$              0               23,$4+,        5              *           *         *

 " # $%          &' $%                   (       )       *+& '       (     '                             ,
""#$%"&+   2     '       (                           )*+$*$# # ,"   - +./$ 0   1
    $%                           -   '    . "                        . "               +         +
"$/.)#$ +.$              0               23,$4+,        5              *           *         *

 " # $%          &' $%                   (       )       *+& '       (     '                             ,
""#$%"&,   '     '       (                           )*+$*$# # ,$   - +./$ 0   1
    $%                           -   '    . "                        . "               +         +
"$/.)%% +.$              0               23,$4+,        5              *           *         *

 " # $%          &' $%                   (       )       *+& '       (     '                             ,
""#$%"&/   0&2       (                               )*+$*$# # ,$   - +./$ 0   1
    $%                           -   '    . "                        . "               +         +
"$/.))4 +.$              0               23,$4+,        5              *           *         *




                 0           6               7       87 898 2 : "+$$7 ++# -                7 2 ;;    2 7 - $+.,+
                                                                                                                   Page 2 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                            #"$ "               % (


           ! "                                   #"$ "                %&                       '                                $(        )           *   +
                                                    ,                              -               ,)        .                                /           0 1                 2
                                                             (                                      !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

2     ,        %       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                                 0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                         -  $    8                                 2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                                  0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                    1          6"55%7!

, 3   4    %       <                                              -        /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                       / =8      -       8            8                        /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                         $           !
                                   8                 !
                   "               8                             .; '          <




          + 8          9           .         /                   !         !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Page 3 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                          !%#$!#!              & )


          !" #!$                                 !%#$!#! ! &'                                  (                                $)!       *           +   ,
                                                     -                             .               -*        /                                0           1                   2
                                                              )                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

2     -        &       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                                 0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                         -  $    8                                 2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                                  0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                    1          6"55%7!

- 3   4    &       <                                               -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                       / =8       -       8            8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                         $            !
                                   8                  !
                   "               8                              .; '         <




          + 8          9           .         /                    !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Page 4 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                        $"% "               & (


           ! " #                                 $"% "            &#                       '                                %(        )           *   +
                                                    ,                          -               ,)        .                                /           0 1                 2
                                                                                                !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(            & '* &                  '*# +                    "

2     ,        &       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                             0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,         -       ,
                                         -  $    8                             2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                       ,       -       , 2         -0                              0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                     -    2       8           $
                           0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                1          6"55%7!

, 3   4    &       <                                          -        /           9                 $           -         / !                $        ,        9                               ,
                                       / =8      -       8        8                        /             $                  !             $                 8       -                   >                   8   !
                                         $           !
                                   8                 !
                   "               8                         .; '          <




          + 8          9           .         /               !         !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>              < /          . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 5 of 12
                                                                                                                                                                         #& '# #" !"(!+


          !!"#$! #%                                #& '# #" #"()#                             *                                '+#       ,           -
                                                       .                          /               .,        0                                1           2                   3
                                                            $4                                     !"           "       # $         %&'(& ) "(               & '* &              '*# +                    "

3     .          (       ,       -       ,     . /    -0                              0             1 2 . 2 .&% 3#&45 & ' 6     "5)(7                                        ,        -       ,
                                           -  $    8                              2                          1 2 . 2 .3% 3 &5(3" 6"55(7
                         ,       -       , 2         -0                               0       9      . :. ;9     ,2      6"55)7   ;     ,                                    -    2       8           $
                             0           1 2 . 0&)#% ;, 2                                 1          6"55%7!

. 5   6      (       <                                            -       /           9                 $           -         / !                $           ,       9                            ,
                                         / =8       -       8         8                       /             $                  !             $                   8       -                >                   8   !
                                           $            !
                                     8                  !
                     "               8                           .; '         <




           + 8           9           .         /                 !        !?! <               "'            '')                              <8>>                < /         . '*('
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 6 of 12
                                                            !



                                      "#       $%           & '           %%$




    !    (                                                                           !


                          (" )    &) &                  !             %          & *+

        "#                       $%        $                    $               "#
&                     $                             '

    !    (                             &                          $                      !




             Groundwater Analytical, Inc., P.O. Box 1200, 228 Main Street, Buzzards Bay, MA 02532
                                                                                                    Page 7 of 12
Page 8 of 12
                                "                               #"

                                                                             !




                                                                                      !                 " #$$%&'$ ()*'$+
                                                !       ,#'-.                /// ()**.+

    0                                                            1                   !                     ( 1! +
                 1!                                             !




             2             3        2
                       2                                                         3           2                                            2

                               24           3              0&"
                 0&"                                                                                                                          )5



                  2                     3       2
                                                                     2                                                   0




                                                                         6
         3
                                                                                                                    3            5-

                                                                                                                     7            0
                                                            2

3            !   8                                  7           0

                                                                                                                             "        6       2
                                                                    "            6       2             2
                                                                                                   2


        3              0
                                                                                                                                  !
8                                                   0




                                    /       ! 1 6 3 )5$$ 55' "                                   6 99        6      " $5%:5
                                                                                                                                 Page 9 of 12
                                                                                                                          ! "                 #$

           %   &       %   ' ( )*      &+   * +     , -#) -#)     .! /0     1 2     0 3 *                             %        &     %
       $     '*       *    & 4* * ( 56 *( * -*2 *' *       '7  , -#) -#).    . 0 .   1 00 3 *                             *
           %   &      %    - '*    * &+   * +     8     )#9) :8 * % -    * 1 00 3 * :       %                         &       -2 5       *
             +        ,     -#) + ! :% -     * ,7   444 1 00 3
!              4* (     ( *( *    * & *   6 8       7       *   ' &   *         7       *    '    %        8       ( *( *           * % ( *6
                  6    ;5 * &  5*     5 *  6            7       * ( *   *   7       *       '         <5       &       '7          = *    5 *
                7     *      '
               4* 5' * 4$             ):       *(




    " 5* 8          )*           (   4*( # >                            *                   5==                      )
                                                                                                                                         Page 10 of 12
                                                                                                  %   1                 %

/           %                                                     "                                   '             "             '
$            '                              '                                         '           %
                                                                  %%% &                   %                 .       '




                          !!
                                                                                " #

                            $                                                                                                                                     ! "       #$
        %            & '                            (             ")*
            %%%            & "         '                     (    (         '

        !        !&             +&              ! ,-              &, !&,-                     ,   ! !&      ,&.,            / +           0
    +            $     1             *" "                                                                                                                     )                  *
                     & "!

, &
                                 2                                                                                      *                 & #+&               ,   &     $
        %             $           %             &           *3
            %%%                 & "                     '               '
                                 2                                                                                           ! "              #   -       &       *              *
&             & '                          1, 1              4              2         ""      #
            %%%                 & "        "                                                                                          '

    5 5              ,!         ! &6 .,                          ! ,
                                     *#) "                                                                                                            )   &




                 /              %                                 #,    #       +             0122# 113 *       !       #     --                  # * 21451
                                                                                                                                                                      Page 11 of 12
                                                                                                          %    )                           %


. ,              @ #                   #                       # + " ++               <               #             #            #7        #    7      #          #        +
              # + +#                  @                      + +7     #7                    # +               , #                               @ # " ++              #7       #
+#               +                  # +                      +    7      #                 #          ; #           #<

                                    ! "          #                                                                       $                              % &   #
          '                                                                 ( )                                               '                                                ( )
                                                                                                                                                                       !"
                        #                                                                                                                                                      $ %
     &        #   ' #                                               !"            (
      #                                                                           )                                                       ' #   * + ,                  !"                      -.
     +                                                                            )                                                   ,                                                    /
(         ,                                                                       /                                               #                                                        /
(             ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        /
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                                        )
          ,                                                                       /                                                       ' #                          -        #
                  * + ,         0                                   !"                -.                                                                                       $       %
              ,                                                                   /                                                                                            $       %
                                                                                  /                                          '                                                 $       %
                ' #                                                 -   #                                                                                                      $       %
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2            "3. !" )                    0                      0,
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2           4 !, !" )                                           5          ++ 1        2 ' #                                      /
              1' #          #         +#    ,#           2          6 "3. !" )                    .                      5          ++ 1        2 ' #                  !"                  (
0               1! ,
                7                    8 #    2                       "0 !" )                                              5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                                                                       5 #                                                   $ %
0,                                                                  !"            0                                      9                                                                 /
5 # #              #   , # 1! ,   8 # 2                             !" )          (                                      :;           6                                -           #           / $
-                                                                                 )                                      -                                                                 /
" ,                                                                                                                      -                                                                 )
6 &                                                                               /                                      "         +,                                                      /
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "             +                                                   /
6# # 6                                                              -        #        /                                  " ,
6# # 6                                                                                                                   "               ,                                                 /
6# # 6                                                              -        #      /                                    6 &                                                               /
  5                                                                 !"            5(                                     6# # 6
!      ,                                                                          )                                      6# # 6                                        -           #           /
! <                                                                               /                                      6 0 #               * + ,                     !"
! ,                                                                               /                                                  . +                                           $$
!, 7 #                                                                                                                      #           +   #                          -           #
'      ,                                                                    )                                              5                                           !"                  5(
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                               4 !, !" )                                                       + ' #
' #          7  1' #     #      +# ,# 2                             "0 !" )   (                                                       + ' #                            -           #                 (
' #        ++ < !    +                                              !"                                                        +        ,+ ' #                          -           #
'             #  +                                                                                                            +        ,+ ' #                          !"       (
',       #                                                          !"            (                                                        # (        +1 2                $ = %
> #                     , +                                                                                                                # (        + 18 # 2            $ %
                                                                                                                            # ++ ,                                            /
$                                     % &            #                                                                   !        ,                                           /
          '                                                                 ( )                                          !        ,                                           )
                                                                                                                         ! <                                                  /
                                                                            $ %                                          ! ,                                                  /
     &        # ' #                                                 -        #                                           !      7           , #<#                      !"     (
     ,        ,                                                                   /                                      !# # ,                                               /
                6                                                   -        #        / $         (                      !, 7 #
      #                                                                           /                                      '      ,                                                          /
      #                                                                           )                                      '      ,                                                          )
     +                                                                            /                                      '# ,                                                              /
     +                                                                            )                                      ' #         ++ < !         +                  !"
(             ,                                                                   /                                      ' #                                           !"                  (
(                                                                   !"            (                                      >         ,                                                       /
              ,                                                                   /                                      > #                 # +                               $
          ,                                                                       /                                      > #                 # +                               $
                                                                                                                         > # 5                    +                            $
                                                                                                                         ?                                                                 /




                        . ,               @ #                   #       9                   (                       %"        !#            # (,44       +(       "
                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 12 of 12
APPENDIX C: MA DEP COMMERCIAL WASTE REDUCTION PROGRAM
                                           INFORMATION




                                                            C
             Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
            P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of Food Waste and
             Food Waste Generators In Massachusetts

                            FINAL REPORT
                           September 19, 2002




                              Prepared for:
           Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
                       Bureau of Waste Prevention
                             1 Winter Street
                           Boston, MA 02108



                              Submitted by:
                           Draper/Lennon, Inc.
                           7 South State Street
                          Concord, NH 03301
                      603-229-1600 / fax 229-1960
                    email draperlennon@conknet.com
                                        Table of Contents



Section                                                                                       Page

   Executive Summary                                                                            1
   Introduction                                                                                 3
   Number And Nature of Food Waste Generators in Massachusetts                                  4
   Food Waste Generation Rates by Generator Category                                            5
   Food Waste Composition                                                                       6
   Statewide Food Waste Generation Estimates                                                    7
   Food Waste Database and Geographic Information System Capabilities                          10
   Database Update Plan                                                                        11
   Conclusions                                                                                 13


References


Appendices
A Detailed Information on Massachusetts Manufacturer/Processor, Wholesaler/Distributor, and
  Restaurant Food Waste Generator Categories
B Detailed Description of GIS Mapping Capabilities and Protocols
C Food Waste Generator Database Field Names and GIS Metadata
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This study was undertaken with three goals:

1. To produce a comprehensive database of food waste generators in Massachusetts in the following
   generator categories:
       • Manufacturers/Processors
       • Distributors/Wholesalers
       • Hospitals
       • Nursing Homes (and related facilities)
       • Colleges and Universities
       • Independent Preparatory Schools
       • Correctional Facilities
       • Resorts/Conference Facilities
       • Supermarkets
       • Restaurants

2. To produce an estimate of statewide generation of food wastes from identified generators in these
   categories.

3. To provide a set of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools that will allow the state to use GIS
   technology to map food waste generators by category, size, waste types, waste quantities, and other
   variables, in order to facilitate development of composting or organics diversion infrastructure on a
   statewide or local basis.

Omitting very small establishments in some generator categories, the study identified a total of 5,799 food
waste generators in Massachusetts, producing an estimated 880,000 tons per year of food waste (Table
ES-1). The state’s food manufacturing industry is the source of approximately 56% of this total, or nearly
500,000 tons/year, although this figure is dominated by the large contribution from a relatively small
number of major generators (Figure ES-1). Clearly there are many attractive targets for composting or
organics diversion in this sector, although a significant proportion of the major generators have already
implemented some form of recycling program. Supermarkets are another major generating sector that is a
favorable target for composting or organics diversion, because of their relatively homogeneous waste
stream, and because of the fact that the majority of wastes from this sector come from fewer than a dozen
major supermarket chains. The database also clearly identifies restaurants as a third major food waste
generating sector, although composting or organics diversion initiatives among restaurants are made
complicated by their relatively small individual size, and by concerns related to logistics, sanitation, and
contamination.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                             Page 1
                                        Table ES-1
      Summary of Massachusetts Food Waste Generation from Generators Analyzed in Study

 Generator Category                                                       Number of           Total SSOM            SSOM Generation
                                                                          Establish-       Generation (tons/yr)     Per Establishment
                                                                            ments                                        (tons/yr)
 Manufacturers / Processors                                                   727                  493,698                 656
 Wholesalers / Distributors                                                   304                     44,688               147
 Hospitals                                                                    126                     14,538               117
 Nursing Homes and Related                                                    507                     27,409               54
 Colleges, Universities                                                       101                     24,458               242
 Independent Preparatory Schools                                              20                       955                 50
 Correctional Institutions                                                    17                      1,762                104
 Resorts / Conference Facilities                                              105                     6,442                61
 Supermarkets
    Supermarkets (SIC 5411-0100, 0101,                                        408                     90,604               222
      0103, 9901)
    Grocery Stores (SIC 5411-0000,                                            164                     7,022                43
      9902, 9904, 9905)
 Restaurants                                                                 3,320                 168,191                 51
 TOTAL                                                                       5,799                 879,767                 ---


                                                                             Figure ES-1
                                                        Food Waste Generation from Massachusetts Manufacturers


                                            120%

                                            100%
                    Percent of Food Waste




                                            80%

                                            60%

                                            40%

                                            20%

                                             0%
                                                   0%            20%           40%           60%              80%   100%
                                                                              Percent of Generators



From the perspective of establishing food waste composting or other diversion initiatives in
Massachusetts, the GIS mapping capabilities provided by this study are a valuable tool. Linked to a GIS



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                                                            Page 2
system (ArcView version 3.2a), the database can graphically display food waste generators by generator
type, waste type, waste generation estimates, and a variety of other attributes. With the GIS system,
generators can be portrayed on base maps that contain features such as locals roads and streets, major
statewide traffic arteries, and town boundaries. Users of the database/GIS system can view generator
locations at scales ranging from generalized statewide maps to large scale maps that pinpoint generator
locations on individual streets. Users can also obtain generator-specific information on any mapped
generator, and can create customized hard copy and on-screen maps to display generator locations with
symbols selected and scaled to show any desired generator attribute data (generator type, waste type, size,
waste generation, etc.). Database query capabilities can also be combined with the GIS technology to
pose and answer sophisticated questions about food waste generation in Massachusetts at a statewide or
local scale – for example, to identify all supermarkets within a specified transportation radius of a
composting facility, to identify all generators of a specific waste type on a statewide, regional, or local
basis, or to identify restaurants in a specific locality that might be targeted for a local composting
program.


INTRODUCTION

This project was implemented to improve the climate for recovering and composting Source-Separated
Organic Materials (SSOM) in Massachusetts. Source Separated Organic Materials are food wastes from                Formatted
manufacturing, distribution, and/or kitchen operations that can potentially be separated from other wastes
at the point of generation. They do not include other recyclable materials that may be generated at these
same kinds of facilities, such as cardboard packaging and soiled paper.

At present, the absence of good information on the location of SSOM generators in the state, and on the
types and quantities of materials they generate as wastes or by-products, is a major obstacle to the
development of SSOM composting or organics diversion capabilities. This project has sought to address
this obstacle in three ways:

    1. To identify, in as much detail as possible, all of the major food waste generators in
       Massachusetts, including food manufacturers, processors, and distributors, colleges and
       universities, hospitals and other healthcare institutions, resort/conference facilities, correctional
       facilities, restaurants, and supermarkets;

    2. To quantify and characterize the organic wastes generated by these establishments;

    3. To use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to map the location of all identified
       generators, with technology that allows them to be shown in relationship to transportation arteries
       at both the statewide and local level, facilitate the identification of logical generator “clusters” for
       composting or organics diversion, and facilitate the development of an efficient collection
       infrastructure.

The products of the project are this report; a food waste generator database of Massachusetts businesses
and institutions geographically encoded for each generator; food waste generation formulas for specific
generator categories; and three sample maps for data illustrative purposes. The enhanced or geo-coded
organic waste databases combined with Massachusetts DEP’s GIS capabilities allows the user of the
generator and generation databases and mapping technology to ask for almost any combination of
information about commercially generated organic wastes in Massachusetts. It can be used to facilitate
decisions about how best to target organics for recovery, which generators to target, how to structure
collection routes and infrastructure, and where to site collection and composting or organics diversion



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                                Page 3
facilities. Lack of information, not technology or economics, has been the most significant obstacle to
successful organics composting or organics diversion in Massachusetts. It is DEP’s hope that the
information provided by this project, with the mapping capabilities to bring the information to life, will
go a long way toward eliminating this obstacle.


NUMBER AND NATURE OF FOOD WASTE GENERATORS IN MASSACHUSETTS

Ten categories of SSOM generators were analyzed in this study. They are summarized in Table 1.



                                           Table 1
             Summary of Massachusetts Food Waste Generators Analyzed In This Study

 Generator Category                                   Number       Minimum Size Included in Database
 Food manufacturers / processors                        727                    >=5 employees
 Food wholesalers / distributors                        304                    >=5 employees
 Hospitals                                              126        All identified inpatient establishments
                                                                                   included
 Nursing homes                                          507        All identified establishments included
 Colleges, universities                                 101        All identified establishments included
 Independent schools, primary and/or secondary           20        Boarding schools only, >250 students
 Correctional facilities                                 17        All identified establishments included
                                                                    (state corrections system only, not
                                                                     including county and local jails)
 Resorts / conference properties                        105          Banquet seating for >=250 guests
 Restaurants                                           3,320         >=10 employees and >=$200,000
                                                                              annual sales
 Supermarkets, grocery stores                           572        >$1.5 million sales, or >15 employees
                                                                      (convenience stores excluded)
 TOTAL                                                 5,799


For six generator categories, a size cutoff was established which reduced the number of establishments
included in the generator database (see Table 1). Based on a review of information from Massachusetts
and elsewhere, it was determined that although there may be a relatively large number of smaller
generators, individually and collectively they do not contribute a substantial proportion to statewide food
waste generation. And although on-site composting may be an option for some number of these smaller
generators, they are generally not attractive candidates for source separation and composting or organics
diversion through a network of haulers and off-site processing facilities. It was decided that to include
these smaller generators in the generator databases and maps would add unnecessary clutter to the results
of this analysis, without adding to their accuracy or utility.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                              Page 4
The tables in Appendix A provide additional details on Massachusetts food waste generators in the
manufacturer/processor category (Table A-1), the wholesaler/distributor category (Table A-2), and the
restaurant category (Table A-3).


FOOD WASTE GENERATION RATES BY GENERATOR CATEGORY

One goal of this project is to develop quantitative estimates of organic waste generation as a function of
facility size, sales, number of employees, or other readily available metrics. Based on literature review
and survey information acquired directly from Massachusetts SSOM generators, this has proven possible
for eight of the ten generator categories, including:
    • Hospitals
    • Nursing homes
    • Colleges and universities
    • Independent preparatory schools
    • Correctional facilities
    • Resort and conference facilities
    • Restaurants
    • Supermarkets

Table 2 summarizes the relationships established for each of these generator categories.
                                                Table 2
                    Food Waste Generation Estimates by Generator Category1
Hospitals
      Food waste (lbs/yr) = N of beds * 5.7 meals/bed/day * 0.6 lbs food waste/meal * 365 days/yr
Nursing Homes and Similar Facilities
      Food waste (lbs/yr = N of beds *3.0 meals/bed/day * 0.6 lbs food waste/meal * 365 days/yr
Colleges, Universities, and Independent Preparatory Schools
Residential Institutions
               Food waste (lbs/yr) = 0.35 lbs/meal * N of students * 405 meals/student/yr
Non-Residential Institutions (e.g., community colleges)
               Food waste (lbs/yr) = 0.35 lbs/meal * N of students * 108 meals/student/yr
Correctional Facilities
                 Food waste (lbs/yr) = l.0 lb/inmate/day * N of inmates * 365 days/yr
Resorts / Conference Properties
           Food waste (lbs/yr) = 1.0 lbs/meal * N of meals/seat/day2 * N of seats * 365 days/yr
Supermarkets
                    Food waste (lbs/year) = N of employees * 3,000 lbs/employee/yr
Restaurants
                    Food waste (lbs/year) = N of employees * 3,000 lbs/employee/yr
         1
Notes:     See references for sources of waste generation estimates
         2
           Resort and conference facilities were divided into two classes, depending on how intensively
they use their banquet/dining facilities. One has been given a value of 0.6 meals/day/seat of conference
capacity, the other a value of 0.25 meals/day/seat of conference capacity.



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                             Page 5
Such relationships have not been possible to develop for two generator categories: food manufacturers
and processors, and food wholesalers and distributors:

    Food Manufacturers/Processors. Even within a single SIC code, manufacturers are very diverse.
    For example, one meat packer (SIC 2011) may purchase and process entire carcasses, and ultimately
    discard half or more by weight as waste. A neighboring facility in the same SIC may purchase
    partially processed cuts of meat, and discard only a few percent as a waste. Similar disparities in
    operations can be found across all manufacturing and processing categories. Aggregate waste
    generation estimates for the population of Massachusetts food processors and manufacturers are based
    on survey responses secured from individual generators. In the waste generation databases and maps,
    facilities in this category are recorded based on total annual sales.

    Food Wholesalers/Distributors. Based on data collected in this and other studies, it can be
    concluded that the majority of food wholesalers and distributors generate very little recyclable
    organic waste. Most of these establishments warehouse and redistribute pre-packaged items, with
    little or no organic waste generated. Some amount of waste is generated in a stream of damaged or
    returned products, but most of these are returned in their original packaging (and are therefore
    difficult to separate for composting or organics diversion), and much is ultimately returned to
    manufacturers for credit, eliminating the possibility of composting or organics diversion from the
    wholesale or distribution establishment.

    On the basis of surveys developed for this analysis, it was decided to map and estimate waste
    generation from three categories of food wholesalers/distributors: fish and shellfish; vegetables; and
    meats (including eggs). As is true with manufacturers, there is wide variation in waste generation
    even within these categories, which cannot be related to any simple metric related to establishment
    size or sales. For this reason, aggregate waste generation estimates are based on survey responses
    from individual generators, but the larger population of generators are recorded and mapped with
    information on total annual sales, not on waste generation.


FOOD WASTE COMPOSITION

Data on organic waste composition were derived from literature search and survey and phone contacts
with individual Massachusetts generators. By generator category, waste composition can be summarized
as follows:

Food and Beverage Manufacturers and Processors. In general, waste composition is a fairly predictable
reflection of the generator SIC category — e.g., meat, bones, and fat from “meat products” SICs,
chocolate, starch, nuts, and raisins from “confectionery” SICs, and so on. However, in almost all SICs
there are minor, unpredictable contributions from unrelated wastes. For example, a few meat packers
report generation of fruit, vegetable, and/or bakery waste (presumably from production of meat pies or
similar products), while a few bakers report generation of meat or vegetable wastes (presumably from
stuffed pastas or similar items). The only ultimately reliable source of information on waste composition
among manufacturers and processors is the individual generator.

Food Wholesalers and Distributors. In this category also, waste types are predicted well by SIC
classification (e.g., fruits from fruit distributors, fish and fish products from fish wholesalers, etc.), with
the caveat that some establishments generate product-related wastes that are not intuitively related to the
facility’s primary SIC. For example, some fish distributors report generation of significant quantities of
bakery wastes, presumably from breaded fish products.



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                                 Page 6
Healthcare Facilities. This “institutional kitchen” waste stream includes, by weight, 50% or more
vegetables and fruits and their byproducts, reflecting their relatively high moisture content. Most of the
balance is divided between meat (including fish and poultry) and bakery products. There is relatively
little dairy reported in this waste stream, presumably because most dairy products are either packaged in
single-servings, or are dispensed from bulk containers, in either case generating little source-separated
waste.

Colleges, Universities, and Major Independent Secondary Schools. SSOM generated from this
generator category is equivalent to that from a health care setting, including 50+% fruit and vegetable
matter, with most of the balance divided between meat and bakery products, and a small contribution
from sugars and starches, oil-based products, and miscellaneous scraps.

Correctional Facilities. Food waste from this generator category is similar to that from other institutional
kitchens (e.g., hospitals, colleges and universities), with the exception that no metallic objects are found
as contaminants.

Major Resort and Conference Properties. Food waste from this generator category is similar to that
from other institutional kitchens (e.g., hospitals, colleges and universities), consisting of fruits and
vegetables (50+%), meat, fish and poultry wastes, and bakery products.

Restaurants. There is wide variability in the composition of food waste from restaurants. For example,
most fast food restaurants used pre-portioned raw materials, and generate relatively small quantities of
“pre-plate” wastes compared to restaurants that prepare meals on demand. Some restaurants prepare most
meals to order; others pre-prepare the majority of their meals. Restaurants focusing on the dinner trade
generate very different wastes than restaurants focusing on breakfast and/or lunch. In general, fruits and
vegetables can be expected to comprise the majority of potentially recyclable “pre-plate” wastes, with
significant additional contributions from bakery products, and smaller contributions of sugar- and starch-
based products, confectionery, and dairy products.

Supermarkets. Supermarket organic wastes are dominated by produce. A typical composition study
(Jacob 1993) reports that 90% of wastes from eight supermarkets consisted of fruits and vegetables.
Between 5% and 6% consisted of bakery wastes, three percent of seafood, and one percent of deli wastes
(primarily meat scraps). Meat wastes are almost universally directed to rendering, and are rarely cited in     Formatted
composition studies that identify compostable wastes.                                                          Formatted
                                                                                                               Formatted

STATEWIDE FOOD WASTE GENERATION ESTIMATES

The quantity of SSOM generated annually in Massachusetts from the subset of all Massachusetts food
waste generators that was analyzed in this study is estimated to be 881,000 tons/year (Table 3).




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                              Page 7
                                         Table 3
         Summary of Massachusetts SSOM Generation from Generators Analyzed in Study

 Generator Category                         Number of         Total SSOM          SSOM Generation
                                            Establish-     Generation (tons/yr)   Per Establishment
                                              ments                                    (tons/yr)
 Manufacturers / Processors                     727              493,698                 656
 Wholesalers / Distributors                     304              44,688                  147
 Hospitals                                      124              14,538                  117
 Nursing Homes and Related                      507              27,409                   54
 Colleges, Universities                         101              24,458                  242
 Independent Preparatory Schools                20                 955                    50
 Correctional Institutions                      17                1,762                  104
 Resorts / Conference Facilities                105               6,442                   61
 Supermarkets
    Supermarkets (SIC 5411-0100, 0101,          408              90,604                  222
      0103, 9901)
    Grocery Stores (SIC 5411-0000,              164               7,022                   43
      9902, 9904, 9905)
 Restaurants                                   3,320             168,191                  51
 TOTAL                                         5,799            879,767                   ---

Nearly 60% of these wastes, nearly 500,000 tons/year, are estimated to come from food manufacturers
and processors. But this fact disguises great variability in this category.

Figure 1, which is drawn from survey information provided by Massachusetts food product manufacturers
for this study, highlights the great concentration of food waste generation from the food manufacturing
sector. Over half of the food waste reported comes from only five percent of the generators, and over
75% of the reported food waste comes from the top ten percent of generators.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                           Page 8
                                                              Figure 1
                                      Food Waste Generation from Massachusetts Manufacturers

                                   120%

                                   100%
           Percent of Food Waste




                                   80%

                                   60%

                                   40%

                                   20%

                                    0%
                                          0%      20%         40%         60%        80%       100%
                                                            Percent of Generators



This fact has meaningful implications for targeting the most promising generators for composting or
organics diversion. While the mean food waste generation for all Massachusetts food manufacturers is an
estimated 656 tons/establishment/year, this value is inflated by the presence of a small number of
manufacturers with very large waste streams. The large majority of manufacturers produce much less
than this value. Based on surveys conducted for this study, only twenty-five percent of all food
manufacturers generate as much as 300 tons of food waste per year, and half of all manufacturers generate
no more than 25-35 tons/year of organic wastes. Any composting or other organics diversion initiatives
planned among manufacturers would be well advised to identify and target the relatively small number of
firms that generate the majority of Massachusetts’ manufacturing food waste, with much less attention
devoted to the large number of firms that are in fact quite small waste generators. And even among large
generators, the potential to source food wastes from manufacturers must be evaluated on a case-by-case
basis, for a variety of reasons:

    •   There is no easy means to predict food waste generation on the basis of sales, employment, or
        other readily measurable yardsticks. Food waste generation can vary widely depending on the
        nature of specific products, technologies employed, and other variables specific to individual
        establishments.

    •   Contamination can be a serious issue. For example, food wastes from some manufacturers are
        generated in packaged containers, and removing packaging can be a serious obstacle to successful
        diversion. Other manufacturers may mix food wastes with other process or non-process wastes,
        and separation of food waste for composting or other diversion can be costly.

    •   Because of the expense associated with food waste disposal, some number of large manufacturers
        have already identified and implemented composting or other organics diversion alternatives.
        This is particularly true among manufacturers whose products have nutritional value (e.g., bakery


Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                             Page 9
        products, brewers grains), where an infrastructure to divert wastes to use as animal feed is
        relatively well established.

Apart from manufacturers, three other generator categories also stand out:

    Supermarkets: Depending on the treatment of food manufacturing waste estimates, the 409
    supermarkets accounted for in this study generate some 11% of all food waste generated in
    Massachusetts. Further, these generators are concentrated among a relatively small number of firms:
    the top eleven supermarket chains in the state account for 80% of all individual stores, and generate
    over 90% of the food wastes from this generator category. Supermarkets also tend to be concentrated
    in a predictable pattern, closely following the concentration of population, and generate a relatively
    consistent and predictable set of wastes. For all of these reasons, supermarkets are a logical target for
    food waste composting or organics diversion initiatives.

    Colleges and universities: Colleges and universities stand out because of their relatively large
    individual size (average food waste generation = 242 tons per year). This value masks considerable
    diversity, however. The five largest universities in the state are each estimated to generate over 1,000
    tons of food waste per year – cumulatively over one-third of all food waste from this generator
    category. Meanwhile, forty of the smallest colleges/universities in the state (or 40% of all
    institutions) each generate less than 100 tons of food waste per year, and account in total for only
    about 7% of all food waste from this category. From the perspective of food waste diversion,
    colleges and universities present additional challenges from two perspectives; first, food waste is
    typically generated from a large number of individual kitchens or cafeterias on a single campus; and
    second, contamination can be predicted to be a serious issue for most pre- and post-plate food waste
    from this set of generators.

    Restaurants: Restaurants account for about 19% of all food waste generated in Massachusetts.
    Restaurants are also, by far, the most numerous generators of food waste in the Commonwealth. This
    situation presents both challenges and opportunities. On the one hand, restaurants present significant
    challenges related to contamination and to collection of small quantities of wastes from individual
    generators. On the other hand, because of their density and their significant contribution to local
    waste totals, restaurants may be logical targets for locally-organized and managed composting or
    other organics diversion initiatives.


FOOD WASTE DATABASE AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES

Information about SSOM generators was assembled in a Microsoft Access database to allow for
comprehensive facility tracking, research, data querying, and generation of Geographic Information
System (GIS) maps. For each identified generator, the SSOM generator database contains the following
information:

    •   Company/organization name, address, and contact information;
    •   Establishment location (latitude and longitude) coded in both decimal degrees and X and Y
        coordinates (State Plane NAD-83);
    •   8-Digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code and SIC code description;




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                             Page 10
    •   Establishment size, coded as sales range (manufacturers, wholesalers), employee range
        (manufacturers, wholesalers, supermarkets and grocery stores, restaurants), number of beds
        (hospitals, nursing homes), number of students (colleges/universities, independent preparatory
        schools), number of inmates (prisons), or banquet-style seating capacity (resorts/conference
        facilities);
    •   Food waste types;
    •   Food waste generation estimate (all institutions except manufacturers and wholesalers).

The database was assembled for two primary purposes. The first is to provide comprehensive data query
and manipulation capabilities through the Access database system. For example, these allow users of the
database to design and run comprehensive queries, sorting and summing routines that can provide
detailed information on food waste generation in Massachusetts by location (zip code, town, etc.),
generator type, food waste type, or other variables.

The second major purpose of the database is to link to a Geographic Information System (GIS), ArcView
version 3.2a, that can graphically display food waste generators by generator type, waste type, waste
generation estimates, and a variety of other attributes. With the GIS system, generators can be portrayed
on base maps that contain features such as locals roads and streets, major statewide traffic arteries, and
town boundaries. Users of the linked database/GIS system can view generator locations at scales ranging
from generalized statewide maps to large scale maps that pinpoint generator locations on individual
streets. With the ArcView information tool, users can also obtain generator-specific information on any
mapped generator, and can create customized hard copy and on-screen maps to display generator
locations with symbols selected and scaled to show any desired generator attribute data (generator type,
waste type, size, waste generation, etc.).

Probably the most useful applications of the database/GIS system are to be found in the combination of
data query and mapping capabilities. For example, a query such as “waste generation greater than 83
tons/year and sales code note equal to A, B, C, D, or E” was used to generate the statewide map of large
scale generators presented as Map 1. Additional GIS mapping capabilities were then used to map a subset
of these generators onto local road systems in a smaller portion of the state (Map 3), a feature that can be
used, for example, to help lay out logical collection routes. The combination of query and mapping
capabilities can be used iteratively to carry out quite sophisticated analyses of food waste generation in
Massachusetts, particularly focusing on the practical aspects of identifying generators who are logical
targets (by virtue of location, waste types, waste quantities, and other features) for composting or other
organics diversion initiatives.

Appendices B and C provide more detailed information about development of the SSOM generator
database, its contents, and the related GIS mapping capabilities developed in this project.


DATABASE UPDATE PLAN

The following paragraphs summarize the sources of information used in this analysis, which can be
accessed again in the future to update mapping and demographic information contained in the SSOM
generator database. To optimize utility of the database and mapping capabilities, the database should be
updated frequently enough to assure that most establishments recorded are still in business and
maintaining their current level of economic activity. Based on industry turnover rates and the importance
of their contribution to statewide SSOM generation, Draper/Lennon suggests the following update
schedule to assure the continuing relevance of the database and mapping results of this project (Table 4).



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                            Page 11
                                            Table 4
               Suggested Update Frequency, Massachusetts SSOM Generator Database

        Generator Category                           Update Schedule
        Manufacturers / Processors                   Every 2 years
        Wholesalers / Distributors                   Every 2 years
        Hospitals                                    Every 5 years
        Nursing Homes and Related Facilities         Every 5 years
        Colleges and Universities                    Every 5 years
        Independent Preparatory Schools              Every 5 years
        Correctional Institutions                    Every 5 years
        Resorts / Conference Facilities              Every 3-5 years
        Supermarkets                                 Every 2 years
        Restaurants                                  Annual

Food and Beverage Manufacturers and Processors and Food Wholesalers and Distributors. The
Connecticut Economic Resource Center (CERC, www.cerc.com) maintains a database of business and
service establishments in Massachusetts and other states that was the source of the majority of
information in these generator categories. Information from CERC was supplemented by additional data
derived from public web sources and search engines, industry sources such as Thomas’s Register of
American Manufacturers, and trade associations

Hospitals. The majority of information used in this study was provided by the member relations
department of the Massachusetts Hospital Association (www.mhalink.org), supplemented by information
from the American Hospital Directory (www.ahd.com), and additional information from the American
Hospital Association (www.hospitalconnect.com). Direct contact with a number of hospitals or their web
sites was employed to confirm some database-derived information.

Nursing Homes. The federal Medicare program maintains a comprehensive database of all Medicare-
certified nursing homes and related extended care facilities in the United States. This database
(www.medicare.gov/Nursing/Overview.asp) was the source of the information used in this study.

Colleges and Universities. Information was taken from the National Center for Education Statistics
(www.nces.ed.gov), supplemented by information from the Massachusetts Department of Higher
Education (www.mass.edu), and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges,
(www.neasc.org). Contacts with a number of individual schools (web site or school registrar) were
required to confirm address, contact, or current enrollment information.

Major Independent Secondary Schools. The Association of Independent Schools of New England,
(www.aisne.org) was the source of most information. Schools that are not AISNE members were
identified and characterized through the American School Directory (www.asd.com) and contacts with
the individual schools, the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, and/or the National Center for
Education Statistics.

Correctional Facilities. The Massachusetts Department of Correction, office of the Assistant Deputy
Commissioner, Community Correction Division, provided address and inmate count information for all of
the facilities in the Massachusetts prison system.



Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                        Page 12
Major Resort and Conference Properties. Facilities were identified by contacting the Convention and
Visitors Bureaus in the major metropolitan areas and rural recreational regions in Massachusetts (Boston
Metro, Worcester Area, Pittsfield/Berkshires, Cape Cod, etc.). These contacts provided the names of all
resort/conference properties in each region, and in some cases provided data on the number of banquet-
style seats at each facility. Where published information did not include data on banquet seating,
individual establishments were contacted to secure this information.

Restaurants. Data were provided by CERC.

Supermarkets. Base data were provided by CERC. For ten of the major supermarket chains in
Massachusetts, Draper/Lennon established direct contact (typically with the chain’s environmental
coordinator) and requested information to update and correct the CERC-derived information. The
following chains provided such information: A&P (Waldbaum’s), Big Y, Bread & Circus, Foodmaster,
Market Basket, Price Chopper, Roche Brothers, Shaw’s/Star Market, Shop n Save, and Stop n Shop.


CONCLUSIONS

This study identified a total of 5,799 commercial and institutional generators of food waste in
Massachusetts, who produce an estimated 880,000 tons/year of source separated organic materials
potentially suitable for composting or organics diversion. Additional tonnage, the quantity of which was
not estimated in this study, is generated from a large number of businesses and institutions that are
smaller than the size cutoffs established for this analysis. Based on these results, enough SSOM is
generated in Massachusetts to support composting or organics diversion efforts, either dedicated
exclusively to SSOM, or for SSOM mixed and recycled with other organics (e.g., leaf and yard wastes).

The major SSOM generating sectors in Massachusetts include manufacturers, restaurants, and
supermarkets. There is great diversity among food manufacturers, and the majority of wastes from this
sector are produced by a relatively small number of large generators. Supermarkets are the source of
nearly 100,000 tons/year of compostable organics, and from the standpoint of organics diversion offer
advantages in that they represent a consistent and predictable waste stream, and the majority of wastes
come from a relatively small number of supermarket chains. In total, restaurants generate nearly 170,000
tons/year of organics, but are relatively difficult targets for recycling because of their generally small size
and issues related to recycling logistics, sanitation, and contamination.

The combination of database information and Geographic Information System capabilities provided by
this study has also provided the state with a flexible and powerful tool to identify, characterize, and map
SSOM by location, generator type, generator size, waste type, and other variables – a tool that can be
used by current or prospective SSOM recyclers, SSOM generators, haulers, and waste management
planners. This combination of database and GIS products provide the State of Massachusetts and private
companies with an opportunity to create composting or organics diversion markets for SSOM in
Massachusetts, and to create jobs and economic activity centered on this opportunity.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                               Page 13
                                               References


Note: Bold-faced abbreviations after each citation refer to the types of generators discussed in each
document, as follows: M=Manufacturers/Processors, HC=Health Care (hospitals, nursing homes),
ED=Education, PR=Prisons, RC=Resort/Conference, R=Restaurant, SM=Supermarket.

Block, Dave. 1997. Composting prison food residuals. BioCycle, August 1997: 37. PR

CIWMB (California Integrated Waste Management Board). 2001. Solid Waste Characterization
Database. www.ciwmb.ca.gov/wastechar M,HC,R,SM

Clark, Sean, and Derek Law. 2000. Multipurpose program at Kentucky college. BioCycle, September
2000: 69. ED

Composting Council Research and Education Foundation. 1997. A guide to commercial food
composting. Bethesda, MD. December 1997. SM,R,HC

Farrell, Molly. 1995. Resort composting keeps costs down. BioCycle, December 1995: 35. RC

Feinbaum, Robert. 1995. Gauging Attitudes Toward Source Separation. BioCycle, July 1995: 69.

Food Marketing Institute. 1994. Composting Workbook. Washington, DC. SM

Flores, R.A., and C.W. Shanklin. 1998. Food wastes database development: final report. Des Moines,
Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Waste Management Assistance Division. March 1998. M

Giesecke, Ann. Personal Commmunication. Telephone and email correspondence with Ann Giesecke,
American Bakery Association, 11/00 - 12/00. M

Goldstein, Nora. 1992. Composting the commercial organic stream. BioCycle, May 1992: 46. SM

Grocery Industry Committee on Solid Waste. 1991. Composting task force report. Washington, DC.
Food Marketing Institute. SM

Heumann, Jenny M. 1999. Grocery Store Solid Waste Management: Looking Behind the Aisles. Waste
Age, February 1999: 87. SM

Hinshaw, Jane, and Ivan Braun. 1991. Targeting Commercial Businesses for Recycling. Resource
Recycling, November 1991: 27. R,RC

Jacob, Mark. 1993. Classifying the supermarket food waste stream. BioCycle, February 1993: 46. SM

Katsuyama, Allen M., Editor. 1979. A Guide for Waste Management in the Food Processing Industry.
Washington, DC., The Food Processors Institute (National Food Processors Assn). M

Kantor, Linda Scott, K. Lipton, A. Manchester, and V. Oliveira. 1997. Estimating and addressing
America’s food losses. FoodReview 20(1), Jan-April 1997. M




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                           Page 14
Kim, Taehee, C.W. Shanklin, A. Y. Su, B.L. Hackes, and D. Ferris. 1997. Comparison of waste
composition in a continuing-care retirement community. J. Amer. Dietetic Assn. 97/4 (April 1997): 396.
HC

Marion, James. 2000. Composting 12,000 tons of food residuals a year. BioCycle, May 2000: 35. PR

Nebraska State Recycling Association. 1996. Organic waste product generated by Nebraska food
manufacturers. Omaha, NE. December 1996. M

Nelson, R.G., and R.A. Flores. 1994. Survey of processing residues generated by Kansas agribusinesses.
Appl. Engr. Agr. 10(5): 703-708. M

Newell, Ty, Elizabeth Markstahler, and Matthew Snyder. 1993. Commercial food waste from restaurants
and grocery stores. Resource Recycling, February 1993: 56. R,SM

Newell, Ty, and Matthew Snyder. 1996. Analyzing collection of commercial organics. BioCycle, July
1996: 63. R,SM

Shanklin, C.W., T. Kim, and Allan Su. 1997. Tray service generates more food waste in dining areas of
a continuing-care retirement community. J. Amer. Dietetic Assn. 97(8): 894. HC

Smith, Wayne H., A. Shiralipour, and M. Kessler. 1998. Final report: food waste diversion in Florida.
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Center for Biomass Programs and
Florida Organic Recyclers Association. November 1998. R,HC,PR,ED

U.S. EPA. 1998a. Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, VT: 90% Recovery of Preconsumer Food
Discards. Washington, DC, U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response. EPA-530-F-98-
023b. HC

U.S. EPA. 1998b. Frost Valley YMCA, Claryville, New York: 100% Recovery of Food Discards.
Washington, DC, U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response. EPA-530-F-98-023c. RC

U.S. EPA. 1998c. Larry’s Markets, Seattle, WA: 90% Recovery of Food and Floral Discards.
Washington, DC, U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response. EPA-530-F-98-023e. SM

U.S. EPA. 1998d. Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT: 75% Recovery of Food Discards. Washington,
DC, U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response. EPA-530-F-98-023f. ED

Youde, Jeffrey, and Bruce Prengruber. 1991. Classifying the food waste stream. Biocycle, October
1991: 70. M




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                        Page 15
                                           Appendix A

   Detailed Information on Massachusetts Manufacturer/Processor, Wholesaler/Distributor, and
                          Restaurant Food Waste Generator Categories




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                           Appendix A
                                                                                   Table A-1
                                             Massachusetts Food and Beverage Manufacturers and Processors by SIC Code and Size (Sales)
                                                 Annual Sales (Million $$)
  SIC                                                                                                                  Total     SIC Description
         <0.49   .5-.99   1.0-2.49   2.5-4.99 5.0-9.99 10.0-24.9 25.0-49.9 50.0-99.9 100-499      >=500 Unknown
 2011      0       0         2           5        4          3          5       0         1         0          12        32      Meat packing plants
 2013      1       6         5           3        5          2          1       0         0         0          13        36      Sausages and meat products
 2015      0       1         0           1        1          2          0       0         0         0          4         9       Poultry slaughtering, dressing, and processing
 2022      0       0         1           1        0          0          0       0         1         0          1         4       Cheese
 2023      0       0         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          1         1       Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy products
 2024      8       5         3           6        3          2          3       1         0         0          22        53      Ice cream
 2026      0       0         1           2        1          0          0       0         1         2          9         16      Fluid milk
 2032      1       1         1           1        1          1          0       0         0         0          1         7       Canned specialties
 2033      1       1         5           8        1         12          2       0         1         1          4         36      Canned fruits, vegetables, and preserves
 2034      0       0         1           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          0         1       Dried and dehydrated fruits, vegetables, and soup mixes
 2035      1       0         2           0        4          0          0       0         0         0          2         9       Pickles, sauces, and salad dressings
 2037      0       0         1           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          1         2       Fruit juices
 2038      1       1         1           0        1          1          1       0         0         0          2         8       Frozen specialties
 2041      0       0         0           0        1          0          0       0         1         0          2         4       Flour, grain milling
 2043      0       0         2           0        0          1          0       0         1         0          0         4       Cereal breakfast foods
 2044      0       0         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          1         1       Rice milling
 2045      0       0         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          3         3       Prepared flour mixes and doughs
 2046      0       0         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          2         2       Wet corn milling
 2047      0       0         0           0        0          1          0       0         0         0          1         2       Dog and cat food
 2048      0       0         0           0        1          0          1       0         0         0          1         3       Other prepared feeds
 2051     17       10        22         12        9          7          1       0         0         0          75       153      Bread, cake, and related products
 2052      1       4         2           0        1          0          0       0         0         0          11        19      Cookies and crackers
 2053      0       2         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          2         4       Frozen bakery products
 2063      0       0         0           0        0          0          0       0         0         0          1         1       Beet sugar
 2064      8       8         6           3        0          2          0       0         0         0          10        37      Candy and other confectionery products
 2066      3       1         1           1        0          0          0       0         0         0          9         15      Chocolate and cocoa products
 2068      0       0         2           1        0          1          0       0         1         0          0         5       Salted and roasted nuts and seeds
 2077      1       1         0           2        0          0          0       0         0         0          1         5       Animal and marine fats and oils
 2079      0       0         0           0        1          0          2       0         0         0          0         3       Vegetable oils
 2082      1       4         8           2        1          2          0       0         2         0          7         27      Malt beverages
 2084      2       3         2           1        1          0          0       0         0         0          2         11      Wines, brandy, and brandy spirits
 2085      0       1         1           0        2          0          0       0         0         0          3         7       Distilled and blended liquors
 2086      0       1         0           1        2          1          0       0         1         0          7         13      Bottled and canned soft drinks
 2087      0       0         0           1        1          0          1       0         0         0          4         7       Flavoring extracts and syrups
 2091      0       1         3           1        0          0          0       0         0         0          6         11      Canned and cured fish and seafoods
 2092      1       1         12          7        7          8          5       0         0         0          19        60      Fresh or frozen packaged fish
 2095      1       2         2           3        3          0          0       1         0         0          8         19      Coffee
 2096      3       0         1           1        0          1          0       0         0         0          4         10      Potato chips and similar snacks
 2098      2       4         7           0        1          0          0       0         0         0          5         19      Macaroni and spaghetti
 2099      5       6         11          6        7          4          4       0         0         0          24        67      Other food preparations
 Total    58       64       105         69        59        51         26       2        10         3         280       727




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                                      Appendix A
                                                                                             Table A-2
                                                            Massachusetts Food Wholesalers and Distributors by SIC Code and Size (Sales)
                                                                                            See Note 1
                                                                     Annual Sales (Million $$)
 SIC Code                                                                                                                                                        Total     SIC Description
                  <0.49         .5-.99       1.0-2.49       2.5-4.99      5.0-9.99       10-24.9       25-49.9       50-99.9      100-249.9     Unknown
    5143            0              2             2             3              4             2             0             0              0             4             17      Dairy products
    5144            0              1             1             5              1             1             1             0              0             0             10      Eggs and poultry
    5146            3              7            42             25            25            16             8             1              2            15            144      Fish and seafoods
    5147            0              0             3             2              3             2             2             0              0             1             13      Meats
    5148            2              5            21             17            15            11             4             3              0            13             91      Fresh fruits and vegetables
    5149            1              8             9             2              0             1             0             0              0             8             29      Bakery products
   Total            6              23           78            54            48              33            15             4              2             41           304
Notes: 1 Selected SICs only. Review of survey information returned by Massachusetts wholesalers/distributors determined that establishments in most SICs generate very little recyclable organic waste.
     Only establishments handling meat, fish, dairy, bakery, and fruits/vegetables are likely to generate organics in quantities potentially recoverable for composting or organics diversion; only these SICs
     are accounted for in this study. See text.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                                                          Appendix A
                                              Table A-3
                  Massachusetts Restaurants by Type and Size (Number of Employees)
                         Number of Employees
SIC Code                                                  SIC Description
               <15 15-24 25-49 50-99 100+ Total
   5812-0000   259    243     283    140     42      967    Eating places, not otherwise classified
   5812-0100   10      6        9     1       1       27    Ethnic food restaurants
   5812-0101   28     42       64    72      19      225    American restaurant
   5812-0103   69     48       26     9       1      153    Chinese restaurant
   5812-0104    2      2        6     5       0       15    French restaurant
   5812-0105    0      0        2     0       0        2    German restaurant
   5812-0106    5      2        0     0       1        8    Greek restaurant
   5812-0107    5      3        0     0       0        8    Indian/Pakistan restaurant
   5812-0108   35     42      114    40       8      239    Italian restaurant
   5812-0109    2      5        7     2       0       16    Japanese restaurant
   5812-0112    8     12       14     4       2       40    Mexican restaurant
   5812-0113    1      0        1     0       0        2    Spanish restaurant
   5812-0114    1      0        0     0       0        1    Sushi bar
   5812-0115    6      5        1     1       0       13    Thai restaurant
   5812-0116    1      3        0     0       0        4    Vietnamese restaurant
   5812-0200    1      4        1     0       0        6    Ice cream, soft drink and soda fountain stands
   5812-0201    1      1        1     2       0        5    Concessionaire
   5812-0202    2      0        0     0       0        2    Frozen yogurt stand
   5812-0203   18     15       14     1       0       48    Ice cream stands or dairy bars
   5812-0300    2      6        4     1       1       14    Fast-food restaurants and stands
   5812-0302    1      5       2      1       0       9     Carry-out only (except pizza) restaurant
   5812-0304   13     20       27     3       0       63    Coffee shop
   5812-0305   11      9        3     1       0       24    Delicatessen (eating places)
   5812-0306    1      2        2     0       0        5    Drive-in restaurant
   5812-0307   26     34      198    58       2      318    Fast-food restaurant, chain
   5812-0308    2      2        3     1       0        8    Fast-food restaurant, independent
   5812-0309    0      0        3     0       0        3    Food bars
   5812-0310    3      7        8     5       0       23    Grills (eating places)
   5812-0311    1      0        0     0       0        1    Hamburger stand
   5812-0312    2      0        1     0       0        3    Hot dog stand
   5812-0313   23     13        9     1       1       47    Sandwiches and submarines shop
   5812-0315    1      0        0     0       0        1    Snack shop
   5812-0400    2      1        1     0       0        4    Lunchrooms and cafeterias
   5812-0402    1      0        1     0       0        2    Cafeteria
   5812-0403    3      8        0     0       0       11    Luncheonette
   5812-0500   11     10       36    20       1       78    Family restaurants, not otherwise classified
   5812-0501    1      1      124    43       9      178    Restaurant, family: chain
   5812-0502   13     32       61    25       8      139    Restaurant, family: independent
   5812-0600   48     26       24    30       1      129    Pizza restaurants
   5812-0601    4      4       23    18       0       49    Pizzeria, chain
   5812-0602    6     13        3     0       0       22    Pizzeria, independent
   5812-0700   18     25       28    25      12      108    Seafood restaurants
   5812-0702    1      0        3     4       0        8    Seafood shack
   5812-0800    1      0        0     0       0        1    Steak and barbecue restaurants
   5812-0801    2      1        1     0       1        5    Barbecue restaurant
   5812-0802    2      4       17    13       4       40    Steak restaurant
   5812-9901    3      1        1     8       0       13    Buffet (eating places)
   5812-9902   16      7       28     6       0       57    Cafe
   5812-9903   28     34       29    22       8      121    Caterers
   5812-9904    0      1        5     0       0        6    Chicken restaurant
   5812-9905    1      1        2     0       0        4    Commissary restaurant
   5812-9906    0      2        8     6       3       19    Contract food services
   5812-9907    8      5        4     3       0       20    Diner
   5812-9908    0      0        2     1       0        3    Dinner theater
   5812-9909    1      0        2     0       0        3    Health food restaurant
     Total     710    707    1,206   572     125    3,320




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                               Appendix A
                                           Appendix B
                 Detailed Description of GIS Mapping Capabilities and Protocols




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                             Appendix B
                                       APPENDIX B
              Detailed Description of GIS Mapping Capabilities and Protocols

SSOM Database and Mapping System
Information about SSOM generators is assembled in an Access database to allow for
comprehensive facility tracking, research, and data querying. The database is linked to a
Geographic Information System (GIS) that graphically displays the generators by type, waste
type, waste production estimates, and a variety of other attributes on base maps that contain
features such as roads and town boundaries. Users of the system can view generator locations
at scales ranging from state (1:1,520,000) to detailed street levels (1:24,000) and immediately
obtain generator-specific information. Customized hard-copy and on-screen maps can be
created to display any of the generator’s locations with symbols selected and scaled for any
associated attribute data (e.g., size, waste type, etc.).
Queries can be performed to select generators within a certain area, defined with on-screen
graphics or by data attributes such as town, zip code or street. This type of query is particularly
useful for determining preliminary waste generation estimates for specific areas. By selecting
generators and running a GIS summing routine, total quantities of waste can be determined.
The detailed, street level maps are also useful for preliminary route mapping for waste
collection. The ability to spatially select and easily obtain the attributes of generators is a
powerful tool for assessing the feasibility of developing SSOM processing facilities. User
specified reports can be generated easily. For example, if the user would like to know the
names, addresses, waste types and waste generation estimates for all of the generators within
a 2 mile radius of downtown Worcester, a query can be run and the information printed out
immediately. An accompanying map of the area can also be readily created with major roads,
local roads or a topographical map base.
With these capabilities, the SSOM database and mapping system is a tool that will provide
planners, SSOM recyclers, and waste haulers with valuable spatial and tabular information to
facilitate important decisions regarding the identification, collection and processing of organic
waste.
   Creation of Access Database
The SSOM generator data were obtained and edited by Draper/Lennon Inc. Each data source
had slightly different column headings and specific facility type information, such as, 'number of
beds' for hospitals and 'number of inmates' for prisons. The data were standardized with the
most common headings and the pertinent site-specific headings. Additional columns
associated with the waste generation were added. These columns include waste types
(WasteTypes), waste quantity generated (GenerationEstimate), and current disposal practices
(Disposition). Columns for facility location information in latitude and longitude, and state plane
X and Y coordinate systems were also added.
The database, named 'SSOM_Database', contains one MS-Access database table titled
'SSOM_Generators', for the SSOM generators, and two queries associated with this table.
Appendix C contains the complete listing of database field names and their formats. Important
identifying codes created for the Access database include: Category Code (CatCode), which
identifies the general facility group for each establishment (e.g., institutions/college = IC, food
manufacturers = F, etc.); Facility Code (DEPCode), a unique identifier for each facility in the
database; and Data Source Code (SCode), for specific numbering based on the data source
(Appendix B, Table 2).
The queries were designed for each of these data tables to allow for the review of user-
specified data. These queries contain all of the respective table information. Typical query


Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                 Appendix B
criteria expressions such as equal to, greater than and less than can be applied to any field in
the data table. Multiple criteria can also be applied, such as: Town = 'Springfield' and Waste
Quantity >'1,000'. The queries are linked to the GIS mapping platform, so the datasets returned
from these queries will be reflected in the GIS maps produced.


   Creation of GIS Base-Map Data
The software used for this project's GIS mapping is ArcView version 3.2a, a product from the
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).
The GIS data used and developed for the project is projected on the Massachusetts (Mainland)
State Plane coordinate system in meters, using the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83).
This is the standard system used by MassGIS and MADEP. Each data point is coded with
information specified in the Draft MADEP GIS 'Point Data Documentation Standards - January
1, 2002'. All of the GIS data generated by this project is Development Level Data and is named
and coded as such.
Base-map data allow the user to orient the project data in reference to existing spatial
information. The base-map data layers consist of state and town boundaries and two data
layers carrying information about Massachusetts roads and highways. The state and town
boundary layer is located in the following directory: …\Basemap\Town Boundaries\townsp1.shp.
One of the road network layers is the MassGIS small- scale road data located in the directory
titled …\Basemap\Road\majmhda1.shp. This road data is used for small-scale, countywide and
statewide mapping. For the larger scale maps, the 2000 TIGER/Line road data (compiled by
the U.S. Census Bureau) is used to allow for detailed viewing of local roads. The TIGER road
data is located in the directory …\Basemap\Road\allroadstgr.shp. The viewing scale at which
the road base-maps change is set to 1:100,000.
Since the SSOM generator data is referenced to the same coordinate system as other MassGIS
data, any of the state data layers, such as the USGS topographic maps, can be also used for
the base map layers.
   GIS Data Layer Development
The SSOM generator locations in latitude-longitude coordinates were obtained from the original
data source, by an address matching/geo-coding process, or by on-screen digitizing from digital
USGS 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. Address matching applies existing geo-referenced
road data that contains street number and name information on every road in the United States,
including street address numbers and direction and odd versus even sides of the road, to
determine approximate locations. The GIS software is able to search all of this road data to find
the most logical location for a given address, and record this in latitude-longitude coordinates.
Address matching was performed with proprietary geo-referenced road line data maintained by
Geographic Data Technology, Inc. (GDT) and with 2000 TIGER/Line data. For representation
on the GIS maps, the geo-coded locations were projected from latitude/longitude to the
Massachusetts (Mainland) State Plane - meters coordinate system on the NAD83 Datum. The
coordinates are included in the database in latitude/longitude by decimal degrees and in X and
Y coordinates to the nearest meter.
All of the generators were submitted to GDT for address matching with the geo-coding process.
Approximately 7.3% of the data did not match to the street address level of coding with GDT
street data. Un-matched data were reviewed for address accuracy, edited where possible, and
resubmitted to GDT. Address matching with the TIGER/Line data was attempted with the
remaining unmatched data. If the unmatched data had coordinates from the original data
source, they were used and coded appropriately. The generators that did not match to the


Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                              Appendix B
street address and could did not have original coordinates were assigned zip-code centroid
locations as provided by GDT.
Some of the generators that were not successfully located with the geo-coding process and did
not have original coordinates were accurately mapped using USGS topographic maps. This
was particularly effective for schools that were labeled on the USGS maps.
The locations of most of hospitals and prisons were provided by the existing MADEP GIS data.
17 of the 126 hospitals that were not included in the MADEP data were address-matched by
GDT.
The description and collection method of the location data for each SSOM generating
establishment is recorded in the database in the fields named 'L_Type' and 'L_Meth'
respectively, with the codes shown in Appendix A, Table 1.
Of the 2479 SSOM generators, not including restaurants, mapped in this project, 2165 were
geo-coded to the street address. 130 facilities were mapped with the coordinates provided from
the data source. 13 facility locations were corrected with USGS topographic maps and 30
facility locations were located to the most probable location along the known street. Nine
facilities were located to the centroid of the five-digit zip code, and two were located to the
centroid of the five-plus-two zip code. Also included in the database are 3320 restaurants. Of
these, 3107 restaurants were located by address matching, 212 by their provided coordinates,
and 1 by its 5-digit zip code centroid.
   Generator Characterization
Table 2, summarizes the category codes and related information stored for ten categories of
generators held in the generator database.
   Waste Type Characterization
All SSOM generators have been categorized according to the type(s) of waste they generate,
and these waste types are coded in the Access database. The twelve waste types recorded in
the database are presented in Table 3. These waste codes can be used to produce waste type
maps.
   Current Management Characterization
The database field 'Disposition' contains codes to identify the current organic waste disposal
practices. They are 'R' for Recycle, 'T' for Trash, and 'U' for Unknown. This code is queried
from the GIS to retrieve facilities that recycle.
Results
   Generator and Waste Type Maps
Three maps were generated for this report. Map 1 and 3 identify the large quantity generators
as defined by criteria: greater than 83 tons/year for all facilities where generation rates could be
estimated, and greater than $10 million in sales for food and beverage manufacturers and
wholesalers where waste generation rates could not be derived. These criteria where
established by targeting the top 20% of the total number of generators.
   GIS ArcView Shapefiles
Eighteen shapefiles (.shp) were created with the current data for each generator category and
each waste type. Legend files (.avl) were created for the generator categories and the waste
types. The legend files are based on facility types and generation quantity. These files will not
change with respect to database modifications. The shapefile names and associated legend




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                 Appendix B
files are listed in Table 4. All of the data present in the database is contained in the shapefile
named ssom_generators_uc.shp.




                                         Table 1
                                   Location Data Codes

L_Meth*     L_Type*                            Description                             Number
                        Location data from the original generator data
                        provider. Original coordinates used if address
  XY_4         CB2                                                                       342
                        information was not complete or if GDT did not
                        provide matched data.
                        Location obtained by address matching the street
  AM_1         AM       addresses with geo-coded street maps. Service                   5272
                        provided by GDT, Inc.
                        Facility locations confirmed with USGS topographical
  DD_1         CB       maps where possible. This was especially effective                13
                        with schools and hospitals.
                        Location estimated with street information, either by
                        street and address number where number was not a
  AM_3         AM       street data option; or by street where street was                 30
                        relatively short and topographic information supported
                        location.

  AM_4         AM       Location recorded as the centroid of the 5+4 digit Zip             0
                        Code
  AM_5         AM       Location recorded as the centroid of the 5+2 digit Zip             2
                        Location recorded as the centroid of the 5 digit Zip
  AM_6         AM                                                                         10
                        Code
* Codes follow the MADEP GIS draft 'Point Data Documentation Standards - January 1, 2002'. L_Meth
codes AM_4, AM_5 and AM_6 do not exist in this draft of standards.

   The MADEP standard field 'L_SRC_1' is used to code the primary location source of the data.
   Draper/Lennon, Inc compiled the address data for this project from various data providers, thus the
   code used in this field is 'DB_CONT' to indicate a contractor provided the database.




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                    Appendix B
                                         Table 2
               SSOM Generator Characterization (CatCode) in Access Database

 Generator Category                    CatCode     Notes

 Food Manufacturers/Processors                     Labeled by SIC code into 34 categories.
                                           F
 Beverage Man./Processors                          Legend with sales code indicates size.

                                           W       Labeled by SIC code into 6 categories.
 Wholesalers/Distributors
                                                   Legend with sales code indicates size

 Health Care Facilities                    IH      DEPCode beginning with ‘H’ denotes
                                                   healthcare facility

 Colleges/Universities                     IC      DEPCode beginning with ‘C’ denotes college
                                                   or university

 Independent Preparatory Schools           IS      DEPCode beginning with ‘S’ denotes
                                                   independent school

 Correctional Facilities                   IP      DEPCode beginning with ‘P’ denotes
                                                   correctional facility

 Resort/Conference Facilities              C       DEPCode beginning with ‘I’ denotes
                                                   resort/conference facility

 Supermarkets/Grocery Stores               G       Code in LocType field denotes whether part
                                                   of a supermarket chain (‘SC’) or an
                                                   independent market (‘S’)

 Restaurants                               R       SIC8Name specifies the type of restaurant




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                            Appendix B
                                       Table 3
              Waste Type Codes in the SSOM Generator Access Database

           Waste Type                                      Waste Code

           Meat                                                 M

           Fish                                                 F

           Vegetable / Fruit                                    V

           Sugar, Starch, Confectionery, Chocolate              S

           Grains from beer; Skins/Pulp from vineyards          A

           Dairy                                                D

           Bakery                                               B

           Pasta                                                P

           Snack Food                                           J

           Institutional Kitchen                                I

           Supermarket/Grocery Waste                            G

           Restaurant                                           R

           Other                                                X




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                   Appendix B
                                           Table 4
                              Shapefiles and Legend File Names
                     GIS Shapefile Name                 Legend File Name

                ssom_generators_uc.shp         ssom_generators-_uc.avl

                food_uc.shp                    food_uc.avl

                wholesalers_uc.shp             wholesalers_uc.avl

                institutions_uc.shp            institutions_uc.avl
                                               institutewaste_uc.avl

                                               resorts_uc.avl
                resorts_uc.shp
                                               resortwaste_uc.avl
                restaurants_uc.shp             restaurants_uc.avl

                meatwaste_uc.shp               meatwaste_uc.avl

                fishwaste_uc.shp               fishwaste_uc.avl

                vegwaste_uc.shp                vegwaste_uc.avl

                bwwaste_uc.shp                 bwwaste_uc.avl

                dairywaste_uc.shp              dairywaste_uc.avl

                                               sugstrchwaste
                sugstrchwaste_uc.shp
                                               _uc.shp

                bakerywaste_uc.shp             bakerywaste_uc.avl

                pastawaste_uc.shp              astawaste_uc.avl

                snackwaste_uc.shp              snackwaste_uc.avl

                                               supermwaste_uc.avl
                supermarkets_uc.shp
                                               supermarkets_uc.avl

                otherwaste_uc.shp              otherwaste_uc.avl
                lrgquantgenerators_uc.shp      lrgquantgenerators_uc.avl




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                      Appendix B
                                       Appendix C
                   SSOM Generator Database Field Names And GIS Metadata




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                     Appendix C
                                          APPENDIX C
           SSOM GENERATOR DATABASE FIELD NAMES AND GIS METADATA


The GIS shapefiles listed below contain the commercial and institutional generators of Source
Separated Organic Materials in Massachusetts at the time of publication (July 2002). The
generators are categorized as: Food and Beverage Manufacturers and Processors, Food
Wholesalers and Distributors, Institutions (Healthcare Facilities, Colleges/Universities,
Independent Schools and Prisons), Supermarkets, Resorts/Conference Facilities and
Restaurants.

The associated data tables were compiled from existing inventories of the food waste
generators. The facility coordinates were obtained by matching the street addresses with geo-
coded street maps. When address information did not match road data, the coordinates
provided with the business data were used. The accuracy of the points is dependent on the
accuracy of the particular geo-coded roads and the proximity of the actual building to the street
address. Codes for the geo-referencing methods are included in the attribute data fields named
'L_Meth' and 'L_Type'. Use of these datalayers is intended for general state or town based
assessments only, since the spatial accuracy may be less than is necessary for large-scale
mapping.


Generator Points
Data Type: Feature
Feature Type: Point
Data Format: Shapefile




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                               Appendix C
 Theme Attribute Table
            Field             Name                  Description            Type    Units     Size
                          Category          Letter Identifier of
 CatCode                                                                 String                 10
                          Code              Generator Type
                          Manufacturer      Unique Identifier of CT
 DEPCode                                                                 String                 10
                          Code              SSOM Generator
 SCode                    Source Code       Source of Generator Data     String                 10
                          Business
 Name                                       Business Name                String              100
                          Name
                          Mailing
 Address                                    Mailing Address              String                 72
                          Address
 Town                     Mailing City      Mailing City                 String                 20

 State                    Mailing State     Mailing State                String                 2
                          Mailing Zip
 MailZip9                                   Mailing Zip Code             String                 12
                          Code
                          Phone
 Phone                                      Phone Number                 String                 20
                          Number
                          Executive Full    Full Name of Business
 ExecFull                                                                String              100
                          Name              Executive
 Exec Title               Executive Title   Executive Title              String              100
                          Physical          Physical Address of
 PhyAdd                                                                  String                 72
                          Address           Business
                                            Physical City of Business
 PhyCity                  Physical City                                  String                 20
                                            Location
                                            Physical State of Business
 PhyState                 Physical State                                 String                 2
                                            Location
                          Physical Zip      5 Digit Zip Code of
 PhyZip5                                                                 Number                 5
                          Code (5)          Business Location
                          Physical Zip      Plus 4 Zip Code of
 PhyPlus4                                                                Number                 4
                          Plus 4            Business Location
                                            Longitude Coordinate of               Decimal
 Long                     Longitude                                      Number             Double
                                            Business                              Degrees
                                            Latitude Coordinate of                Decimal
 Lat                      Latitude                                       Number             Double
                                            Business                              Degrees
                                            X Coordinate (State Plane
 XCoord                   X Coordinate                                   Number   Meters    Double
                                            - NAD83)
                                            Y Coordinate (State Plane
 YCoord                   Y Coordinate                                   Number   Meters    Double
                                            - NAD83)




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                              Appendix C
            Field             Name                 Description             Type   Units    Size
                          SIC 4 Digit      Standard Industrial                             Long
 SIC4                                                                    Number
                          Code             Classification                                 Integer
                          SIC 4 Name       Standard Industrial
 SIC4Name                                                                String            100
                                           Classification Description
                          SIC 8 Digit      Standard Industrial
 SIC8                                                                    String                12
                          Code             Classification
                          SIC 8 Digit      Standard Industrial
 SIC8Name                                                                String            100
                          Code             Classification Description
 SalesCode                Sales Code       Sales Range by Code           String                10
                          Employee #       Coded Number of
 EmplCode                                                                                      10
                          Code             Employees
                                           Type of Location (single
 LocType                  Location Type    location, headquarters,       String                20
                                           branch plant, etc…)
                                           Inmates for Prison
                          Number of
                                           category Students for                           Long
 Inmates_Students         Inmates or                                     Number
                                           Colleges and Independent                       Integer
                          Students
                                           Schools categories
                          Day(D) or        Type of facility services -
 Day_Brd                                                                 String                10
                          Boarding(B)      day or boarding
                                           Number of beds/seats in
                          Number of
 Beds_Seats                                Healthcare Facilities and     Number           Double
                          Beds
                                           Resorts/ConfCtrs
                                           Number of meals per
                          Number of
                                           student in
 Meals/Student            Meals per                                      Number           Double
                                           College/University
                          Student
                                           category
                          Number of        Number of meals per bed
 Meals/Bed                                                               Number           Double
                          Meals per Bed    in Healthcare and Resorts
                                           Number of meals per day
                          Number of        in College/University,
 Meal/Day                                                                Number           Double
                          Meals per Day    Healthcare and
                                           Resort/ConfCtr Facilities
                          Amount of
                                           Weight of waste generated
 Waste/Meal               Waste per                                      Number           Double
                                           per meal
                          Meal
                          Units of Waste
 PerMealUnits                              Units of Waste per Meal       String                10
                          per Meal




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                             Appendix C
          Field               Name               Description               Type   Units    Size
                          Type of waste
 WasteType                                See waste type codes           String                10
                          by code

                          Quantity of
 WasteQuantity                            Quantity of waste per unit     Number           Double
                          waste

 Units_WasteQuantity      Units           Units of Waste Quantity        String                10

                                          Estimate of annual food
                          Waste
                                          waste generation. Based
 GenerationEstimate       Generation                                     Number           Double
                                          on WasteQuantity
                          Estimate
                                          calculations
                                          Units of Waste Generation
 Units_Generation         Units                                          String                20
                                          Estimate. Typically tons/yr.
                                          How Food Waste is
 Disposition              Disposition                                    String                10
                                          Disposed
                          MADEP
 Region                                   DEP GIS Standard Code          String                4
                          Region

 L_TYPE                   Location Type   What the point represents      Sting                 4

                                          Method used to locate
                          Location
 L_METH                                   feature (i.e., AM_1=           String                4
                          Method
                                          Address Matched)
                          Primary
                                          Primary source of the
 L_SRC_1                  Source                                         String                30
                                          location data
                          Location
                          Developer       Person responsible for
 L_STAFF                                                                 String                16
                          Name            locating the site
                          Developer       Program affiliation of the
 L_PROG                                                                  String                16
                          Program         staff-person
                          Automation      Date the feature was
 L_DATE                                                                  String                8
                          Date            located/automated in GIS
                                          Comments (i.e.,
 L_COMM                   Comments        description of data source     String                40
                                          or)




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                             Appendix C
Horizontal Coordinate System
 Coordinate System      State Plane Coordinate System of 1983
 State Plane Zone       Massachusetts (Mainland - 2001)
 Horizontal Datum       North American Datum of 1983 (NAD
                        83)
 Map Projection         Lambert Conformal Conic
 Spheriod               GRS 80
 Map Scale
 Map Units              Meters

Point of Contact
Contact Person       Brian Brodeur
Organization         State of Massachusetts Department of
                     Environmental Protection Environmental
                     Geographic Information
Mailing Address      One Winter St, Boston, MA 02108
Phone                (617)574-6802
Fax
Email



Facility Category Codes
              CatCode                  Category Description
                  F                    Food and Beverage Manufacturers/Processors
                 W                     Wholesale Distributors
                 IH                    Institutions -Healthcare Facilities
                 IS                    Institutions -Independent Schools
                 IC                    Institutions -Colleges/Universities
                 IP                    Institutions -Correctional Facilities
                 C                     Resorts and Conference Facilities
                 G                     Supermarkets and Grocery Stores
                 R                     Restaurants




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                               Appendix C
Location Documentation Codes
   L_METH          L_TYPE                                   Description
                               Location obtained by address matching the street addresses with
    AM_1             AM
                               geo-coded street maps. Service provided by GDT, Inc.
                               Location obtained by the original generator data provider. Original
                               coordinates used if address information was not complete or if GDT
     XY_4            CB2       did not provide matched data. Exception with wholesale and
                               supermarket data - most original location used since close
                               comparison was determined with GDT results (8 to 140 ft)
                               Facility locations confirmed with USGS topographical maps where
     DD_1            CB
                               possible. This was especially effective with schools and hospitals.
                               Location estimated with street information, either by street and
                               address number where number was not a street data option; or by
    AM_3             AM
                               street where street was relatively short and topographic information
                               supported location.
    AM_4             AM        Location provided as the centroid of the 5+4 digit Zip Code (2)

    AM_5             AM        Location provided as the centroid of the 5+2 digit Zip Code (2)

    AM_6             AM        Location provided as the centroid of the 5 digit Zip Code (5)




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                                   Appendix C
Sales Codes
           A             <$499K
           B             $500K - $999K
           C             $1.0M - $2.49M
           D             $2.5M - $4.9M
           E             $5.0M - $9.9M
           F             $10.0M - $24.9M
           G             $25.0M - $49.9M
           H             $50.0M - $99.9M
           I             $100.0M - $499.9M
           J             >500.0M
           U             Unknown

Employment Codes
           Code               Number of Employees
            A                 0-4
            B                 5-9
            C                 10-24
            D                 25-49
            E                 50-99
            F                 100-249
            G                 250-499
            H                 500-999
             I                1000-2499
            U                 Unknown




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping   Appendix C
Waste Type Code
    Waste Type Code                            Description
            A               Grains from beer, skins/pulp from vineyards
            B               Bakery
            D               Dairy
            F               Fish
            G               Supermarket, grocery store
                            Institutional kitchen (schools, healthcare
             I
                            facilities, prisons, resort/conference facilities)
             J              Snack food
            M               Meat
            P               Pasta
            R               Restaurant
            S               Sugar, starch, confectionery, chocolate
            V               Vegetable
            X               Other

Disposition Code
   Disposition Code                            Description
          R              Recycle Organic Waste (i.e., compost, pig farm, etc…)
           T             Trash
          U              Unknown




Massachusetts Food Waste Characterization and Mapping                            Appendix C
                                                                                                                         Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE   NAME                                 TOWN         SIC8NAME                             Type of Waste             (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)      ADDRESS                 MAILZIP9           PHONE          EXECFULL                EXECTITLE               PHYADD                      PHYTOWN      PHYSTATE   PHYZIP5   PHYPLUS4   SIC8
W         Marine Gold Cuisine Inc              Fairhaven    Fish and seafoods                          F                         0                  0           16 Sconticut Neck Rd    02719-1914         508-996-4508   Mr. Desmond Boylan      President               16 Sconticut Neck Rd        Fairhaven    MA         02719     1914       5146-0000
R         99 Restaurant & Pub                  Fairhaven    American restaurant                        R                        75                 411          32 Sconticut Neck Rd    02719-1914         508-992-9951   Mr. Jim Walsh           Manager                 32 Sconticut Neck Rd        Fairhaven    MA         02719     1914       5812-0101
W         Taylor Seafood                       Fairhaven    Fish and seafoods                          F                         0                  0           35 Causeway Rd          02719-2233         508-990-0591   Mr. Rodman Taylor       President               35 Causeway Rd              Fairhaven    MA         02719     2233       5146-0000
R         Margarets Restaurant Inc             Fairhaven    Eating places                              R                        30                 164          16 Main St              02719-2934         508-992-9942   Mr. Douglas Isaksen     Owner                   16 Main St                  Fairhaven    MA         02719     2934       5812-0000
W         Mac Leans Seafoods                   Fairhaven    Fish, fresh                                F                         0                  0           Union Wharf             02719              508-999-1502   Mr. David Horton        President               Union Wharf                 Fairhaven    MA         02719                5146-9902
R         May Wah Restaurant                   Fairhaven    Chinese restaurant                         R                        18                  99          51 Main St 53           02719-2937         508-992-8668   Mr. Anthony Mark        Partner                 51 Main St 53               Fairhaven    MA         02719     2937       5812-0103
IH        Our Lady's Haven                     Fairhaven                                               I                        58                 316          71 Center St            02719-3822                        Mr. Manuel Benezides    Principal               71 Center St                Fairhaven    MA         02719     3822
F         Wes Stan Inc                         Fairhaven    Fresh or frozen packaged fish              F                         0                  0           46 Middle St            02719-3086         508-999-6697   Mr. Ralph Parsons       Owner                   46 Middle St                Fairhaven    MA         02719     3086       2092-0000
W         Acushnet Fish Corp                   Fairhaven    Fish and seafoods                          F                         0                  0           46 Middle St            02719-3086         508-997-7481   Mr. Ralph Parsons       President               46 Middle St                Fairhaven    MA         02719     3086       5146-0000
W         M&B Sea Products Inc                 Fairhaven    Fish and seafoods                          F                         0                  0           46 Middle St            02719-3086         508-979-1020   Mr. Herman Bruce        President               46 Middle St                Fairhaven    MA         02719     3086       5146-0000
R         Fairhaven Chowder House              Fairhaven    Seafood restaurants                        R                        42                 230          1 David Drown Blvd      02719-1946         508-996-4100   Mr. Robert Clarkson     Owner                   1 David Drown Blvd          Fairhaven    MA         02719     1946       5812-0700
G         Super Shaws                          Fairhaven    Supermarkets, chain                        G                       375                 2055         11 Berdon Way           02719-4643         508-993-9996   Mark Morad              Manager                 11 Berdon Way               Fairhaven    MA         02719     4643       5411-0101
R         Newport Creamery Inc                 Fairhaven    Family restaurants                         R                        45                 247          33 Berdon Way           02719-4643         508-994-6800   Mr. Louie Ferreira      Branch Manager          33 Berdon Way               Fairhaven    MA         02719     4643       5812-0500
R         Taco Bell                            Fairhaven    Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                        30                 164          33 Alden Rd             02719-4638         781-769-8900   Mr. Roger Lockwood      President               33 Alden Rd                 Fairhaven    MA         02719     4638       5812-0307
R         Courtyard Kitchen                    Fairhaven    Family restaurants                         R                        45                 247          270 Huttleston Ave      02719-1605         508-991-7452   Mr. Matt Gamache        Owner                   270 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     1605       5812-0500
G         Stop & Shop                          Fairhaven    Supermarkets, chain                        G                       318                 1745         221 Huttleston Avenue   02719                                                                             221 Huttleston Avenue       Fairhaven    MA         02719                5411-0101
R         Mikes                                Fairhaven    Italian restaurant                         R                        60                 329          390 Huttleston Ave      02719-5625         508-996-9810   Mr. Michael Cormier     President               390 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     5625       5812-0108
R         Wendys                               Fairhaven    Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                        60                 329          7 Fairhaven Commons Way 02719-4628         508-999-4407   Ms. Karen Vera          Manager                 7 Fairhaven Commons Way     Fairhaven    MA         02719     4628       5812-0307
R         Huttleston House Inc                 Fairhaven    Restaurant, family: independent            R                        38                 205          Drawer D12              02719-0720         508-999-1791   Mr. Mark Bobola         President               111 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     3127       5812-0502
F         Dorothy Cox Chocolates               Fairhaven    Candy and other confectionery produ        S                         0                  0           115 Huttleston Ave      02719-3127         508-996-2465   Mr. Francis Cox         President               115 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     3127       2064-0000
F         Cox                                  Fairhaven    Chocolate and cocoa products               S                         0                  0           115 Huttleston Ave      02719              508-996-2465   Mr. Francis J Cox Jr    President               115 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719                2066-0000
R         Blimpie                              Fairhaven    Eating places                              R                        21                 115          177 Huttleston Ave      02719-4620         508-997-0505   Mr. David Silvia        President               177 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     4620       5812-0000
R         Pasta House                          Fairhaven    Eating places                              R                        45                 247          100 Alden Rd            02719-4721         508-993-9913   Mr. John Raikkonen      President               100 Alden Rd                Fairhaven    MA         02719     4721       5812-0000
R         Jakes Diner Inc                      Fairhaven    Diner                                      R                        18                  99          102 Alden Rd            02719-4721         508-990-7786   Mr. James Kalife        President               102 Alden Rd                Fairhaven    MA         02719     4721       5812-9907
R         Phoenix Restaurant                   Fairhaven    Eating places                              R                        29                 156          140 Huttleston Ave      02719-4614         508-996-1441   Ms. Sarah Simmons       Owner                   140 Huttleston Ave          Fairhaven    MA         02719     4614       5812-0000
IH        Nichols House Nursing                Fairhaven                                               I                        53                 289          184 Main St             02719-3259                        Mr. David Jasinski      Manager                 184 Main St                 Fairhaven    MA         02719     3259
F         MISB Inc                             Fairhaven    Fresh or frozen packaged fish              F                         0                  0           30 Beach St             02719              508-992-2115   Mr. Mark Wright         President               30 Beach St                 Fairhaven    MA         02719                2092-0000
F         MSB CO                               Fairhaven    Fresh or frozen packaged fish              F                         0                  0           PO Box 602              02719-0602         508-992-2115   Mr. Mark Wright         Owner                   30 Beach St                 Fairhaven    MA         02719     3316       2092-0000
IH        Alden Court Nursing Home             Fairhaven                                               I                        70                 384          389 Alden Road          02719              508-991-8600                                                   389 Alden Road              Fairhaven    MA         02719
W         Sharrocks Bakery                     Fairhaven    Bakery products                            B                         0                  0           410 Main St             02719-3452         508-997-5710   Mr. Henry De Jesus      Partner                 410 Main St                 Fairhaven    MA         02719     3452       5149-0701
                                                                                                Fairhaven Total               1429                 7829

R         Century House Inc                    Acushnet     Caterers                                     R                     98                  534          P O Box 30107                 02743-0107   508-995-3221   Mr. Manuel Goulart      President               107 S Main St               Acushnet     MA         02743     2838       5812-9903
R         Pop Caseys Lunch                     Acushnet     Luncheonette                                 R                     23                  123          141 S Main St                 02743-2722   508-995-8163   Mr. Roland Castonguay   Owner                   141 S Main St               Acushnet     MA         02743     2722       5812-0403
R         Blue Point Restuant                  Acushnet     Eating places                                R                     17                  90           6 Dayton St                   02743-2127   508-995-9600   Mr. David Ricardi       President               6 Dayton St                 Acushnet     MA         02743     2127       5812-0000
W         White Bros Allstar                   Acushnet     Milk                                         D                      0                   0           211 Middle Rd                 02743-2017   508-995-1717   Mr. David White         President               211 Middle Rd               Acushnet     MA         02743     2017       5143-0100
R         Rochelles Restaurant                 Acushnet     American restaurant                          R                     15                  82           586 Main St                   02743-1513   508-985-3055   Ms. Rochelle St Jean    President               586 Main St                 Acushnet     MA         02743     1513       5812-0101
R         Country Whip                         Acushnet     Ice cream stands or dairy bars               R                     17                  90           1173 Main St                  02743-1105   508-763-8051   Mr. Robert Martin       President               1173 Main St                Acushnet     MA         02743     1105       5812-0203
                                                                                                    Acushnet Total             168                 921

F         Cliffstar Corp                       Dartmouth    Cranberries (Canners)                         V                     0                  0            65 Chase Rd                   02747-1005   508-763-3515   Mr. Jonathan Ashley     Manager                 65 Chase Rd                 Dartmouth    MA         02747     1005       2033-0500
F         Agritech Purchase Inc                Dartmouth    Fresh or frozen packaged fish                 F                     0                  0            252 Elm St                    02748-3420   508-999-1339   Mr. Ralph Pope          President               252 Elm St                  Dartmouth    MA         02748     3420       2092-0000
W         Cape Quality Seafood Ltd             Dartmouth    Fish, fresh                                   F                     0                  0            657 Dartmouth St              02748-3006   508-996-6724   Mr. Norval Stanley      President               657 Dartmouth St            Dartmouth    MA         02748     3006       5146-9902
IH        Brandon Woods - Dartmouth            Dartmouth                                                  I                    58                 318           767 Dartmouth Street          02748                                                                       767 Dartmouth Street        Dartmouth    MA         02748
W         State Fruit Co Inc                   Dartmouth    Fruits, fresh                                 V                     0                  0            2 McCabe St.                  02748-1612   508-993-0788   Mr. Anthony Karalekas   President               2 McCabe St.                Dartmouth    MA         02748     1612       5148-0102
G         Super Shaws                          Dartmouth    Supermarkets, chain                           G                    414                2268          15 State Rd                   02747-3317   508-993-9995   Joe Ferreira            Manager                 15 State Rd                 Dartmouth    MA         02747     3317       5411-0101
F         New York Bagel Co                    Dartmouth    Bagels, fresh or frozen                       B                     0                  0            239 State Rd                  02747-2612   508-990-3350   Mr. Steve Ginsberg      Principal               239 State Rd                Dartmouth    MA         02747     2612       2051-0101
G         Stop & Shop                          Dartmouth    Supermarkets, chain                           G                    305                1673          25 Fauce Corner Road          02747                                                                       25 Fauce Corner Road        Dartmouth    MA         02747                5411-0101
IC        Southern New England School of Law   Dartmouth                                                  I                     3                  16           333 Faunce Corner Road        02747        508-998-9600   Mr. Robert Ward         President               333 Faunce Corner Road      Dartmouth    MA         02747
F         Gaspars Linguica Company             Dartmouth    Sausages, from purchased meat                 M                     0                  0            384 Faunce Corner Rd          02747-1257   508-998-2012   Mr. Fernando Gaspar     President               384 Faunce Corner Rd        Dartmouth    MA         02747     1257       2013-0304
                                                                                                    Dartmouth Total            781                4277

R         Big Top Kiddie Playland & Rest       Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   30                 164           39m Bishop St                 02721-4401   508-675-4800   Mr. Steven Becker       President               39m Bishop St               Fall River   MA         02721     4401       5812-0000
R         Joes Family Restaurant Inc           Fall River   Caterers                                       R                   21                 115           366 Mariano Bishop Blvd       02721-2206   508-675-2255   Mr. Ferris Ganem        President               366 Mariano Bishop Blvd     Fall River   MA         02721     2206       5812-9903
G         Super Shaws                          Fall River   Supermarkets, chain                            G                  315                1726           465 William S Canning Blv     02721-2341   508-674-8445   Jerry Buts              Manager                 465 William S Canning Blv   Fall River   MA         02721     2341       5411-0101
R         Papa Ginos                           Fall River   Italian restaurant                             R                   53                 288           340 Mariano Bishop Blvd       02721-2328   508-675-1100   Ms. Wendy Adriano       Manager                 340 Mariano Bishop Blvd     Fall River   MA         02721     2328       5812-0108
IH        Southcoast Nursing                   Fall River                                                   I                  75                 410           100 Amity Street              02721                                                                       100 Amity Street            Fall River   MA         02721
R         Bickfords Family Fare                Fall River   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                   45                 247           211 Mariano Bishop Blvd       02721-2349   508-677-0255   Mr. Lyn Medeiros        Manager                 211 Mariano Bishop Blvd     Fall River   MA         02721     2349       5812-0501
R         Taco Bell                            Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   30                 164           195 Mariano Bishop Blvd       02721-2349   781-769-8900   Mr. Roger Lockwood      President               195 Mariano Bishop Blvd     Fall River   MA         02721     2349       5812-0307
R         McGoverns                            Fall River   Restaurant, family: independent                R                   90                 493           310 Shove St                  02724-2018   508-679-5010   Mr. Paul McGovern       President               310 Shove St                Fall River   MA         02724     2018       5812-0502
R         Friendlys                            Fall River   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                   83                 452           73 Mariano Bishop Blvd        02721-2346   508-673-0891   Mr. Thomas Ward         Manager                 73 Mariano Bishop Blvd      Fall River   MA         02721     2346       5812-0501
R         Wendys                               Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   60                 329           35 Mariano Bishop Blvd        02721-2346   508-674-1740   Mr. Joe Matt            Manager                 35 Mariano Bishop Blvd      Fall River   MA         02721     2346       5812-0307
R         Burger King                          Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   90                 493           Harbor Mall RR 81             02721        508-678-9400   Mr. Donald Paquette     Manager                 Harbor Mall RR 81           Fall River   MA         02721                5812-0307
R         McDonalds                            Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   95                 518           44 William S Canning Blvd     02721-2338   508-678-0300   Ms. Holly Viera         Manager                 44 William S Canning Blvd   Fall River   MA         02721     2338       5812-0307
R         New England House of Pizza           Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   15                 82            210 Tucker St                 02721-2334   508-675-7459   Evangelos Giotis        Owner                   210 Tucker St               Fall River   MA         02721     2334       5812-0000
R         Dominos Pizza                        Fall River   Pizza restaurants                              R                   21                 115           390 Rhode Island Ave          02721-2369   508-677-3330   Mr. Steve Ganion        Manager                 390 Rhode Island Ave        Fall River   MA         02721     2369       5812-0600
R         McDonalds                            Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   75                 411           1853 S Main St                02724-2137   508-675-6411   Ms. Debra Souza         Manager                 1853 S Main St              Fall River   MA         02724     2137       5812-0307
R         Mee Sum Rest & Cocktail Lounge       Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   18                 99            1819 S Main St                02724-2137   508-678-9869   Mr. Kenneth Mark        President               1819 S Main St              Fall River   MA         02724     2137       5812-0000
IH        Southcoast Nursing                   Fall River                                                   I                  67                 364           455 Brayton Ave               02721-3660                  Mr. Robert Thoreau      Manager                 455 Brayton Ave             Fall River   MA         02721     3660
F         Gold Medal Bakery Inc                Fall River   Bread, all types; fresh or frozen              B                   0                   0            P O Box I                     02724-0391   508-674-5766   Mr. John Lecomte        Chairman of the Board   21 Penn St                  Fall River   MA         02724     1276       2051-0103
G         Amarals Central Market               Fall River   Grocery stores, independent                    G                   15                 82            873 Globe St                  02724-3248   508-674-8042   Juvenilia Amaral        President               873 Globe St                Fall River   MA         02724     3248       5411-9905
W         Chace Seafood Corp                   Fall River   Seafoods                                        F                  0                   0            469 Alden St                  02723-1817   508-674-0560   Vasco Camara            President               469 Alden St                Fall River   MA         02723     1817       5146-9904
W         Medeiros Bakery Inc                  Fall River   Bakery products                                B                   0                   0            822 Eastern Ave               02723-2804   508-672-9059   Mr. Carlos Medeiros     President               822 Eastern Ave             Fall River   MA         02723     2804       5149-0701
F         Janko Beverage Systems Inc           Fall River   Carbonated beverages, nonalcoholic              X                  0                   0            113 Hall St                   02724-2613   508-672-7421   Jan Kosinski            President               113 Hall St                 Fall River   MA         02724     2613       2086-0301
W         Lisbon Seafood Company               Fall River   Fish and seafoods                               F                  0                   0            1428 S Main St                02724-2604   508-672-3617   Mr. Victor Dasilva      President               1428 S Main St              Fall River   MA         02724     2604       5146-0000
F         Acorean Manufacturing                Fall River   Sausages and other prepared meats              M                   0                   0            210 Alden St                  02723-1805   508-678-2098   Mr. Antonio Nunes       Partner                 210 Alden St                Fall River   MA         02723     1805       2013-0000
G         Save A Lot                           Fall River   Supermarkets, chain                            G                   38                 205           100 Griffin St                02724-2733   508-646-4095   Bill Blivens            Manager                 100 Griffin St              Fall River   MA         02724     2733       5411-0101
R         Ogil                                 Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   21                 115           913 County St                 02723-3201   508-673-7250   Mr. Victor Fagunda      President               913 County St               Fall River   MA         02723     3201       5812-0000
R         Whites Spa Caterers                  Fall River   Caterers                                       R                   21                 115           240 Jencks St                 02723-1702   508-673-7780   Mr. Roger La France     President               240 Jencks St               Fall River   MA         02723     1702       5812-9903
R         Mark You Restrnt                     Fall River   American restaurant                            R                   15                 82            1236 Pleasant St              02723-1713   508-673-1181   Mr. Gary Hom            President               1236 Pleasant St            Fall River   MA         02723     1713       5812-0101
IH        St Anne's Hospital                   Fall River                                                   I                  8                  43            795 Middle Street, Third Fl   02721                                                                       795 Middle Street           Fall River   MA         02721
IH        Saint Anne's Hospital Corporation    Fall River                                                   I                  86                 468           795 Middle Street             02721        508-674-5741                                                   795 Middle Street           Fall River   MA         02721
W         Nasiff Fruit Company                 Fall River   Fruits, fresh                                   V                  0                   0            538 Plymouth Ave              02721-2922   508-672-4292   Ms. Marilyn Nasiff      President               538 Plymouth Ave            Fall River   MA         02721     2922       5148-0102
R         Dominos Pizza                        Fall River   Pizza restaurants                              R                   38                 205           933 Pleasant St               02723-1000   508-672-3030   Mr. John Sloan          President               933 Pleasant St             Fall River   MA         02723     1000       5812-0600
R         Terra Nostra Restaurant Inc          Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   15                 82            262 Rodman St                 02721-2926   508-677-9878   Mr. Manny Cardoso       President               262 Rodman St               Fall River   MA         02721     2926       5812-0000
F         J Moniz CO                           Fall River   Food preparations, nec                         X                   0                   0            91 Wordell St                 02721-4307   508-674-8451   Mr. John Moniz          Owner                   91 Wordell St               Fall River   MA         02721     4307       2099-0000
R         Tabacaria Acoriana Restaurant        Fall River   Restaurant, family: independent                R                   24                 132           408 S Main St                 02721-5323   508-673-5890   Mr. Alfred Alves        Owner                   408 S Main St               Fall River   MA         02721     5323       5812-0502
G         Stop & Shop                          Fall River   Supermarkets, chain                            G                  361                1980           50 Rodman Street              02720                                                                       50 Rodman Street            Fall River   MA         02720                5411-0101
R         Burger King                          Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   57                 312           66 Plymouth Ave               02721-4306   508-673-6272   Mr. Bryan Tobis         Manager                 66 Plymouth Ave             Fall River   MA         02721     4306       5812-0307
R         KFC                                  Fall River   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                   60                 329           484 Pleasant St               02721-3020   508-676-1046   Ms. Paulett Irwin       Manager                 484 Pleasant St             Fall River   MA         02721     3020       5812-0307
W         New England Muffin Co Inc            Fall River   Bakery products                                B                   0                   0            337 Pleasant St               02721-3000   508-675-2833   Ms. Filomena Botelho    President               337 Pleasant St             Fall River   MA         02721     3000       5149-0701
R         Dennys                               Fall River   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                   63                 345           211 Milliken Blvd             02721-1604   508-674-5017   Ms. Marilyn Lopez       Manager                 211 Milliken Blvd           Fall River   MA         02721     1604       5812-0501
F         Oriental Chow Mein Co                Fall River   Noodles (e.g. egg, plain, and water),          P                   0                   0            42 8th St                     02720-3014   508-675-7711   Mr. Frederick Wong      President               42 8th St                   Fall River   MA         02720     3014       2098-9902
R         Dunkin Donuts                        Fall River   Coffee shop                                    R                   23                 123           15 Robeson St                 02720-4924   508-672-9406   Mr. George Khoury       President               15 Robeson St               Fall River   MA         02720     4924       5812-0304
IH        Cummings Rehab/Nursing Care Ctr      Fall River                                                   I                  54                 294           170 Oak Grove Ave             02723-2314   781-979-3727   Mr. Steven Berezuk      Branch Manager          170 Oak Grove Ave           Fall River   MA         02723     2314
IH        Sunbridge Care- Fall River           Fall River                                                   I                  50                 276           170 Oak Grove Ave             02723                                                                       170 Oak Grove Ave           Fall River   MA         02723
R         Water Street Cafe                    Fall River   American restaurant                            R                   15                 82            36 Water St                   02721-1542   508-672-8748   Ms. Jeanne Adillon      Owner                   36 Water St                 Fall River   MA         02721     1542       5812-0101
IH        Fall River Jewish Home               Fall River                                                   I                  31                 168           538 Robeson Street            02720                                                                       538 Robeson Street          Fall River   MA         02720
IH        Kimwell Health Care Center           Fall River                                                   I                  61                 335           495 New Boston Rd             02720-5835                  Mr. Arthur Taylor       Principal               495 New Boston Rd           Fall River   MA         02720     5835
IH        Charlton Memorial Hospital           Fall River                                                   I                 178                 975           363 Highland Avenue           02720        508-679-3131                                                   363 Highland Avenue         Fall River   MA         02720
R         Regatta The                          Fall River   Italian restaurant                             R                   90                 493           392 Davol St                  02720-1004   508-679-4112   Mr. Walter Collins      President               392 Davol St                Fall River   MA         02720     1004       5812-0108
G         Daou Market Inc                      Fall River   Supermarkets                                   G                   18                 99            1678 President Ave            02720-7148   508-679-0500   Ghassan Daou            President               1678 President Ave          Fall River   MA         02720     7148       5411-0100
R         Newport Creamery Inc                 Fall River   Family restaurants                             R                   45                 247           1670 President Ave            02720-7148   508-678-6346   Mr. Joe Baccaro         Branch Manager          1670 President Ave          Fall River   MA         02720     7148       5812-0500
F         Ginsco Inc                           Fall River   Bagels, fresh or frozen                         B                  0                   0            1572 President Ave            02720-7148   508-677-4767   Mr. Steven Cohen        Branch Manager          1572 President Ave          Fall River   MA         02720     7148       2051-0101
R         Papa Ginos                           Fall River   Italian restaurant                             R                   53                 288           307 Elsbree St                02720-7211   508-676-3037   Mr. Carlos Viera        Manager                 307 Elsbree St              Fall River   MA         02720     7211       5812-0108
IH        Highland Manor Nursing Home          Fall River                                                   I                  54                 294           761 Highland Ave              02720-3722                  Mr. Michael Cummings    President               761 Highland Ave            Fall River   MA         02720     3722
R         Zitas Prtguese Amercn Cuisine        Fall River   American restaurant                            R                   18                 99            223 President Ave             02720-2633   508-678-7282   Ms. Kristina Dias       President               223 President Ave           Fall River   MA         02720     2633       5812-0101
R         Al Macs Diner & Restaurant           Fall River   Restaurant, family: independent                R                   36                 197           135 President Ave             02720-2651   508-679-5851   Mr. Normand Gaughtier   President               135 President Ave           Fall River   MA         02720     2651       5812-0502
IC        Bristol Community College            Fall River                                                   I                 114                 625           777 Elsbree St                02769        508-678-2811   Mr. John Sbreger        President               777 Elsbree St              Fall River   MA         02769
F         North End Provision Co Inc           Fall River   Sausages and other prepared meats              M                   0                   0            544 N Underwood St 552        02720        508-679-6781   Mr. Ronald Furtado      President               544 N Underwood St          Fall River   MA         02720                2013-0000
F         Furtados Convenience Store           Fall River   Sausages, from purchased meat                  M                   0                   0            544 N Underwood St 552        02720-3912   508-679-6781   Mr. Ronald Furtado      President               544 N Underwood St          Fall River   MA         02720     3912       2013-0304
F         Furtados Chourico Linguication       Fall River   Sausages, from purchased meat                  M                   0                   0            552 N Underwood St            02720-3912   508-679-5900   Mr. Ronald Furtado      President               552 N Underwood St          Fall River   MA         02720     3912       2013-0304
F         Camaras Bakery                       Fall River   Sausages and other prepared meats              M                   0                   0            109 George St                 02720-1125   508-672-3816   Aries Isidoro           Partner                 109 George St               Fall River   MA         02720     1125       2013-0000
F         Miranda Brothers Inc                 Fall River   Sausages and other prepared meats              M                   0                   0            317 Lindsey St                02720        508-672-0982   Mr. Ronald Miranda      President               317 Lindsey St              Fall River   MA         02720                2013-0000
F         Michael's Provision CO               Fall River   Sausage Casings (Manufacturers)                M                   0                   0            317 Lindsey St                02720-1132   508-672-0982   Mr. Ronald Miranda      Owner                   317 Lindsey St              Fall River   MA         02720     1132       2013-0101
IH        Highland Manor Rest Home             Fall River                                                   I                  13                 70            1748 Highland Street          02720-3722                                                                  1748 Highland Street        Fall River   MA         02720     3722
IH        Catholic Memorial Home               Fall River                                                   I                 148                 810           2446 Highland Street          02720        508-679-0011                                                   2446 Highland Street        Fall River   MA         02720
F         I Q F Custom Packing Inc             Fall River   Fresh or frozen packaged fish                   F                  0                   0            140 Waldron Rd                02720-4723   508-646-0400   Mr. Russell Young       President               140 Waldron Rd              Fall River   MA         02720     4723       2092-0000
G         Super Shaws                          Fall River   Supermarkets, chain                            G                  270                1479           4171 N Main St                02720-1647   508-677-0940   Jim Cunha               Manager                 4171 N Main St              Fall River   MA         02720     1647       5411-0101
R         Pizza Etc                            Fall River   Pizza restaurants                              R                   15                 82            4171 N Main St                02720-1647   508-677-1993   Mr. Mark Cardoza        Owner                   4171 N Main St              Fall River   MA         02720     1647       5812-0600
R         T K OMalleys Sport Cafe              Fall River   Eating places                                  R                   90                 493           P O Box 13                    02720        508-324-0401   Mr. Walter Collins      President               4171 N Main St              Fall River   MA         02720     1647       5812-0000
IH        Sarah Brayton Nursing Home           Fall River                                                   I                  90                 494           4901 North Main               02720                                                                       4901 North Main             Fall River   MA         02720
                                                                                                      Fall River Total        3466               18991
                                                                                                                     Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE NAME                                TOWN           SIC8NAME                              Type of Waste         (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)    ADDRESS                MAILZIP9      PHONE          EXECFULL                     EXECTITLE                 PHYADD                      PHYTOWN        PHYSTATE PHYZIP5 PHYPLUS4 SIC8

R       Shipyard Galley Inc                 Mattapoisett   Caterers                                    R                   18                 99        10 Waterman St           02739-2196    508-758-9408   Ms. Janice Spark             President                 10 Waterman St              Mattapoisett   MA       02739   2196     5812-9903
R       Tokyo Restaurant                    Mattapoisett   Eating places                               R                   15                 82        143 Fairhaven Rd         02739-1460    508-758-3400   Young Choi                   President                 143 Fairhaven Rd            Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1460     5812-0000
R       Silvestris Inc                      Mattapoisett   Italian restaurant                          R                   18                 99        79 Fairhaven Rd          02739-1465    508-758-4000   Mr. Charles Silvestri        President                 79 Fairhaven Rd             Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1465     5812-0108
R       Ajn Corp                            Mattapoisett   Seafood restaurants                         R                   36                197        P O Box 165              02739-0165    508-758-4782   Mr. Mark Koran               President                 20 County St                Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1579     5812-0700
R       Mattapoisett Chowder House          Mattapoisett   Seafood restaurants                         R                   23                123        20 County St             02739-1579    508-758-2333   Mr. Mark Koran               Owner                     20 County St                Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1579     5812-0700
R       Cerullis Gourmet Foods              Mattapoisett   Cafe                                        R                   27                148        P O Box 1125             02739-0407    508-758-6111   Mr. John Cerulli             Treasurer                 33 County St                Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1554     5812-9902
IH      Matt Apoiset                        Mattapoisett                                               I                   63                343        79 North St              02739-1614    508-420-1129   Ms. Linda Shamski            President                 79 North St                 Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1614
R       Uncle Johns Java House              Mattapoisett   Coffee shop                                 R                   15                 82        P O Box 51               02739-0051    508-758-4540   Mr. Jonathan Pope            Manager                   88 North St                 Mattapoisett   MA       02739   1604     5812-0304
                                                                                                Mattapoisett Total         214               1173

R       ME & Eds                            New Bedford    Seafood restaurants                      R                      48                 263       30 Brock Ave              02744-1204   508-993-9922   Mr. Jack Stellato            President                 30 Brock Ave                New Bedford    MA       02744   1204     5812-0700
R       Smugglers Den                       New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      20                 107       P O Box 40159             02744-0002   508-996-8227   Mr. Carl Pimental            President                 1494 E Rodney French Blvd   New Bedford    MA       02744   2230     5812-0000
W       Clarks Cove Fish Co                 New Bedford    Fish, fresh                              F                      0                   0        1497 Cove Rd              02740-1024   508-994-7371   Mr. Micheal Sylvia           Owner                     1497 Cove Rd                New Bedford    MA       02740   1024     5146-9902
F       New Bedford Salchicharia Inc        New Bedford    Sausages and other prepared meats        M                      0                   0        6 Rockdale Ave            02740        508-992-6257   Mr. Antonio J Umbelina       President                 6 Rockdale Ave              New Bedford    MA       02740            2013-0000
R       Green Diner The                     New Bedford    Diner                                    R                      21                 115       22 Rockdale Ave           02740-1071   508-992-7385   Tsonis Paul                  President                 22 Rockdale Ave             New Bedford    MA       02740   1071     5812-9907
G       Hi-Lo Grocery Store                 New Bedford    Grocery stores                           G                      96                 526       41 Rockdale Ave           02740-1072   508-991-2505   Ray Patalano                 Owner                     41 Rockdale Ave             New Bedford    MA       02740   1072     5411-0000
R       Burger King                         New Bedford    Fast-food restaurant, chain              R                      47                 255       1383 Cove Rd              02744-1041   508-997-4168   Ms. Rhonda Souza                                       1383 Cove Rd                New Bedford    MA       02744   1041     5812-0307
G       De Mellos Market                    New Bedford    Grocery stores, independent              G                      8                  41        1275 Cove Rd              02744-1040   508-992-8879   Norbert De Mello             Partner                   1275 Cove Rd                New Bedford    MA       02744   1040     5411-9905
R       MA Raffas Italian Restaurant        New Bedford    Italian restaurant                       R                      38                 205       85 Rockdale Ave           02740-1075   508-992-8467   Mr. Attilio Raffa            President                 85 Rockdale Ave             New Bedford    MA       02740   1075     5812-0108
R       Mee Hong Restaurant                 New Bedford    Chinese restaurant                       R                      15                 82        120 Cove St               02744-2531   508-992-8541   Mr. Andrew Mark              Partner                   120 Cove St                 New Bedford    MA       02744   2531     5812-0103
F       Silmo Milkmate Syrup                New Bedford    Flavoring extracts and syrups, nec       X                      0                   0        97 Cove St                02744        508-996-8851   Mr. Gil Vieira               President                 97 Cove St                  New Bedford    MA       02744            2087-0000
F       Ocean Cliff Corp                    New Bedford    Flavoring extracts and syrups, nec       X                      0                   0        PO Box 6817               02742-6817   508-992-1962   Mr. G. Gregory White         Owner                     362 S Front St              New Bedford    MA       02740   5745     2087-0000
F       M F Foley Inc                       New Bedford    Fish, fresh: prepared                    F                      0                   0        P O Box 1806              02741-1806   508-997-0773   Mr. Michael Foley            President                 77 Wright St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7250     2092-9904
W       Johns C Food                        New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        33 Wright St              02740-7250   508-992-2311   Mr. John Cunha               Owner                     33 Wright St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7250     5146-0000
F       US Seafood Afventures Ltd           New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        25 Wright St              02740-7250   508-979-1056   Mr. Thomas Slaughter         President                 25 Wright St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7250     2092-0000
W       Bergies Seafood Inc                 New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        8 Hassey St               02740-7209   508-999-4447   Mr. Norval Stanley           President                 8 Hassey St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     5146-0000
F       Double T Sea Foods                  New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        11 Hassey St              02740-7234   508-992-6561   Mr. David Tchorz             Owner                     11 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7234     2092-0000
F       Northern Wind Seafoods Inc          New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        PO Box 40144              02744-0002   508-997-0727   Mr. Michael Fernandes        President                 16 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     2092-0000
W       Hygrade Ocean Products Inc          New Bedford    Seafoods                                 F                      0                   0        86 Macarthur Dr           02740-7214   508-993-5700   Mr. Carmine Romano           Chief Executive Officer   86 Macarthur Dr             New Bedford    MA       02740   7214     5146-9904
W       JG Seafood Co Inc                   New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        38 Hassey St              02740-7209   508-984-1425   Mr. Kevin Galinha            President                 38 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     5146-0000
W       Tempest Fisheries Ltd               New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        38 Hassey St              02740-7209   508-997-0720   Mr. Timothy Mello            President                 38 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     5146-0000
W       Sea Fresh of New Bedford Inc        New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        14 South St               02740-7221   508-997-1260   Mr. John De Mello            President                 14 South St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7221     5146-0000
G       Stop & Shop                         New Bedford    Supermarkets, chain                      G                     380                2079       438 Dartmouth St          02740-1115   508-993-1791   Brian Stamour                Manager                   438 Dartmouth St            New Bedford    MA       02740   1115     5411-0101
W       Seatrade International              New Bedford    Fish, fresh                              F                      0                   0        8 South St                02740-7221   508-990-1161   Mr. Paul Neves               Personnel-Human Resources 8 South St                  New Bedford    MA       02740   7221     5146-9902
F       Buzzards Bay Trading Co Inc         New Bedford    Seafoods, fresh: prepared                F                      0                   0        49 Hassey St              02740-7210   508-996-0242   Ms. Sandra King              President                 49 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7210     2092-9906
F       U S Fresh Corp                      New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        62 Hassey St              02740-7209   508-991-5700   Mr. Paul Wehrlin             President                 62 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     2092-0000
W       Whaling Cy Sfood Display Auctn      New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        62 Hassey St              02740-7209   508-990-0799   Mr. Kevin Ferreira           President                 62 Hassey St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7209     5146-0000
IH      St. Luke's Hospital                 New Bedford                                             I                     228                1248       101 Page Street, PO Box H-02740        508-997-1515                                                          101 Page Street             New Bedford    MA       02740
W       Flynn Fisheries                     New Bedford    Fish, frozen, unpackaged                 F                      0                   0        68 Conway St              02740-7204   508-984-1813   Mr. John Flynn               President                 68 Conway St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7204     5146-9903
IH      Southcoast Hospitals Group          New Bedford                                             I                      42                 230       101 Page St               02740                                                                              101 Page St                 New Bedford    MA       02740
F       A & A Seafood Inc                   New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        7 Conway St               02740-7205   508-991-5886   Mr. David Pelitier           President                 7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7205     2092-0000
F       AML International                   New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        7 Conway St               02740        508-979-1210   Mr. Louis Julliard           President                 7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740            2092-0000
F       T Nick Seafood Inc                  New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        7 Conway St               02740-7205   508-991-4211   Mr. Thomas Bastoni           Owner                     7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7205     2092-0000
F       Tichon Sea Food                     New Bedford    Fish, fresh: prepared                    F                      0                   0        P O Box 948               02741-0948   508-999-5607   Mr. Daniel Tichon            Chairman of the Board     7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7205     2092-9904
W       Atlantic Choice Inc                 New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        7 Conway St               02740-7205   508-991-3612   Mr. Michael Telletier        President                 7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7205     5146-0000
W       Fleet Fisheries Inc                 New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        7 Conway St               02740-7205   508-996-3742   Mr. Lars Vinjerud            President                 7 Conway St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7205     5146-0000
W       American Gem Seafood Inc            New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        114 Macarthur Dr          02740-7216   508-999-5861   Sir or Madam                 President                 114 Macarthur Dr            New Bedford    MA       02740   7216     5146-0000
F       Atlantic Coast Fisheries Corp       New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        33 Cape St                02740-7203   508-999-2993   Mr. Eugene Bergson           Manager                   33 Cape St                  New Bedford    MA       02740   7203     2092-0000
IH      Taber Street Nursing Home           New Bedford                                             I                      28                 151       19 Taber St               02740-2235                  Mr. Mark Nussman             Manager                   19 Taber St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   2235
IH      New Bedford Jewish                  New Bedford                                             I                      39                 216       200 Hawthorn Ave          02740                                                                              200 Hawthorn Ave            New Bedford    MA       02740
IH      Blair House of New Bedford          New Bedford                                             I                      67                 364       397 Country Street        02740                                                                              397 County Street           New Bedford    MA       02740
F       Homers Wharf Seafood Inc            New Bedford    Seafoods, fresh: prepared                F                      0                   0        25 Homers Wharf           02740-7246   508-997-0766   Mr. Norman Stavis            President                 25 Homers Wharf             New Bedford    MA       02740   7246     2092-9906
F       Cold Atlantic Seafood Inc           New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        35 Homers Wharf           02740        508-996-3352   Mr. Enrique Gioni            President                 35 Homers Wharf             New Bedford    MA       02740            2092-0000
R       KFC                                 New Bedford    Fast-food restaurant, chain              R                      45                 247       506 County St             02740-5116   508-993-1789   Mr. Mike Flores              Manager                   506 County St               New Bedford    MA       02740   5116     5812-0307
R       Riverhouse Grille                   New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      30                 164       3 S Water St              02740-7236   508-999-6975   Mr. Tom Lafauci              Owner                     3 S Water St                New Bedford    MA       02740   7236     5812-0000
F       Davidson's Meat Products            New Bedford    Meat Products                            M                      0                   0        424 S 2nd St              02740-5749   508-999-6293   Mr. Andy Davidson            President                 424 S 2nd St                New Bedford    MA       02740   5749     2011-0400
F       Lisbon Sausage Manufacturing        New Bedford    Sausages and other prepared meats        M                      0                   0        PO Box 2028               02741        508-993-7645   Mr. Antonio Rodrigues        Owner                     433 South 2nd St.           New Bedford    MA       02740            2013-0000
F       Amarals Linguica                    New Bedford    Sausages, from purchased meat            M                      0                   0        P O Box 2208              02741        508-993-7645   Mr. Antonio Rodrigues        President                 433 S 2nd St                New Bedford    MA       02740   5764     2013-0304
F       D Fillet Co Inc                     New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        PO Box 3069               02741        508-992-1533   Mr. Antone C DeMello III     President                 40 Union St.                New Bedford    MA       02741            2092-0000
R       Angelos Orchid Diner                New Bedford    Diner                                    R                      24                 132       805 Rockdale Ave          02740-2760   508-993-3172   Mr. Angelo Carvalho          Owner                     805 Rockdale Ave            New Bedford    MA       02740   2760     5812-9907
R       Dominos Pizza                       New Bedford    Pizza restaurants                        R                      45                 247       P O Box 40007             02744-0001   508-999-3123   Mr. Nelson Hockert-Lotz      President                 972 Kempton St              New Bedford    MA       02740   1523     5812-0600
R       Freestone City Grill                New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      63                 345       41 William St             02740-6224   508-993-7477   Kerry Mitchell               President                 41 William St               New Bedford    MA       02740   6224     5812-0000
R       Bamboo Garden The                   New Bedford    Chinese restaurant                       R                      15                 82        836 Purchase St           02740-6232   508-993-2349   Ms. Lina Ng                  President                 836 Purchase St             New Bedford    MA       02740   6232     5812-0103
R       Newport Creamery Inc                New Bedford    Family restaurants                       R                      39                 214       1071 Kempton St           02740-1529   508-997-8383   Mr. Michael Fernandez        Branch Manager            1071 Kempton St             New Bedford    MA       02740   1529     5812-0500
R       Candleworks                         New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      45                 247       72 N Water St             02740-6245   508-997-1294   Mr. Michael Rosa             President                 72 N Water St               New Bedford    MA       02740   6245     5812-0000
F       Trio Algarvio Inc                   New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        P O Box 4028              02741-4028   508-993-5868   Ms. Kathy Downey             President                 Green & Wood Pier           New Bedford    MA       02740            2092-0000
F       Blount Sea Food                     New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        255 Macarthur Dr          02740-7300   508-996-1320   Mr. Sam Barrington           President                 255 Macarthur Dr            New Bedford    MA       02740   7300     2092-0000
F       American Seafoods Intl Llc          New Bedford    Seafoods, frozen: prepared               F                      0                   0        P O Box 2087              02741-2087   508-997-0031   Mr. Klaus Nygaard                                      40 Herman Melville Blvd     New Bedford    MA       02740   7344     2092-9907
W       Hadley Group Ltd                    New Bedford    Fish, frozen, unpackaged                 F                      0                   0        40 Herman Melville Blvd   02740-7344   508-990-2525   Mr. Mark Hadley              President                 40 Herman Melville Blvd     New Bedford    MA       02740   7344     5146-9903
W       Sea Gold Seafood Products Inc       New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        48 Antonio Costa Ave      02740-7346   508-993-3060   Mr. Michael Trazzera         President                 48 Antonio Costa Ave        New Bedford    MA       02740   7346     5146-0000
F       J C Fishers Inc                     New Bedford    Smoked and cured fish                    F                      0                   0        42 Antonio Costa Ave      02740-7346   508-991-8039   Mr. Joao Lopes               Manager                   42 Antonio Costa Ave        New Bedford    MA       02740   7346     2091-0100
W       JC Fisheries Inc                    New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        42 Antonio Costa Ave      02740-7346   508-999-5920   Mr. Carlos Neves             President                 42 Antonio Costa Ave        New Bedford    MA       02740   7346     5146-0000
F       Seawatch International Ltd          New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        15 Antonio Costa Ave      02740-7347   508-984-1406   Mr. John Miller              Manager                   15 Antonio Costa Ave        New Bedford    MA       02740   7347     2092-0000
F       Mar-Lees Seafood Inc                New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        110 Herman Melville Blvd 02740-7344    508-991-6026   Mr. John Lees                Owner                     110 Herman Melville Blvd    New Bedford    MA       02740   7344     2092-0000
W       Mar-Lees Seafood Inc                New Bedford    Seafoods                                 F                      0                   0        110 Herman Melville Blvd 02740-7344    508-991-6026   Mr. John Lees                President                 110 Herman Melville Blvd    New Bedford    MA       02740   7344     5146-9904
F       Atlantic Coast Fisheries Corp       New Bedford    Seafoods, frozen: prepared               F                      0                   0        200r Herman Melville Blvd 02740-7344   508-993-1773   Mr. Harvey Lemovitz          Chief Financial Officer   200 Herman Melville Blvd    New Bedford    MA       02740   7344     2092-9907
F       Cape Cod Seafood Pdts Not Inc       New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        300 Herman Melville Blvd 02740-7306    508-997-8144   Ms. Elizabeth Collins        President                 300 Herman Melville Blvd    New Bedford    MA       02740   7306     2092-0000
F       Eastern Fisheries Inc               New Bedford    Fresh or frozen packaged fish            F                      0                   0        14 Hervey Tichon Ave      02740        508-993-5300   Mr. Roy Enoksen              President                 14 Hervey Tichon Ave        New Bedford    MA       02740            2092-0000
IH      Bedford Village Nursing Home        New Bedford                                             I                      36                 197       9 Pope St                 02740-5425   508-997-3358   Mr. Michael Cummings         President                 9 Pope St                   New Bedford    MA       02740   5425
IH      Hallmark Nursing and Rehab Center   New Bedford                                             I                      61                 335       1123 Rockdale Avenue      02740                                                                              1123 Rockdale Avenue        New Bedford    MA       02740
IH      Sacred Heart Nursing Home           New Bedford                                             I                     107                 586       359 Summer St             02740-5519                  Ms. Jean Golitz              Principal                 359 Summer St               New Bedford    MA       02740   5519
R       Riccardis Buffet Caterering         New Bedford    Italian restaurant                       R                      75                 411       901 Hathaway Rd           02740-1916   508-992-6800   Mr. Michael Riccardi         President                 901 Hathaway Rd             New Bedford    MA       02740   1916     5812-0108
IH      Hathaway Manor                      New Bedford                                             I                      70                 384       863 Hathaway Rd           02740-1916                  Mr. Ken Persinko             Administrator             863 Hathaway Rd             New Bedford    MA       02740   1916
W       Fish Express Corporation            New Bedford    Fish and seafoods                        F                      0                   0        10 N Front St             02740-7327   508-984-3300   Mr. Santiago Freire          President                 10 N Front St               New Bedford    MA       02740   7327     5146-0000
W       K & K Fishing Corporation Inc       New Bedford    Fish, cured                              F                      0                   0        84 Front St               02740-7262   508-274-3474   Mr. Lawrence Kavanagh        President                 84 Front St                 New Bedford    MA       02740   7262     5146-9901
G       Giammalvos Market                   New Bedford    Grocery stores, independent              G                      11                 58        1914 Purchase St          02740-6854   508-997-9373   James Giammalvo              President                 1914 Purchase St            New Bedford    MA       02740   6854     5411-9905
G       New Bedford Ship Supply Co          New Bedford    Grocery stores, independent              G                      17                 90        108 Front St 110          02740-7263   508-994-2961   Harriet Didriksen            President                 108 Front St 110            New Bedford    MA       02740   7263     5411-9905
IH      Kristen Beth Nursing Home           New Bedford                                             I                      42                 230       713 Shawmut Ave           02746-1227   413-625-2827   Mr. Marc Shpritzer           Partner                   713 Shawmut Ave             New Bedford    MA       02746   1227
W       J T Sea Products Inc                New Bedford    Seafoods                                 F                      0                   0        164 N Front St            02740-7333   508-999-2868   Mr. James Thompson           President                 164 N Front St              New Bedford    MA       02740   7333     5146-9904
F       Kyler Seafood Inc                   New Bedford    Seafoods, frozen: prepared               F                      0                   0        P O Box 2086              02741-2086   508-999-5631   Mr. Jeff Nanfelt             President                 2 Washburn St               New Bedford    MA       02740   7336     2092-9907
R       Golden Dragon Restaurant            New Bedford    Chinese restaurant                       R                      21                 115       P O Box 5622              02742-5622   508-999-5600   Mr. Henry Lee                Owner                     2277 Purchase St            New Bedford    MA       02746   1625     5812-0103
R       Shawmut Diner                       New Bedford    Diner                                    R                      36                 197       943 Shawmut Ave           02746-1319   508-993-3073   Mr. Phillip Paleologos       President                 943 Shawmut Ave             New Bedford    MA       02746   1319     5812-9907
R       Golden Greek Restaurant             New Bedford    American restaurant                      R                      30                 164       1103 Acushnet Ave         02746-1901   508-997-8811   Mr. Antonios Erotokritakis   President                 1103 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02746   1901     5812-0101
W       Sid Wainer Son Specialty Prod       New Bedford    Fruits, fresh                            V                      0                   0        2301 Purchase St          02746-1686   508-999-6408   Mr. Henry Wainer             President                 2301 Purchase St            New Bedford    MA       02746   1686     5148-0102
G       Price Right                         New Bedford    Supermarkets                             G                      75                 411       139 Hathaway Rd           02746-1370   508-992-3719   Mark Carvalho                Manager                   139 Hathaway Rd             New Bedford    MA       02746   1370     5411-0100
F       Pro Pak Plus                        New Bedford    Bread, cake, and related products        B                      0                   0        49 Brook St               02746-1742   508-990-8100   Mr. Fernando Morais          Partner                   49 Brook St                 New Bedford    MA       02746   1742     2051-0000
R       China Lantern Restaurant Inc        New Bedford    Chinese restaurant                       R                      30                 164       116 Nauset St             02746-1507   508-997-4474   Wah Leung                    President                 116 Nauset St               New Bedford    MA       02746   1507     5812-0103
R       Subway                              New Bedford    Sandwiches and submarines shop           R                      20                 107       109 Nauset St             02746-1506   508-999-1500   Mr. Donald Prett             President                 109 Nauset St               New Bedford    MA       02746   1506     5812-0313
F       My Bread Baking CO                  New Bedford    Bread, cake, and related products        B                      0                   0        229 Coffin Ave            02746-2299   508-997-9401   Mr. Frank W Coffey           President                 229 Coffin Ave              New Bedford    MA       02746   2299     2051-0000
F       Sunbeam Bread Co                    New Bedford    Bread, cake, and related products        B                      0                   0        229 Coffin Ave            02746        508-997-9401   Mr. Leo Desrosiers           General Manager           229 Coffin Ave              New Bedford    MA       02746            2051-0000
R       McDonalds                           New Bedford    Fast-food restaurant, chain              R                      60                 329       159 Hathaway Rd           02746-1304   508-993-2279   Mr. Charlie Winterhalter     Owner                     159 Hathaway Rd             New Bedford    MA       02746   1304     5812-0307
R       M & C Cafe Inc                      New Bedford    Ethnic food restaurants                  R                      17                 90        436 Belleville Ave        02746-2467   508-996-9733   Mr. Mike Mello               President                 436 Belleville Ave          New Bedford    MA       02746   2467     5812-0100
F       New Bedford Linguica CO             New Bedford    Sausages and other prepared meats        M                      0                   0        56 Davis St               02746-2495   508-992-9367   Ms. Alison Anselmo           Manager                   56 Davis St                 New Bedford    MA       02746   2495     2013-0000
F       Fragozo                             New Bedford    Sausages, from purchased meat            M                      0                   0        56 Davis St               02746-2429   508-992-9367   Ms. Dorothy Anselmo          President                 56 Davis St                 New Bedford    MA       02746   2429     2013-0304
R       My Place Portuguese Malassada       New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      15                 82        475 Belleville Ave        02746-2418   508-997-7965   Ms. Mary Bettencourt         Owner                     475 Belleville Ave          New Bedford    MA       02746   2418     5812-0000
G       Amarals Fish Market                 New Bedford    Grocery stores                           G                      17                 90        488 Belleville Ave        02746-2419   508-996-1222   Daniel Magalhaes             Owner                     488 Belleville Ave          New Bedford    MA       02746   2419     5411-0000
W       P & D Fruit & Produce               New Bedford    Fruits, fresh                            V                      0                   0        640 Mount Pleasant St     02745-4905   508-995-8058   Mr. Paul Monteiro            Partner                   640 Mount Pleasant St       New Bedford    MA       02745   4905     5148-0102
R       Mas Donuts                          New Bedford    Coffee shop                              R                      36                 197       1972 Acushnet Ave         02745-6102   508-995-5521   Mr. Joseph Lemieux           President                 1972 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02745   6102     5812-0304
R       Symposium Llc                       New Bedford    American restaurant                      R                      23                 123       851 Mount Pleasant St     02745-4909   508-995-8234   Ilias Sitmalidis                                       851 Mount Pleasant St       New Bedford    MA       02745   4909     5812-0101
G       Stop & Shop                         New Bedford    Supermarkets, chain                      G                     369                2019       1001 King's Highway       02745                                                                              1001 King's Highway         New Bedford    MA       02745            5411-0101
R       Newport Creamery Inc                New Bedford    Family restaurants                       R                      45                 247       950 Kings Hwy             02745-4957   508-998-5323   Mr. Ken Sharp                Branch Manager            950 Kings Hwy               New Bedford    MA       02745   4957     5812-0500
R       KFC                                 New Bedford    Fast-food restaurant, chain              R                      45                 247       2315 Acushnet Ave         02745-2827   508-995-1761   Mr. Milton Darlene           Owner                     2315 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02745   2827     5812-0307
G       Super Shaws                         New Bedford    Supermarkets, chain                      G                     315                1726       500 Kings Hwy             02745-4901   508-998-1226   Maura Sweeney-Reeve          Manager                   500 Kings Hwy               New Bedford    MA       02745   4901     5411-0101
R       PA Raffas Italian Restaurant        New Bedford    Italian restaurant                       R                      53                 288       2857 Acushnet Ave         02745-3415   508-995-8221   Ms. Joanne Raffa             President                 2857 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02745   3415     5812-0108
G       Trucchis Supermarket                New Bedford    Supermarkets, chain                      G                     150                 822       2941 Acushnet Ave         02745-1625   508-998-7500   Henry Lebrie                 Manager                   2941 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02745   1625     5411-0101
R       Thads Seafood and Steakhouse        New Bedford    Seafood restaurants                      R                      38                 205       1313 Ashley Blvd          02745-1533   508-995-4646   Mr. Thaddeus Irzyk           President                 1313 Ashley Blvd            New Bedford    MA       02745   1533     5812-0700
IH      Sunbridge Care at New Bedford       New Bedford                                             I                      76                 416       221 Fitzgerald Drive      02745                                                                              221 Fitzgerald Drive        New Bedford    MA       02745
IH      Sutton Hill Center                  New Bedford                                             I                      70                 384       221 Fitzgerald Dr         02745-3426   978-688-1212   Ms. Susan Gaughier           Manager                   221 Fitzgerald Dr           New Bedford    MA       02745   3426
R       M C Restaurant                      New Bedford    Caterers                                 R                      17                 90        436 Beverly St            02745-4118   508-993-2219   Mr. Micheal Melo             President                 436 Beverly St              New Bedford    MA       02745   4118     5812-9903
F       Amstell Beverage                    New Bedford    Bottled and canned soft drinks           X                      0                   0        209 Theodore Rice Blvd    02745-1213   508-995-5115   Mr. James Stellmach          Manager                   209 Theodore Rice Blvd      New Bedford    MA       02745   1213     2086-0000
R       Delicious Coffee & Donuts           New Bedford    Eating places                            R                      30                 164       1169 Braley Rd            02745-2201   508-998-9450   Mr. Gabriel Demelo           Owner                     1169 Braley Rd              New Bedford    MA       02745   2201     5812-0000
IH      The Oaks                            New Bedford                                             I                      60                 329       4525 Acushnet Ave         02745-4727   617-782-3425   Mr. Robert Noonan            Executive Director        4525 Acushnet Ave           New Bedford    MA       02745   4727
IH      Mariner Manor of Southea            New Bedford                                             I                      61                 332       4586 Acushnet             02745                                                                              4586 Acushnet               New Bedford    MA       02745
IH      Mediplex Rehabilitation Hospital    New Bedford                                             I                      57                 315       4499 Acushnet Avenue      02745        508-995-6900                                                          4499 Acushnet Avenue        New Bedford    MA       02745
                                                                                             New Bedford Total            3560               19505
                                                                                                                         Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE NAME                                  TOWN               SIC8NAME                               Type of Waste      (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)    ADDRESS                     MAILZIP9       PHONE          EXECFULL                    EXECTITLE                 PHYADD                           PHYTOWN            PHYSTATE PHYZIP5 PHYPLUS4 SIC8

                                                                                                                         Annual Production   Daily Production
                                                                                                                           (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)
                                                                                               Fairhaven & nearby Totals      9617                52695

R       Winh Wah Restaurant                   Assonet            Chinese restaurant                           R                18                  99           P O Box 835                 02702-0897   508-644-2731   Minh Phuong                 President                 68 S Main St                     Freetown           MA       02702   1710     5812-0103
R       Assonet Inn Inc                       Assonet            American restaurant                          R                45                 247           P O Box 92                  02702-0092   508-644-2777   Timm Hadley                 President                 16 Water St                      Freetown           MA       02702   1114     5812-0101
F       Willow Tree Poultry Farm Inc          Attleboro          Food preparations, nec                       X                 0                  0            997 S Main St               02703        508-222-2479   Mr. Chester Cekala          Chief Executive Officer   997 S Main St                    Attleboro          MA       02703            2099-0000
W       Csi Inc                               Attleboro          Seafoods                                     F                 0                  0            453 S Main St               02703-6437   508-223-1825   Mr. Eddie Hew               Owner                     453 S Main St                    Attleboro          MA       02703   6437     5146-9904
IH      Life Care Center of Attleboro         Attleboro                                                       I                61                 332           969 Park St                 02703-5115                  Ms. Kate O Connor           Vice-President            969 Park St                      Attleboro          MA       02703   5115
G       Ro-Jacks Markets                      Attleboro          Supermarkets, chain                          G                180                986           217 S Main St               02703-4160   508-226-0606   Frank Lewless               Branch Manager            217 S Main St                    Attleboro          MA       02703   4160     5411-0101
F       Bliss Bros Dairy Inc                  Attleboro          Fluid milk                                   D                 0                  0            PO Box 2288                 02703        508-222-0787   Mr. David Bliss             Owner                     745 Park St                      Attleboro          MA       02703            2026-0000
IH      Ridgewood Court Nursing Home          Attleboro                                                       I                59                 324           27 George St                02703-3105                  Mr. Pat Brown               Director                  27 George St                     Attleboro          MA       02703   3105
R       Attleboro Union Station Inc           Attleboro          Eating places                                R                23                 123           88 Union St                 02703-2905   508-222-3760   Mr. Jim Friedman            President                 88 Union St                      Attleboro          MA       02703   2905     5812-0000
IH      Sturdy Memorial Hospital              Attleboro                                                       I                77                 424           211 Park St., P.O. Box 296302703         508-222-5200                                                         211 Park St.                     Attleboro          MA       02703
R       Morins Diner                          Attleboro          Diner                                        R                135                740           16 S Main St                02703-2920   508-222-9875   Mr. William Morin           President                 16 S Main St                     Attleboro          MA       02703   2920     5812-9907
W       Holmes Restaurant Service Inc         Attleboro          Fruits, fresh                                V                 0                  0            54 Falmouth St              02703-3013   508-695-6831   Mr. Richard Hall            President                 54 Falmouth St                   Attleboro          MA       02703   3013     5148-0102
R       Jeffreys Pizza                        Attleboro          Pizza restaurants                            R                15                  82           25 Forest St                02703-2407   508-226-0342   Mr. Jeffery Freehof         Owner                     25 Forest St                     Attleboro          MA       02703   2407     5812-0600
R       Fortuna Chinese Restaurant            Attleboro          Chinese restaurant                           R                15                  82           111 Pleasant St             02703-2360   508-222-8383   Mr. Phillip Liu             Owner                     111 Pleasant St                  Attleboro          MA       02703   2360     5812-0103
R       KFC                                   Attleboro          Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                29                 159           116 Pleasant St             02703-2359   508-226-0700   Mr. Dennis Naughton         President                 116 Pleasant St                  Attleboro          MA       02703   2359     5812-0307
IH      Pleasant Manor Nursing Home           Attleboro                                                       I                66                 359           193 Pleasant St 195         02703-2419                  Ms. Joyce Pinto             Manager                   193 Pleasant St                  Attleboro          MA       02703   2419
G       Stop & Shop                           Attleboro          Supermarkets, chain                          G                321                1758          Perry & Pleasant St., Route 02703                                                                             Perry & Pleasant St., Route 12   Attleboro          MA       02703            5411-0101
R       Friendlys                             Attleboro          Restaurant, family: chain                    R                45                 247           524 Pleasant St             02703-2425   508-226-3081   Mr. Joe Delaura             Manager                   524 Pleasant St                  Attleboro          MA       02703   2425     5812-0501
G       A & P Super Foodmart                  Barnstable         Supermarkets, chain                          G                33                 181           770 Main St                 02655-1904   508-420-1381   Jim Wingren                 Branch Manager            770 Main St                      Barnstable         MA       02655   1904     5411-0101
F       Willamette Valley Vineyards           Barnstable         Wines                                        A                 0                  0            845 Main St                 02655-2054   508-420-2009                                                         845 Main St                      Barnstable         MA       02655   2054     2084-0100
G       Peppers Pantry Inc                    Barnstable         Delicatessen stores                          G                15                  82           4120 Falmouth Rd            02635-2667   508-428-7860   Harry Martin                President                 4120 Falmouth Rd                 Barnstable         MA       02635   2667     5411-9902
G       Shaws Supermarkets Inc                Barnstable         Supermarkets, chain                          G                225                1233          625 W Main St               02601-3420   508-775-3241   Thom Crook                  Manager                   625 W Main St                    Barnstable         MA       02601   3420     5411-0101
G       Shaws Supermarkets Inc                Barnstable         Supermarkets, chain                          G                225                1233          1070 Iyannough Rd           02601-1871   508-775-7611   Kevin Cerce                 Manager                   1070 Iyannough Rd                Barnstable         MA       02601   1871     5411-0101
IC      Cape Cod Community College            Barnstable                                                      I                275                1507          2240 Lyanough Rd            02668        508-362-2131   Ms. Kathleen Schatzberg     President                 2240 Lyanough Rd                 Barnstable         MA       02668
R       Dolphin Restaurant Inc                Barnstable         American restaurant                          R                24                 132           3250 Main St                02630-1109   508-362-6610   Ms. Nancy Smith             President                 3250 Main St                     Barnstable         MA       02630   1109     5812-0101
G       Cges Grocery Store                    Bourne             Grocery stores                               G                75                 411           Turpentine Bean Bldg 3437 02542          508-563-2646   John Serpa                  Manager                   Turpentine Bean Bldg 3437        Bourne             MA       02542            5411-0000
F       Pepperidge Farm Incorporated          Bourne             Bread, cake, and related products            B                 0                  0            10 Kendrick Ln              02559-1751   508-563-3962   Mr. Ralph Tocci             Branch Manager            10 Kendrick Ln                   Bourne             MA       02559   1751     2051-0000
F       Creative Creamery                     Bourne             Ice cream, bulk                              D                 0                  0            8 Otis Park Dr Unit 4       02532-3870   508-759-2580   Mr. Jim Rizzitano           President                 8 Otis Park Dr                   Bourne             MA       02532   3870     2024-0101
G       A & P Super Foodmart                  Bourne             Supermarkets, chain                          G                75                 411           170 Clay Pond Rd            02532-3898   508-759-5957   Jack McDonald               Manager                   170 Clay Pond Rd                 Bourne             MA       02532   3898     5411-0101
F       Atlantis Sea Foods                    Bourne             Seafoods, fresh: prepared                    F                 0                  0            P O Box 422                 02553-0422   508-759-5820   Mr. Paul Kechejian          Owner                     18 Beach St                      Bourne             MA       02553   0422     2092-9906
IH      Bourne Manor Extnded Care Facility    Bourne                                                          I                70                 384           146 Macarthur Blvd          02532-3902                  Mr. Tom Lavalley            Director                  146 Macarthur Blvd               Bourne             MA       02532   3902
IC      Massachusetts Maritime Academy        Bourne                                                          I                59                 323           101 Academy Drive           02532        617-830-5000   Mr. M.J. Bresnahan, Jr.     President                 101 Academy Drive                Bourne             MA       02532
IH      Cape Cod Nursing Retirement HM        Bourne                                                          I                54                 294           8 Lewis Point Rd            02532-5613   508-759-5752   Mr. Jeffrey Aframe          Director                  8 Lewis Point Rd                 Bourne             MA       02532   5613
IP      Old Colony Correctional Center        Bridgewater                                                     I                131                720           1 Administration Road       02324                                                                             1 Administration Road            Bridgewater        MA       02324
IH      Bridgewater State Hospital            Bridgewater                                                     I                219                1197          20 Administration Rd        02324        508-697-8161   Mr. Kenneth Wilson          President                 20 Administration Rd             Bridgewater        MA       02324
IP      Bridgewater State Hospital            Bridgewater                                                     I                64                 349           20 Administration Road      02324                                                                             20 Administration Road           Bridgewater        MA       02324
IP      Mass. Treatment Center                Bridgewater                                                     I                97                 532           30 Administration Road      02324                                                                             30 Administration Road           Bridgewater        MA       02324
IP      Mass. Alcohol & Substance Abuse Ctr   Bridgewater                                                     I                22                 122           2 Administration Road       02324                                                                             2 Administration Road            Bridgewater        MA       02324
R       Anthonys Charcoal Pit Inc             Bridgewater        Fast food restaurants and stands             R                23                 123           557 Bedford St              02324-3117   508-697-9890   Mr. Anthony Anacki          President                 557 Bedford St                   Bridgewater        MA       02324   3117     5812-0300
R       North Key West Saloon                 Bridgewater        Pizza restaurants                            R                81                 444           425 Bedford St              02324-3115   508-697-4800   Jackie Lewis                Owner                     425 Bedford St                   Bridgewater        MA       02324   3115     5812-0600
R       Emma S Ron Food & Drink               Bridgewater        Pizzeria, independent                        R                15                  82           1460 Pleasant St            02324-1029   508-697-8815   Mr. Ronald Emma             Owner                     1460 Pleasant St                 Bridgewater        MA       02324   1029     5812-0602
W       CPC Baking Business                   Bridgewater        Bakery products                              B                 0                  0            32 Scotland Blvd            02324-4302   508-697-3155   Mr. Mark Strasser           Branch Manager            32 Scotland Blvd                 Bridgewater        MA       02324   4302     5149-0701
R       Papa Ginos                            Bridgewater        Italian restaurant                           R                56                 304           Campus Plz                  02324        508-697-8137   Ms. Joann Giondano          Manager                   Campus Plz                       Bridgewater        MA       02324            5812-0108
IH      Bridgewater Nursing Home              Bridgewater                                                     I                21                 116           16 Pleasant St              02324-2420                  Mr. Larry Leblanc           Director                  16 Pleasant St                   Bridgewater        MA       02324   2420
IC      Bridgewater State College             Bridgewater                                                     I                626                3430          Maxwell Library             02324        508-531-1261   Ms. Adrian Tinsley          President                 131 Summer St                    Bridgewater        MA       02324
R       Sodexho Inc                           Bridgewater        Contract food services                       R                90                 493           P O Box 320                 02324-0320   508-697-7541   Mr. Gary Boothby            Branch Manager            Bridgewater State College        Bridgewater        MA       02324            5812-9906
G       Roche Bros Supermarkets               Bridgewater        Supermarkets, chain                          G                450                2466          18 Broad St                 02324-1748   508-697-5077   Tom Moniham                 Manager                   18 Broad St                      Bridgewater        MA       02324   1748     5411-0101
R       Friendlys                             Bridgewater        Restaurant, family: chain                    R                50                 271           70 Broad St                 02324-1748   508-697-3228   Ms. Tina Fareas             Manager                   70 Broad St                      Bridgewater        MA       02324   1748     5812-0501
R       Burger King                           Bridgewater        Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                30                 164           115 Broad St                02324-1746   508-279-9711   Mr. Ken Palmer              Owner                     115 Broad St                     Bridgewater        MA       02324   1746     5812-0307
R       Crispis Italian Cuisine               Bridgewater        Italian restaurant                           R                21                 115           136 Broad St                02324-1775   508-697-6733   Crispi Falconeiri           President                 136 Broad St                     Bridgewater        MA       02324   1775     5812-0108
R       Subway                                Bridgewater        Sandwiches and submarines shop               R                17                  90           233 Broad St                02324-1741   508-697-0600   Mr. Kevin Martinelli        President                 233 Broad St                     Bridgewater        MA       02324   1741     5812-0313
R       Burger King                           Bridgewater        Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                63                 345           P O Box 634                 02324-0634   508-697-9699   Ms. Ann Marshman            Manager                   634 N Bound                      Bridgewater        MA       02324            5812-0307
R       Friendlys                             Brockton           Restaurant, family: chain                    R                53                 288           2079 Main St                02301-7161   508-584-3064                                                         2079 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7161     5812-0501
G       Super Shaws                           Brockton           Supermarkets, chain                          G                300                1644          2077 Main St                02301-7161   508-588-3393   Dave Ferrara                Manager                   2077 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7161     5411-0101
R       Maui Restaurant                       Brockton           Chinese restaurant                           R                90                 493           1875 Main St                02301-7160   508-583-1010   Ms. Madeline Wong           President                 1875 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7160     5812-0103
F       Concord Foods Inc (Red-E-Made)        Brockton           Flavoring extracts and syrups, nec           X                 0                  0            10 Minuteman Way            02301        508-580-1700   R G Neville                 Chairman of the Board     10 Minuteman Way                 Brockton           MA       02301            2087-0000
F       Red-E-Made                            Brockton           Food preparations, nec                       X                 0                  0            10 Minuteman Way            02301-7508   508-580-1700   R Neville                   Chairman of the Board     10 Minuteman Way                 Brockton           MA       02301   7508     2099-0000
R       Capeway Manor Inc                     Brockton           Eating places                                R                53                 288           1507 Main St                02301-7113   508-586-5518   Mr. Carlo Villa             President                 1507 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7113     5812-0000
R       Dominos Pizza                         Brockton           Pizzeria, chain                              R                27                 148           1289 Main St                02301-7109   508-588-3412   Mr. Mike Hatfield           President                 1289 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7109     5812-0601
R       Supreme Enterprises                   Brockton           Coffee shop                                  R                15                  82           1284 Main St                02301-7108   508-584-0010   Yiannis Davos               Owner                     1284 Main St                     Brockton           MA       02301   7108     5812-0304
F       F B Washburn Candy Corporation        Brockton           Lollipops and other hard candy               S                 0                  0            137 Perkins Ave             02302-3850   508-588-0820   Mr. James Gilson            President                 137 Perkins Ave                  Brockton           MA       02302   3850     2064-9912
R       House of Pizza North Falmouth         Buzzards Bay       Pizza restaurants                            R                15                  82           RR 151                      02532        508-563-6966   Mr. Nicholas Dayos          Owner                     RR 151                           Bourne             MA       02532            5812-0600
R       Sandys Snack Bar & Restaurant         Buzzards Bay       Seafood restaurants                          R                98                 534           10 Sandy Ln                 02532-3914   508-759-3088   Dana Holman                 Owner                     10 Sandy Ln                      Bourne             MA       02532   3914     5812-0700
R       Leos Breakfast Restaurant             Buzzards Bay       American restaurant                          R                30                 164           249 Main St                 02532-3232   508-759-7557   Mr. Anthony Cubellis        President                 249 Main St                      Bourne             MA       02532   3232     5812-0101
R       Mezza-Luna Restaurant Inc             Buzzards Bay       Eating places                                R                53                 288           253 Main St                 02532-3232   508-759-4667   Mr. Emilio Cubellis         President                 253 Main St                      Bourne             MA       02532   3232     5812-0000
R       Burger King                           Buzzards Bay       Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                42                 230           278 Main St                 02532-3227   508-759-9902   Ms. Cathy Jordan            Manager                   278 Main St                      Bourne             MA       02532   3227     5812-0307
R       Quintal Restaurant                    Buzzards Bay       Seafood restaurants                          R                38                 205           343 Scenic Hwy              02532-3446   508-759-7222   Ms. Gloria Quintal          President                 343 Scenic Hwy                   Bourne             MA       02532   3446     5812-0700
R       Shaws Fish and Lobster Inc            Buzzards Bay       Seafood restaurants                          R                60                 329           N Bourne Rotary             02532        508-759-1111   Mr. Howard Shaw             President                 N Bourne Rotary                  Bourne             MA       02532            5812-0700
R       Charlies Place Inc                    Buzzards Bay       Restaurant, family: independent              R                47                 255           P O Box 329                 02532-0329   508-295-6656   Mr. Charles Nickolaow       President                 3075 Cranberry Hwy               Wareham            MA       02538   1358     5812-0502
R       IHOP                                  Buzzards Bay       Eating places                                R                38                 205           2 Bourne Cir                02532        508-759-1161   Ms. Julie Phillips          Manager                   2 Bourne Cir                     Bourne             MA       02532            5812-0000
R       Hong Kong Island Restaurant           Buzzards Bay       Eating places                                R                30                 164           P O Box 302                 02532-0302   508-295-0524   Mr. Henry Chan              Manager                   RR 28                            Wareham            MA       02571            5812-0000
R       Friendlys                             Buzzards Bay       Restaurant, family: chain                    R                45                 247           P O Box 1609                02532-1609   508-888-6866   Mr. Scott Galfy             Manager                   1609 Buzzards Bay                Bourne             MA       02532            5812-0501
F       Slocum & Gibbs Cranberry CO           Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            107 Wareham St              02366        508-295-0046   Ms. Sally Sachs             President                 107 Wareham St                   Carver             MA       02366            2033-0500
F       Williams & Alger Inc                  Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            PO Box 81                   02366-0081   508-866-9366   Mr. Robert C. Williams      President                 65 Wareham St                    Carver             MA       02366   0081     2033-0500
F       Oiva Hannula & Sons Inc               Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            8 Rochester Rd              02330-1515   508-866-1075   Mr. Ward R. Hannula         Owner                     8 Rochester Rd                   Carver             MA       02330   1515     2033-0500
F       Kallio Bogs                           Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            81 Tremont St               02330-1435   508-866-4742   Ms. Ann Love                Owner                     81 Tremont St                    Carver             MA       02330   1435     2033-0500
F       Gilmore Cranberry CO                  Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            PO Box 67                   02366-0067   508-866-3900   Mr. Ben Gilmore             Owner                     Cranberry Rd                     Carver             MA       02330            2033-0500
G       Shaws Supermarkets Inc                Carver             Supermarkets, chain                          G                240                1315          160 Main St                 02330-1349   508-866-2977   Maura Reeve                 Manager                   160 Main St                      Carver             MA       02330   1349     5411-0101
F       Hiller Cranberry Sales Inc            Carver             Cranberries (Canners)                        V                 0                  0            29 Pond St                  02330-1205   508-866-4788   Mr. Robert B Hiller         Owner                     29 Pond St                       Carver             MA       02330   1205     2033-0500
R       Tiki Kye Restaurant                   Carver             Chinese restaurant                           R                15                  82           2 Montello St               02330-1026   508-866-7733   Mr. Sam Yip                 President                 2 Montello St                    Carver             MA       02330   1026     5812-0103
R       Courtyard Restaurant and Pub          Cataumet           Eating places                                R                38                 205           P O Box 6                   02534-0006   508-563-1818   Mr. Jay Miller              President                 1337 County Rd                   Bourne             MA       02534            5812-0000
R       Jacks                                 Centerville        American restaurant                          R                23                 123           P O Box 2161                02634-2161   508-775-0612   Ms. Grace Horton            President                 373 W Main St                    Barnstable         MA       02601   3643     5812-0101
R       Casual Gourmet The Inc                Centerville        Eating places                                R                18                  99           1600 Falmouth Rd Ste 10 02632-2939       508-775-4946   Ms. Olive Chase             President                 1600 Falmouth Rd Ste 10          Barnstable         MA       02632   2939     5812-0000
R       Kerrigans Tavern                      Centerville        Eating places                                R                38                 205           1600 Falmouth Rd            02632-2939   508-771-4100   Mr. Felix D Oloimpio        Owner                     1600 Falmouth Rd                 Barnstable         MA       02632   2939     5812-0000
R       Downtown Cafe                         Chartley           Cafe                                         R                53                 288           P O Box 50                  02712-0050   508-222-7057   Mr. Roy McSweeney           President                 292 W Main St                    Norton             MA       02766   2100     5812-9902
R       The Bite                              Chilmark           Eating places                                R                15                  82           Basin Rd                    02535        508-645-9239   Ms. Karen Flynn             Owner                     Basin Rd                         Chilmark           MA       02535            5812-0000
R       Regatta of Cotuit Inc                 Cotuit             Eating places                                R                60                 329           4631 Falmouth Rd            02635-2520   508-428-5715   Brantz Bryan                President                 4631 Falmouth Rd                 Barnstable         MA       02635   2520     5812-0000
R       Georgios Steak House Inc              Dighton            Steak restaurant                             R                15                  82           1881 County St              02715-1212   508-669-5323   Mr. George Kkotsiopoulis    President                 1881 County St                   Dighton            MA       02715   1212     5812-0802
IH      Dighton Nursing Center                Dighton                                                         I                15                  81           907 Centre Street           02764        508-669-6741                                                         907 Centre Street                Dighton            MA       02764
R       Rsw Cambridge Associates Inc          Duxbury            Eating places                                R                15                  82           P O Box 2719                02331-2719   617-252-3219   Diab Shteiwi                President                 Independence Mall                Kingston           MA       02364            5812-0000
R       Dunkin Donuts                         Duxbury            Coffee shop                                  R                33                 181           5 Chestnut St               02332-4419   781-934-9492   Tony Desilva                Owner                     5 Chestnut St                    Duxbury            MA       02332   4419     5812-0304
R       Milepost Tavern Restaurant            Duxbury            Eating places                                R                38                 205           P O Box 2042                02331-2042   781-934-6801   Mr. John Johnson            President                 581 Tremont St                   Duxbury            MA       02332   4939     5812-0000
G       A & P Super Foodmart                  Duxbury            Supermarkets, chain                          G                113                616           46 Depot St                 02332-4453   617-934-0113   Jack McDonald               Branch Manager            46 Depot St                      Duxbury            MA       02332   4453     5411-0101
IH      Duxbury House Nursing Home            Duxbury                                                         I                11                  62           298 Kingstown Way           02332-4605   781-585-2397   Mr. Thomas Welch            Partner                   298 Kingstown Way                Duxbury            MA       02332   4605
IH      Bay View Nursing Home                 Duxbury                                                         I                54                 294           308 Kingstown Way           02332-4605   781-585-5561   Mr. Thomas Welch            Partner                   308 Kingstown Way                Duxbury            MA       02332   4605
R       Windsor Restaurant Group Inc          Duxbury            Restaurant, family: independent              R                30                 164           390 Washington St           02332-4552   781-934-0991   Mr. David Conner            President                 390 Washington St                Duxbury            MA       02332   4552     5812-0502
R       Winsor House Catering                 Duxbury            Eating places                                R                23                 123           390 Washington St           02332-4552   781-934-0993   Mr. David O Connell         Owner                     390 Washington St                Duxbury            MA       02332   4552     5812-0000
R       Sun Tavern                            Duxbury            American restaurant                          R                44                 238           500 Congress St             02332-3138   781-837-4100   Mr. Lawrence Friedman       President                 500 Congress St                  Duxbury            MA       02332   3138     5812-0101
R       Waterside Associate Inc               East Bridgewater   Eating places                                R                30                 164           124 Robins St               02333-2554   508-279-0900   Mr. David Gillis            President                 124 Robins St                    East Bridgewater   MA       02333   2554     5812-0000
F       Cooke Enterprises Co                  East Bridgewater   Carbonated beverages, nonalcoholic           X                 0                  0            116 Hillcrest Rd            02333-2514   508-378-3626   Mr. Robert Cooke            Owner                     116 Hillcrest Rd                 East Bridgewater   MA       02333   2514     2086-0301
R       Pub 106                               East Bridgewater   Pizza restaurants                            R                15                  82           1300 Plymouth St            02333-2415   508-378-7106   Dana Coby                   Owner                     1300 Plymouth St                 East Bridgewater   MA       02333   2415     5812-0600
R       Pier 18 Seafood & Grille              East Bridgewater   Seafood restaurants                          R                45                 247           205 Bedford St              02333-1901   508-378-1378   Mr. Peter Soroka            President                 205 Bedford St                   East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1901     5812-0700
IH      Sacheim Nursing                       East Bridgewater                                                I                61                 332           66 Central St               02333                                                                             66 Central St                    East Bridgewater   MA       02333
R       Stelios Restaurant                    East Bridgewater   Restaurant, family: independent              R                36                 197           34 Bedford St               02333-1542   508-378-3108   Stelios Vintzileos          Owner                     34 Bedford St                    East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1542     5812-0502
R       Joppa Grille                          East Bridgewater   Restaurant, family: independent              R                60                 329           626 Jct Bdfrd Whitman STS 02333          508-378-3510   Mr. Thomas Mitchell         Owner                     626 Jct Bdfrd Whitman STS        East Bridgewater   MA       02333            5812-0502
R       Ye Olde Standish Grille Inc           East Bridgewater   Eating places                                R                45                 247           175 N Bedford St            02333-1168   508-378-3682   Mr. Arthur O Leary          President                 175 N Bedford St                 East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1168     5812-0000
F       Crocetti's Oakdale Packing Co         East Bridgewater   Meat packing plants                          M                 0                  0            378 Pleasant St             02333-1349   508-587-0035   Mr. Carl Crocetti           Owner                     378 Pleasant St                  East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1349     2011-0000
R       Mocking Bird                          East Bridgewater   American restaurant                          R                23                 123           838 N Bedford St            02333-1128   508-378-4911   Mr. Frank Canizzao          President                 838 N Bedford St                 East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1128     5812-0101
R       Camerons On The Green                 East Bridgewater   Eating places                                R                75                 411           436 Oak St                  02333-1212   781-447-7888   Mr. Bill Russell            President                 436 Oak St                       East Bridgewater   MA       02333   1212     5812-0000
R       Burger King                           East Falmouth      Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                75                 411           105 Teaticket Hwy           02536-5617   508-548-9883   Mr. Maurice Wyman           Owner                     105 Teaticket Hwy                Falmouth           MA       02536   5617     5812-0307
R       Papa Ginos                            East Falmouth      Italian restaurant                           R                45                 247           137 Teaticket Hwy           02536-5659   508-540-4502   Mr. John Sorgi              Manager                   137 Teaticket Hwy                Falmouth           MA       02536   5659     5812-0108
R       Eatery At 146 The                     East Falmouth      Eating places                                R                15                  82           146 Sandwich Rd             02536-5667   508-495-1757   Mr. Mark De Souza           President                 146 Sandwich Rd                  Falmouth           MA       02536   5667     5812-0000
R       Friends of Falmouth Dogs Inc          East Falmouth      Hot dog stand                                R                38                 205           P O Box 438                 02536-0438   508-548-0476   Ms. Edith Ross              President                 53 Green Pond Rd                 Falmouth           MA       02536   6007     5812-0312
R       Kit Nephews Italian-American          East Freetown      Pizza restaurants                            R                48                 263           2 Crossroad Dr              02717-1642   508-763-4405   Mr. Ronald Stapleton        President                 2 Crossroad Dr                   Freetown           MA       02717   1642     5812-0600
R       Albertos Italian Kitchen              East Taunton       Caterers                                     R                18                  99           29 Kerry Ln                 02718-1547   508-822-9979   Terry Bower                 President                 29 Kerry Ln                      Taunton            MA       02718   1547     5812-9903
R       Ruby Tuesday                          East Taunton       Restaurant, family: chain                    R                75                 411           2 W Stevens St              02718-1307   508-823-9130   Mr. Allen Fiazier           Manager                   2 W Stevens St                   Taunton            MA       02718   1307     5812-0501
R       Columbia Bankwood Ctr                 East Taunton       Eating places                                R                15                  82           250 Cape Hwy                02718-1513   508-823-3303   Mr. Robert Di Crocce        President                 250 Cape Hwy                     Taunton            MA       02718   1513     5812-0000
R       Lobster Cottage                       East Wareham       Seafood restaurants                          R                33                 181           P O Box 300                 02538-0300   508-759-1515   Ms. Margaret Gogliormella   President                 3198 Cranberry Hwy               Wareham            MA       02538   4731     5812-0700
R       Lindseys Inc                          East Wareham       Seafood restaurants                          R                113                616           3138 Cranberry Hwy          02538-4806   508-759-5544   Ms. Sheri Lindsey           President                 3138 Cranberry Hwy               Wareham            MA       02538   4806     5812-0700
R       Wendys                                East Wareham       Fast-food restaurant, chain                  R                60                 329           3025 Cranberry Hwy          02538-1356   508-295-4090   Mr. John Haluen             Branch Manager            3025 Cranberry Hwy               Wareham            MA       02538   1356     5812-0307
R       Friendlys                             East Wareham       Restaurant, family: chain                    R                39                 214           2895a Cranberry Hwy         02538-1313   508-295-3656   Ms. Geri Berube             Manager                   2895a Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA       02538   1313     5812-0501
F       Depot Donuts Inc                      Easton             Doughnuts, except frozen                     B                 0                  0            P O Box 1271                02334-1271   508-230-0070   Ms. Jo Couto                President                 700 Depot St                     Easton             MA       02356   2704     2051-0206
G       Super Shaws                           Easton             Supermarkets, chain                          G                225                1233          690 Depot St                02356-2700   508-238-0165   Paul Siciliano              General Manager           690 Depot St                     Easton             MA       02356   2700     5411-0101
F       Simpson Spring Co                     Easton             Bottled and canned soft drinks               X                 0                  0            PO Box 328                  02375        508-238-2741   Mr. Jim Bertarelli          General Manager           719 Washington St.               Easton             MA       02375            2086-0000
G       A & P Super Foodmart                  Edgartown          Supermarkets, chain                          G                120                658           P O Box 2368                02539-2368   508-627-9522   Dana Degegorio              Branch Manager            226 Upper Main St                Edgartown          MA       02539   2368     5411-0101
R       Square Rigger Restaurant              Edgartown          American restaurant                          R                45                 247           P O Box 2068                02539-2068   508-627-9968   Ms. Doreen Rezendes         President                 State Rd                         Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0101
R       Seafood Shanty                        Edgartown          Seafood restaurants                          R                113                616           P O Box 2158                02539-2158   508-627-8622   Ray Rourke                  President                 31 Dock St                       Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0700
R       Wharf Restaurant The                  Edgartown          American restaurant                          R                45                 247           P O Box 756                 02539-0756   508-627-9966   Mr. Brian Mc Groarty        President                 6 Main St                        Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0101
R       Alchemy                               Edgartown          Eating places                                R                45                 247           P O Box 3159                02539        508-627-9999   Ms. Charlotte Caskey        President                 71 Main St                       Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0000
R       Espresso Love Inc                     Edgartown          Eating places                                R                18                  99           P O Box 1593                02539-1593   508-627-9211   Ms. Carol Mc Manus          President                 17 Church St                     Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0000
R       Lattanzis Restaurant                  Edgartown          Italian restaurant                           R                36                 197           P O Box 5219                02539-5219   508-627-8854   Mr. Albert Lattanzi         President                 19 Church St                     Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0108
R       Atria Restaurant                      Edgartown          Eating places                                R                15                  82           P O Box 561                 02539-0561   508-627-5850   Ms. Greer Boyle             Partner                   137 MAIN ST                      Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0000
R       Dairy Queen                           Edgartown          Ice cream stands or dairy bars               R                23                 123           242 Upper Main              02539        508-627-5001   Mr. Anton Bettencourt       Owner                     242 Upper Main                   Edgartown          MA       02539            5812-0203
                                                                                                                            Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE   NAME                                   TOWN              SIC8NAME                                 Type of Waste     (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)      ADDRESS                  MAILZIP9     PHONE          EXECFULL                   EXECTITLE                 PHYADD                      PHYTOWN         PHYSTATE   PHYZIP5   PHYPLUS4 SIC8
R         British Beer Co                        Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                45                 247          263 Grand Ave            02540-3785   508-540-9600   Ms. Rita Ramoska           Manager                   263 Grand Ave               Falmouth        MA         02540     3785     5812-0000
C         The Flying Bridge                      Falmouth                                                         I                14                  75          220 Scranton Avenue      02540        508-548-2700                                                        220 Scranton Avenue         Falmouth        MA         02540
G         Windfall Market                        Falmouth          Supermarkets, independent                      G               113                 616          77 Scranton Ave          02540-3562   508-548-0099   Vincent Geoffrey           President                 77 Scranton Ave             Falmouth        MA         02540     3562     5411-0103
R         Liam Maguires Irish Pub & Rest         Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                17                  90          273 Main St              02540-2750   508-548-0285   Mr. Liam Maguire           President                 273 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     2750     5812-0000
R         Country Fare Restaurant                Falmouth          Luncheonette                                   R                17                  90          319 Main St              02540-2751   508-548-9020   Mr. Brian Ferreira         President                 319 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     2751     5812-0403
R         Golden Swan                            Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                30                 164          323 Main St              02540-2751   508-540-6580   Ms. Ingrid Marusik         Owner                     323 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     2751     5812-0000
F         Ben & Bills Chocolate Emporium         Falmouth          Candy and other confectionery produ            S                 0                  0           209 Main St              02540-2749   508-548-7878   Ms. Jeannette Michaud      Manager                   209 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     2749     2064-0000
R         Peking Palace                          Falmouth          Chinese restaurant                             R                15                  82          452 Main St              02540-3156   508-540-8204   Jong Hong                  President                 452 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     3156     5812-0103
IH        Royal Nusing Center                    Falmouth                                                         I                60                 327          545 Main St              02540-3160   508-996-6751   Mr. James Mary             Owner                     545 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     3160
R         Quarterdeck Restaurant                 Falmouth          Seafood restaurants                            R                23                 123          164 Main St              02540-2765   508-548-9900   Mr. Robert Pacheco         President                 164 Main St                 Falmouth        MA         02540     2765     5812-0700
W         The Clam-Man Inc                       Falmouth          Fish and seafoods                              F                 0                  0           15 Boxwood Cir           02540-3322   508-548-6044   Mr. Matt Rocheleau         Principal                 15 Boxwood Cir              Falmouth        MA         02540     3322     5146-0000
R         Nimrod Restaurant                      Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                75                 411          100 Dillingham Ave       02540-3313   508-540-4132   Mr. James Murray           President                 100 Dillingham Ave          Falmouth        MA         02540     3313     5812-0000
R         Food For Thought                       Falmouth          Caterers                                       R                18                  99          37 N Main St             02540-2843   508-548-4498   Mr. Charles Syintsakos     President                 37 N Main St                Falmouth        MA         02540     2843     5812-9903
R         Friendlys                              Falmouth          Restaurant, family: chain                      R                45                 247          5 Davis Straits          02540-3905   508-548-2361   Mr. Walter Whapleo         Manager                   5 Davis Straits             Falmouth        MA         02540     3905     5812-0501
R         Winstons Restaurant                    Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                21                 115          97 Spring Bars Rd        02540-3923   508-548-0590   Mr. Gerald Pacheco         Owner                     97 Spring Bars Rd           Falmouth        MA         02540     3923     5812-0000
R         Fish Net The                           Falmouth          Seafood restaurants                            R                35                 189          70 Davis Straits         02540-3910   508-540-2115   Mr. Louis Mc Menamy        President                 70 Davis Straits            Falmouth        MA         02540     3910     5812-0700
R         Kansas City Steak House                Falmouth          Steak restaurant                               R                53                 288          291 Jones Rd             02540-3340   508-495-3453   Mr. Chris St John          Manager                   291 Jones Rd                Falmouth        MA         02540     3340     5812-0802
IH        Harborside-Falmouth                    Falmouth                                                         I                59                 324          359 Jones Rd             02540        508-992-8901                                                        359 Jones Rd                Falmouth        MA         02540
R         Coonamessett Inn                       Falmouth          Eating places                                  R               113                 616          311 Gifford St           02540-2913   508-548-2300   Mr. William Zammer         President                 311 Gifford St              Falmouth        MA         02540     2913     5812-0000
R         Flying Bridge Restaurant               Falmouth          Eating places                                  R               225                 1233         311 Gifford St           02540-2913   508-548-2700   Mr. Bill Zammer            President                 311 Gifford St              Falmouth        MA         02540     2913     5812-0000
G         Shaws Supermarkets Inc                 Falmouth          Supermarkets, chain                            G               225                 1233         137 Teaticket Hwy        02536-5659   508-548-4033   Mark Langlear              Manager                   137 Teaticket Hwy           Falmouth        MA         02536     5659     5411-0101
IH        Falmouth Hospital                      Falmouth                                                         I                52                 284          100 Ter Heun Drive       02540        508-548-5300                                                        100 Ter Heun Drive          Falmouth        MA         02540
IH        Jml Care Center Inc                    Falmouth                                                         I                65                 356          184 Ter Heun Dr          02540-2503                  Mr. Charles Peterman       President                 184 Ter Heun Dr             Falmouth        MA         02540     2503
G         Stop & Shop                            Falmouth          Supermarkets, chain                            G               225                 1233         Rte 28 and Jones Rd      02536        508-540-7481   Tom Farrar                 Manager                   Rte 28 and Jones Rd         Falmouth        MA         02536              5411-0101
R         Grill N Chill Inc                      Falmouth          Eating places                                  R                18                  99          553 Palmer Ave           02540-2920   508-548-7739   Mr. Fred Clarkin           President                 553 Palmer Ave              Falmouth        MA         02540     2920     5812-0000
W         Waquoit Shellfish Corp                 Falmouth          Seafoods                                       F                 0                  0           177 Seapit Rd            02536-6431   508-548-2683   Mr. Olin Kelley            President                 177 Seapit Rd               Falmouth        MA         02536     6431     5146-9904
G         Kenyons Market Inc                     Falmouth          Grocery stores, independent                    G                35                 189          769 E Falmouth Hwy       02536-6191   508-540-2155   Richard Le Moine           President                 769 E Falmouth Hwy          Falmouth        MA         02536     6191     5411-9905
G         Family Foods                           Falmouth          Grocery stores, independent                    G                75                 411          350 E Falmouth Hwy       02536-6004   508-540-2330   Timothy Martinage          President                 350 E Falmouth Hwy          Falmouth        MA         02536     6004     5411-9905
F         Cape Cod Winery                        Falmouth          Wines                                          A                 0                  0           681 Sandwich Rd          02536-4747   508-457-5592   Ms. Kristina Lazzari       Owner                     681 Sandwich Rd             Falmouth        MA         02536     4747     2084-0100
G         West Falmouth Market                   Falmouth          Grocery stores, independent                    G                21                 115          P O Box 378              02574-0378   508-548-1139   Bruce Parrish              President                 623 Route 28a               Falmouth        MA         02574     0378     5411-9905
C         Sea Crest Resort & Conference Center   Falmouth                                                         I                30                 163          350 Quaker Road          02556        508-540-9400                                                        350 Quaker Road             Falmouth        MA         02556
C         Ballymeade Functions                   Falmouth                                                         I                23                 125          Ballymead Country Club   02536        508-457-0100                                                        125 Falmouth Woods Rd.      Falmouth        MA         02536
IH        Royal Megansett Nursing Home           Falmouth                                                         I                44                 243          209 County Rd            02556-2021   508-548-3800   Mr. James Mamary           Partner                   209 County Rd               Falmouth        MA         02556     2021
W         Jonathan Organics                      Freetown          Vegetables, fresh                              V                 0                  0           170 Middleboro Rd        02717-1720   508-763-5505   Ms. Barbara Sanderson      President                 170 Middleboro Rd           Freetown        MA         02717     1720     5148-0202
R         Brs Restaurant Inc                     Halifax           Eating places                                  R                98                 534          Plymouth St              02338        781-293-2116   Mr. Robert Rogers          President                 Plymouth St                 Halifax         MA         02338              5812-0000
R         All Seasons Rest & Lounge              Halifax           American restaurant                            R                48                 263          327 Plymouth St          02338-1340   781-293-4135   Mr. John Doucette          Owner                     327 Plymouth St             Halifax         MA         02338     1340     5812-0101
R         All Star Pizza Plus                    Halifax           Pizza restaurants                              R                18                  99          319 Plymouth St          02338-1340   781-293-8788   Mr. Joseph La Gambina      President                 319 Plymouth St             Halifax         MA         02338     1340     5812-0600
R         Halifax Coffee Shop                    Halifax           Fast food restaurants and stands               R                15                  82          300c Plymouth St         02338-1344   781-294-1665   Mr. Peter Nickerson        President                 300c Plymouth St            Halifax         MA         02338     1344     5812-0300
R         Hawaii Garden Restaurant               Halifax           Chinese restaurant                             R                23                 123          300 Plymouth St          02338-1344   781-293-5778   Cristo Wong                President                 300 Plymouth St             Halifax         MA         02338     1344     5812-0103
F         Morse Brothers Inc                     Halifax           Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           Lingam St                02338        781-293-3131                                                        Lingan St                   Halifax         MA         02338              2033-0500
R         Elenas Restaurant Inc                  Hanson            Family restaurants                             R                68                 370          P O Box 1489             02341-6489   781-293-3537   Mr. Peter Cimorelli        President                 257 Oak St                  Halifax         MA         02338     1016     5812-0500
R         Cataldis Restaurant                    Hanson            Italian restaurant                             R                15                  82          P O Box 745              02341-0745   781-293-9953   Mr. Robert Cioffi          President                 1486 Main St                Hanson          MA         02341     1504     5812-0108
R         J&R Indian Head Pub                    Hanson            American restaurant                            R                17                  90          P O Box 704              02341-0704   781-294-8592   Mr. Jim Deagle             Owner                     278 Main St                 Hanson          MA         02341     1946     5812-0101
R         Stingers Family Rest Inc               Hanson            Family restaurants                             R                75                 411          252 Main St              02341-1956   781-293-0000   Mr. Dave Hatch             President                 252 Main St                 Hanson          MA         02341     1956     5812-0500
G         Shaws Supermarkets Inc                 Hanson            Supermarkets, chain                            G               225                 1233         430 Liberty St           02341-1113   781-293-3008   David Russel               Manager                   430 Liberty St              Hanson          MA         02341     1113     5411-0101
R         McDonalds                              Hanson            Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                30                 164          318 Liberty St           02341-1162   781-294-4455   Mr. Mark McBee             President                 318 Liberty St              Hanson          MA         02341     1162     5812-0307
R         Paisans Family Restaurant              Hyannis           Diner                                          R                15                  82          530 W Main St            02601-5900   508-775-0344   Mr. Steven Baldini         President                 530 W Main St               Barnstable      MA         02601     5900     5812-9907
R         Harrys                                 Hyannis           American restaurant                            R                15                  82          700 W Main St            02601-3487   508-778-4188   Mr. Fred Duchant           Partner                   700 W Main St               Barnstable      MA         02601     3487     5812-0101
R         Old Country Buffet                     Hyannis           Buffet (eating places)                         R                98                 534          1070 Iyannough Rd        02601-1871   508-790-1745   Gim Riley                  Manager                   1070 Iyannough Rd           Barnstable      MA         02601     1871     5812-9901
R         Outback Steakhouse                     Hyannis           Steak restaurant                               R                75                 411          1070 Iyannough Rd 132    02601-1871   508-778-8787   Ms. Julie Farga            Branch Manager            1070 Iyannough Rd 132       Barnstable      MA         02601     1871     5812-0802
R         Friendlys                              Hyannis           Restaurant, family: chain                      R                75                 411          1090 Iyannough Rd        02601-1852   508-771-8145   Ms. Debra Kay              Manager                   1090 Iyannough Rd           Barnstable      MA         02601     1852     5812-0501
R         Olive Garden                           Hyannis           Eating places                                  R               150                 822          1095 Iyannough Rd        02601-1830   508-775-9896   Tracey Kempaner            Manager                   1095 Iyannough Rd           Barnstable      MA         02601     1830     5812-0000
R         Cookes Seafood                         Hyannis           Family restaurants                             R                18                  99          1120 Iyannough Rd        02601-8106   508-775-0450   Mr. James Haidas           President                 1120 Iyannough Rd           Barnstable      MA         02601     8106     5812-0500
R         Pizza By Evan                          Hyannis           Pizza restaurants                              R                18                  99          1220 Iyannough Rd        02601-1873   508-790-3554   Mr. Ron Lopes              Owner                     1220 Iyannough Rd           Barnstable      MA         02601     1873     5812-0600
R         Pizzeria Uno                           Kingston          Pizzeria, chain                                R                75                 411          101 Independence Mall Way02364-2282   781-582-2480   Mr. Tim Walsh                                        101 Independence Mall Way   Kingston        MA         02364     2282     5812-0601
C         Indian Pond Country Club               Kingston                                                         I                18                 100          60 Country Club Way      02364        781-585-9117                                                        60 Country Club Way         Kingston        MA         02364
R         Kingston Charlie Horse Rest            Kingston          Eating places                                  R                75                 411          99 Main St               02364-2252   781-585-5550   Ms. Carrie Barrett         Owner                     99 Main St                  Kingston        MA         02364     2252     5812-0000
R         Mamma Mia Pizza                        Kingston          Pizzeria, independent                          R                38                 205          134 Main St              02364-2243   781-585-9847   Mr. Pasquale Viscariello   Manager                   134 Main St                 Kingston        MA         02364     2243     5812-0602
R         Burger King                            Kingston          Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                53                 288          137 Main St              02364-2246   781-585-9431   Mr. Joe Spinelli           Manager                   137 Main St                 Kingston        MA         02364     2246     5812-0307
R         Bickfords Family Restaurant            Kingston          Eating places                                  R                75                 411          149 Main St              02364-2235   781-585-8820   Mr. Dan Bloodwell          President                 149 Main St                 Kingston        MA         02364     2235     5812-0000
R         McDonalds                              Kingston          Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                68                 370          3a Summer St             02364-1416   781-585-9234   Pat Longren                Manager                   3a Summer St                Kingston        MA         02364     1416     5812-0307
R         Bangna Garden Restaurant               Kingston          Eating places                                  R                23                 123          73 Summer St             02364-1410   781-585-4503   Prasit Thienprayoon        Principal                 73 Summer St                Kingston        MA         02364     1410     5812-0000
G         Stop & Shop                            Kingston          Supermarkets, chain                            G               396                 2170         160 Summer St            02364-1226   781-582-3700   Steve Desilva              Manager                   160 Summer St               Kingston        MA         02364     1226     5411-0101
R         Chinese Food                           Kingston          Chinese restaurant                             R                15                  82          164 Summer St J          02364-1280   781-582-3828   Mr. James Luo              President                 164 Summer St J             Kingston        MA         02364     1280     5812-0103
F         Herndon Cranberries                    Kingston          Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           156 Pembroke St          02364-1152   781-585-4800                                                        156 Pembroke St             Kingston        MA         02364     1152     2033-0500
R         Papa Ginos                             Kingston          Italian restaurant                             R                45                 247          182 Summer St            02364-1277   781-585-6568   Annmanrie Quigly           Manager                   182 Summer St               Kingston        MA         02364     1277     5812-0108
IH        Bethesda                               Kingston                                                         I                81                 443          17 Chipman Way           02364                                                                            17 Chipman Way              Kingston        MA         02364
W         G Baby Farms Inc                       Lakeville         Dairy products, except dried or cann           D                 0                  0           11 Freetown St           02347-2222   508-947-6487   Mr. George Rose            President                 11 Freetown St              Lakeville       MA         02347     2222     5143-0000
IH        Island Terrace Nursing Home            Lakeville                                                        I                87                 478          P O Box 1237             02347-7237                  Mr. Brenton Tolles         President                 57 Long Point Rd            Lakeville       MA         02347     7237
R         Orchids of Hawaii                      Lakeville         Eating places                                  R                17                  90          201 Bedford St           02347-1509   508-946-0088   Wai Lau                    President                 201 Bedford St              Lakeville       MA         02347     1509     5812-0000
R         Deweys Restaurant Inc                  Lakeville         Eating places                                  R                75                 411          51 Main St               02347-1617   508-947-6031   Mr. Alfred Desrosier       President                 51 Main St                  Lakeville       MA         02347     1617     5812-0000
W         Trebloc Seafood                        Manomet           Fish, fresh                                    F                 0                  0           32 Landfall Ln           02345        508-224-1800   Mr. Robert Colbert         Director                  32 Landfall Ln              Plymouth        MA         02345              5146-9902
F         Tidmarsh Farms Inc                     Manomet           Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           PO Box 1715              02345-1715   508-224-7900   Mr. Dave Balutis           Manager                   137 Bartlett Rd             Plymouth        MA         02345     1715     2033-0500
IH        Sippican Long Term                     Marion                                                           I                54                 297          15 Mill Street           02738                                                                            15 Mill Street              Marion          MA         02738
IS        Tabor Academy                          Marion                                                           I                54                 293          Front Street             02738        508-748-2000   Mr. Jay Stroud             Headmaster                66 Spring St                Marion          MA         02738
R         Aja Enterprises                        Marion            Italian restaurant                             R                75                 411          210 Spring St            02738-1570   508-748-2986   Mr. Albert Costa           President                 210 Spring St               Marion          MA         02738     1570     5812-0108
R         Subway                                 Marstons Mills    Sandwiches and submarines shop                 R                60                 329          960 Putnam Ave           02648-1896   508-420-3258   Mr. Wayne Yvon             President                 960 Putnam Ave              Barnstable      MA         02648     1896     5812-0313
R         D Angelos Sandwich Shop                Marstons Mills    Sandwiches and submarines shop                 R                30                 164          341 Lakeshore Dr         02648-1327   508-428-3560   Mr. Paul Becker            President                 341 Lakeshore Dr            Barnstable      MA         02648     1327     5812-0313
R         Boston Concessions Group Inc           Mashpee           Concessionaire                                 R                45                 247          94 Industrial Dr         02649-3404   508-477-0780   Mr. David Oberlander       Manager                   94 Industrial Dr            Mashpee         MA         02649     3404     5812-0201
R         McDonalds                              Mashpee           Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R               100                 548          766 Falmouth Rd Ste A5   02649-3330   508-477-2441   Mr. John Holland           President                 766 Falmouth Rd Ste A5      Mashpee         MA         02649     3330     5812-0307
R         Gone Tomatoes Itln Grill & Bar         Mashpee           Italian restaurant                             R                60                 329          P O Box 2458             02649-8458   508-477-8100   Mr. Marc Petralia          President                 11 A Steeple St             Mashpee         MA         02649              5812-0108
R         Atlantic Seafood Restaurants           Mashpee           Seafood restaurants                            R                15                  82          401 Nathan Ellis Hwy     02649-6005   508-477-4774   Mr. Spyro Mitrokostas      President                 401 Nathan Ellis Hwy        Mashpee         MA         02649     6005     5812-0700
R         Barnstables Pizza & Pasta Co           Mashpee           Italian restaurant                             R                45                 247          P O Box 2235             02649-8235   508-477-6701   Mr. Dino Mitrokostas       President                 401 Route 151               Mashpee         MA         02649     6005     5812-0108
R         Oysters Too                            Mashpee           Restaurant, family: independent                R                30                 164          413 Route 151            02649-3149   508-477-4481   Mr. Robert Kogut           President                 413 Route 151               Mashpee         MA         02649     3149     5812-0502
G         Stop & Shop                            Mashpee           Supermarkets, chain                            G               325                 1778         39 Nathan Ellis Highway  02649                                                                            39 Nathan Ellis Highway     Mashpee         MA         02649              5411-0101
G         Shaws Supermarkets Inc                 Mashpee           Supermarkets, chain                            G                75                 411          P O Box 300              02649-0300   508-477-0020   Timothy Cawley             Manager                   35 Nathan Ellis Hwy         Mashpee         MA         02649     0300     5411-0101
R         Zoes Pizza                             Mashpee           Pizza restaurants                              R                21                 115          7 Market St              02649        508-477-1711   Mr. Thomas Poole           Partner                   7 Market St                 Mashpee         MA         02649              5812-0600
R         99 Restaurant & Pub                    Mashpee           American restaurant                            R               135                 740          8 Ryans Way              02649-3200   508-477-9000   Mr. Tom Leone              Manager                   8 Ryans Way                 Mashpee         MA         02649     3200     5812-0101
R         Jade Chinese Restaurant                Mashpee           Eating places                                  R                15                  82          P O Box 1349             02649-1349   508-477-2828   Kamtong Tam                Owner                                                 Mashpee         MA         02649              5812-0000
IH        Harborside-Mashpee                     Mashpee                                                          I                59                 324          161 Falmouth Rd          02649                                                                            161 Falmouth Rd             Mashpee         MA         02649
R         Honey Dew Donuts Mashpee               Mashpee           Coffee shop                                    R                15                  82          44 Falmouth Rd           02649-2720   508-477-7500   Mr. Steve Kyros            Owner                     44 Falmouth Rd              Mashpee         MA         02649     2720     5812-0304
R         Flume Incorporated                     Mashpee           Eating places                                  R                23                 123          P O Box 1379             02649-1379   508-477-1456   Mr. Earl Mills             President                 13 Lake Ave                 Mashpee         MA         02649     2075     5812-0000
F         Cape Cod Coffee                        Mashpee           Roasted coffee                                 V                 0                  0           348 Main St              02649-2045   508-477-2400   Demos Young                Owner                     348 Main St                 Mashpee         MA         02649     2045     2095-0000
R         Dudleys Restaurant & Lounge            Merrimac          Eating places                                  R                23                 123          P O Box 1348             01860        508-224-3700   Mr. Adam Baker             President                 499 State Rd                Plymouth        MA         02360     5185     5812-0000
R         Hells Blazes Tavern                    Middleboro        Restaurant, family: independent                R                68                 370          699 Wareham St           02346-3721   508-295-9111   Mr. Fred Dearing           President                 699 Wareham St              Middleborough   MA         02346     3721     5812-0502
R         Fair Havens Rest Home                  Middleboro        Eating places                                  R                27                 148          334 Marion Rd            02346-3104   508-947-1660   Ms. Helena Silva           Principal                 334 Marion Rd               Middleborough   MA         02346     3104     5812-0000
R         L & R Log Cabin                        Middleboro        Restaurant, family: independent                R                17                  90          114 E Grove St           02346-2747   508-946-5441   Mr. Richard McCann         President                 114 E Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     2747     5812-0502
R         McDonalds                              Middleboro        Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                50                 274          P O Box 1260             02346-4260   508-947-5600   Mr. Jason Ferris           Manager                   4 E Clark St                Middleborough   MA         02346     1815     5812-0307
R         Dairy Queen                            Middleboro        Ice cream stands or dairy bars                 R                15                  82          7 E Grove St             02346-1826   508-947-0192   Mr. George Pennini         Owner                     7 E Grove St                Middleborough   MA         02346     1826     5812-0203
R         Hideaway Restaurant Inc                Middleboro        American restaurant                            R                36                 197          P O Box 589              02346-0589   508-947-5188   Mr. Damon Desrosiers       President                 9 Station St                Middleborough   MA         02346     2130     5812-0101
R         C JS Stage Stop                        Middleboro        Eating places                                  R                30                 164          P O Box 183              02346-0183   508-947-9297   Mr. Charles Einstein       President                 407 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1419     5812-0000
R         Papa Ginos                             Middleboro        Italian restaurant                             R                38                 205          438 W Grove St           02346-1459   508-946-1066   Mr. Joseph Hughes          Manager                   438 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1459     5812-0108
R         Burger King                            Middleboro        Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                48                 263          460 W Grove St           02346-1420   508-947-5309   Ms. Joan Fruzzetti         Manager                   460 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1420     5812-0307
R         Lorenzos Italian Restaurant            Middleboro        Italian restaurant                             R                75                 411          500 W Grove St           02346-1455   508-947-3000   Arcangela Maffeo           President                 500 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1455     5812-0108
R         Fireside Grille                        Middleboro        Steak restaurant                               R               210                 1151         30 Bedford St            02346-1424   508-947-5333   Mr. David Fisher           President                 30 Bedford St               Middleborough   MA         02346     1424     5812-0802
R         Persys Place Inc                       Middleboro        Eating places                                  R                30                 164          43 Bedford St            02346-1047   508-946-0022   Mr. Robert Heston          President                 43 Bedford St               Middleborough   MA         02346     1047     5812-0000
IH        Atrium Nursing Center Llc              Middleborough                                                    I                54                 294          314 Marion Rd            02346-3104   508-947-8632   Mr. Todd Logan             Finance                   314 Marion Rd               Middleborough   MA         02346     3104
IH        Hannah B G                             Middleborough                                                    I                30                 162          299 Wareham Street PO Bo02346                                                                             299 Wareham Street          Middleborough   MA         02346
F         Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc            Middleborough     Fruits and fruit products, in cans, jars       V                 0                  0           P O Box 152              02346-0152   508-947-4940   H Hawthorne                Chief Executive Officer   152 Bridge St               Middleborough   MA         02346     0152     2033-0300
F         Woodbrook Cranberries                  Middleborough     Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           99 Tispaquin St          02346-3325   508-947-6027                                                        99 Tispaquin St             Middleborough   MA         02346     3325     2033-0500
G         Stop & Shop                            Middleborough     Supermarkets, chain                            G               225                 1233         Taunton St RR 28         02346        508-947-3466   Steven De Silva            Manager                   Taunton St                  Middleborough   MA         02346              5411-0101
F         Red Eye Cranberry                      Middleborough     Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           156 Thomas St            02346-3322   508-946-2666                                                        156 Thomas St               Middleborough   MA         02346     3322     2033-0500
G         Victory Supermarkets                   Middleborough     Supermarkets, chain                            G               225                 1233         3 Merchants Way          02346-1818   508-947-4787   Mike Richardson            Manager                   3 Merchants Way             Middleborough   MA         02346     1818     5411-0101
F         R M Lawton Cranberries Inc             Middleborough     Cranberries (Canners)                          V                 0                  0           148 W Grove St # 3a      02346-1457   508-947-7465   Mr. Russell M Lawton       Owner                     148 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1457     2033-0500
IH        Forestview                             Middleborough                                                    I                80                 440          15 Forest St             02346-2013   508-295-6264   Mr. Russell Brown          Manager                   15 Forest St                Middleborough   MA         02346     2013
F         Lorenzos Italtian                      Middleborough     Pasta, uncooked: packaged with oth             P                 0                  0           500 W Grove St           02346-1455   508-947-6200   Mr. Angelo Maffeo          Owner                     500 W Grove St              Middleborough   MA         02346     1455     2099-0802
IH        Oak Hill                               Middleborough                                                    I                49                 270          76 North St              02346-1619                  Mr. Dan Grimes             Principal                 76 North St                 Middleborough   MA         02346     1619
R         Marriott                               North Dartmouth   Eating places                                  R               165                 904          285 Old Westport Rd      02747-2356   508-999-8141   Ms. Felicia Brown          Director                  285 Old Westport Rd         Dartmouth       MA         02747     2356     5812-0000
R         Not Your Average Joes Inc              North Dartmouth   Family restaurants                             R                98                 534          75 State Rd              02747-2919   781-453-9300   Mr. Greg Smith             General Manager           75 State Rd                 Dartmouth       MA         02747     2919     5812-0500
R         McDonalds                              North Dartmouth   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                60                 329          205 State Rd             02747-2649   508-993-3772   Mr. Paul Osborne           Manager                   205 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     2649     5812-0307
R         Burger King                            North Dartmouth   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                45                 247          247 State Rd             02747-2612   508-990-2970   Ms. Ann Koohy                                        247 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     2612     5812-0307
R         Ponderosa Steakhouse                   North Dartmouth   Steak restaurant                               R                60                 329          271 State Rd             02747-4311   508-993-3708   Mr. Paul Mullen                                      271 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4311     5812-0802
R         Friendlys                              North Dartmouth   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                75                 411          307 State Rd             02747-4313   508-994-9657   Ms. Kathy Edward           Manager                   307 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4313     5812-0501
R         Papa Ginos                             North Dartmouth   Italian restaurant                             R                45                 247          329 State Rd             02747-4313   508-997-5800   Ms. Valerie Cambra         Manager                   329 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4313     5812-0108
R         Weathervane Seafoods Inc               North Dartmouth   Seafood restaurants                            R               143                 781          349 State Rd             02747-4313   508-993-7991   Ms. Michele Drew           General Manager           349 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4313     5812-0700
R         Perseys Place                          North Dartmouth   Eating places                                  R                36                 197          715 State Rd             02747-1821   508-999-4223   Mr. Keith Barnicoat        Partner                   715 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     1821     5812-0000
R         Showbiz Pizza                          North Dartmouth   Pizzeria, chain                                R                38                 205          412 and 418 State Rd 6   02747        508-993-9969   Mr. Steve Spillane         Branch Manager            412 and 418 State Rd 6      Dartmouth       MA         02747              5812-0601
R         Old Country Buffet                     North Dartmouth   Buffet (eating places)                         R               135                 740          424 State Rd             02747-4302   508-990-7992   Mr. Rodger Levesque        Branch Manager            424 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4302     5812-9901
R         Gumbo Restaurant Inc                   North Dartmouth   Chinese restaurant                             R                30                 164          411 State Rd             02747-4304   508-992-4945   Bobby Leung                President                 411 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4304     5812-0103
R         Wendys                                 North Dartmouth   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                50                 274          449 State Rd             02747-4307   508-984-5601   Rui Moreira                Manager                   449 State Rd                Dartmouth       MA         02747     4307     5812-0307
R         Ruby Tuesday                           North Dartmouth   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                90                 493          83-85 N Dartmouth Mall   02747        508-979-8973   Mr. Joe Monger             Manager                   83-85 N Dartmouth Mall      Dartmouth       MA         02747              5812-0501
R         Rainonis Inc                           North Dartmouth   Italian restaurant                             R                38                 205          146b N Dartmouth Mall    02747-4204   508-999-4402   Mr. Edward Winterhalter    President                 146b N Dartmouth Mall       Dartmouth       MA         02747     4204     5812-0108
R         Friendlys                              North Dartmouth   Restaurant, family: chain                      R                53                 288          139 N Dartmouth Mall     02747-4201   508-999-4381   Mr. Louis Bournes          Manager                   139 N Dartmouth Mall        Dartmouth       MA         02747     4201     5812-0501
R         McDonalds                              North Dartmouth   Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                68                 370          135 Faunce Corner Rd     02747-1213   508-992-9269   Damingos Gag               Branch Manager            135 Faunce Corner Rd        Dartmouth       MA         02747     1213     5812-0307
R         99 Restaurant & Pub                    North Dartmouth   American restaurant                            R               150                 822          161 Faunce Corner Rd     02747-1213   508-999-0099   Lynn Lombard               Manager                   161 Faunce Corner Rd        Dartmouth       MA         02747     1213     5812-0101
R         Just Another Phoenix                   North Dartmouth   Eating places                                  R                30                 164          450 Faunce Corner Rd     02747-1217   508-995-1610   Mr. Aaron Carlson          Manager                   450 Faunce Corner Rd        Dartmouth       MA         02747     1217     5812-0000
R         Gillys Pub Inc                         North Easton      Eating places                                  R                30                 164          689 Depot St             02356-2743   508-230-2330   Ms. Candice Gomes          President                 689 Depot St                Easton          MA         02356     2743     5812-0000
R         Wicker Tree Catering                   North Falmouth    Caterers                                       R                23                 123          P O Box 315              02556-0315   508-563-6071   Eliezabeth Heald           President                 Routes 28a 5 Beaman Ln      Falmouth        MA         02556              5812-9903
R         Half Tide Tavern                       North Falmouth    Eating places                                  R                30                 164          P O Box 1798             02556-1798   508-563-6464   Mr. Ed Hannon              President                 1356 Rt 28 A                Bourne          MA         02534              5812-0000
R         Bobby Hacketts Restaurant              North Pembroke    Seafood restaurants                            R                90                 493          P O Box 585              02358-0585   781-826-3161   Mr. Robert Hackett         President                 615 Old Washington St       Pembroke        MA         02359              5812-0700
R         Pattys Place                           Norton            Eating places                                  R                23                 123          363 Old Colony Rd        02766-2016   508-226-2766   Ms. Patrica Panek          Owner                     363 Old Colony Rd           Norton          MA         02766     2016     5812-0000
R         OBriens Restaurant                     Norton            Coffee shop                                    R                30                 164          416 Old Colony Rd        02766-2020   508-222-0769   Mr. William Dennis         President                 416 Old Colony Rd           Norton          MA         02766     2020     5812-0304
R         Mc Shae                                Norton            Pizza restaurants                              R                39                 214          P O Box 50               02766-0050   508-226-2801   Mr. Roy McSweeney          Owner                     292 W Main St               Norton          MA         02766     2100     5812-0600
IC        Wheaton College                        Norton                                                           I               104                 570          26 East Main Street      02766        508-285-8200   Ms. Dale Rogers            President                 26 East Main Street         Norton          MA         02766
R         Robodash Seafood & Deli                Norton            Seafood restaurants                            R                23                 123          130 Mansfield Ave        02766-2200   508-286-4191   Mr. Bruce Monihan          President                 130 Mansfield Ave           Norton          MA         02766     2200     5812-0700
G         Roche Bros Supermarkets                Norton            Supermarkets, chain                            G               375                 2055         175 Mansfield Ave        02766-1333   508-285-3600   Kevin Fry                  Manager                   175 Mansfield Ave           Norton          MA         02766     1333     5411-0101
R         McDonalds                              Norton            Fast-food restaurant, chain                    R                65                 356          175 Mansfield Ave        02766-1333   508-285-5083   Ms. Dona Olson             President                 175 Mansfield Ave           Norton          MA         02766     1333     5812-0307
IH        Epoch Senior Healthcare Care Norton    Norton                                                           I                52                 286          184 Mansfield            02766                                                                            184 Mansfield               Norton          MA         02766
F         Montiones Bakery                       Norton            Bread, cake, and related products              B                 0                  0           P O Box N                02766-0941   508-285-7004   Ms. Mary Montione          Owner                     253 Mansfield Ave           Norton          MA         02766     1334     2051-0000
R         Anns Place                             Norton            Eating places                                  R               120                 658          P O Box 473              02766-0473   508-285-9766   Mr. Jim Seremetis          President                 48 Bay Rd                   Norton          MA         02766     3036     5812-0000
                                                                                                                               Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE   NAME                                          TOWN              SIC8NAME                             Type of Waste     (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)      ADDRESS                  MAILZIP9     PHONE          EXECFULL                  EXECTITLE            PHYADD                      PHYTOWN      PHYSTATE   PHYZIP5   PHYPLUS4 SIC8
G         Reliable Self Service Market                  Oak Bluffs        Grocery stores, independent                G                18                  99          P O Box 542              02557-0542   508-693-1102   Irene Pacheco             President            36 Circuit Ave              Oak Bluffs   MA         02557     0542     5411-9905
R         Circuit Cafe                                  Oak Bluffs        Eating places                              R                15                  82          155 Circuit Ave          02557        508-693-4585   Mr. Guy Codding           Owner                155 Circuit Ave             Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0000
R         City Ale & Oyster                             Oak Bluffs        Eating places                              R                38                 205          30 Kennebec Ave          02557        508-693-2626   Mr. Bob Al                Owner                30 Kennebec Ave             Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0000
R         Fishbones                                     Oak Bluffs        Seafood restaurants                        R                30                 164          P O Box 2521             02557-2521   508-696-8227   Carroll Berndt            President            6 Circuit AV EXT            Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0700
R         Linda Jeans Restaurant                        Oak Bluffs        American restaurant                        R                23                 123          P O Box 3009             02557-3009   508-693-4093   Mr. Marc Hanover          President            34 Circuit Ave              Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0101
R         Nancys Snack Bar Inc                          Oak Bluffs        Eating places                              R                23                 123          P O Box 58               02557-0058   508-693-0006   Mr. Joseph Mougabber      President            29 Lake Ave                 Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0000
R         Ocean View Inc                                Oak Bluffs        Eating places                              R                30                 164          P O Box 1085             02557-1085   508-693-2207   Mr. Ronald Jackson        President            Chapman Ave                 Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0000
R         Seasons Eatery and Pub                        Oak Bluffs        Eating places                              R                45                 247          P O Box 1075             02557-1075   508-693-7129   Mr. Robert Murphy         Principal            19 Circuit Ave              Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-0000
R         Topside Inc                                   Oak Bluffs        Cafe                                       R                15                  82          P O Box 2369             02557-2369   508-693-1454   Ms. Shirley Pachico       President            4 Circuit                   Oak Bluffs   MA         02557              5812-9902
IH        Windemere Nursing on Martha's Vineyard        Oak Bluffs                                                   I                52                 286          Linton Lane PO Box 1747 02557                                                                       Linton Lane                 Oak Bluffs   MA         02557
IH        Marthas Vineyard Hospital                     Oak Bluffs                                                   I                16                  85          P O Box 1477             02557-1477   413-967-2153   Mr. Kevin Burchill        president            Linton Lane                 Oak Bluffs   MA         02557     1477
R         Baileys Surf & Turf                           Onset             Eating places                              R                45                 247          P O Box 1500             02558-1500   508-295-1700   Mr. Richard O Melia       President            3056 Cranberry Hwy          Wareham      MA         02557              5812-0000
R         Marc Anthonys Restaurant                      Onset             Pizza restaurants                          R                38                 205          190 Onset Ave            02558        508-295-5956   Mr. Marc Anthony          President            190 Onset Ave               Wareham      MA         02558              5812-0600
R         Osterville Seafood Mkt                        Osterville        Eating places                              R                60                 329          752 Main St              02655-1904   508-428-6300   Mr. Lawrence Siscoe       President            752 Main St                 Barnstable   MA         02655     1904     5812-0000
G         Stop & Shop                                   Pembroke          Supermarkets, chain                        G               186                 1019         North River Plaza        02359        781-826-9802   William Ryan              Manager              North River Plaza           Pembroke     MA         02359              5411-0101
R         Geoffreys Family Restaurant                   Plymouth          Eating places                              R                53                 288          2294 State Rd            02360-5178   508-888-9756   Ms. Kay Gendreau          President            2294 State Rd               Plymouth     MA         02360     5178     5812-0000
G         Shaws Supermarkets Inc                        Plymouth          Supermarkets, chain                        G               262                 1436         2260 State Road - Rte 3A 02360        508-833-2975                                                  2260 State Road - Rte 3A    Plymouth     MA         02360              5411-0101
W         Rock Bottom Seafood                           Plymouth          Seafoods                                   F                 0                  0           2234 State Rd            02360-5177   508-888-6678   Mr. Dennis Yeats          Owner                2234 State Rd               Plymouth     MA         02360     5177     5146-9904
IP        MCI Plymouth                                  Plymouth                                                     I                32                 174          One Bumps Pond Road      02360                                                                      One Bumps Pond Road         Plymouth     MA         02360
G         Stop & Shop                                   Plymouth          Supermarkets, chain                        G               344                 1884         Rte 44, Carver Road      02360                                                                      Rte 44, Carver Road         Plymouth     MA         02360              5411-0101
F         Forges Cranberry                              Plymouth          Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           169 Old Sandwich Rd      02360-2511   508-830-6883   Mr. Paul Whipple          Owner                169 Old Sandwich Rd         Plymouth     MA         02360     2511     2033-0500
G         Stop & Shop                                   Plymouth          Supermarkets, chain                        G               155                 851          Rte 3A                   02345                                                                      Rte 3A                      Plymouth     MA         02345              5411-0101
R         Hungry Tiger                                  Plymouth          Eating places                              R                20                 107          24 Camelot Dr            02360-3015   508-747-9780   Mr. Bob Schanck           Manager              24 Camelot Dr               Plymouth     MA         02360     3015     5812-0000
F         Ferrero USA                                   Plymouth          Candy and other confectionery produ        S                 0                  0           96 Columbia Cir          02360-4958   508-746-6688                                                  96 Columbia Cir             Plymouth     MA         02360     4958     2064-0000
IH        Life Care Center of Plymouth                  Plymouth                                                     I                74                 405          94 Obery St              02360-2130   508-821-5700   Mr. Joseph Beno           Director             94 Obery St                 Plymouth     MA         02360     2130
F         Teresas Treat                                 Plymouth          Bread, cake, and related products          B                 0                  0           5 Karle Pl               02360-2049   508-746-0570   Ms. Teresa De Luca        Owner                5 Karle Pl                  Plymouth     MA         02360     2049     2051-0000
R         Papa Ginos                                    Plymouth          Italian restaurant                         R                60                 329          81 Carver Rd             02360-4643   508-747-5386   Liane Pole                Manager              81 Carver Rd                Plymouth     MA         02360     4643     5812-0108
IH        Jordan Hospital (inc)                         Plymouth                                                     I                86                 472          275 Sandwich St          02360-2183   617-732-2900   Mr. Alan Knight           President            275 Sandwich St             Plymouth     MA         02360     2183
R         CJS Enterprises Llc                           Plymouth          Eating places                              R                75                 411          P O Box 960              02362-0960   508-746-3330   Mr. Chris Shortall        Principal            140 Warren Ave              Plymouth     MA         02360     2427     5812-0000
IH        Beverly Manor of Plymouth                     Plymouth                                                     I                50                 273          19 Obery St              02360-2129   508-747-4790   Ms. Linda Valenzano       Executive Director   19 Obery St                 Plymouth     MA         02360     2129
IH        Mayflower Nursing                             Plymouth                                                     I                92                 502          123 South St             02360-2945                  Mr. James Eden            President            123 South St                Plymouth     MA         02360     2945
IH        Pilgrim Manor                                 Plymouth                                                     I                93                 507          60 Stafford ST           02360                                                                      60 Stafford ST              Plymouth     MA         02360
G         Super Shaws                                   Plymouth          Supermarkets, chain                        G               225                 1233         10 Pilgrim Hill Rd       02360-6123   508-747-2325   David Holt                Branch Manager       10 Pilgrim Hill Rd          Plymouth     MA         02360     6123     5411-0101
IH        Peter Chapman                                 Plymouth                                                     I                12                  67          25 Sandwich St 3rd Fl    02360                                                                      25 Sandwich St 3rd Fl       Plymouth     MA         02360
R         Friendlys                                     Plymouth          Restaurant, family: chain                  R                53                 288          15 Sandwich St           02360-3353   508-746-7300   Mr. Art Choate            Manager              15 Sandwich St              Plymouth     MA         02360     3353     5812-0501
R         Run of The Mill                               Plymouth          Eating places                              R                38                 205          6 Spring Ln              02360-3400   508-830-1262   Mr. Tom Howard            President            6 Spring Ln                 Plymouth     MA         02360     3400     5812-0000
R         McDonalds                                     Plymouth          Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                75                 411          143 Samoset St           02360-4801   508-746-9885   Mr. Walter Scott          Manager              143 Samoset St              Plymouth     MA         02360     4801     5812-0307
R         Jigger Johnsons Restaurant                    Plymouth          Sandwiches and submarines shop             R                38                 205          P O Box 88               02360        603-536-2992   Mr. Doug Smith            President            75 Main St                  Plymouth     MA         02360     3328     5812-0313
R         Burger King                                   Plymouth          Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                38                 205          140 Samoset St           02360-4802   508-830-9610   Mr. Mike Stocken          Manager              140 Samoset St              Plymouth     MA         02360     4802     5812-0307
R         Colonial Restaurant                           Plymouth          Restaurant, family: independent            R                38                 205          39 Main St               02360-3327   508-746-0838   Mr. George Marinos        President            39 Main St                  Plymouth     MA         02360     3327     5812-0502
R         Mayflower Restaurant                          Plymouth          Eating places                              R                83                 452          14 Union St              02360-3372   508-747-4503   Mr. Bob Reardon           Manager              14 Union St                 Plymouth     MA         02360     3372     5812-0000
R         East Bay Grill Inc                            Plymouth          American restaurant                        R               113                 616          Town Wharf 173 Water St 02360         508-746-9751   Mr. Timothy Colton        President            Town Wharf 173 Water St     Plymouth     MA         02360              5812-0101
R         All American Diner Inc                        Plymouth          Caterers                                   R                26                 140          60 Court St              02360-3825   508-747-4763   Mr. Alan Fletcher         President            60 Court St                 Plymouth     MA         02360     3825     5812-9903
R         Ming Dynasty                                  Plymouth          Chinese restaurant                         R                38                 205          21 Memorial Dr           02360-3877   508-746-7600   Mr. Harry Mah             President            21 Memorial Dr              Plymouth     MA         02360     3877     5812-0103
R         Papa Ginos                                    Plymouth          Italian restaurant                         R                53                 288          1 Samoset St             02360-4545   508-747-3535   Mr. Max Slevoy            General Manager      1 Samoset St                Plymouth     MA         02360     4545     5812-0108
F         Plymouth Bay Winery                           Plymouth          Wines                                      A                 0                  0           P O Box 1161             02362-1161   508-746-2100   Ms. Kathy Cherry          Owner                114 Water St                Plymouth     MA         02360     3864     2084-0100
R         Isaacs Restaurant Inc                         Plymouth          Eating places                              R                60                 329          114 Water St             02360-3864   508-830-0001   Mr. Robert Infusino       President            114 Water St                Plymouth     MA         02360     3864     5812-0000
R         Weathervane Seafoods Inc                      Plymouth          Seafood restaurants                        R               128                 699          6 Town Wharf             02360-3848   508-746-4195   Mr. Shawn Wood            Manager              6 Town Wharf                Plymouth     MA         02360     3848     5812-0700
R         Mama Mias Restaurant                          Plymouth          Italian restaurant                         R                60                 329          122 Water St             02360-3837   508-747-4670   Mr. Sam Viscariello       Owner                122 Water St                Plymouth     MA         02360     3837     5812-0108
R         Als Restaurant                                Plymouth          Fast food restaurants and stands           R                33                 181          136 Water St             02360-3838   508-746-3383   Mr. Albert Stevens        Owner                136 Water St                Plymouth     MA         02360     3838     5812-0300
R         Lobster Hut                                   Plymouth          Seafood restaurants                        R                45                 247          25 Town Wharf            02360-3848   508-746-2270   Mr. Bert Hinderscheid     President            25 Town Wharf               Plymouth     MA         02360     3848     5812-0700
R         Iguanas Mexican Restaurant                    Plymouth          Mexican restaurant                         R                15                  82          170 Water St             02360-3862   508-747-4000   Mr. Richard Cunha         Owner                170 Water St                Plymouth     MA         02360     3862     5812-0112
C         Sheraton Inn Plymouth                         Plymouth                                                     I                16                  88          180 Water Street         02360        508-747-4900                                                  180 Water Street            Plymouth     MA         02360
R         Ernies Restaurant                             Plymouth          American restaurant                        R                53                 288          330 Court St             02360-4325   508-746-3444   Mr. Gerald Pimental       President            330 Court St                Plymouth     MA         02360     4325     5812-0101
G         Clydes Bakery-Deli Inc                        Plymouth          Delicatessen stores                        G                15                  82          358 Court St             02360-4348   508-746-6066   Eugene Calahan            President            358 Court St                Plymouth     MA         02360     4348     5411-9902
R         Arthurs                                       Plymouth          Seafood restaurants                        R                30                 164          390 Court St             02360-7307   508-746-2343   Mr. John Sullivan         President            390 Court St                Plymouth     MA         02360     7307     5812-0700
R         Handlebar Harrys                              Plymouth          Family restaurants                         R                42                 230          377 Cordage Park Bldg 3 02360         508-747-1922   Ms. Louise Houston        Owner                377 Cordage Park Bldg 3     Plymouth     MA         02360              5812-0500
IH        Mariner Health At Longwood                    Plympton                                                     I                54                 294          101 Cedar St             02367-1119   617-232-9370   Ms. Nancy Coulombe        Owner                101 Cedar St                Plympton     MA         02367     1119
IH        Life Care Center of Raynham                   Raynham                                                      I                76                 416          546 South St E           02767-1079                  Ms. Tina Schmottlach      Executive Director   546 South St E              Raynham      MA         02767     1079
W         James A Pacheco Egg Company                   Raynham           Eggs                                       M                 0                  0           648 South St E           02767-5172   508-822-4792   Mr. James Pacheco         Owner                648 South St E              Raynham      MA         02767     5172     5144-9901
R         Papa Ginos                                    Raynham           Italian restaurant                         R                45                 247          436 New Cape Hwy         02767        508-823-1300   Mr. Nelson Cuto           Branch Manager       436 New Cape Hwy            Raynham      MA         02767              5812-0108
R         Stoneforge Public House                       Raynham           Eating places                              R                38                 205          90 Paramount Dr          02767-1001   508-977-9830   Mr. William Roland        Owner                90 Paramount Dr             Raynham      MA         02767     1001     5812-0000
R         La Garlic Restaurant                          Raynham           Italian restaurant                         R                45                 247          1649 New State Hwy       02767-1020   508-880-2440   Mr. Robert Nichols        President            1649 New State Hwy          Raynham      MA         02767     1020     5812-0108
R         The Jockey Club Inc                           Raynham           Caterers                                   R                38                 205          115 New State Hwy        02767-1440   508-828-9128   Mr. John Sullivan         President            115 New State Hwy           Raynham      MA         02767     1440     5812-9903
G         Stop & Shop                                   Raynham           Supermarkets, chain                        G               150                 822          36 New State Hwy, Rte 44 02767-1401   508-824-8800   Russell Raymond           Manager              36 New State Hwy, Rte 44    Raynham      MA         02767     1401     5411-0101
G         Super Shaws                                   Raynham           Supermarkets, chain                        G               263                 1438         Route 44 Middleboro Road 02767        508-822-5660   Kim Butts                 Manager              Route 44 Middleboro Road    Raynham      MA         02767              5411-0101
R         McDonalds                                     Raynham           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                38                 205          Rur Rte 44               02767        508-823-2022   Ms. Catherine Briessett   Manager              365 Route 44                Raynham      MA         02767     1441     5812-0307
R         Friendlys                                     Raynham           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                75                 411          427 New State Hwy 44     02767-1442   508-822-6966   Mr. Charles Clark         Manager              427 New State Hwy 44        Raynham      MA         02767     1442     5812-0501
G         Colettis Market                               Raynham           Delicatessen stores                        G                15                  82          470 N Main St            02767-1629   508-822-8817   Ernie Coletti             Owner                470 N Main St               Raynham      MA         02767     1629     5411-9902
R         B B Binks                                     Raynham           American restaurant                        R                45                 247          P O Box 179              02767-0179   508-823-7600   Ms. Karen Whitty          President            524 Broadway                Raynham      MA         02767     1796     5812-0101
R         Pepperonis                                    Raynham           Pizza restaurants                          R                29                 156          855 Broadway             02767-5226   508-821-3222   Mr. Victor Martinez       President            855 Broadway                Raynham      MA         02767     5226     5812-0600
R         McDonalds                                     Raynham           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                90                 493          947 Broadway             02767-1757   508-828-1733   Mr. Rich Mendoca          Manager              947 Broadway                Raynham      MA         02767     1757     5812-0307
G         Trucchis Supermarket                          Raynham           Supermarkets, chain                        G                75                 411          1062 Broadway            02767-1944   508-824-7517   David Trucchi             President            1062 Broadway               Raynham      MA         02767     1944     5411-0101
R         Christphers Seafood Steakhouse                Raynham           Steak restaurant                           R                24                 132          1285 Broadway            02767-1979   508-824-9016   Mr. Theodore Kesari       President            1285 Broadway               Raynham      MA         02767     1979     5812-0802
R         Great American Pub The                        Raynham           American restaurant                        R                83                 452          P O Box 46               02767-0046   508-824-4880   Mr. Walter Collins        President            1736 Broadway               Raynham      MA         02767     1966     5812-0101
R         Massasoit Catering Inc                        Raynham           Caterers                                   R               300                 1644         P O Box 172              02767-0172   508-824-4071   Mr. George Carney         President            1958 Broadway               Raynham      MA         02767     1900     5812-9903
R         Honey Dew Rehobeth                            Rehoboth          Snack shop                                 R                15                  82          317 Tremont St           02769-2707   508-431-2784   Mr. Steve Provaza         Owner                317 Tremont St              Rehoboth     MA         02769     2707     5812-0315
G         Lloyds Market Inc                             Rochester         Grocery stores, independent                G                15                  82          4 Hartley Rd             02770-1608   508-763-5673   Jay George                President            4 Hartley Rd                Rochester    MA         02770     1608     5411-9905
F         Hiller Cranberries                            Rochester         Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           265 Marys Pond Rd        02770-4015   508-763-5257   Mr. Robert Hiller         President            265 Marys Pond Rd           Rochester    MA         02770     4015     2033-0500
F         Decas Cranberry CO                            Rochester         Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           461 Marys Pond Rd        02770-4014   508-295-1474   Mr. Peter Frenette        Plant Mgr            461 Marys Pond Rd           Rochester    MA         02770     4014     2033-0500
F         Porter Bog CO                                 Rochester         Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           Marys Pond Rd            02770        508-763-2669                                                  Marys Pond Rd               Rochester    MA         02770              2033-0500
R         Bridge Restaurant                             Sagamore          Italian restaurant                         R                38                 205          P O Box 299              02561-0299   508-888-8144   Mr. Edward Prete          President            21 Cranberry Hwy RR 6 Box   Bourne       MA         02561              5812-0108
R         McDonalds                                     Sagamore Beach    Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                75                 411          15 Meetinghouse Ln       02562-2412   508-888-5225   Guerin Cart               Manager              15 Meetinghouse Ln          Bourne       MA         02562     2412     5812-0307
R         Bayberrys Restaurant Inc                      Sandwich          Restaurant, family: independent            R                50                 271          271 Cotuit Rd            02563-5108   508-477-4094   Metries Sakkas            President            271 Cotuit Rd               Sandwich     MA         02563     5108     5812-0502
G         A & P Super Foodmart                          Sandwich          Supermarkets, chain                        G               246                 1348         71 Quaker Meeting House R02563-5103   508-477-1449                                                  71 Quaker Meeting House R   Sandwich     MA         02563     5103     5411-0101
G         Wallace Food Mart                             Sandwich          Grocery stores                             G                15                  82          298 Cotuit Rd            02563-2493   508-888-8266   Rob Peterson              Manager              298 Cotuit Rd               Sandwich     MA         02563     2493     5411-0000
G         Sandwich Food Pantry Inc                      Sandwich          Supermarkets                               G                45                 247          P O Box 1824             02563-7824   508-888-3816   John Thomas               President            331 Cotuit Rd               Sandwich     MA         02563     7824     5411-0100
R         Marshland Restaurant Inc                      Sandwich          Eating places                              R                33                 181          RR Box 6a                02563        508-888-9824   Mr. Henry Cooke           President            RR Box 6a                   Sandwich     MA         02563              5812-0000
R         Six A Cafe                                    Sandwich          Pizza restaurants                          R                15                  82          Rur Rte 6                02563        508-888-5220   Mr. James Stesos          Owner                Rur Rte 6                   Sandwich     MA         02563              5812-0600
IH        The Rehabilitation Hospital of the Cape and   Sandwich                                                     I                37                 205          311 Service Road         02537        508-833-4001                                                  311 Service Road            Sandwich     MA         02537
C         Heritage Plantation of Sandwich               Sandwich                                                     I                16                  88          Pine and Grove Streets   02563        508-888-3300                                                  Pine and Grove Streets      Sandwich     MA         02563
R         Sweet Tomatoes                                Sandwich          Eating places                              R                17                  90          148 Route 6a             02563-2046   508-888-5979   Ms. Nancy Yetman          Principal            148 Route 6a                Sandwich     MA         02563     2046     5812-0000
R         Daniel Webster Inn                            Sandwich          Eating places                              R               525                 2877         149 Main St              02563-2271   508-888-3622   Mr. Vincent Catania       President            149 Main St                 Sandwich     MA         02563     2271     5812-0000
R         Ice Cream Sandwich Inc                        Sandwich          Ice cream stands or dairy bars             R                15                  82          P O Box 119              02563-0119   508-888-7237   Mr. Robert Hannon         President            66 Route 6a                 Sandwich     MA         02563     1863     5812-0203
G         Stop & Shop                                   Sandwich          Supermarkets, chain                        G               350                 1918         65D Route 6A             02563                                                                      65D Route 6A                Sandwich     MA         02563              5411-0101
R         Captain Scotts Seafood Rest                   Sandwich          Eating places                              R                32                 173          71 Tupper Rd             02563-1868   508-888-1675   Ms. Virginia Gossios      President            71 Tupper Rd                Sandwich     MA         02563     1868     5812-0000
W         Canal Marine Fisheries Inc                    Sandwich          Seafoods                                   F                 0                  0           20 Freezer Rd            02563-1826   508-888-0096   Mr. John Shasmaster       President            20 Freezer Rd               Sandwich     MA         02563     1826     5146-9904
R         Aqua Grille Inc                               Sandwich          Eating places                              R                60                 329          14 Gallo Rd              02563-1998   508-888-8889   Mr. John Zartirian        President            14 Gallo Rd                 Sandwich     MA         02563     1998     5812-0000
R         Seafood Sams                                  Sandwich          Eating places                              R                45                 247          P O Box 1129             02563-1129   508-888-4629   Mr. Jeff Lewis            President            6 Coast Guard Rd            Sandwich     MA         02563     1996     5812-0000
R         Horizons On Cape Cod Bay                      Sandwich          American restaurant                        R                90                 493          P O Box 2019             02563-8019   508-888-6166   Mr. Franklin Kelleher     President            98 Town Neck Rd             Sandwich     MA         02563     1993     5812-0101
W         Joes Lobster Market Inc                       Sandwich          Seafoods                                   F                 0                  0           Coast Guard Rd           02563        508-888-2971   Mr. Joseph Vaudo          President            Coast Guard Rd              Sandwich     MA         02563              5146-9904
F         Rosito Bisani                                 Seekonk           Coffee roasting (except by wholesale       V                 0                  0           1402 Fall River Ave      02771-3711   508-336-2100   Mr. Peter Lazaris         President            1402 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     3711     2095-9902
R         Eats Restaurant                               Seekonk           Eating places                              R                17                  90          1395 Fall River Ave      02771-5908   508-336-4384   Mr. George Mihailides     Owner                1395 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5908     5812-0000
W         Tonys Seafood Inc                             Seekonk           Seafoods                                   F                 0                  0           1365 Fall River Ave      02771-5923   508-336-6800   Mr. Angelo Pirri          President            1365 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5923     5146-9904
R         Friendlys                                     Seekonk           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                48                 263          1151 Fall River Ave      02771-5814   508-336-5562   Ms. Pauline Medeiros      Manager              1151 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5814     5812-0501
R         Longhorn Steakhouse                           Seekonk           Steak restaurant                           R                75                 411          1125 Fall River Ave      02771-5814   508-336-2200   Mr. Greg Esmay                                 1125 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5814     5812-0802
R         Old Country Buffet                            Seekonk           Buffet (eating places)                     R               105                 575          37 Commerce Way          02771-5816   508-336-0530   Mr. Roger Bercher         Principal            37 Commerce Way             Seekonk      MA         02771     5816     5812-9901
R         Taco Bell                                     Seekonk           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                38                 205          11 Commerce Way          02771-5816   508-336-8005   Ms. Jennifer Nolan        Manager              11 Commerce Way             Seekonk      MA         02771     5816     5812-0307
R         T G I Fridays                                 Seekonk           Restaurant, family: chain                  R               150                 822          1105 Fall River Ave      02771-5814   508-336-2258   Mr. William Lai           Manager              1105 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5814     5812-0501
R         Burger King                                   Seekonk           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                53                 288          1009 Fall River Ave      02771-5803   508-336-8912   Mr. Gary Savigny          Manager              1009 Fall River Ave         Seekonk      MA         02771     5803     5812-0307
R         Darlenes Restaraunt                           Seekonk           Eating places                              R               150                 822          940 Fall River Ave       02771-5821   508-336-9222   Mr. Tom Cummings          President            940 Fall River Ave          Seekonk      MA         02771     5821     5812-0000
R         Vinny Testas                                  Seekonk           Italian restaurant                         R               113                 616          353 Highland Ave         02771-5807   508-336-8488   Mr. David Tanner                               353 Highland Ave            Seekonk      MA         02771     5807     5812-0108
R         Bickfords Family Fare                         Seekonk           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                75                 411          965 Fall River Ave       02771-5803   508-336-5075   Mr. Mike Lewis            Manager              965 Fall River Ave          Seekonk      MA         02771     5803     5812-0501
R         McDonalds                                     Seekonk           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R               113                 616          250 Highland Ave         02771-5808   508-336-3430   Ms. Christine Malloy      Manager              250 Highland Ave            Seekonk      MA         02771     5808     5812-0307
G         Stop & Shop                                   Seekonk           Supermarkets, chain                        G               300                 1644         35 Highland Street       02771        508-336-5780   Jeff Morton               Branch Manager       35 Highland Street          Seekonk      MA         02771              5411-0101
R         Wendys                                        Seekonk           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                35                 192          8 Highland Ave           02771-5806   508-336-4019   Mr. Thomas Rist           Manager              8 Highland Ave              Seekonk      MA         02771     5806     5812-0307
R         99 Restaurant & Pub                           Seekonk           American restaurant                        R                90                 493          821 Fall River Ave       02771-5801   508-336-9899   Mr. John Simoes           Manager              821 Fall River Ave          Seekonk      MA         02771     5801     5812-0101
R         Newport Creamery Inc                          Seekonk           Family restaurants                         R                45                 247          701 Fall River Ave       02771-5626   508-336-4519   Mr. Don Defedle           Branch Manager       701 Fall River Ave          Seekonk      MA         02771     5626     5812-0500
R         Torts Bar & Grille                            Seekonk           Grills (eating places)                     R                30                 164          350 Fall River Ave       02771-5506   508-336-6634   Mr. Michael Tortallana    President            350 Fall River Ave          Seekonk      MA         02771     5506     5812-0310
R         Johnson & Wales Inn                           Seekonk           Restaurant, family: independent            R               117                 641          213 Taunton Ave          02771-5320   508-336-8700   Ms. Kathy Cavanaugh       Sales & Marketing    213 Taunton Ave             Seekonk      MA         02771     5320     5812-0502
R         Chardonnays                                   Seekonk           Eating places                              R                36                 197          393 Taunton Ave          02771-5230   508-336-0967   Mr. Alfred Castgiglioni   President            393 Taunton Ave             Seekonk      MA         02771     5230     5812-0000
R         Youngs Caterers Inc                           Seekonk           Caterers                                   R                23                 123          364 Newman Ave           02771-4604   508-336-4053   Mr. Robert Young          President            364 Newman Ave              Seekonk      MA         02771     4604     5812-9903
R         Michellettis Restaurant                       Seekonk           American restaurant                        R                38                 205          1053 Newman Ave          02771-4431   508-761-6370   Mr. Paul Micheletti       Owner                1053 Newman Ave             Seekonk      MA         02771     4431     5812-0101
G         Butsons Enterprises of Mass                   Seekonk           Supermarkets, chain                        G               204                 1118         1475 Newman Ave          02771-2618   508-399-5624   Richard Coon              Branch Manager       1475 Newman Ave             Seekonk      MA         02771     2618     5411-0101
W         Hershey Ice Cream                             Seekonk           Ice cream and ices                         D                 0                  0           107 Pond St              02771-3925   508-399-8560   Mr. Bill Murphy           Manager              107 Pond St                 Seekonk      MA         02771     3925     5143-9905
R         Rogers Family Restaurant                      Somerset          Eating places                              R                21                 115          1229 Wilbur Ave          02725-1816   508-672-9472   Mr. Roger La Flamme       Owner                1229 Wilbur Ave             Somerset     MA         02725     1816     5812-0000
R         Magonis Ferry Landing Inc                     Somerset          Italian restaurant                         R                95                 518          681 Riverside Ave        02725-2843   508-674-4335   Mr. Jeffrey Magoni        President            681 Riverside Ave           Somerset     MA         02725     2843     5812-0108
G         Stop & Shop                                   Somerset          Supermarkets, chain                        G               525                 2877         Gar Hwy RR 6             02725        508-679-1373   Michael Thomas            Manager              Gar Hwy RR 6                Somerset     MA         02725              5411-0101
R         OKT Inc                                       Somerset          Cafe                                       R                60                 329          1876 Wilbur Ave          02725-1013   508-678-9118   Mr. Walter Collins        President            1876 Wilbur Ave             Somerset     MA         02725     1013     5812-9902
R         Wendys                                        Somerset          Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                45                 247          707 Grand Army Hwy       02726-1204   508-675-0394   Ms. Wendy Camara                               707 Grand Army Hwy          Somerset     MA         02726     1204     5812-0307
R         Burger King                                   Somerset          Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                59                 321          883 Grand Army Hwy       02726-1204   508-675-2621   Ms. Cheryl Walkden        Manager              883 Grand Army Hwy          Somerset     MA         02726     1204     5812-0307
F         Golden Cannoli Shells Co Inc                  Somerset          Bread, cake, and related products          B                 0                  0           8 Garden Ave             02726-2614   617-776-5491   Sir or Madam              President            8 Garden Ave                Somerset     MA         02726     2614     2051-0000
R         Threes Company                                Somerset          Family restaurants                         R                21                 115          1525 Riverside Ave       02726-2809   508-679-5600   Mr. Ernie Micher          President            1525 Riverside Ave          Somerset     MA         02726     2809     5812-0500
R         Somerset Lodge Inc                            Somerset          Eating places                              R                38                 205          P O Box 64               02726-0064   508-672-9410   Mr. Michael Marchand      President            146 County St               Somerset     MA         02726     4202     5812-0000
W         Le Comtes All Star Dairy                      Somerset          Dairy products, except dried or cann       D                 0                  0           500 Wood St              02726-4690   508-672-7089   Mr. Francis Macomber      President            500 Wood St                 Somerset     MA         02726     4690     5143-0000
F         Nikol Foods Inc                               Somerset          Food preparations, nec                     X                 0                  0           3751 Riverside Ave       02726-5538   508-676-0148   Mr. Norman Jolivet        President            3751 Riverside Ave          Somerset     MA         02726     5538     2099-0000
R         China Lake Restraunt                          Somerset          Chinese restaurant                         R                45                 247          2732 County St           02726-3919   508-678-1888   Mr. Arthur Wong           President            2732 County St              Somerset     MA         02726     3919     5812-0103
G         Grand Central Market                          Somerset          Grocery stores, chain                      G                63                 345          3049 County St           02726-3922   508-675-0377   James Simcock             Manager              3049 County St              Somerset     MA         02726     3922     5411-9904
F         Preztal Maker Inc                             Somerset          Potato chips and similar snacks            J                 0                  0           354 Palmer St            02726-5807   617-451-1563   Mr. Claude Pilotte        President            354 Palmer St               Somerset     MA         02726     5807     2096-0000
R         Fays Too Inc                                  South Dartmouth   Eating places                              R                53                 288          613 Dartmouth St         02748-2513   508-997-8000   Ms. Evelyn Bettencourt    President            613 Dartmouth St            Dartmouth    MA         02748     2513     5812-0000
R         Chippys Family Restaurant                     South Dartmouth   Family restaurants                         R                15                  82          58 Saint John St         02748-2918   508-984-4711   Ms. Colleen Leonardo      President            58 Saint John St            Dartmouth    MA         02748     2918     5812-0500
R         McDonalds                                     South Dartmouth   Fast-food restaurant, chain                R               105                 575          179 Rockdale Ave         02748-1915   508-999-5581   Ms. Debbie Pacheco        Manager              179 Rockdale Ave            Dartmouth    MA         02748     1915     5812-0307
R         Porticello Restaurant                         South Easton      Italian restaurant                         R                38                 205          454 Turnpike St          02375-1736   508-230-0220   Mr. Mario Sanfillipo      Owner                454 Turnpike St             Easton       MA         02375     1736     5812-0108
R         Burger King                                   South Easton      Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                45                 247          479 Foundry St           02375-1774   508-238-0302   Mr. George Buckley        Manager              479 Foundry St              Easton       MA         02375     1774     5812-0307
R         Carriage House of Easton                      South Easton      Caterers                                   R                38                 205          310 Turnpike St          02375-1708   508-238-1266   Mr. Steven Nolan          Manager              310 Turnpike St             Easton       MA         02375     1708     5812-9903
R         McDonalds                                     South Easton      Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                40                 219          639 Washington St        02375-1197   508-238-1587   Ms. Sid Borenstein        Owner                639 Washington St           Easton       MA         02375     1197     5812-0307
R         Papa Ginos                                    South Easton      Italian restaurant                         R                53                 288          594 Washington St        02375-1918   508-238-0118   Mr. Fernando Aguiar       General Manager      594 Washington St           Easton       MA         02375     1918     5812-0108
R         Dominos Pizza                                 South Yarmouth    Pizzeria, chain                            R                15                  82          P O Box 189              02664-0189   508-540-8004   Ms. Debbie Plamento       President            367 Main St                 Falmouth     MA         02540     3158     5812-0601
IH        Sweet Brook Care Center                       Swansea                                                      I                54                 294          115 Wilbur Ave           02777-2619   413-458-8127   Mr. Carlton Albritton     President            115 Wilbur Ave              Swansea      MA         02777     2619
G         Rudys Country Store Inc                       Swansea           Grocery stores, independent                G                30                 164          P O Box 496              02777-0496   508-673-3996   Daniel Durso              President            395 Wilbur Ave              Swansea      MA         02777     0496     5411-9905
R         Venus De Milo                                 Swansea           Eating places                              R               375                 2055         75 G A R Hwy             02777-3214   508-678-3901   Mr. Ronald Ferris         President            75 G A R Hwy                Swansea      MA         02777     3214     5812-0000
G         Hi-Lo Supermarket                             Swansea           Grocery stores                             G                96                 526          579 Gar Hwy HI           02777-4587   508-324-4633   Cesar Simas               Manager              579 Gar Hwy                 Swansea      MA         02777     4587     5411-0000
R         Ponderosa Steakhouse                          Swansea           Steak restaurant                           R                45                 247          728 G A R Hwy            02777-4590   508-677-2211   Mr. Billy Smith           Manager              728 G A R Hwy               Swansea      MA         02777     4590     5812-0802
R         Burger King                                   Swansea           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                45                 247          736 Grand Army Hwy       02777-4590   508-676-1410   Mr. Bob Hartnett          General Manager      736 Grand Army Hwy          Swansea      MA         02777     4590     5812-0307
R         McDonalds                                     Swansea           Fast-food restaurant, chain                R               113                 616          731 Grand Army Hwy       02777-4502   508-672-9453   Mr. Dane Pursley          Manager              731 Grand Army Hwy          Swansea      MA         02777     4502     5812-0307
R         Friendlys                                     Swansea           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                60                 329          748 G A R Hwy            02777-4590   508-676-9694   Mr. Dan Ferreira          General Manager      748 G A R Hwy               Swansea      MA         02777     4590     5812-0501
R         Ruby Tuesday                                  Swansea           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                75                 411          7070 Swansea Mall Dr     02777        508-678-3343   Mr. Michael Vaccaro       Manager              7070 Swansea Mall Dr        Swansea      MA         02777              5812-0501
R         Kents Inc                                     Swansea           Restaurant, family: chain                  R                50                 271          1675 G A R Hwy           02777-3901   508-672-9293   Ms. Donna Leonard         President            1675 G A R Hwy              Swansea      MA         02777     3901     5812-0501
R         Corner Stone Restaurant & Bky                 Swansea           Eating places                              R                38                 205          1713 G A R Hwy           02777-3901   508-676-1220   Mr. John Olivera          Owner                1713 G A R Hwy              Swansea      MA         02777     3901     5812-0000
F         Star Pickling Corp Inc                        Swansea           Pickled fruits and vegetables              V                 0                  0           941 Wood St              02777-3550   508-672-8535   Mr. Joseph Castro         President            941 Wood St                 Swansea      MA         02777     3550     2035-0200
R         Complete Collision Center                     Swansea           Eating places                              R                24                 132          2100 Gar Hwy             02777-3930   508-379-1002   Mr. John Salvera          President            2100 Gar Hwy                Swansea      MA         02777     3930     5812-0000
R         Cathay Pearl Restaurant                       Swansea           Chinese restaurant                         R                23                 123          2416 Grand Army Hwy      02777-3322   508-379-1188   Shee Chu                  President            2416 Grand Army Hwy         Swansea      MA         02777     3322     5812-0103
F         Baker's Slaughter House                       Swansea           Meat packing plants                        M                 0                  0           235 Locust St            02777-3540   508-676-0783   Mr. Antonio Rodrigues     Owner                235 Locust St               Swansea      MA         02777     3540     2011-0000
                                                                                                                         Annual Production   Daily Production
CATCODE   NAME                                   TOWN               SIC8NAME                             Type of Waste     (wet tons/yr)       (wet lbs/d)      ADDRESS                  MAILZIP9     PHONE          EXECFULL                     EXECTITLE         PHYADD                          PHYTOWN            PHYSTATE   PHYZIP5   PHYPLUS4   SIC8
R         Bertuccis Brick Oven Pizzeria          Taunton            Pizza restaurants                          R                75                 411          2 Galleria Mall Dr       02780-6913   508-880-0222   Mr. Allan Dalencia           Manager           2 Galleria Mall Dr              Taunton            MA         02780     6913       5812-0600
R         Ground Round                           Taunton            Restaurant, family: chain                  R                38                 205          2 Galleria Mall Dr       02780-6913   508-823-7847   Mr. Greg Pettiglio           Branch Manager    2 Galleria Mall Dr              Taunton            MA         02780     6913       5812-0501
R         Taco Bell                              Taunton            Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                35                 192          2 Galleria Mall Dr       02780-6913   508-822-7165   Mr. Roger Lockwood           President         2 Galleria Mall Dr              Taunton            MA         02780     6913       5812-0307
R         Simon Says                             Taunton            Eating places                              R                17                  90          94 1/2 Lawton Ave        02780-5057   508-823-6708   Lynn Simon                   Owner             94 1/2 Lawton Ave               Taunton            MA         02780     5057       5812-0000
F         Newcastle Donuts Llc                   Taunton            Biscuits, baked; baking powder and         B                 0                  0           874 County St            02780-3748   508-822-5698   Mr. Ken Larsen               President         874 County St                   Taunton            MA         02780     3748       2051-0102
R         Curleys Pub                            Taunton            Eating places                              R                42                 230          431 Winthrop St          02780-2154   508-823-8664   Mari Curley                  Owner             431 Winthrop St                 Taunton            MA         02780     2154       5812-0000
F         Garda Dairy Farm                       Taunton            Fluid milk                                 D                 0                  0           114 Linden St            02780-3622   508-824-7842   Sir or Madam                 President         114 Linden St                   Taunton            MA         02780     3622       2026-0000
R         New Weir Pizza & Restaurant            Taunton            Pizza restaurants                          R                45                 247          49 W Water St            02780-4850   508-823-4933   Mr. John Karagerogos         President         49 W Water St                   Taunton            MA         02780     4850       5812-0600
G         Trucchis Supermarket                   Taunton            Supermarkets, chain                        G               225                 1233         534 County St            02780-3604   508-824-8941   Kim Cloutier                 Manager           534 County St                   Taunton            MA         02780     3604       5411-0101
R         May Villa Restaurant                   Taunton            Chinese restaurant                         R                15                  82          336 Winthrop St          02780-4308   508-824-1307   Ms. May Hoo                  President         336 Winthrop St                 Taunton            MA         02780     4308       5812-0103
R         Papa Ginos                             Taunton            Italian restaurant                         R                38                 205          294 Winthrop St Ste 164  02780-4306   508-823-8800   Ms. Channa Lund              Manager           294 Winthrop St Ste 164         Taunton            MA         02780     4306       5812-0108
G         Super Shaws                            Taunton            Supermarkets, chain                        G               300                 1644         Warner Blvd Route 44     02780        508-822-0137   Kevin Morrison               Manager           Warner Blvd Route 44            Taunton            MA         02780                5411-0101
R         McDonalds                              Taunton            Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                98                 534          282 Winthrop St          02780-4340   508-823-8050   Ms. Charlene Rodriquez       Manager           282 Winthrop St                 Taunton            MA         02780     4340       5812-0307
F         Via Della Chiesa Vineyards             Taunton            Wines                                      A                 0                  0           250 Cape Hwy             02718-1513   508-823-2332   Mr. Robert Dicroce           President         250 Cape Hwy                    Taunton            MA         02718     1513       2084-0100
IH        Marian Manor of Taunton                Taunton                                                       I                57                 313          33 Summer St             02780-3408                  Mr. Thomas Healy             Principal         33 Summer St                    Taunton            MA         02780     3408
R         Lombardi Brothers Sports Pub           Taunton            Eating places                              R                24                 132          16 Trescott St 18        02780-3219   508-824-0071   Mr. Randy Lombardi           President         16 Trescott St 18               Taunton            MA         02780     3219       5812-0000
R         Dunkin Donuts                          Taunton            Coffee shop                                R                60                 329          5 Washington St          02780-3918   508-822-6936   Mr. Richard Demers           President         5 Washington St                 Taunton            MA         02780     3918       5812-0304
IH        Longmeadow of Taunton                  Taunton                                                       I                49                 270          68 Dean Street- Rear     02780                                                                      68 Dean Street- Rear            Taunton            MA         02780
R         Domino S Pizza                         Taunton            Pizza restaurants                          R                27                 148          17 Tremont St            02780-3054   508-880-0111   Mr. Edward Lee               Owner             17 Tremont St                   Taunton            MA         02780     3054       5812-0600
G         Trucchis Supermarket                   Taunton            Supermarkets, chain                        G               300                 1644         53 Tremont St            02780-3015   508-824-5698   Ron Lima                     Manager           53 Tremont St                   Taunton            MA         02780     3015       5411-0101
IH        Wedgemere Convalescent Home            Taunton                                                       I                46                 254          146 Dean St              02780-2716                  Mr. William Maloney          Director          146 Dean St                     Taunton            MA         02780     2716
R         KFC                                    Taunton            Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                31                 170          20 Cape Rd               02780-2704   508-822-2006   Mr. Milton Darlene           Owner             20 Cape Rd                      Taunton            MA         02780     2704       5812-0307
IH        Taunton State Hospital                 Taunton                                                       I                37                 205          PO Box 4007, 60 Hodges Av02780        508-824-7551                                                  60 Hodges Avenue                Taunton            MA         02780
IH        Morton Hospital and Medical Center     Taunton                                                       I                95                 520          88 Washington            02780        508-828-7000   Mr. Thomas Porter            President         88 Washington                   Taunton            MA         02780
IH        Taunton Nursing                        Taunton                                                       I                50                 273          350 Norton Ave           02780-1270                  Mr. Joseph Rego              Administrator     350 Norton Ave                  Taunton            MA         02780     1270
R         Bella Roma Inc                         Taunton            Eating places                              R                26                 140          239 Broadway             02780-1551   508-823-5558   Mr. Elio De Fabritis         President         239 Broadway                    Taunton            MA         02780     1551       5812-0000
R         Friendlys                              Taunton            Restaurant, family: chain                  R                53                 288          247 Broadway             02780-1508   508-822-6351   Tracy Cummings               Manager           247 Broadway                    Taunton            MA         02780     1508       5812-0501
R         Benjamins Restaurant Inc               Taunton            American restaurant                        R               210                 1151         698 Bay St               02780-1351   508-824-7532   Mr. George Benjamin          President         698 Bay St                      Taunton            MA         02780     1351       5812-0101
R         Gondola Restrnt                        Taunton            Cafe                                       R                66                 362          1094 Bay St              02780-1324   508-824-8754   Mr. William Ruggiero         President         1094 Bay St                     Taunton            MA         02780     1324       5812-9902
F         Tropicana                              Taunton            Canned fruits and specialties              V                 0                  0           300 Myles Standish Blvd  02780-7364   508-821-2056   Mr. George King              Manager           300 Myles Standish Blvd         Taunton            MA         02780     7364       2033-0000
F         Chicama Vineyards                      Tisbury            Wines                                      A                 0                  0           P O Box 430              02575-0430   508-693-0309   Ms. Catherine Mathiesen      Owner             Stoney Hill Rd                  Tisbury            MA         02575     0430       2084-0100
G         Cronigs State Road Market              Tisbury            Supermarkets                               G                75                 411          P O Box 698              02568-0698   508-693-4457   Stephen Bernier              President         109 State Rd                    Tisbury            MA         02568     0698       5411-0100
G         A & P Super Foodmart                   Tisbury            Supermarkets, chain                        G               150                 822          P O Box 457              02568-0457   508-693-9845   Cliff Karako                 Branch Manager    50 Water St                     Tisbury            MA         02568     0457       5411-0101
R         Louiss                                 Vineyard Haven     Restaurant, family: independent            R                38                 205          P O Box 2750             02568-2750   508-693-3255   Mr. Louis Giordano           President         350 State Rd                    Tisbury            MA         02568     5624       5812-0502
R         Zephrus Restaurant                     Vineyard Haven     Family restaurants                         R                53                 288          P O Box 428              02568-0428   508-693-2200   Mr. Sherman Goldstein                          9 Main St                       Tisbury            MA         02568     5400       5812-0500
IH        Tobey Hospital                         Wareham                                                       I                33                 178          43 High Street           02571        508-295-0880                                                  43 High Street                  Wareham            MA         02571
IH        Forestview Nursing Home of Wareham     Wareham                                                       I                80                 440          50 Indian Neck Rd        02571-2174                  Mr. Robert Platt             President         50 Indian Neck Rd               Wareham            MA         02571     2174
R         Narrows Crossing                       Wareham            Seafood restaurants                        R                30                 164          1 Narrows Rd             02571-1630   508-295-9857   Mr. Bob Nawoichik            President         1 Narrows Rd                    Wareham            MA         02571     1630       5812-0700
G         Jimmie Foodliners                      Wareham            Supermarkets, independent                  G                68                 370          121 Marion Rd            02571-1423   508-295-4887   James Croke                  President         121 Marion Rd                   Wareham            MA         02571     1423       5411-0103
W         Decas Bros Whol Fruit                  Wareham            Fruits, fresh                              V                 0                  0           219 Main St Ste A        02571-2134   508-295-0147   Ms. Georgia Chamberlain      President         219 Main St                     Wareham            MA         02571     2134       5148-0102
R         99 Restaurant & Pub                    Wareham            American restaurant                        R                75                 411          3013 Cranberry Hwy       02571        508-295-9909   Mr. Paul Bober               General Manager   3013 Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA         02571                5812-0101
R         Burger King 4588                       Wareham            Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                22                 121          3012 A Cranberry Hwy     02571        508-291-0716   Ms. Diana Sanatos            Director          3012 A Cranberry Hwy            Wareham            MA         02571                5812-0307
G         Stop & Shop                            Wareham            Supermarkets, chain                        G               234                 1280         Rte 6 and Rte 28         02538                                                                      Rte 6 and Rte 28                Wareham            MA         02538                5411-0101
G         Onset Village Market Inc               Wareham            Grocery stores, independent                G                23                 123          P O Box 1750             02558-1750   508-291-1440   James Junkins                President         231 ONSET AVE                   Wareham            MA         02558     1750       5411-9905
W         Main Street Seafood of Wareham         Wareham            Seafoods                                   F                 0                  0           381 Main St              02571-2173   508-291-2220   Mr. Rick Power               President         381 Main St                     Wareham            MA         02571     2173       5146-9904
IH        Millbrook Nursing and Rehab            Wareham                                                       I                50                 276          605 Main St              02571-1031                  Mr. Paul Cummings            Partner           605 Main St                     Wareham            MA         02571     1031
R         Zeadeys                                Wareham            Italian restaurant                         R                38                 205          2424 Cranberry Hwy       02571-1085   508-295-3489   Mr. Joseph Zeadey            President         2424 Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA         02571     1085       5812-0108
F         Cranberry Grower's Svc                 Wareham            Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           2417 Cranberry Hwy       02571-1002   508-295-2222   Mr. Peter Beaton             President         2417 Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA         02571     1002       2033-0500
F         Chatam Village Foods                   Wareham            Bread, cake, and related products          B                 0                  0           15 Kendrick Rd           02571-1077   508-291-2304   Sir or Madam                 President         15 Kendrick Rd                  Wareham            MA         02571     1077       2051-0000
F         Chatham Village Croutons               Wareham            Bread, cake, and related products          B                 0                  0           15 Kendrick Rd           02571-1072   508-291-2304   Mr. Cliff Tabke              Manager           15 Kendrick Rd                  Wareham            MA         02571     1072       2051-0000
W         Calise & Sons Bakery Inc               Wareham            Bakery products                            B                 0                  0           12 Kendrick Rd Unit 4    02571-1078   508-291-0367   Mr. Charlie Stephanopoulos   Manager           12 Kendrick Rd Unit 4           Wareham            MA         02571     1078       5149-0701
W         Southeast Shellfish Inc                Wareham            Fish and seafoods                          F                 0                  0           22 Kendrick Rd           02571-1079   508-273-0323   Mr. David Gallant            President         22 Kendrick Rd                  Wareham            MA         02571     1079       5146-0000
F         Nissen John J Baking Co Inc            Wareham            Bread, cake, and related products          B                 0                  0           2406 Cranberry Hwy       02571-1043   508-295-2337   Sir or Madam                 President         2406 Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA         02571     1043       2051-0000
F         James C Cannell Coffees Inc            Wareham            Coffee & tea products                      V                 0                  0           21 Patterson Brook Rd    02576-1217   508-295-7009   Mr. James C Cannell          Owner             21 Patterson Brook Rd           Wareham            MA         02576     1217       2095-0100
F         A D Makepeace CO                       Wareham            Cranberries (Canners)                      V                 0                  0           158 Tihonet Rd           02571-1104   508-295-1000   Mr. Christopher Makepeace    President         158 Tihonet Rd                  Wareham            MA         02571     1104       2033-0500
R         Yangtze China Inc                      West Bridgewater   Chinese restaurant                         R                23                 123          266 S Main St            02379-1751   508-583-9020   Mr. James Eng                President         266 S Main St                   West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1751       5812-0103
IH        Life Care Center of West Bridgewater   West Bridgewater                                              I                74                 405          765 W Center St          02379-1517   978-689-0202   Mr. Alan Richman             Principal         765 W Center St                 West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1517
R         Charlie Horse West Bridgewater         West Bridgewater   Family restaurants                         R               150                 822          674 W Center St          02379-1532   508-583-7252   Mr. Ed Stewart               Manager           674 W Center St                 West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1532       5812-0500
F         Shonnas Gourmet Goodies Inc            West Bridgewater   Frozen specialties, nec                    X                 0                  0           320 W Center St Ste 106 02379-1626    508-580-2033   Mr. Howard Sherman           President         320 W Center St                 West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1626       2038-0000
R         Garys Restaurant                       West Bridgewater   Restaurant, family: independent            R                75                 411          115 S Main St            02379-1738   508-584-4444   Mr. Lars Eliasson            President         115 S Main St                   West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1738       5812-0502
G         Trucchis Supermarket                   West Bridgewater   Supermarkets, chain                        G               105                 575          53 E Center St           02379-1835   508-583-0822   Allen Rose                   President         53 E Center St                  West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1835       5411-0101
R         Vitos                                  West Bridgewater   Italian restaurant                         R                15                  82          275 N Main St            02379-1226   508-559-9540   Ms. Louise Paparella         President         275 N Main St                   West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1226       5812-0108
R         Fredas                                 West Bridgewater   Eating places                              R                15                  82          105 Copeland St          02379-1211   508-583-8217   Mr. Steven Stathis           President         105 Copeland St                 West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1211       5812-0000
R         Mc Menmys Safood W Bridgewater         West Bridgewater   Seafood restaurants                        R                15                  82          740 N Main St            02379-1235   508-584-0300   Mr. Dennis Mc Menamy         President         740 N Main St                   West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1235       5812-0700
R         McDonalds                              West Bridgewater   Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                45                 247          800 N Main St            02379-1235   508-584-7110   Mr. Phil Ligget              Manager           800 N Main St                   West Bridgewater   MA         02379     1235       5812-0307
R         Olde Inn The                           West Dennis        Eating places                              R                15                  82          P O Box 451              02670-0451   508-760-2627   Diarmuid Quinn               President         348 W Main St                   Barnstable         MA         02601     3651       5812-0000
R         Barnstable Tavern                      West Dennis        Restaurant, family: independent            R                45                 247          P O Box 313              02670-0313   508-362-2355   Ms. Jane Label               Partner           3176 Main St                    Barnstable         MA         02630     1107       5812-0502
R         Pauls Pizzeria                         West Falmouth      Pizzeria, independent                      R                45                 247          P O Box 98               02574-0098   508-548-5838   Mr. Shawn Noonan             President         14 Benham Rd                    Falmouth           MA         02540     3670       5812-0602
R         Chapoquoit Grill Inc                   West Falmouth      Eating places                              R                39                 214          P O Box 1237             02574-1237   508-540-7794   Mr. John Reed                Owner             410 W Falmouth Hwy              Falmouth           MA         02574                5812-0000
R         Vels                                   West Wareham       Restaurant, family: independent            R                75                 411          P O Box 33               02576-0033   508-295-3224   Mr. Donald Bump              President         2352 Cranberry Hwy              Wareham            MA         02576     1208       5812-0502
W         Lees Wharf Lobster Inc                 Westport           Fish and seafoods                          F                 0                  0           2065 Main Rd             02791        508-636-6161   Mr. Robert Gifford           President         2065 Main Rd                    Westport           MA         02791                5146-0000
W         Great Southern Shrimp Co               Westport           Fish and seafoods                          F                 0                  0           1154 Main Rd             02790-4414   508-636-6471   Mr. Chris Killanberg         President         1154 Main Rd                    Westport           MA         02790     4414       5146-0000
F         Buzzards Bay Brewing Inc               Westport           Malt beverages                             A                 0                  0           98 Horseneck Rd          02790-1328   508-636-2288   Mr. William Russel           President         98 Horseneck Rd                 Westport           MA         02790     1328       2082-0000
R         Handy Hill Creamery                    Westport           Drive-in restaurant                        R                23                 123          P O Box 3393             02790-0713   508-636-8888   Ms. Beatrice Sanford         President         55 Hixbridge Rd                 Westport           MA         02790     4405       5812-0306
F         Westport Rivers Inc                    Westport           Wines                                      A                 0                  0           417 Hixbridge Rd # C     02790-1316   508-636-3423   Mr. Bob Russell              Owner             417 Hixbridge Rd                Westport           MA         02790     1316       2084-0100
G         Lees Super Market                      Westport           Grocery stores, independent                G               168                 921          P O Box 3329             02790-0702   508-636-3348   Albert Lees                  President         796 Main Rd                     Westport           MA         02790     0702       5411-9905
W         L & H Fishing Corp                     Westport           Fish, fresh                                F                 0                  0           655 Pine Hill Rd         02790-1245   508-636-5971   Mr. Albert Lees              President         655 Pine Hill Rd                Westport           MA         02790     1245       5146-9902
R         Ellies Place                           Westport           Eating places                              R                23                 123          P O Box 3937             02790-0299   508-636-5590   Mr. Paul Amaral              Owner             581 Drift Rd                    Westport           MA         02790     1205       5812-0000
R         Ukrainian Home                         Westport           Eating places                              R                20                 107          290 Robert St            02790-4920   508-672-9677   Ms. Joan Emerson             President         290 Robert St                   Westport           MA         02790     4920       5812-0000
R         Whites of Westport                     Westport           American restaurant                        R               225                 1233         P O Box 248              02790-0248   508-675-7185   Mr. Richard Lafrance         President         66 State Rd                     Westport           MA         02790     3507       5812-0101
R         Wendys                                 Whitman            Fast-food restaurant, chain                R                45                 247          362 Bedford St           02382-1822   781-447-2878   Mr. Steve Leblanc            Manager           362 Bedford St                  Whitman            MA         02382     1822       5812-0307
R         Pie In Sky Dessert Cafe & Bky          Woods Hole         Cafe                                       R                15                  82          P O Box 495              02543-0495   508-540-5475   Mr. Manny Diaz               Owner             10 Water St                     Falmouth           MA         02543     1024       5812-9902
R         Fishmongers Cafe Inc                   Woods Hole         Cafe                                       R                66                 362          P O Box 468              02543-0468   508-548-9148   Ms. Frances Beuhler          President         56 Water St                     Falmouth           MA         02543     1026       5812-9902
R         Captain Kidd                           Woods Hole         American restaurant                        R                23                 123          77 Water St              02543-1025   508-548-8563   Mr. William Crowley          President         77 Water St                     Falmouth           MA         02543     1025       5812-0101
R         Shuckers Raw Bar                       Woods Hole         Eating places                              R                45                 247          P O Box 246              02543-0246   508-540-3850   Mr. Kevin Murphy             President         91 Water St                     Falmouth           MA         02543     1025       5812-0000
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  50 South Water Street           Vineyard Haven
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  255 Upper Main Street           Edgartown
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  10 Bates Road                   Mashpee
G         Roche Brothers                                                                                                         0                                                                                                                                  11 Donnas Lane                  Mashpee
G         Shaws Supermarkets, Inc.                                                                                               0                                                                                                                                  8 Steeple Street                Mashpee
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  3900 Falmouth Road              Marston Mills
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  333 Marianno Bishop Boulevard   Fall River
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  71 Quaker Meeting House Road    Sandwich
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  2991 Cranberry Highway          East Wareham
G         Shaws Supermarkets, Inc.                                                                                               0                                                                                                                                  2260 State Road                 Plymouth
G         Shaws Supermarket                                                                                                      0                                                                                                                                  280 Winthrop Street             Taunton
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  129 Samoset Street              Plymouth
G         Stop & Shop                                                                                                            0                                                                                                                                  341 Plymouth Street             Halifax
APPENDIX D: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER HEAT LOAD CALCULATIONS




                                                          D

           Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
          P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
     APPENDIX E: DIGESTER AND CHP CALCULATIONS




                                                E

 Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
Estimation of Cogeneration System Power Output
Assumptions
LHV of CH4, Btu/ft3                                909
Conversion 1 kW energy production, BTU/hr          3413
Availability of Electrical Output, %               90%
                                               Microturbine Stirling Engine    IC Engine
Power generation System Efficiency, %              26%             28%            34%
Methane fuel required per kW, BTU/hr              13,127         12,189          10,038
Maximum power output per unit, kW                   65              43             64             110            150          200             370
Max. biogas fuel energy usage per unit, BTU/hr   853,250        524,139         642,447        1,104,206      1,505,735    2,007,647       3,714,147
Heat recovery per unit, BTU/hr                   260,000        240,000         348,228         501,858        798,876     1,027,614       1,874,286
Speed at maximum output, RPM                                                       86             147            201          282             563

Combined Heat and Power Calculations
Feedstock Alternative 1 - WWTP sludge         Alternative 1   Alternative 2   Alternative 3   Alternative 4                         Number of Equipment units needed
                                              Single-stage     Two-stage      Single-stage     Two-stage
Anaerobic Digestion Configuration              Mesophilic      Mesophilic     Thermophilic        TPAD        average     Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 4
Hourly CH4 production, ft3/hr                      588             647             588             764
Houry energy potential of CH4, Btu/hr            534,315         587,746         534,315         694,609      605,557
Microturbines
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW           41             45               41             53             45                    1               1          1             1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     320,908         352,999         320,908         417,181                       0.6             0.7          0.6           0.8
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       321             353             321             417
Stirling Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW           44             48               44             57             48                    1               1          1             1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     345,594         380,153         345,594         449,272                       1.0             1.1          1.0           1.3
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       346             380             346             449
IC Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW           53             59               53             69             59                    1               1          1             1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     419,649         461,614         419,649         545,544                       0.8             0.9          0.8           1.1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       420             462             420             546

Feedstock Alternative 2A - WWTP sludge + FOG
Hourly CH4 production, ft3/hr                     979            1,038            979            1,073
Houry energy potential of CH4, Btu/hr           889,872         943,304         889,872         975,362       936,179
Microturbines
Potential Electrical Output from CH4, kW           68             72               68             74             70                    1               1          1             1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     534,455         566,546         534,455         585,800                       1.0             1.1          1.0           1.1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       534             567             534             586
Stirling Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW           73             77               73             80             76                    2               2          2             2
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     575,567         610,126         575,567         630,862                       1.7             1.8          1.7           1.9
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       576             610             576             631
IC Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW           89             94               89             97             92                    1               1          1             1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr     698,903         740,868         698,903         766,047                       0.8             0.9          0.8           0.9
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr       699             741             699             766
Feedstock Alternative 2B - WWTP sludge + FOG + Dairy + Cran Bev Waste
Hourly CH4 production, ft3/hr                  1,681           1,761            1,681          1,809
Houry energy potential of CH4, Btu/hr        1,528,465       1,600,729        1,528,465      1,644,088   1,591,094
Microturbines
Potential Electrical Output from CH4, kW        116             122              116           125         120             2         2         2         2
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr   917,992         961,394          917,992       987,436                 1.8       1.9       1.8       1.9
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr     918             961              918           987
Excess digester gas to flare, ft3/hr            -78             -47              -78           -27
Stirling Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW        125             131              125            135        129             3         3         3         3
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr   988,607        1,035,348         988,607       1,063,392               2.9       3.1       2.9       3.1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr     989            1,035             989           1,063
Excess digester gas to flare, ft3/hr            -21              13              -21             34
IC Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW        152             159              152            164        157             1         1         1         1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr  1,200,451       1,257,208        1,200,451      1,291,262               1.0       1.1       1.0       1.1
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr    1,200           1,257            1,200          1,291
Excess digester gas to flare, ft3/hr             13             55                13             80

Feedstock Alternative 3 - WWTP sludge + FOG + Dairy + Cran Bev Waste + Food Waste
Hourly CH4 production, ft3/hr                   2,478          2,557         2,478             2,605
Houry energy potential of CH4, Btu/hr         2,252,107      2,324,372     2,252,107         2,367,731   2,314,737
Microturbines
Potential Electrical Output from CH4, kW         172            177           172               180        175             3         3         3         3
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr   1,352,610      1,396,013     1,352,610         1,422,054               2.6       2.7       2.6       2.8
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr     1,353          1,396         1,353             1,422
Stirling Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW         185            191           185               194        189             5         5         5         5
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr   1,456,657      1,503,398     1,456,657         1,531,443               4.3       4.4       4.3       4.5
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr     1,457          1,503         1,457             1,531
IC Engine
Potential electrical output from CH4, kW         224            232           224               236        229             2         2         2         2
Potential Annual Electrical Output, kWhr/yr   1,768,798      1,825,555     1,768,798         1,859,609               1.5       1.5       1.5       1.6
Potential Annual Electrical Output, MWhr/yr     1,769          1,826         1,769             1,860

LHV: Lower Heat Value

Average power generation for digester alternatives, kW
Microturbines                                          103
Stirling Engine                                        110
IC Engine                                              134

CHP Building Requirements
Equipment dimensions                               Length, ft   Width, ft   Footprint, sf
Capstone microturbine                                 6.4         2.5                 16.0
Stirling Engine                                       8.5         2.8                 24.1
APPENDIX F: MICROTURBINE AND STIRLING CYCLE ENGINE
           INSTALLATION AND REFERENCE INFORMATION




                                                      F
       Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
      P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
                                                          La Ciotat, France
Capstone microturbines cleanly burn waste
fuels such as methane and other waste
gases from landfills, sewage treatment
plants, livestock farms, and food waste
processing facilities to create renewable
power and heat. This replaces traditional
solutions of flaring these gases, or even
worse, letting them vent into the air, a
practice that is wasteful, polluting, and
contributes to global climate change.
In July 2007, Capstone, our distributor,
Verdesis, and several dignitaries from the
region attended the opening ceremony of
the biggest valorisation unit with biogas
microturbines in Europe. The installation is
at the landfill of Mentaure in La Ciotat,
France and it includes eighteen 65 kW
Capstone microturbines. The landfill gas is
filtered by Verdesis to eliminate water, H2S
and siloxanes. The Capstone microturbines
have shown the unique capability to run on
low methane content down to 30% CH4.
The flexibility of the microturbine to follow
rapid variation in methane content is very
useful for landfill applications. In addition,
managing the number of microturbines
allows very good matching to the methane
curve from a landfill over the years.




Installing eighteen 65 kW microtubines would result in
NOx emissions reduction equivalent to removing 734 cars
off the road.
Based on USA EPA emissions and efficiency data.
                         21211 Nordhoff Street, Chatsworth, CA 91311   •   877. 716.2929   •   818.407.3770   •   www.microturbine.com




Madison, Wisconsin
    “Using the Capstone turbines is a

    great plan because they produce

      lower emissions than we are

    currently producing by burning

     the methane in an open flare.

     So, we’re not only generating

       revenue, we’re helping the

         environment as well.”

       – John Carroll, Site Manager,
           Sauk County Landfill




                                                                       The Sauk County Landfill, located just northwest of Wisconsin’s capital city of Madison, has over
                                                                       650,000 tons of waste. In the past, methane gas produced by decomposing waste at the 20-acre
                                                                       site was just burned off in an open flare. Today this renewable energy is captured and is used to
                                                                       fuel 24 C30 Capstone MicroTurbines™ providing electricity that is then sold back to the utility –
                                                                       enough to power over 300 homes! Although this site started with just 12 microturbines in 2003,
                                                                       it has consistently grown in size as additional microturbines were added so that currently it is the
                                                                       largest landfill microturbine installation east of the Rockies.
                                                 West Bengal, India
The first microturbine project, including two
30 kW biogas systems, was commissioned
at Purulia, West Bengal in the presence of
Capstone’s distributor in India, Synergy
Renewable Energy, dignitaries from the
Government of West Bengal and the U.S.
Consul General in Kolkata. The project
was jointly funded by the Government of
India; the Government of West Bengal;
USAID and the U.S. Department of Energy.
India has a huge potential to generate
electricity in rural areas from cow-
dung-based biogas plants. The Capstone
microturbines cleanly burn waste gases
such as methane and other waste gases
from landfills, sewage treatment plants, live-
stock farms, and food waste processing
facilities to create renewable power and heat.
These microturbines that are now under
operation are providing electricity to two
villages in the Purulia district through the
West Bengal State Electricity Board grid.
           21211 Nordhoff Street, Chatsworth, CA 91311   •   877. 716.2929   •   818.407.3770   •   www.microturbine.com




Sheboygan, Wisconsin




                                                                                                                           In Sheboygan, Wisconsin, the
                                                                                                                           city’s waste water treatment
                                                                                                                           plant now has 10 Capstone
                                                                                                                           MicroTurbines™ that use methane
                                                                                                                           gas created by solid waste to
                                                                                                                           generate electricity and heat,
                                                                                                                           cutting the plant’s electric and
                                                                                                                           natural gas bills by 40 percent
                                                                                                                           and earning renewable energy
                                                                                                                           and emissions credits, accord-
                                                                                                                           ing to the city’s wastewater
                                                                                                                           superintendent.

                                                                                                                           This effort is not only saving
                                                                                                                           the city about $70,000 a
                                                                                                                           year, it is also helping save
                                                                                                                           the environment.
                                                          Rubi, Spain
The Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP)
of Edar de Rubi was realized by the
Barcelona based company, Micropower
Europe S.L., a joint venture between
the Spanish AESA Group and the Swiss
company Verdesis Suisse SA, the exclusive
Capstone distributor for the Spanish and
the Portugal markets.
Since November 2006, the WWTP of
Rubi has re-evaluated its biogas using
Capstone microturbines to create heat and
power. This micro-cogeneration installation
with three CR65 microturbines and an
external heat exchanger has become an
important reference site for other waste
water treatment plants of Spain where the
combination of biogas treatment and the
efficient use of biogas have obtained
excellent results.
“Before we decided to install Capstone
microturbines, the biogas was used to
warm up the digester and the rest was all
burned in the torch. Now, after a year of
experience with the micro-cogeneration
plant, we can say we have saved a lot of
money on our electricity bills, covering our
peak demands during the day,” said
Ms. Sandra Rovira, the Chief Manager of
the WWTP in Rubi, Spain.




Installing three 65 kW microtubines would result in NOx
emissions reduction equivalent to removing 138 cars
off the road.
Based on USA EPA emissions and efficiency data.
                                                                               Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                               275 Metty Drive
                                                                               Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                               Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                               Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                               www.stirlingbiopower.com




                                                          November 11, 2008


Eian Lynch
Project Engineer
Brown and Caldwell
155 Fleet St.
Portsmouth, NH 03801

Subject: Stirling Biopower Statement of Experience


Mr. Lynch:

Per your request, this note will summarize our experience in the testing of our product, the FleXgen.

The FleXgen is the result of over 30 years of R and D, development and testing. In that time, the product
has grown in physical size and output but the core design elements that have worked so effectively
throughout have remained consistent. This series of engines have over 250,000 test hours in a lab
environment and in customer’s hands via two global test fleets. Two sets of approximately 30 units each
were sent to operate on a variety of gaseous fuels, largely methane from wastewater treatment plants
and landfills. Customers from Europe, Asia and all over North America put the product through real world,
commercial applications which allowed us to validate not just the Stirling engine but the surrounding
package, controls, electronics, fuel management, hydrogen replenishment and other systems. These
units were returned to our engineering center for disassembly and evaluation. Lessons learned were
corrected and integrated into our current and commercial product, the FleXgen.

Our current test fleet is centered at our facility in Ann Arbor, MI and validates that we have a commercial
and ruggedized product with operating reliability that easily exceeds our 95% availability product
objective. We operate an additional engineering test unit at a municipal WWTP in Corvallis, Oregon for
additional testing and the plant operator there is available for reference should that be desired.

Our product is fully certified to many international standards, including UL2200, is backed by a full, 12-
                                                                                nd
month warranty that covers all unscheduled service outages and an optional 2 year extended service
plan is available. The FleXgen is a reliable, robust and well proven commercial grade product that we are
confident will meet the needs of Kennedy Jenks and its customers. I welcome any additional questions
and look forward to working with you in the future.


                                                          Sincerely,




                                                          David Miklosi
                                                          Vice president of Sales and Service
                                                                    Stirling Biopower FleXgen™ G43
                                                                    Low Energy Gas 350-590 Btu/scf (LHV)


                                            TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS DATA SHEET (60Hz)

               FleXgen G43 Performance                                                    CHP                                      Power Only

          2
           Electrical Output                                                          43 kWe                                           43 kWe
          Electrical Efficiency                                                        27%                                              27%
          Efficiency with Thermal Heat Recovery                                        75%                                               N/A

          Heat Input Rate (LHV)                                       13,605 kJ/kWh (12,895 Btu/kWh)                   13,605 kJ/kWh (12,895 Btu/kWh)
          Fuel Delivery Pressure                                        12.4-15.2 kPa (1.8-2.2 psig)                     12.4-15.2 kPa (1.8-2.2 psig)
    3
     Cooling System: Cooling and CHP Options
       Engine Cooling System Flow Rate                                         246 L/min (65 gpm)                              246 L/min (65 gpm)
       Engine Cooling Water Outlet
       Temperature                                                              58°C (136°F)                                              N/A
       Total Heat Rejected to Coolant                                      79 kWth (269,548 Btu/hr)                                       N/A

          Generator Type                                                 Continuous Duty Induction                        Continuous Duty Induction
          Speed                                                                  1,800 RPM                                        1,800 RPM
          Output Voltage                                                     480 VAC, 3Ø, 60 Hz                               480 VAC, 3Ø, 60 Hz
          Power Quality                                                           3% THD                                           3% THD
          Power Factor                                                              0.72                                             0.70
          Temperature Rise                                                Class F Insulation 105°C                         Class F Insulation 105°C

          Exhaust Flow                                                                    6.9 Nm3/min @ 190°C (257 scfm @ 374°F)
          Maximum Exhaust Backpressure                                                              0.747 kPa (3” W.C.)

          Emissions                                                      NOx 1.0 lb/MWh (0.32 g/bhp-hr); CO 6.0 lb/MWh (1.93 g/bhp-hr)

          Noise Level (Standard Enclosure)                            64 dBA @ 7 m (without radiator)                    66 dBA @ 7m (with radiator)

                                                                3                     1
    All data is based on fuel with a LHV of 18.1 MJ/Nm (459 Btu/scf).                     See separate sheet for 50Hz data.
                                                                                      2
    All specifications corrected to ambient conditions of 1 atm, 15°C.                    Power Output +/- 5%.
                                                                                      3
    Ambient operating limits –20 to 50 °C (-4 to 122°F).                                  Contact the distributor for Cooling and CHP configurations.
    Consult the distributor for altitude and temperature derate information.



    Dimensions           With Radiator (Shown)
    Height               1,937.1 mm (76.2”)
    Length               2,571.1 mm (101.2”)
                                                                                                                                                                   1937.1
    Width                863.6 mm (34.0”)
    Weight               1,769 kg (3,900 lbs)
    Dimensions           Without Radiator
    Height               1,469.1 mm (58.2”)
    Length               2,571.1 mm (101.2”)
    Width                863.6 mm (34.0”)
    Weight               1,606 kg (3,540 lbs)




All specifications are subject to change without notification              TS-LE-260-43                                                                 10/23/08
                                                                    Stirling Biopower FleXgen™ G43
                                                                          Natural Gas 918 Btu/scf (LHV)


                                            TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS DATA SHEET (60Hz)

               FleXgen G43 Performance                                                    CHP                                   Power Only

          2
           Electrical Output                                                         43 kWe                                         43 kWe
          Electrical Efficiency                                                       28%                                            28%
          Efficiency with Thermal Heat Recovery                                       80%                                             N/A

          Heat Input Rate (LHV)                                       12,661 kJ/kWh (12,000 Btu/kWh)                12,661 kJ/kWh (12,000 Btu/kWh)
          Fuel Delivery Pressure                                        12.4-15.2 kPa (1.8-2.2 psig)                  12.4-15.2 kPa (1.8-2.2 psig)
    3
     Cooling System: Cooling and CHP Options
       Engine Cooling System Flow Rate                                         246 L/min (65 gpm)                           246 L/min (65 gpm)
       Engine Cooling Water Outlet
       Temperature                                                              58°C (136°F)                                           N/A
       Total Heat Rejected to Coolant                                      79 kWth (269,548 Btu/hr)                                    N/A

          Generator Type                                                 Continuous Duty Induction                     Continuous Duty Induction
          Speed                                                                  1,800 RPM                                     1,800 RPM
          Output Voltage                                                     480 VAC, 3Ø, 60 Hz                            480 VAC, 3Ø, 60 Hz
          Power Quality                                                           3% THD                                        3% THD
          Power Factor                                                              0.72                                          0.70
          Temperature Rise                                                Class F Insulation 105°C                      Class F Insulation 105°C

          Exhaust Flow                                                                5.9 Nm3/min @ 190°C (220 scfm @ 374°F)
          Maximum Exhaust Backpressure                                                          0.747 kPa (3” W.C.)

          Emissions                                                      NOx 1.0 lb/MWh (0.32 g/bhp-hr); CO 6.0 lb/MWh (1.93 g/bhp-hr)

          Noise Level (Standard Enclosure)                            64 dBA @ 7 m (without radiator)                 66 dBA @ 7m (with radiator)

                                                                3                     1
    All data is based on fuel with a LHV of 36.15 MJ/Nm (918 Btu/scf).                 See separate sheet for 50Hz data.
                                                                                      2
    All specifications corrected to ambient conditions of 1 atm, 15°C.                 Power Output +/- 5%.
                                                                                      3
    Ambient operating limits –20 to 50 °C (-4 to 122°F).                               Contact the distributor for Cooling and CHP configurations.
    Consult the distributor for altitude and temperature derate information.



    Dimensions           With Radiator (Shown)
    Height               1,937.1 mm (76.2”)
    Length               2,571.1 mm (101.2”)
                                                                                                                                                                1937.1
    Width                863.6 mm (34.0”)
    Weight               1,769 kg (3,900 lbs)
    Dimensions           Without Radiator
    Height               1,469.1 mm (58.2”)
    Length               2,571.1 mm (101.2”)
    Width                863.6 mm (34.0”)
    Weight               1,606 kg (3,540 lbs)




All specifications are subject to change without notification              TS-NG-260-43                                                              10/23/08
APPENDIX G: MANUFACTURER’S EQUIPMENT INFORMATION




                                                      G

       Use of contents on this sheet is subject to the limitations specified at the end of this document.
      P:\Fairhaven, Town of\135536_Fairhaven_AD_&_CHP\Final\Reports\Final Feasibility Study.doc
                                                                                Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                                275 Metty Drive
                                                                                Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                                Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                                Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                                www.stirlingbiopower.com




                                 Top Level Product Description
                             F0260 043F and F0260 38F PowerUnit™

General Description
The Stirling Biopower F0260 043F and F0260 038F PowerUnit™ is an engine-generator package that
includes an external combustion, Stirling-cycle engine, a propane, natural gaseous, medium or low
energy content (bio gas) fuel-fired combustion system, an induction generator, an engine control system,
a weather-protective enclosure with integral ventilation system, and other supporting equipment for grid
parallel operation.

The base PowerUnit™ is designed for operation on bio fuels, for 50 Hz operations is rated at 38 kWe and
the 60Hz is rated at 43 kWe of nominal electric power output on natural or bio gas and produces 65 - 79
kWth of extractable heat with the optional combined heat and power (CHP).


                                                  50 Hz             60 Hz
                            Power                 38 kWe            43 kWe
                            Electric efficiency   28 %              27 %
                            Thermal Power         65 kWth           79 kWth
                            CHP efficiency        75 %              75 %


The PowerUnit can be configured with different cooling system options for flexibility in installation design.
The product is engineered for simple connection to the electrical terminations, fuel supply inlet and
external coolant piping connections, if so equipped.

Accessories and options:

Power Metering Module (provides installed CT’s for Display to read AC parameters)
Remote Monitoring Option via RS485
Integral/Remote Mounted Radiator Options
Propane Fuel Option
Natural Gas Fuel Option
Low Energy Fuel Option

The package can be applied in several variations as follows (when equipped with the appropriate
options):

     •    Grid parallel connection at 60 Hz, 480 VAC applications
     •    Grid parallel connection at 50 Hz, 380/400/415 VAC applications
     •    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode



Package Performance
Power Output - Electrical power and Thermal power (operating on medium energy bio gas). The
PowerUnit for 60 Hz operation operates at a heat rate of 12,895 Btu/kWh (LHV) and is rated 43kWe at
ISO conditions. The electrical output rating of 43kWe is inclusive of parasitic losses associated with the


Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                                  1/16/2008                                         1
                                                                             Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                             275 Metty Drive
                                                                             Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                             Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                             Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                             www.stirlingbiopower.com

cooling system radiator, water pump, combustion air blower, oil pump, control system, and package
ventilation system.

In CHP mode, the PowerUnit will produce 269,548 Btu/hr (79 kWth) of extractable heat. The product is
equipped with piping ready to accept a customer supplied liquid/liquid plate frame heat exchanger. The
hot side of the heat exchanger is a closed loop circuit with the engine jacket coolant and the set mounted
radiator, if so equipped. The cold side of the heat exchanger is for customer heat load circuits.

Duty Cycle/Maintenance Requirements

The package is designed for continuous operation and power output. A basic scheduled maintenance is
conducted by the customer at 1,000-hour intervals, which includes a cooling water and oil level check. At
10,000 hours a forward end service is scheduled with a trained distributor, including piston ring
replacement, rod seal replacement, drive belt and miscellaneous seal replacement. Specific key
components are inspected for wear. Engine operating speed is 1800 RPM for 60 Hz operation, and 1500
RPM for 50 Hz operation.

Power Unit Availability

The engine generator package will have a system availability of over 95% based on service intervals and
is inclusive of scheduled maintenance.

Sound Levels

The noise level of the package, without the set-mounted radiator is 64 dBA at 7 meters. The noise level of
the package, including the set-mounted radiator with cooling fans is 66 dBA at 7 meters.

Emissions

Operating on natural gas, engine emissions at full load are less than or equal to 1.0 lb/MW-hr (0.32
g/bhp-hr.) of NOx, 1.0 lb/MW-hr (0.3 g/bhp-hr.) of VOC, and 6.0 lb/MW-hr (1.9g/bhp-hr) of CO.

Gaseous Fuels

The engine is designed to operate on a variety of gaseous fuels with lower heating values (LHV) of 13.8
to 90.6 MJ/Nm3 (350 to 2,300 Btu/scf) including landfill gas, coal bed methane, digester gas, flare gas,
natural gas and gaseous propane. To cover this range, the unit can be ordered with the following fuel
system configurations:


            Fuel Type                                Heating Value Range (LHV)
            Gaseous Propane                          ~90.6 MJ/Nm3(~2,300 Btu/scf)
            High Energy Content                      ~35.4 MJ/Nm3(~900 Btu/scf)
            Medium Energy Content                    14.8 – 23.2 MJ/Nm3 (400 – 590 Btu/scf)
            Low Energy Content                       13.8 – 23.2 MJ/Nm3 (350 – 590 Btu/scf)


The combustion system requires a regulated gas supply pressure of 12.4-15.2 kPa (1.8-2.2 psig) for all
fuel types.




Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                             1/16/2008                                           2
                                                                              Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                              275 Metty Drive
                                                                              Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                              Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                              Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                              www.stirlingbiopower.com

Environment

The PowerUnit is capable of continuous operation in an ambient temperature range of –20°C to 50°C (-4
o
 F to 122oF). The package experiences minor de-rate due to altitude and temperature.

Certifications

The package is certified by the following agencies and/or to the following safety standards:
Stationary Engine Generator Assemblies - UL 2200, 1st Edition: 9/1/98
Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines – NFPA 37, 2002 Edition
Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for
Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas – ANSI/NFPA 497, 1997 Edition
Motors and Generators General Instruction No. 1 - CSA-C22.2 No. 100-95
Industrial Control Equipment General Instruction No. 1 - CSA-C22.2 No. 14-95
Essential Health and Safety Requirements - Directive 98/37/EEC, Annex 1
Safety of Machinery - Electrical Equipment of Machines - Part 1: General Requirements - EN 60204-
1:1998
Safety of Machinery - Basic Concepts, General Principles for Design - Part 2: Technical Principles and
Specifications - EN 292-2:1991
Safety of Machinery – Emergency Stop Equipment, Functional Aspects – Principles of Design – EN
418:1992
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine Driven Generating Sets - EN 12601
Electronic Equipment for Use in Power Installations - EN 50178:1998
Rotating Electrical Machines – Part 1: Rating and Performance – EN 60034-1:1998
Rotating Electrical Machines – Part 5: Classifications of Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures for
Rotating Machines EN 60034-5
Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres – Part 10: Classifications for Hazardous Areas – EN
60079-10

System Description

Overview of PowerUnit Operation

The PowerUnit is a fully contained package with all the necessary equipment to generate power as
equipped from the Factory. An integrated electrical panel is mounted on the package for interface and
control requirements. A weather proof Digital Display mounted in the electrical panel handles the starting,
stopping, and resetting interface with the operator via pushbuttons. The electrical panel also serves as
the customer main power electrical termination point as well as communication wiring terminations.

The PowerUnit is capable of achieving full load output in approximately 3-5 minutes following start up
initiation depending on the initial system temperature. The starting and stopping sequence is initiated by
pushbutton.

Upon start command, the PowerUnit will connect to the grid by closing an internal contactor to the grid.
The engine will turn over immediately, purging the combustion chamber before opening the fuel valves.
Once the fuel valve is open, the igniter is energized igniting the fuel in the combustion chamber. The
presence of combustion is detected by the temperature rise in the working gas, which will begin the ramp
control procedure to the operating temperature set point. The flame is self-propagating and constant
afterwards.

Upon stop command, the PowerUnit will first shut the fuel valve to extinguish the combustion process.
After a preset time during which the unit is cooling down, the contactor will open disconnecting the


Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                             1/16/2008                                           3
                                                                               Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                               275 Metty Drive
                                                                               Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                               Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                               Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                               www.stirlingbiopower.com

PowerUnit from the grid. If equipped, the radiator fans may operate for some time as the cooling fluid
temperature decreases.

The PowerUnit uses a fixed-stroke Stirling engine that is connected to a standard induction generator.
The unit operates in grid parallel mode or in parallel with a power distribution system. An induction
generator doesn’t provide it’s own excitation; it receives excitation from the connected grid source. If the
grid voltage is lost, the PowerUnit will shutdown.

Component Description

PowerUnit Package

The PowerUnit is designed for simple installation and hook up. There are external connections for fuel
piping, electrical power terminations, communications interface and if equipped, a remote radiator and
CHP Liquid/Liquid heat exchanger piping. The package is available with a set mounted or remote
mounted radiator and/or liquid/liquid heat exchanger piping for engine cooling requirements. Also
provided are safety shutdown instrumentation and control logic specific to the desired operating mode.

Enclosure

The enclosure has two access panels on each side of the engine/generator compartment and an external
single hinged door for accessing the electrical compartment. The electrical panel is rated NEMA 12.

Below are basic outline diagrams with approximate weights and dimensions.




 Approximate weight 3,540 lbs.



Figure 1 - PowerUnit with no integral radiator




Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                              1/16/2008                                            4
                                                                             Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                             275 Metty Drive
                                                                             Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                             Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                             Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                             www.stirlingbiopower.com




Approximate weight 3,900 lbs.

Figure 2 - PowerUnit with integral radiator

Engine

The engine is a 4-cylinder (260cc/cylinder), external combustion, Stirling heat engine that absorbs heat
from the continuous combustion of gaseous fuels in an external combustion chamber and includes the
following integral components:

     •    Combustion air blower, engine-driven
     •    Combustion air filter
     •    Fuel system and combustion housing
     •    Lubrication oil pump, engine-driven
     •    Lubrication oil cooler and filter
     •    Engine coolant water pump, engine-driven
     •    Coolant water temperature sensor
     •    Lubrication oil pressure sensor
     •    Gas pressure and temperature sensor
     •    All necessary control and protective instrumentation


                                                                          Figure 3 – Stirling Biopower
                                                                          Stirling Engine




Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                              1/16/2008                                          5
                                                                             Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                             275 Metty Drive
                                                                             Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                             Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                             Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                             www.stirlingbiopower.com

Generator

The PowerUnit generator output electrical characteristics are as follows:

     •    Rated capacity of 43 kWe at 60 Hz, 480 VAC, and 38 kWe at 50 Hz, 380/400/415 VAC.
     •    Electrical efficiency of 95.0% at a PF of 0.7
     •    Excitation is from the utility grid via induction motor/generator exciter
     •    Less than 5% total harmonic distortion, from no load to full load
     •    Insulation Class F

Interface and Control

Operator Interface - A Digital Display provides control of the PowerUnit, in addition to accessing all
operational data. An operator can start and stop the PowerUnit from the Digital Display, view runtime,
operational data and warnings/faults all through the digital display. When equipped with the optional
power-metering module, the operator will be able to view many of the electrical parameters such as the
power output, kilowatt-hours, kVA and power factor.




                                 Figure 4 – Digital Interface Panel


Equipment Diagnostics and Data Collection - Diagnostic functions are embedded within the PowerUnit
control system. The embedded diagnostic information will facilitate remote data collection, data reporting
and troubleshooting of the unit. These functions include system data such as: indication of the operational
state, all mechanical operational parameters such as cylinder temperatures and pressures, oil
temperature and pressure, and electrical parameters or power output values if equipped with the optional
power meter.

Data is collected and can be transmitted through the standard RS-232 connection port and displayed on a
PC or laptop (not included) using data acquisition software supplied by the customer. For multiple
installations or where signal transmission distances exceed RS 232 capabilities, an optional RS-485 port
is available for data acquisition using MODBUS RTU protocol.

Exhaust System

Stainless steel piping is used to carry the hot exhaust gases from the combustion system housing to the
exterior of the enclosure. A balanced exhaust flapper with rain cap is attached to the exhaust pipe where


Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                             1/16/2008                                           6
                                                                                Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                                275 Metty Drive
                                                                                Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                                Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                                Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                                www.stirlingbiopower.com

the pipe exits the enclosure. (See installation manual for design requirements for indoor installations or
changes to the standard exhaust system).

Cooling System

There are many different applications and configurations that can be used for cooling and CHP. The
base PowerUnit package can be configured with one of the cooling system options:

Set Mounted Radiator – provides an integral set mounted radiator rated to 50°C (122°F) ambient
temperature. All piping is completed at the factory. This is a typical application not utilizing heat
recovery.

Remote Mounted Radiator – for installation by customer rated to 50°C (122°F) ambient. Short support
legs will be provided with the radiator for pad mounting. All necessary piping and electrical connections
are the responsibility of the installer. Applications that mount the PowerUnit indoors may want to use this
option instead of providing the ventilation system required to supply cooling air to a set mounted radiator.

Remote Cooling Option – This option provides the piping external to the enclosure for a customer
supplied cooling system. This can be a heat exchanger or a remote mounted radiator.

The coolant consists of 50% water and 50% ethylene glycol by volume; a propylene glycol/water mixture
can be substituted if requested.

Complete details and drawings for all the above configurations are provided in the Installation Manual.

Hydrogen Replenishment System

The PowerUnit uses hydrogen gas as the working fluid for driving the engine's pistons due to hydrogen’s
superior heat transfer capability. During normal operation, a predictable amount of hydrogen is
consumed because of normal permeation losses. To account for this rate of consumption, the site
requires a single or multiple gang of hydrogen bottles be regulated and plumbed to the package. Inside
the PowerUnit, an on-board hydrogen compressor increases the bottle pressure to the higher engine
pressures and injects a small charge as requested by the on-board software. The on-board system
requires no maintenance and the bottles need replacing as engine operation dictates. An average
PowerUnit, operating at 95% availability, will consume a standard “K” size cylinder between 30-40 days.
Adding each additional cylinder will add an additional 30-40 days to the maintenance interval. Refer to the
Installation Manual for hydrogen bottle sizing and connection details.

Fuel Supply Lines

The gas line connection is supplied as 1” NPT pipe fitting for all standard gaseous fuels, except for the
low energy option, which uses 1 ½” NPT. Fuel pressure requirements is between 12.4 - 15.2 kPa (1.8 -
2.2 psig) for all gaseous fuels. See the fuel gas specifications for detailed fuel characteristics and
requirements.

Safety Functions

There is a local (on-set) E-stop button as required by CE.

The package set meets the safety requirements of UL2200.




Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                              1/16/2008                                             7
                                                                             Stirling Biopower, Inc.
                                                                             275 Metty Drive
                                                                             Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                                                                             Tel: 734.995.1755
                                                                             Fax: 734.995.0610
                                                                             www.stirlingbiopower.com

After-sales Support

The product includes an operator’s manual.

The standard warranty is 12 months from the completion of commissioning or 16 months from the time
the PowerUnit is shipped to the owner by Stirling Biopower or its authorized distributor. Commissioning,
maintenance and follow on service is performed by the local authorized distributor. The distributor also
houses a local inventory of service parts and all necessary service tools.




Stirling Biopower Confidential
                                             1/16/2008                                          8
                                                                                                                                     6010 Drott Drive
                                                                                                                     East Syracuse, NY 13057-2943
                                                                                                                           Toll Free: 800.H2O.TANK
                                                                                                                      Phone: 315.433.AQUA (2782)
                                                                                                                                  Fax: 315.433.5083
                                                                                                                       Website: www.besttank.com
                                                                                                                    Email: aquastore@besttank.com



Brown and Caldwell                                                                                                       September 23, 2008
1 Corporate Drive
Andover, MA 01810

Phone: 978-983-2035         Fax: 978-794-0534

Attention: Mr. Eian Lynch (ELynch@BrwnCald.com)

Re: AQUASTORE® Digester Storage Tank
    Fairhaven, Massachusetts

Dear Mr. Lynch,
Thank you for your interest in AQUASTORE® glass-fused-to-steel storage tanks. The following budget price is for the concrete floor
digesters that you are interested in. Tanks are designed to AISC allowables and manufactured per the same standards. Seismic
design is based on AWWA seismic zone 2a. Wind design is based on AWWA D-103 utilizing 120 MPH wind load. Snow load is based
on a Ground Snow Loading of 45 PSF utilizing the following: Exposure Factor (Ce) 1.0; Importance Factor (Is) 1.2; Thermal Factor (Ct)
1.2. Tank is designed for Working Pressure – water column of 6”, Test Pressure – water column of 15”, Vacuum – water column of 1”.

                                                                                               (1)                                      (2)
                                           Inches of                       Sidewall         Foundation            Tank                 Total
  Model         Nominal Capacity           Freeboard      Diameter          Height            Price               Price                Price
  2030            68,400 Gal.                  0”         19.58 FT         30.36 FT          $23,000            $157,000             $180,000
  2225          74,300 Gal.          0”         22.38 FT       25.25 FT       $23,000       $167,000         $190,000
  2521          78,900 Gal.          0”         25.18 FT       21.20 FT       $28,000       $177,000         $205,000
  2528         105,800 Gal.          0”         25.18 FT       28.43 FT       $28,000       $202,000         $230,000
  2826         118,500 Gal.          0”         27.97 FT       25.78 FT       $33,000       $222,000         $255,000
  3133         183,600 Gal.          0”         30.77 FT       33.01 FT       $36,000       $289,000         $325,000
(1) Note that Foundation prices are ESTIMATES. Accurate soil bearing, frost depth and any additional pertinent information
would be required to determine the exact design and costs of the foundation.

(2) NOT INCLUDED: Any site work, access roads, permits, taxes, rock removal, pipe work, excavation, backfill, bonds, water
for testing/sanitizing or disposal of same, CONTRACTOR’S MARK-UP (sub-contract bids).

(3) Due to the current steel market price fluctuations, the price in this quotation is valid for 30 days.

(4) Tank is setup to accept insulation which is not included in these budgetary numbers. Depending on type and thickness of
insulation required, rough calculations of $8.00 – $12.00 / sq. ft. should be added.

The following items are included in this price:
     •    Standard Cobalt Blue Glass-Fused-To-Steel Shell Assembly with “Edge Coating™” and “Vitrium” interior
     •    One (1) Glass-Fused-to-Steel externally supported (HDG Perlins) digester roof assembly. Cobalt Blue exterior surface, based on roof load as
          noted above, non slip walkway with handrail to the roof apex, (1) roof manway platform to be located near the outside ladder, (1) 24” hatch
          cover.
     •    Ringwall Foundation and Starter Ring Assembly with Concrete Floor
     •    Ladder, Cage and Platform Assembly with extension to grade
     •    HDG Bottom Manway 24”Dia.
     •    Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection System
     •    Concrete Floor Design, Foundation and Installation of all above

This price is based on NON UNION, PREVAILING WAGE labor. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to call. We would
be glad to provide you with sample specifications for Aquastore tanks if desired. We are looking forward to working with you as this
project develops.

Respectfully yours,



Liz Hawthorne
Assistant Project Manager                                                                                              c: HH/CLL/, Ali, file 2594
                                                                                                                                                     AQUASTORE® TANK CAPACITY CHART
                                                                                                                                            WATER TANKS WITH CONCRETE FLOORS (x 1000 US Gallons)
    Freeboard
                                                                                     0
                                           Max Water Depth (Ft)    GF=1   Conc=0    0
                                                                                                   Actual Sidewall Height (feet) - Number of Rings - Courses                                                                                                                     Actual Sidewall Height (feet) - Number of Rings - Courses
                     Exact     Capacity      AWWA Z = 2A
 Model          #   Diameter   Per Foot        A           B       5.51   10.09    14.68   19.26    23.84       28.43       33.01       37.59       42.17      46.76   51.34   55.92   60.51   65.09   69.67   74.26       78.84      83.42       88.00       92.59       97.17        101.75      106.34      110.92
Diameter Sheets      (feet)    (gallons)   .375" max.   .5" max.    1       2        3       4        5           6           7           8           9         10      11      12      13      14      15      16          17         18          19          20          21            22          23          24          25          26    27      28   29   30                          31
                                                                                                                                                                        34       -       -       -       -       -           -           -           -           -           -            -           -           -         -           -      -       -    -    -                              -
  11            4   11.19       735         46.4        46.4        4       7       10      14       17          20          24          27          30         33
                                                                                                                                                                       49.58     -       -       -       -       -           -           -           -           -           -            -           -           -         -           -      -       -    -    -                              -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           131          -      -       -    -    -                              -
  14            5   13.98      1,149        113.2       114.1       6      11       16      22       27          32          37          43          48         53      58      64      69      74      80      85          90          95         101         106         111          116         122         127
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          114.62        -      -       -    -    -                              -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              174              180         186         189     -       -    -    -                              -
  17            6   16.78      1,655        105.0       114.2       9      16       24      31       39          47          54          62          69         77      84      92     100     107     115     122          130        138         145         153         160          168
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             105.45           109.16      112.86      116.56   -       -    -    -                              -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        227   235              243         252         257     -       -    -    -                              -
  20            7   19.58      2,252        98.4        114.4      12      22       33      43       53          64          74          84          94        105     115     125     136     146     156     167          177        187         198         208         218
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      100.87 104.57           108.27      111.98      115.68   -       -    -    -                              -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              269         280           291   302              313         324         335    337
  22            8   22.37      2,942        92.2        114.6      16      29       43      56       70          83          97         110         124        137     151     164     178     191     204     218          231        245         258
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             91.71       95.41         99.11 102.81           106.51      110.21      113.91 117.61
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              341         355           369   382              396         410         424    427
  25            9   25.17      3,724        88.7        114.9      20      37       54      71       88         105         122         139         157        174     191     208     225     242     259     276          293        310         327
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             91.71       95.41         99.11 102.81           106.51      110.21      113.91 117.61
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  400         417         434           451   468              485         502         509
  28        10      27.97      4,597        84.7        110.9      25      46       67      88      109         130         151         172         193        214     236     257     278     299     320     341          362        383
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 87.12       90.82       94.52         98.23 101.93           105.63      109.33      113.03
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      459         479         500         520           541   562              582         593
  31        11      30.77      5,563        81.1        106.7      30      56       81     107      132         158         183         209         234        260     285     311     336     362     387     413          438
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     82.54       86.24       89.94       93.64        97.34 101.05            104.75      108.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           516        540         565         589         614           638   663              681
  34        12      33.56      6,620        78.5        102.9      36      66       97     127      157         188         218         248         279        309     339     370     400     430     461     491
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          77.96      81.66       85.36       89.06       92.76        96.46 100.16            103.87




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      AWWA Seismic 2A English Units
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           605        634         663         691         720           749   773
  36        13      36.36      7,770        75.5        99.6       42      78      114     149      185         220         256         292         327        363     398     434     470     505     541     576
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          77.96      81.66       85.36       89.06       92.76        96.46 100.16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                661        694        727         761         794         827           861   870
  39        14      39.16      9,011        73.9        96.6       49      90      132     173      214         256         297         338         380        421     462     503     545     586     627
                                                                                                                                                                                                               73.37      77.07      80.78       84.48       88.18       91.88        95.58 99.28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                759        797        835         873         912         950           971
  42        15      41.96      10,345       71.9        93.9       57     104      151     199      246         294         341         388         436        483     531     578     625     673     720
                                                                                                                                                                                                               73.37      77.07      80.78       84.48       88.18       91.88        95.58
                                                                                                                                                                                                        809     853        896        940         983        1,027       1,071        1,078
  45        16      44.75      11,770       69.3        91.6       64     118      172     226      280         334         388         442         496        550     604     658     712     766
                                                                                                                                                                                                       68.79   72.49      76.19      79.89       83.60       87.30       91.00        94.70
                                                                                                                                                                                                        914     963       1,012      1,061       1,110       1,157
  48        17      47.55      13,287       65.2        87.1       73     134      195     255      316         377         438         499         560        621     682     743     803     864
                                                                                                                                                                                                       68.79   72.49      76.19      79.89       83.60       87.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                956    1,011   1,066      1,121      1,176       1,224
  50        18      50.35      14,896       61.6        82.2       82     150      218     286      355         423         491         559         628        696     764     833     901
                                                                                                                                                                                               64.21   67.91   71.61      75.31      79.01       82.71
                                                                                                                                                                                        989    1,051   1,112   1,173      1,235      1,292
  53        19      53.15      16,598       58.4        77.9       91     167      243     319      395         471         547         623         700        776     852     928
                                                                                                                                                                                       59.62   63.33   67.03   70.73      74.43      78.13
                                                                                                                                                                               1,012   1,080   1,148   1,216   1,284      1,352      1,360
  56        20      55.95      18,391       55.4        74.0       101    185      269     354      438         522         607         691         775        859     944
                                                                                                                                                                               55.04   58.74   62.44   66.15   69.85      73.55      77.25
                                                                                                                                                                               1,116   1,191   1,266   1,341   1,416      1,429
  59        21      58.74      20,276       52.8        70.5       111    204      297     390      483         576         669         762         855        948     1,040
                                                                                                                                                                               55.04   58.74   62.44   66.15   69.85      73.55
                                                                                                                                                                       1,122   1,205   1,287   1,369   1,452   1,497
  62        22      61.54      22,253       50.4        67.3       122    224      326     428      530         632         734         836         938        1,040
                                                                                                                                                                       50.46   54.16   57.86   61.56   65.26   68.96
                                                                                                                                                                       1,227   1,317   1,407   1,497   1,563
  64        23      64.34      24,322       48.2        64.3       134    245      356     468      579         691         802         914        1,025       1,137
                                                                                                                                                                       50.46   54.16   57.86   61.56   65.26
                                                                                                                                                               1,214   1,312   1,410   1,508   1,606   1,634
  67        24      67.13      26,483       46.2        61.7       145    267      388     510      631         752         874         995        1,116
                                                                                                                                                               45.88   49.58   53.28   56.98   60.68   64.38
                                                                                                                                                               1,318   1,424   1,530   1,637   1,701
  70        25      69.93      28,736       44.4        59.2       158    290      421     553      685         816         948        1,080       1,211
                                                                                                                                                               45.88   49.58   53.28   56.98   60.68
                                                                                                                                                               1,425   1,540   1,655   1,768
  73        26      72.73      31,081       42.6        56.9       171    313      456     598      741         883        1,025       1,168       1,310
                                                                                                                                                               45.88   49.58   53.28   56.98
                                                                                                                                                   1,384       1,508   1,632   1,756   1,836
  76        27      75.53      33,518       41.1        54.8       184    338      491     645      799         952        1,106       1,259
                                                                                                                                                   41.29       44.99   48.69   52.40   56.10                               SPLIT-CELL CHART KEY:
                                                                                                                                                   1,488       1,621   1,755   1,888   1,903                   1,836      1. Top number is tank volume (x 1000) in US Gallons
  78        28      78.32      36,046       39.6        52.8       198    363      529     694      859        1,024       1,189       1,355
                                                                                                                                                   41.29       44.99   48.69   52.40   56.10                   56.09      2. Bottom number is actual sidewall height with 44" high shell sheets
                                                                                                                                                   1,596       1,739   1,882   1,972
  81        29      81.12      38,667       38.2        51.0       213    390      567     744      921        1,099       1,276       1,453
                                                                                                                                                   41.29       44.99   48.69   52.40                                 Notes:
                                                                                                                                       1,519       1,672       1,825   1,978   2,040                                 1. 100 mph wind speed
  84        30      83.92      41,380       37.0        49.3       228    417      607     796      986        1,176       1,365                                                                                     2. 25 psf live snow load
                                                                                                                                       36.71       40.41       44.11   47.81   51.51
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3. Seismic zone 2A
                                                                                                                                       1,621       1,785       1,949   2,107
  87        31      86.72      44,184       35.8        47.7       243    445      648     850     1,053       1,255       1,458                                                                                     4. Importance Factor, I = 1.25
                                                                                                                                       36.71       40.41       44.11   47.81                                         5. Site Amplification Factor, S = 1.5
                                                                                                                                       1,728       1,902       2,076   2,175                                         6. Specific gravity 1.0 @ STP
  90        32      89.51      47,081       34.6        46.2       259    475      690     906     1,122       1,338       1,554
                                                                                                                                       36.71       40.41       44.11   47.81                                         7. Structure height limitations dependent upon local soil conditions and
                                                                                                                                       1,838       2,023       2,208   2,243                                             construction techniques
  92        33      92.31      50,070       33.6        44.8       275    505      734     964     1,193       1,423       1,652                                                                                     8. AWWA Designates AWWA D103-97
                                                                                                                                       36.71       40.41       44.11   47.81                                         9. Model Designation => Model Diameter & Model Sidewall Height
                                                                                                                           1,707       1,904       2,100       2,297   2,312                                             Example: Model Designation 4228 => 42' diameter & 28' height
  95        34      95.11      53,150       32.6        43.5       292    536      780     1,023   1,267       1,510
                                                                                                                           32.13       35.83       39.53       43.23   46.93                                         10. For steel floor option: Add .678' X Capacity Per Foot (gallons) to
                                                                                                                           1,809       2,017       2,226       2,382                                                      listed capacities
  98        35      97.91      56,323       31.7        42.3       310    568      826     1,084   1,342       1,600                                                                                                 11. No freeboard allowance except in the darker gray shaded areas at
                                                                                                                           32.13       35.83       39.53       43.23                                                     the far right end of the rows, where the freeboard is variable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Part#: 274480-000
                                                                                                                           1,914       2,134       2,355       2,449                                                                                                                                                     ECN#: 07387
 101        36      100.70     59,587       30.8        41.1       328    601      874     1,147   1,420       1,693
                                                                                                                           32.13       35.83       39.53       43.23                                                                                                                                                     Copyright 2008
                                                                                                                           2,022       2,255       2,488       2,517                                                                                                                                                     Engineered Storage Products
 104        37      103.50     62,944       30.0        40.0       346    635      923     1,212   1,500       1,789
                                                                                                                           32.13       35.83       39.53       43.23
                                                                                                                                                      AQUASTORE® TANK CAPACITY CHART
                                                                                                                                             WATER TANKS WITH CONCRETE FLOORS (x 1000 US Gallons)
    Freeboard
                                                                                      0
                                           Max Water Depth (Ft)    GF=1    Conc=0     0
                                                                                                    Actual Sidewall Height (feet) - Number of Rings - Courses                                                                                                                         Actual Sidewall Height (feet) - Number of Rings - Courses
                     Exact     Capacity      AWWA Z = 2A
 Model          #   Diameter   Per Foot        A           B        5.51   10.09    14.68   19.26    23.84       28.43       33.01       37.59       42.17      46.76   51.34   55.92    60.51      65.09      69.67       74.26       78.84       83.42       88.00       92.59   97.17    101.75      106.34      110.92
Diameter Sheets      (feet)    (gallons)   .375" max.   .5" max.     1       2        3       4        5           6           7           8           9         10      11      12       13         14         15          16          17          18          19          20      21        22          23          24          25          26   27   28   29   30   31
                                                                                                                            2,132       2,378       2,582
 106        38      106.30     66,392       29.2        38.9       365     670      974     1,278   1,582       1,887
                                                                                                                            32.13       35.83       39.53
                                                                                                                1,926       2,184       2,443       2,650
 109        39      109.10     69,932       28.4        37.9       385     705      1,026   1,346   1,667
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95       38.65
                                                                                                                2,026       2,298       2,570       2,721
 112        40      111.90     73,565       27.7        37.0       405     742      1,079   1,416   1,753
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95       38.65
                                                                                                                2,128       2,414       2,700       2,790
 115        41      114.69     77,289       27.0        36.1       425     780      1,134   1,488   1,842
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95       38.65
                                                                                                                2,233       2,534       2,834       2,854
 117        42      117.49     81,105       26.4        35.2       446     818      1,190   1,562   1,933
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95       38.65
                                                                                                                2,341       2,656       2,924
 120        43      120.29     85,013       25.8        34.4       468     858      1,247   1,637   2,026
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95
                                                                                                                2,451       2,781       2,990
 123        44      123.09     89,013       25.2        33.6       490     898      1,306   1,714   2,122
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95
                                                                                                                2,564       2,909       3,063
 126        45      125.89     93,105       24.6        32.9       513     939      1,366   1,793   2,219
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95
                                                                                                                2,679       3,039       3,122
 129        46      128.68     97,289       24.1        32.1       536     981      1,427   1,873   2,319
                                                                                                                27.54       31.24       34.95
                                                                                                    2,331       2,707       3,083       3,199
 131        47      131.48 101,565          23.6        31.5       559     1,025    1,490   1,956
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36       34.06
                                                                                                    2,432       2,824       3,216       3,262
 134        48      134.27 105,933          23.1        30.8       583     1,069    1,554   2,040
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36       34.06
                                                                                                    2,534       2,943       3,333
 137        49      137.07 110,393          22.6        30.2       608     1,114    1,620   2,126
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36
                                                                                                    2,639       3,064       3,402                                                                  SPLIT-CELL CHART KEY:
 140        50      139.87 114,945          22.2        29.6       633     1,160    1,686   2,213
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36                                                       1,836      1. Top number is tank volume (x 1000) in US Gallons
                                                                                                    2,745       3,188       3,468                                                       56.09      2. Bottom number is actual sidewall height with 44" high shell sheets
 143        51      142.67 119,589          21.7        29.0       658     1,207    1,755   2,303
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36
                                                                                                    2,854       3,314       3,530
 145        52      145.46 124,324          21.3        28.4       685     1,254    1,824   2,394                                                                                       Notes:
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 100 mph wind speed
                                                                                                    2,965       3,443       3,603
 148        53      148.26 129,152          20.9        27.9       711     1,303    1,895   2,487                                                                                       2. 25 psf live snow load
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36                                                       3. Seismic zone 2A
                                                                                                    3,078       3,574       3,673                                                       4. Importance Factor, I = 1.25
 151        54      151.06 134,072          20.5        27.4       738     1,353    1,967   2,582
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36                                                       5. Site Amplification Factor, S = 1.5
                                                                                                    3,193       3,708       3,741                                                       6. Specific gravity 1.0 @ STP
 154        55      153.86 139,083          20.2        26.9       766     1,403    2,041   2,678                                                                                       7. Structure height limitations dependent upon local soil conditions and
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66       30.36                                                           construction techniques
                                                                                                    3,310       3,806                                                                   8. AWWA Designates AWWA D103-97
 157        56      156.66 144,187          19.8        26.4       794     1,455    2,116   2,776
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66                                                                   9. Model Designation => Model Diameter & Model Sidewall Height
                                                                                                    3,429       3,868                                                                       Example: Model Designation 4228 => 42' diameter & 28' height
 159        57      159.46 149,382          19.4        25.9       823     1,507    2,192   2,876                                                                                       10. For steel floor option: Add .678' X Capacity Per Foot (gallons) to
                                                                                                    22.96       26.66                                                                        listed capacities
                                                                                            2,842   3,414       3,944                                                                   11. No freeboard allowance except in the darker gray shaded areas at
 162        58      162.26 154,670          19.1        25.5       852     1,561    2,269
                                                                                            18.38   22.08       25.78                                                                       the far right end of the rows, where the freeboard is variable
                                                                                            3,144   3,777       4,140
 171        61      170.65 171,082          18.2        24.2       942     1,726    2,510
                                                                                            18.38   22.08       25.78
                                                                                            3,460   4,157       4,350
 179        64      179.04 188,318          17.3        23.1       1,037   1,900    2,763
                                                                                            18.38   22.08       25.78
                                                                                            3,792   4,556       4,561
 187        67      187.43 206,381          16.5        22.1       1,137   2,083    3,028
                                                                                            18.38   22.08       25.78
                                                                                            4,022   4,684
 193        69      193.03 218,898          16.1        21.4       1,206   2,209    3,212
                                                                                            18.38   22.08
                                                                                            4,380   4,885
 201        72      201.42 238,340          15.4        20.5       1,313   2,405    3,497
                                                                                            18.38   22.08
                                                                                            4,752   5,094
 210        75      209.81 258,609          14.8        19.7       1,424   2,610    3,795
                                                                                            18.38   22.08
                                                                                    3,858   4,893   5,286
 218        78      218.20 279,712          14.2        18.9       1,541   2,823
                                                                                    13.79   17.50   21.20
                                                                                    4,160   5,277   5,489                                                                                         Part#: 274480-000
 227        81      226.59 301,642          13.7        18.2       1,662   3,044
                                                                                    13.79   17.50   21.20                                                                                         ECN#: 07387
                                                                                    4,474   5,675   5,709                                                                                         Copyright 2008
 235        84      234.99 324,399          13.2        17.6       1,787   3,274
                                                                                    13.79   17.50   21.20                                                                                         Engineered Storage Products
                                                                                    4,800   5,915
 243        87      243.38 347,984          12.7        17.0       1,917   3,512
                                                                                    13.79   17.50




                                 AWWA Seismic 2A English Units
                                                                                                                         6010 Drott Drive
                                                                                                         East Syracuse, NY 13057-2943
                                                                                                               Toll Free: 800.H2O.TANK
                                                                                                          Phone: 315.433.AQUA (2782)
                                                                                                                      Fax: 315.433.5083
                                                                                                           Website: www.besttank.com
                                                                                                        Email: aquastore@besttank.com


Brown and Caldwell                                                                                           October 21, 2008
1 Corporate Drive
Andover, MA 01810

Phone: 978-983-2035      Fax: 978-794-0534

Attention: Mr. Eian Lynch (ELynch@BrwnCald.com)

Re: AQUASTORE® Digester Storage Tank
    Fairhaven, Massachusetts

Dear Mr. Lynch,
Thank you for your continued interest in AQUASTORE® glass-fused-to-steel storage tanks. The following budget price is for the
concrete floor digesters that you are interested in. Tanks are designed to AISC allowables and manufactured per the same standards.
Seismic design is based on AWWA seismic zone 2a. Wind design is based on AWWA D-103 utilizing 120 MPH wind load. Snow load is
based on a Ground Snow Loading of 45 PSF utilizing the following: Exposure Factor (Ce) 1.0; Importance Factor (Is) 1.2; Thermal
Factor (Ct) 1.2. Tank is designed for Working Pressure – water column of 6”, Test Pressure – water column of 15”, Vacuum – water
column of 1”.
                                                                                                                            (2)
                                    Inches of                   Sidewall     Foundation      Tank       Insulation         Total
 Model       Nominal Capacity      Freeboard      Diameter       Height        Price         Price        Price            Price
  2230           89,300 Gal.            0”         22.38 FT     30.36 FT      $23,000      $187,000      $29,000         $239,000
  2535         130,100 Gal.            0”         25.18 FT    34.95 FT      $28,000       $227,000       $37,000            $292,000
  2538         139,900 Gal.            0”         25.18 FT    37.59 FT      $28,000       $232,000       $40,000            $300,000
  2834         158,200 Gal.            0”         27.97 FT    34.42 FT      $33,000       $257,000       $41,000            $331,000
  3142         234,600 Gal.            0”         30.77 FT    42.17 FT      $44,000       $331,000       $55,000            $430,000
  3147        260,100 Gal.         0”       30.77 FT    46.76 FT      $44,000     $361,000      $60,000          $465,000
(1) Note that Foundation prices are ESTIMATES. Accurate soil bearing, frost depth and any additional pertinent information
would be required to determine the exact design and costs of the foundation.

(2) NOT INCLUDED: site work, access roads, permits, taxes, rock removal, pipe work, excavation, backfill, bonds, water for
testing/sanitizing or disposal of same, CONTRACTOR’S MARK-UP (sub-contract bids).

(3) Due to the current steel market price fluctuations, the price in this quotation is valid for 30 days.

(4) PRV by others, Nozzles / Brackets (Exterior and Interior) are not included

The following items are included in this price:
    •    Standard Cobalt Blue Glass-Fused-To-Steel Shell Assembly with “Edge Coating™” and “Vitrium” interior
    •    One (1) Glass-Fused-to-Steel externally supported (HDG Perlins) digester roof assembly. Cobalt Blue exterior surface, based
         on roof load as noted above, non slip walkway with handrail to the roof apex, (1) roof manway platform to be located near the
         outside ladder, (1) 24” hatch cover.
    •    Ringwall Foundation and Starter Ring Assembly with Concrete Floor
    •    Ladder, Cage and Platform Assembly with extension to grade
    •    HDG Bottom Manway 24”Dia.
    •    Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection System
    •    Tank Insulation ( Exterior Only ) Aluminum jacketed, Panelized sidewalls and roof (at $9.00 per sq.ft.)
    •    Concrete Floor Design, Foundation and Installation of all above

This price is based on NON UNION, PREVAILING WAGE labor. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to call. We would
be glad to provide you with sample specifications for Aquastore tanks if desired. We are looking forward to working with you as this
project develops.

Respectfully yours,


Liz Hawthorne
Assistant Project Manager                                                                                   cc: HH/CLL/, Ali, file 2594
CR65 & CR65-ICHP MicroTurbine
Renewable

Robust power system achieves ultra-low emissions and reliable
electrical/thermal generation from waste gas.
•	   Years of renewable experience - hundreds of applications worldwide
•	   Low NOx and CO2 emissions – better than tough global standards
•	   Operates on landfill or digester gas
•	   One moving part: Minimal maintenance and downtime
•	   Patented air bearing: No lubricating oil or coolant
•	   5 and 9 year Factory Protection Plans available
•	   Remote monitoring and diagnostic capabilities
•	   Integrated utility synchronization and protection
•	   Small, modular design allows for easy, low-cost installation
•	   Reliable: 16,000,000+ run hours and counting                                   CR65 MicroTurbine


Electrical Performance (1)
Electrical Power Output                65 kW
Voltage                                400 to 480 VAC
Electrical Service                     3-Phase
Frequency                              50/60 Hz
Maximum Output Current                 100A, grid connect operation
Electrical Efficiency LHV              29%


Fuel/Engine Characteristics (1)
Digester/ landfill Gas HHV             350 to 875 BTU/scf
H2S Content                            < 5000 ppmv
Inlet Pressure                         5.2 barg (75 psig)
Fuel Flow LHV                          807 MJ/hr (765,000 BTU/hr)
Generator Heat Rate LHV                11.6 MJ/kWh (11,000 BTU/kWh)
                                                                                  CR65-ICHP MicroTurbine
 Exhaust Characteristics      (1)

 Exhaust Gas Flow                      0.49 kg/s (1.08 lb/sec)
 Exhaust Gas Temperature               309˚C (588˚F)




                            Power when and where you need it. Clean and simple.
           C65-ICHP Heat Recovery (2)
           Integrated Heat Recovery Module Type                                               Stainless Steel Core
           Hot Water Heat Recovery                                                            251,000 BTU/hr (74 kW)
           Total System Efficiency LHV                                                        62%

           Dimensions & Weight                                                                CR65                                          CR65-ICHP
           Width x Depth x Height               (3)               (4)
                                                                                              762 x 1956 x 1931 mm                          762 x 2200 x 2363 mm
                                                                                              (30 x 77 x 83 in)                             (30 x 77 x 94 in)
           Weight                                                                             758 kg (1,671 lbs)                            1000 kg (2,200 lbs)

           Minimum Clearance Requirements                                                     CR65                                          CR65-ICHP
           Vertical Clearance                                                                 610 mm (24 in)                                610 mm (24 in)
           Horizontal Clearance
                Left & Right                                                                  762 mm (30 in)                                762 mm (30 in)
                Front                                                                         762 mm (30 in)                                762 mm (30 in)
                Rear                                                                          915 mm (36 in)                                762 mm (30 in)

           Sound Levels                                                                       CR65                                          CR65-ICHP
           Acoustic Emissions at Full Load Power                                  (5)


           Nominal at 10 m (33 ft)                                                            70 dBA                                        65 dBA

           Certifications
           •	             Classified UL 2200 and UL 1741 for raw natural gas and biogas operation (UL file AU5040)
           •	             Complies with IEEE 1547 and meets statewide utility interconnection requirements for California Rule 21 & the
                          New York State Public with 2008 CARB certification and Service Commission
           •	             Models available with optional equipment for CE Marking

                                                            C65 Net Power & Efficiency
                                           All Other C65Power & Efficiency vs. Ambient Temperature at Sea Level
                                                       vs. Ambient Temperature at Sea Level
                                  70                                                                              35

                                  60                                                                              30
                                                                                                                       Net Efficiency [%]




                                  50                                                                              25
                Net Power [kW]




                                                                Power
                 Net Power [kW]




                                  40                                                                              20
                                                                Efficiency
                                  30                                                                              15

                                  20                                                                              10

                                  10                                                                              5

                                   0                                                                              0
                                       0   10         20   30    40     50   60   70    80    90    100 110 120
                                                                Ambient Temperature [°F]
                                                                   Ambient Temperature [°F]




(1) Nominal full power performance at ISO conditions: 59˚F, 14.696 psia, 60% RH
(2) Heat recovery for water inlet temperature of 100˚F (38˚C) and flow rate of 40 GPM (2.5 l/s)
(3) Depth includes 10 inch extension for the heat recovery module rain hood on ICHP versions
(4) Height dimensions are to the roof line. Exhaust outlet extends at least 7 inches above the roof line
(5) The optional acoustic inlet hood kit can reduce acoustic emissions at the front of the MicroTurbine by up to 5 dBA
Specifications are not warranted and are subject to change without notice.


21211	Nordhoff	Street	•	Chatsworth	•	CA	•	91311	•	877.716.2929	•	818.407.3770	•	www.capstoneturbine.com
©2008 Capstone Turbine Corporation. 02/08 Capstone P/N 331039
                                        Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
Capstone                               Telephone: (818) 734-5300 • Facsimile: (818) 734-5320 • Website: www.microturbine.com




Application Guide
Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine

This document presents fuel application information for the Capstone MicroTurbine
operating on landfill gas or digester gas. This combination may be referred to
generically as "biogas".


Introduction
Compliance with the requirements detailed in this document is essential to avoid
problems that may affect the performance, life, reliability, warranty, and in some
cases, the safe operation of the Capstone MicroTurbine.
For additional information regarding different fuels and fuel usage, please refer to the
Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002).


The major areas of this document are detailed in the Table of Contents as follows:


                                                                     Table of Contents
Introduction.....................................................................................................................1
Biogas Fuel Requirements ............................................................................................2
Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System ............................................................................3
  Moisture Concerns......................................................................................................6
  Fuel Pressure Concerns .............................................................................................9
  Filter Element Concerns ...........................................................................................10
  Siloxane Concerns....................................................................................................11
  Siloxane Removal Concerns (Capstone MicroTurbines).........................................13
  Materials of Construction Concerns .........................................................................14
Sources ........................................................................................................................14
Safety Considerations..................................................................................................16
Capstone Technical Information..................................................................................16




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 1 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Biogas Fuel Requirements
Operational fuel requirements for the Capstone MicroTurbine are provided in
Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002).
Capstone bases its warranty on the quality of the gas at the MicroTurbine inlet. This
leaves the business partner and/or end-user responsible for the following items:
       !      Assessing the need for gas cleanup and conditioning.
       !      Selecting and properly installing, operating, and maintaining the appropriate
              gas cleanup and conditioning equipment.
This Biogas Application Guide is intended to provide supplementary, application-
specific information for use by Capstone business partners and end-users. In the
event of any conflict between the information provided herein, and the information
and requirements contained within the Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements
Technical Reference (410002), the Fuel Requirements Technical Reference shall
take precedence.
Biogas originates from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials.
Anaerobic refers to a process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. Digestion refers
to a biological process performed by microbes or bacteria, which accomplishes the
digestion of the organic waste materials. The microbes/bacteria consume the
organic waste material, rendering its solid residue essentially inert. The process
occurs in the presence of water, ideally with the temperature and pH controlled to
optimize the digestion reactions and the health of the microbes/bacteria. The primary
byproducts of this process are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Typically,
the volumetric gas ratio of methane to carbon dioxide is approximately 60:40 for
digester gas.
The Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002), table
titled “Gaseous Fuel Composition and Properties Requirements,” presents the
required fuel composition and physical properties for gaseous fuels. While all of
these requirements are important and must be observed, the most important
limitations contained in this table with respect to biogas are noted as follows:
       !      The fuel temperature must be at a minimum of 10° C (18° F) above its dew
              point anywhere within the fuel connections and the system between the
              Capstone MicroTurbine fuel inlet and the fuel manifold block (refer to Note 2).
       !      Calorific value (average Higher Heating Value, or HHV) must be at least 13.04
              MJ/m3 (350 Btu/ft3). If necessary, biogas with less than 350 Btu/scf can be
              blended with natural gas for use in the Capstone MicroTurbine.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 2 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Also in the aforementioned document, the table titled “Gaseous Fuel Contaminants
Limitations,” presents the required fuel contaminant limitations for gaseous fuel. All
limitations must be observed for compliance. The limitation regarding the presence
of siloxanes, however, is specific to both landfill gas and wastewater treatment plant
digester gas. This limitation is identified as follows:
       !      Siloxanes must be limited to a maximum of 5 parts per billion (ppb) by
              volume. This is approximately the detection limit for siloxanes.
       !      Effectively, this limitation means that the fuel must contain no detectable level
              of siloxanes.
Some of the implications of these requirements are discussed in the following
paragraphs. The focus is primarily on moisture and siloxane removal.


Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System
A flowsheet for a typical biogas fuel preparation and delivery system to the Capstone
MicroTurbine is provided in Figure 1. Not all of the steps may be required for all
sites, and the steps may appear in different sequences in other cases. An example
of a fuel pretreatment system not requiring initial sediment filtration nor pre-
compressor dew point suppression is illustrated in Figure 2; however, as is described
throughout this document, though often similar, every biogas installation is unique,
and proper care should be taken when engineering the pretreatment system for a
given application.
Capstone recommends that a sediment trap or filter be placed at the beginning of the
line coming from the main gas manifold or pipe to the MicroTurbine plant. This filter
will eliminate most of the black powder sludge material (corrosion products) and
scale coming from the existing plant systems. Appropriate care should be taken to
provide for the adequate drainage and disposal of any condensate and
sediments/solids captured by this trap.
The siloxane filter can be placed either before or after the compressor (it is shown
after the compressor in Figure 1). Placement of this filter will affect the pressure
rating, overall size, and cost of the vessel, as well as the cost of graphite media
replacement. Other considerations should be made when determining the overall
configuration and layout of the equipment, including the siloxane filter. These
additional considerations are discussed at length throughout this application guide.
Decisions such as these are a function of the existing site features, the preferences
of the designer and end-user, and the size of the facility (that is, the quantity of
Capstone MicroTurbines).
The Capstone business partner or end-user is responsible for the fuel delivery
system, and may use any equipment that reliably meets the fuel inlet requirements of
the Capstone MicroTurbine.


480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 3 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine




           Raw Biogas Input
                                                                        Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System


             Sediment Trap
               (Optional)



                 Liquid/Gas
                                                                                                                                                  Condensate
                 Separator




                     Dryer                                                                                                       Condensate




               Compressor




                 Liquid/Gas                                                                                    Condensate
                 Separator




                     Dryer                                                                    Condensate




              Siloxane Filter




  Gaseous fuel at this point must
                                                                                       To appropriate drainage and disposal
  have less than 5 parts per billion
                                                                                       equipment/facility
  (ppb) by volume Siloxanes



                                                                           Fuel gas temperature at this
                 Capstone External Sour                                    point must be greater than                                            Capstone
                 Gas Fuel Option Kit                                       or equal to 10 degrees C                                             MicroTurbine
                                                                           (18 F) above the dew point

                                                                            .




                     Figure 1. Typical Flowsheet for Biogas Fuel Delivery System

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 4 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine




                 Figure 2. Illustration of a Possible Biogas Pretreatment System

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 5 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Moisture Concerns
Because of the way it is produced, biogas is saturated with water. Any cooling of the
gas in process lines almost always generates liquid phase condensate. This
condensate must be knocked out when the gas first enters the Capstone
MicroTurbine flowsheet. Compressing the gas, and cooling it afterwards in a
compressor after-cooler, produces more condensate. The compressed gas must be
chilled, separated, and reheated (if downstream of the gas compressor). On the
typical flowsheet (Figure 1), these operations are labeled with the term dryer.
The ultimate objective is to introduce the pressurized gas into the Capstone
MicroTurbine in such a condition that it will arrive at the manifold block at least 10° C
(18° F) above its dew point temperature. Planning for this introduction must take into
account both the hottest and the coldest ambient temperatures that will be
encountered at the site. This planning is especially critical for installations operating
in regions experiencing very cold climates that might otherwise freeze condensate in
the fuel or drain lines.
Additionally, and as stated in Note 2 of the table titled “Gaseous Fuel Contaminants
Limitations” in the Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference
(410002): “If the fuel or fuel system must be heated to a temperature above the
ambient temperature in order to meet this requirement, or to prevent condensed
water from freezing, precautions must be taken to prevent the condensation of water
vapor or freezing when the MicroTurbine is shut down, so that freezing of control
valves does not occur and no liquid may enter the MicroTurbine control system when
started or during operation.” Careful attention to this requirement is essential at
outdoor installations subject to freezing temperatures.
Early Capstone biogas installations have shown that the use of industry-accepted,
proven technology for compression and drying of landfill gas and digester gas is
essential; for example:
       !      Sour gas compatible rotary sliding vane or screw compressors.
       !      Refrigerated dryers or water/glycol chillers.
       !      In both cases, stainless steel or equivalent construction is specified for biogas.

Two of the most important points of plumbing design at a biogas site are to use the
right material and allow for drainage. Plastic pipe is used in some locations but is
not permitted in others. This type of pipe has the advantage of being corrosion-proof,
but can be damaged. All piping must have provision for drainage. If the pipe goes
underground or has a low point, the condensate will collect there and needs to be
drained. Even if the piping diagram plan view appears to be perfect, the plumber
may be tempted to route elevated pipe back to the ground level between various
components like the compressor and the dryer. That pipe, and all others, must either
slope toward a vessel with a drain or take appropriate means for condensate
drainage.

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 6 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Other considerations must also be made for the condensate removal system. For
example, a device in front of the gas compressor intended for liquid/gas separation
may be operating under a vacuum during normal operation. This is due to the high
volume of gas that the compressor must intake in the area near its inlet to achieve
the desired levels of flow and pressure. Under these conditions, care should be
taken when draining condensate to avoid drawing in air that may result in
MicroTurbine flameout or condensate ingestion by the gas compressor. Typical
approaches may include the addition of condensate level switches and a small pump
to remove the condensate; or perhaps an additional container and valves on the
drain line to isolate the liquid from the vacuum so that the condensate may be
manually drained while not introducing air to the fuel.
Additional care should be applied to selecting the types of liquid/gas separators used
in such a system. Common applications employ coalescing, mesh-pad, cyclonic, or
baffled separators made of stainless steel. Such separators may be acceptable for
an application for a pressurized system, but these types of separators are not always
appropriate for separation at very low pressure (i.e., at the compressor inlet). For the
low-pressure separator, great care should be taken in both selecting the separator
size and type. The approach will be different from one site to another, depending on
ambient temperatures, fuel type, moisture content, existing fuel treatment, etc.
Regardless of the approach or technology applied for condensate control, it is
required that all gas-wetted components be constructed of stainless steel or some
other appropriate material capable of tolerating the presence of hydrogen sulfide in
the system and any relevant weather conditions. In some cases, this may include
the upgrade of any heat exchangers in the dryer or chiller to stainless steel.
Moreover, it is highly recommended that temperature indicators and/or alarms be
added, if possible, at the point of lowest temperature. This should be done so that a
failure of the chiller/dryer component can be used to stop operation and provide
maximum protection to the MicroTurbine and gas compressor.
Since a significant portion of the overall condensate formed will occur during the
after-cooling process of the gas compressor, it is recommended that some form of
liquid/gas separation take place after the gas compressor, so that the operation of a
refrigerated dryer/chiller is not impaired or rendered less efficient. In many cases,
this separation may be achieved with the addition of a coalescing filter so that the
filter can both remove liquid phase condensate as well as provide additional filtration
prior to the inlet of the refrigerated dryer/chiller heat exchanger. Also, the portion of
pipe directly after the compressor needs to have a method of draining into an
appropriate vessel. This may require elevating the compressor so that condensate
will flow away from the compressor. A check valve should also be installed directly
after the compressor to prevent any moisture from flowing back into the compressor
upon shutdown.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 7 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Aside from the direct impacts that moisture may have in the MicroTurbine itself
(which may include stuck fuel valves and plugged fuel injectors), moisture may also
present a significant indirect affect to the MicroTurbine. In some biogas applications,
it may be necessary to filter out several components of the fuel known collectively as
siloxanes (see below for additional detail on siloxanes). Many of the filters that are
used for siloxane removal are impaired by the presence of liquid condensate, which
in turn, may allow siloxanes to reach and impact the MicroTurbines. For this reason,
the temperature of the fuel must be higher then the fuel’s dew point when passing
through the siloxane removal devices. In Figure 1, for example, this is accomplished
by placing the siloxane removal after a gas dryer.
Drain lines from all condensate producing devices should be directed towards an
appropriate drainage disposal facility/equipment. Since there are many points of
condensate drainage from the system, care should be taken to avoid over-
pressurizing the drainage lines themselves. Condensate drain lines from high-
pressure sources should not be tied together with drain lines from low-pressure
sources. Ideally, all drain lines should be kept separate. However, should any drain
line manifolding occur, it would be necessary to add check valves to the drain lines of
all devices.
Timer-based drainage systems have proven to be common in many applications,
especially with refrigerated dryers. Other types of drains and traps are also used to
as part of an effort to create a fully automatic drainage system for a pretreatment
system. However, even if a fully automatic drainage system is in place, all
condensate traps on the drain line should have a bypass available for manual
draining should an issue arise with an existing trap. Furthermore, if an installation will
be operated without oversight for any length of time, the drainage system should also
include high-level switches as alarms to cease operation of the overall installation in
the event that some portion of the drainage system fail. When possible, the entire
system, including the drainage system, should be manually inspected for potential or
developing issues. It is recommended that such inspections occur daily for a new
installation.
Capstone can assist business partners and end-users in the selection of appropriate
equipment, and in the design and integration of the fuel processing equipment into
the overall installation. However, the Capstone business partner or end-user is
responsible for the fuel delivery system, and may use any equipment that reliably
meets the fuel inlet requirements of the Capstone MicroTurbine.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 8 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Fuel Pressure Concerns
As mentioned previously, rotary sliding vane compressors have shown a tolerance
for hydrogen sulfide in low to moderate levels. However, regardless of the
compressor technology ultimately employed, the ability of the gas compressor (a.k.a.
fuel gas booster) to supply an adequate level of pressure is vital to the success of the
installation. The Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference
(410002) provides useful information indicating that a decrease in the energy content
of the fuel will require an increase in the available pressure at the fuel valve of the
MicroTurbine; however, the gas compressor is still required to provide gas pressures
in the range of 90-95 psig at the compressor discharge point for low and medium Btu
installations.
This increased pressure discharge from the compressor compensates for several
things. First, it provides sufficient pressure to overcome the pressure losses across
most devices downstream of the compressor and upstream of the MicroTurbine.
Second, it allows for a minimum of 12-15 psig pressure drop across the pressure
regulator on the external fuel kit near the inlet of the MicroTurbine. This pressure
drop allows the regulator to adequately protect the MicroTurbine from most moderate
pressure fluctuations upstream of the regulator as well as the fluctuations caused by
the starting/stopping of additional MicroTurbines consuming fuel from the same fuel
header. Third, this compressor discharge pressure allows the MicroTurbine to
receive the necessary fuel pressure it requires in steady fashion, which may be as
high as 70-74 psig in low Btu applications.
The ability of the gas compressor to maintain the required pressure levels, as well as
successfully operate in the long term, is affected by the levels of Hydrogen Sulfide
(H2S), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), gas moisture content and the actual frequency of oil
changes. Many compressors that operate on biogas will use specific oils intended to
both lubricate the compressor, as well as provide some degree of protection against
corrosion. Since the level of both H2S and CO2 in a fuel is very site specific, the rate
of oil degradation is site specific as well. Thus, it may be necessary to periodically
sample and test the oil to determine the frequency of required compressor oil
changes to maintain compressor life and performance.
A serious consideration for the gas compressor, regardless of the technology utilized,
is the temperature of the inlet gas stream. As discussed previously, the fuel coming
to the gas compressor will probably be saturated with moisture. Since the ability of
this type of fuel to hold moisture increases dramatically with temperature, it will often
be required to pre-cool the fuel to a lower temperature and remove the resulting
condensate (see Figure 1). This ensures that the moisture in the fuel does not leave
the vapor state as it passes through the gas compressor. Biogas from an anaerobic
digester, and at some landfills, may arrive at the pretreatment system at
temperatures in excess of 120 degrees Fahrenheit.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 9 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Ideally, the dew point temperature of the fuel entering the gas compressor should be
lower then 60° F for maximum protection of the compressor, but if 60° F or lower dew
point temperatures cannot be achieved, then the lowest possible dew point
temperatures should be obtained. In some cases, it may be necessary to modify the
compressor to run hotter internally to prevent moisture from condensing within the
compressor; although this is not always a viable option.
In some installations, a refrigerated gas dryer will be used instead of a chiller on the
discharge side (high pressure side) of the gas compressor. Many refrigerated dryers
use timer-based drainage systems for purging of the collected condensate. Since
many of these dryers are placed after the gas compressor, but still in close proximity
to the compressor discharge, there is the possibility that the dryer draining periods
will cause a local drop in pressure that can be detected by the gas compressor. This
condition often results in a cycle of the compressor rpm (for systems with a variable
speed drive) each time the dryers opens its drain. If such events are severe and
occur rapidly, it may result in an accelerated loss of compressor oil into the gas
stream. This situation, however, may be addressed in several ways, from the
addition of a small buffer tank, to the addition of a small restriction in the dryer drain
line that minimizes gas loss and local pressure fluctuation. Note that if the siloxane
filter vessel is located relatively close to the compressor and dryer, the vessel may
double as a high-pressure buffer tank. This minimizes the pressure fluctuation that
would otherwise be seen by the MicroTurbines while assisting the gas compressor to
cope with the local loss in pressure from the refrigerated dryer drain.


Filter Element Concerns
Following commissioning of MicroTurbines using digester gas or landfill gas as fuel,
the coalescing filters on the Capstone external fuel kit and inside the MicroTurbine
enclosure should be inspected once a week during the first month of operation.
These inspections will determine whether the filters are wet or dry, and if they are
collecting significant amounts of particulate matter (such as carbon particles from the
siloxane filters).
If the filters are wet, the gas does not meet the Capstone fuel specification. As a
consequence, performance of the MicroTurbine will be impacted, and the warranty
may be voided if damage to fuel system components is caused by fuel moisture. If
this occurs, take corrective action to the fuel delivery system: replace the filter
elements, and continue checking once a week for several weeks, to verify that the
filters remain dry. Notice that the inside surface of the cylindrical filter element is the
surface that collects the particulate matter.
Once the weekly filter inspections have verified that the fuel is dry, it is recommended
that at least one filter be inspected every month for several months. Depending on
the results of these inspections, it may be necessary to change the filter elements
more often than every 8,000 hours (which is the guideline for pipeline-quality natural
gas), as noted in the MicroTurbine Standard Maintenance Work Instruction (440000).

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 10 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Moreover, the fuel filters should be inspected within 1000 hours of a siloxane filter
media change. The change of the siloxane media introduces new particulate
impurities to the system that will likely be captured by the fuel filters at the inlet of the
MicroTurbine (if the siloxane removal system is placed as shown in Figure 1). Thus,
it may be necessary to change the fuel filters soon after a change of the siloxane
filtration media to ensure that the fuel filters do not become significantly clogged and
allowing additional impurities to pass into the MicroTurbine.


Siloxane Concerns
Siloxanes are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and silicon (Si)
and are relatively volatile organic/silicon compounds manufactured and used as a
basic building block monomer for polymerized silicone formations. Further, siloxanes
are used extensively in consumer products as a volatile dispersant agent to help
evenly spread organic-based specialty chemicals. Some of these products include
deodorant, lipstick, and makeup.
As man-made compounds that typically are washed down the drain or thrown in the
trash, siloxanes are ALWAYS found in landfill gas and wastewater treatment plant
digester gas. However, siloxanes are NOT likely to be found in certain other types of
digester gases. Examples of operations that are likely to produce siloxane-free
digester gas include the following:
       !      Dairy and hog farms (manure digesters).
       !      Breweries and ethanol plants.
       !      Food processing plants.
Analysis of biogas from wastewater treatment plant digesters and landfills reveals
that cyclic (ring-structure) siloxanes are the most prevalent form. Figure 3 presents
the structure of a specific siloxane molecule, commonly called D4, found in
wastewater treatment plant digester gases. However, since many other types of
siloxanes may be present in biogas, a complete fuel analysis should be performed to
identify the types and quantities of other present siloxane molecules, so that the
appropriate graphite media may be used for optimal filtration.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 11 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



                            Siloxane (D4)
                                                                                     (Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane)
                                                                         CH3
                                                      O                    Si                     O
                                                                         CH3
                            CH3 Si CH3                                                         CH3 Si CH3
                                                                         CH3
                                                      O                    Si                     O
                                                                         CH3

                Figure 3. Chemical Structure for a Siloxane (D4) Molecule

Siloxanes have limited water solubility, and they agglomerate in the solids (sludge)
fed to digesters at wastewater treatment plants. In the hot environment of digesters,
concentrations of volatile siloxanes increase due to the decomposition of silicones
and other polymers composed of siloxanes. As a result, the concentration of
siloxanes in digester gas is in the measurable ppb (parts per billion) or ppm (parts per
million) range.
As biogas that contains siloxanes is combusted, the silicon reacts with oxygen to
form silicon dioxide (SiO2), a solid white powder commonly known as silica. Sand
(quartz) is nearly pure silica. Silica particles are abrasive and have a very high
melting temperature.
When siloxanes are present in the fuel to a Capstone MicroTurbine, tiny particles of
silica form in the combustion section. The silica particles travel with the exhaust
gases at very high speeds through the nozzle vanes into the turbine wheel, and then
exits through the recuperator and heat exchanger (if installed). Over time, these
abrasive particles can cause erosion of some of the metal surfaces they contact, as
well as fouling and plugging of heat exchanger surfaces - leading to a gradual
increase in fuel consumption and exhaust temperature and a decrease in system
efficiency. Additionally, silica may deposit all throughout the combustion section of
the MicroTurbine and behind the turbine wheel, which could lead to seizing of the
turbine shaft.
In other power generating equipment (internal combustion engines and gas turbines)
used for landfill gas and digester gas, troublesome silica deposits and erosion have
also been found. These deposits are often found on the cylinder heads and rings of
internal combustion engines, and on the heat recovery steam generator tubes of gas
turbines. Maintenance and rebuild requirements tend to be very high, as shown by
unit availability data.   It is not uncommon for internal combustion engines at
wastewater treatment plants to have top-end rebuilds twice a year.
480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 12 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


As more stringent NOx emission requirements are imposed, generators other than
Capstone MicroTurbines are being forced to incorporate post-combustion catalytic
controls. Silica particles in the exhaust gas from these generators operating on
biogas have been observed to blind the catalyst and render it ineffective within a few
hours of operation.
For these reasons, as technology is driven towards higher performance levels and
lower emissions, siloxane removal is expected to become a more common process
step in all biogas power generation systems, not just in Capstone MicroTurbine
systems.


Siloxane Removal Concerns (Capstone MicroTurbines)
Applied Filter Technology (AFT) of Snohomish, Washington provides siloxane
removal systems and services specifically designed for Capstone MicroTurbines.
Upon request, Capstone will review and may approve the use of other systems or
vendors that can reliably meet the basic requirement of no detectable siloxanes (<5
ppb) in the fuel entering the Capstone MicroTurbine.
The basic technology is absorption of siloxanes in the pores of graphite media.
Applied Filter Technology has a number of different media with different pore sizes
and structures, and layers them differently for each biogas to optimize overall
performance. Applied Filter Technology refers to this system as Segmented Activity
Gradient (or SAG).
The services performed by Applied Filter Technology include the following:
       !      Providing the special gas sampling equipment and method needed to obtain
              an accurate siloxane analysis.
       !      Coordination with the analytical laboratory.
       !      Evaluation of the concentrations of siloxanes and other organic compounds.
       !      Calculation of removal efficiencies and media replacement rates.
       !      Design and manufacture of the siloxane removal system.
       !      Engineering consultation as necessary.

In order to keep the cost to a minimum, the siloxane removal system may be
designed without a lead-lag vessel system. Bypassing the vessel for a couple of
hours while the media is being changed will not cause any measurable loss in
Capstone MicroTurbine performance, if this operation is performed just a few times a
year. A biogas with an extremely high concentration of siloxanes would be treated
as an exception to this typical guideline.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 13 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is normally present in biogas, and is preferentially absorbed
in graphite media. Sites with high H2S content in the biogas may require more
extensive fuel treatment systems (possibly including separate H2S removal) to
ensure complete removal of siloxanes with reasonable run lengths between graphite
media changes.
The Capstone installer or end-user is responsible for the fuel delivery system,
including the selection, design, and operation of the siloxane removal system.


Materials of Construction Concerns
Biogas is sour gas, containing H2S in the 100 to 10,000 ppm range. High CO2
content makes it acidic as well. Biogas condensate is a foul-smelling, noxious
material that contains some difficult-to-handle compounds. Stainless steel, plastic,
and aluminum are the preferred materials of construction. Parts made of yellow
metals, such as brass valves and copper heat exchanger tubes are inappropriate.
Carbon steel will also eventually corrode, leaving byproducts that can clog and
damage other equipment.

Resources
These resources have hardware that may be appropriate for biogas applications:

Refrigerated Dryers & Chillers:
Company:                    Pneumatech
Contact Information:        Titus A. Mathews
                            Phone - (262) 658-4300
                            Fax - (262) 658-1945
                            Email - tmathews@pneumatech.com
                            Web Page - http://www.pneumatech.com/

Company:                                                   Q-Air California
Contact Information:                                       Richard Walsh
                                                           Phone - (562) 906-8687
                                                           Fax - (562) 946-0327

Fuel Compressors (Fuel Gas Boosters):
Company:                 CompAir
Contact Information:     Gavin Monn
                         Phone - (937) 498-2565
                         Fax - (937) 492-3811
                         Email - gavin.monn@compair.com
                         Web Page - http://www.compair.com/




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 14 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Company:                                                   A-C Compressor
Contact Information:                                       Web Page - http://www.gepower.com/geoilandgas

Company:                                                   Davey Compressor
Contact Information:                                       Web Page - http://www.daveycompressor.com/
Notes:                                                     Compressors require third party modification for
                                                           biogas. Contact Capstone for additional details.

Exhaust Heat Exchangers for Biogas:
Company:                  Cain Industries
Contact Information:      Jim Rozanski
                          Sales Engineer
                          Phone 1 - (800) 558-8690 x19
                          Phone 2 - (262) 251-0051 x19
                          Fax - (262) 251-0118
                          Email - jim.rozanski@cainind.com
                          Web Page - http://www.cainind.com/

Stainless Steel Exhaust Ducting:
Company:                   Heat & Power Products, Inc.
Contact Information:       Bruce Ames
                           Phone - (920) 858-2004 x4
                           Fax - (920) 428-1390
                           Email - bames@hpprep.com
                           Web Page - http://www.heatandpowerproducts.com/

Capstone distributors who have installed and/or operated biogas installations with
MicroTurbine equipment are:

Calpwr
Primary Biogas Application(s):                                            Waste water treatment plants
Primary Contact(s):                                                       Joe Silva
                                                                          San Diego, CA
                                                                          Phone - (858) 277-8585
                                                                          Fax - (858) 277-8514
                                                                          Email - joes@calpwr.com

Unison Solutions
Primary Biogas Application(s):                                            Anaerobic digesters, landfills,
                                                                          waste water treatment plants
Primary Contact(s):                                                       Jan Scott or Dave Broihahn
                                                                          Dubuque, Iowa
                                                                          Phone 1 - (563) 585-0968
                                                                          Phone 2 - (563) 585-0969
                                                                          Fax - (563) 585-0970
                                                                          Email - jan.scott@unisonsolutions.com
                                                                          Email - dave.broihahn@unisonsolutions.com
480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 15 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine




Stellar Power & Utilities
Primary Biogas Application(s):                                            Waste water treatment plants
Primary Contact(s):                                                       Eric Fox
                                                                          Jacksonville, FL
                                                                          Phone - (904) 899-9485
                                                                          Mobile - (904) 631-4799
                                                                          Fax - (904) 899-9485
                                                                          Email - efox@thestellargroup.com

Designers, installers, or end-users with little or no practical experience in installing
and/or operating a biogas-to-energy project may benefit from using services of
companies experienced in this field. Capstone does not recommend that those
inexperienced in biogas applications undertake such projects without engaging
appropriately skilled personnel as these can be particularly technically challenging
applications.

It remains the full responsibility of the designer and installer to properly engineer,
integrate, and install any component selected for such a pretreatment system and for
the integration of the pretreatment system with the MicroTurbine. Capstone
undertakes no obligation to update this resource list provided in this Application
Guide.


Safety Considerations
Consideration should be given to minimizing the exposure of workers to both the
biogas and the condensate as they perform maintenance on the systems. Purge
valves and purge gas systems, bypass lines, media replacement hatches, and media
maintenance procedures, in addition to ventilation requirements, are important
considerations. In addition, all workers must have H2S safety training.


Capstone Technical Information
For additional information, or if specific Biogas questions arise, feel free to
contact the Biogas Product Director or the Biogas Applications Manager at
Capstone Turbine Corporation:

Capstone Turbine Corporation
21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone: (818) 734-5300 • Fax: (818) 734-5320
Website: http://www.microturbine.com/




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 16 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                                        Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
Capstone                               Telephone: (818) 734-5300 • Facsimile: (818) 734-5320 • Website: www.microturbine.com




Application Guide
Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine

This document presents fuel application information for the Capstone MicroTurbine
operating on landfill gas or digester gas. This combination may be referred to
generically as "biogas".


Introduction
Compliance with the requirements detailed in this document is essential to avoid
problems that may affect the performance, life, reliability, warranty, and in some
cases, the safe operation of the Capstone MicroTurbine.
For additional information regarding different fuels and fuel usage, please refer to the
Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002).


The major areas of this document are detailed in the Table of Contents as follows:


                                                                     Table of Contents
Introduction.....................................................................................................................1
Biogas Fuel Requirements ............................................................................................2
Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System ............................................................................3
  Moisture Concerns......................................................................................................6
  Fuel Pressure Concerns .............................................................................................9
  Filter Element Concerns ...........................................................................................10
  Siloxane Concerns....................................................................................................11
  Siloxane Removal Concerns (Capstone MicroTurbines).........................................13
  Materials of Construction Concerns .........................................................................14
Sources ........................................................................................................................14
Safety Considerations..................................................................................................16
Capstone Technical Information..................................................................................16




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 1 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Biogas Fuel Requirements
Operational fuel requirements for the Capstone MicroTurbine are provided in
Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002).
Capstone bases its warranty on the quality of the gas at the MicroTurbine inlet. This
leaves the business partner and/or end-user responsible for the following items:
       !      Assessing the need for gas cleanup and conditioning.
       !      Selecting and properly installing, operating, and maintaining the appropriate
              gas cleanup and conditioning equipment.
This Biogas Application Guide is intended to provide supplementary, application-
specific information for use by Capstone business partners and end-users. In the
event of any conflict between the information provided herein, and the information
and requirements contained within the Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements
Technical Reference (410002), the Fuel Requirements Technical Reference shall
take precedence.
Biogas originates from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials.
Anaerobic refers to a process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. Digestion refers
to a biological process performed by microbes or bacteria, which accomplishes the
digestion of the organic waste materials. The microbes/bacteria consume the
organic waste material, rendering its solid residue essentially inert. The process
occurs in the presence of water, ideally with the temperature and pH controlled to
optimize the digestion reactions and the health of the microbes/bacteria. The primary
byproducts of this process are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Typically,
the volumetric gas ratio of methane to carbon dioxide is approximately 60:40 for
digester gas.
The Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference (410002), table
titled “Gaseous Fuel Composition and Properties Requirements,” presents the
required fuel composition and physical properties for gaseous fuels. While all of
these requirements are important and must be observed, the most important
limitations contained in this table with respect to biogas are noted as follows:
       !      The fuel temperature must be at a minimum of 10° C (18° F) above its dew
              point anywhere within the fuel connections and the system between the
              Capstone MicroTurbine fuel inlet and the fuel manifold block (refer to Note 2).
       !      Calorific value (average Higher Heating Value, or HHV) must be at least 13.04
              MJ/m3 (350 Btu/ft3). If necessary, biogas with less than 350 Btu/scf can be
              blended with natural gas for use in the Capstone MicroTurbine.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 2 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Also in the aforementioned document, the table titled “Gaseous Fuel Contaminants
Limitations,” presents the required fuel contaminant limitations for gaseous fuel. All
limitations must be observed for compliance. The limitation regarding the presence
of siloxanes, however, is specific to both landfill gas and wastewater treatment plant
digester gas. This limitation is identified as follows:
       !      Siloxanes must be limited to a maximum of 5 parts per billion (ppb) by
              volume. This is approximately the detection limit for siloxanes.
       !      Effectively, this limitation means that the fuel must contain no detectable level
              of siloxanes.
Some of the implications of these requirements are discussed in the following
paragraphs. The focus is primarily on moisture and siloxane removal.


Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System
A flowsheet for a typical biogas fuel preparation and delivery system to the Capstone
MicroTurbine is provided in Figure 1. Not all of the steps may be required for all
sites, and the steps may appear in different sequences in other cases. An example
of a fuel pretreatment system not requiring initial sediment filtration nor pre-
compressor dew point suppression is illustrated in Figure 2; however, as is described
throughout this document, though often similar, every biogas installation is unique,
and proper care should be taken when engineering the pretreatment system for a
given application.
Capstone recommends that a sediment trap or filter be placed at the beginning of the
line coming from the main gas manifold or pipe to the MicroTurbine plant. This filter
will eliminate most of the black powder sludge material (corrosion products) and
scale coming from the existing plant systems. Appropriate care should be taken to
provide for the adequate drainage and disposal of any condensate and
sediments/solids captured by this trap.
The siloxane filter can be placed either before or after the compressor (it is shown
after the compressor in Figure 1). Placement of this filter will affect the pressure
rating, overall size, and cost of the vessel, as well as the cost of graphite media
replacement. Other considerations should be made when determining the overall
configuration and layout of the equipment, including the siloxane filter. These
additional considerations are discussed at length throughout this application guide.
Decisions such as these are a function of the existing site features, the preferences
of the designer and end-user, and the size of the facility (that is, the quantity of
Capstone MicroTurbines).
The Capstone business partner or end-user is responsible for the fuel delivery
system, and may use any equipment that reliably meets the fuel inlet requirements of
the Capstone MicroTurbine.


480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 3 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine




           Raw Biogas Input
                                                                        Typical Biogas Fuel Delivery System


             Sediment Trap
               (Optional)



                 Liquid/Gas
                                                                                                                                                  Condensate
                 Separator




                     Dryer                                                                                                       Condensate




               Compressor




                 Liquid/Gas                                                                                    Condensate
                 Separator




                     Dryer                                                                    Condensate




              Siloxane Filter




  Gaseous fuel at this point must
                                                                                       To appropriate drainage and disposal
  have less than 5 parts per billion
                                                                                       equipment/facility
  (ppb) by volume Siloxanes



                                                                           Fuel gas temperature at this
                 Capstone External Sour                                    point must be greater than                                            Capstone
                 Gas Fuel Option Kit                                       or equal to 10 degrees C                                             MicroTurbine
                                                                           (18 F) above the dew point

                                                                            .




                     Figure 1. Typical Flowsheet for Biogas Fuel Delivery System

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 4 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine




                 Figure 2. Illustration of a Possible Biogas Pretreatment System

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 5 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Moisture Concerns
Because of the way it is produced, biogas is saturated with water. Any cooling of the
gas in process lines almost always generates liquid phase condensate. This
condensate must be knocked out when the gas first enters the Capstone
MicroTurbine flowsheet. Compressing the gas, and cooling it afterwards in a
compressor after-cooler, produces more condensate. The compressed gas must be
chilled, separated, and reheated (if downstream of the gas compressor). On the
typical flowsheet (Figure 1), these operations are labeled with the term dryer.
The ultimate objective is to introduce the pressurized gas into the Capstone
MicroTurbine in such a condition that it will arrive at the manifold block at least 10° C
(18° F) above its dew point temperature. Planning for this introduction must take into
account both the hottest and the coldest ambient temperatures that will be
encountered at the site. This planning is especially critical for installations operating
in regions experiencing very cold climates that might otherwise freeze condensate in
the fuel or drain lines.
Additionally, and as stated in Note 2 of the table titled “Gaseous Fuel Contaminants
Limitations” in the Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference
(410002): “If the fuel or fuel system must be heated to a temperature above the
ambient temperature in order to meet this requirement, or to prevent condensed
water from freezing, precautions must be taken to prevent the condensation of water
vapor or freezing when the MicroTurbine is shut down, so that freezing of control
valves does not occur and no liquid may enter the MicroTurbine control system when
started or during operation.” Careful attention to this requirement is essential at
outdoor installations subject to freezing temperatures.
Early Capstone biogas installations have shown that the use of industry-accepted,
proven technology for compression and drying of landfill gas and digester gas is
essential; for example:
       !      Sour gas compatible rotary sliding vane or screw compressors.
       !      Refrigerated dryers or water/glycol chillers.
       !      In both cases, stainless steel or equivalent construction is specified for biogas.

Two of the most important points of plumbing design at a biogas site are to use the
right material and allow for drainage. Plastic pipe is used in some locations but is
not permitted in others. This type of pipe has the advantage of being corrosion-proof,
but can be damaged. All piping must have provision for drainage. If the pipe goes
underground or has a low point, the condensate will collect there and needs to be
drained. Even if the piping diagram plan view appears to be perfect, the plumber
may be tempted to route elevated pipe back to the ground level between various
components like the compressor and the dryer. That pipe, and all others, must either
slope toward a vessel with a drain or take appropriate means for condensate
drainage.

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 6 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Other considerations must also be made for the condensate removal system. For
example, a device in front of the gas compressor intended for liquid/gas separation
may be operating under a vacuum during normal operation. This is due to the high
volume of gas that the compressor must intake in the area near its inlet to achieve
the desired levels of flow and pressure. Under these conditions, care should be
taken when draining condensate to avoid drawing in air that may result in
MicroTurbine flameout or condensate ingestion by the gas compressor. Typical
approaches may include the addition of condensate level switches and a small pump
to remove the condensate; or perhaps an additional container and valves on the
drain line to isolate the liquid from the vacuum so that the condensate may be
manually drained while not introducing air to the fuel.
Additional care should be applied to selecting the types of liquid/gas separators used
in such a system. Common applications employ coalescing, mesh-pad, cyclonic, or
baffled separators made of stainless steel. Such separators may be acceptable for
an application for a pressurized system, but these types of separators are not always
appropriate for separation at very low pressure (i.e., at the compressor inlet). For the
low-pressure separator, great care should be taken in both selecting the separator
size and type. The approach will be different from one site to another, depending on
ambient temperatures, fuel type, moisture content, existing fuel treatment, etc.
Regardless of the approach or technology applied for condensate control, it is
required that all gas-wetted components be constructed of stainless steel or some
other appropriate material capable of tolerating the presence of hydrogen sulfide in
the system and any relevant weather conditions. In some cases, this may include
the upgrade of any heat exchangers in the dryer or chiller to stainless steel.
Moreover, it is highly recommended that temperature indicators and/or alarms be
added, if possible, at the point of lowest temperature. This should be done so that a
failure of the chiller/dryer component can be used to stop operation and provide
maximum protection to the MicroTurbine and gas compressor.
Since a significant portion of the overall condensate formed will occur during the
after-cooling process of the gas compressor, it is recommended that some form of
liquid/gas separation take place after the gas compressor, so that the operation of a
refrigerated dryer/chiller is not impaired or rendered less efficient. In many cases,
this separation may be achieved with the addition of a coalescing filter so that the
filter can both remove liquid phase condensate as well as provide additional filtration
prior to the inlet of the refrigerated dryer/chiller heat exchanger. Also, the portion of
pipe directly after the compressor needs to have a method of draining into an
appropriate vessel. This may require elevating the compressor so that condensate
will flow away from the compressor. A check valve should also be installed directly
after the compressor to prevent any moisture from flowing back into the compressor
upon shutdown.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 7 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Aside from the direct impacts that moisture may have in the MicroTurbine itself
(which may include stuck fuel valves and plugged fuel injectors), moisture may also
present a significant indirect affect to the MicroTurbine. In some biogas applications,
it may be necessary to filter out several components of the fuel known collectively as
siloxanes (see below for additional detail on siloxanes). Many of the filters that are
used for siloxane removal are impaired by the presence of liquid condensate, which
in turn, may allow siloxanes to reach and impact the MicroTurbines. For this reason,
the temperature of the fuel must be higher then the fuel’s dew point when passing
through the siloxane removal devices. In Figure 1, for example, this is accomplished
by placing the siloxane removal after a gas dryer.
Drain lines from all condensate producing devices should be directed towards an
appropriate drainage disposal facility/equipment. Since there are many points of
condensate drainage from the system, care should be taken to avoid over-
pressurizing the drainage lines themselves. Condensate drain lines from high-
pressure sources should not be tied together with drain lines from low-pressure
sources. Ideally, all drain lines should be kept separate. However, should any drain
line manifolding occur, it would be necessary to add check valves to the drain lines of
all devices.
Timer-based drainage systems have proven to be common in many applications,
especially with refrigerated dryers. Other types of drains and traps are also used to
as part of an effort to create a fully automatic drainage system for a pretreatment
system. However, even if a fully automatic drainage system is in place, all
condensate traps on the drain line should have a bypass available for manual
draining should an issue arise with an existing trap. Furthermore, if an installation will
be operated without oversight for any length of time, the drainage system should also
include high-level switches as alarms to cease operation of the overall installation in
the event that some portion of the drainage system fail. When possible, the entire
system, including the drainage system, should be manually inspected for potential or
developing issues. It is recommended that such inspections occur daily for a new
installation.
Capstone can assist business partners and end-users in the selection of appropriate
equipment, and in the design and integration of the fuel processing equipment into
the overall installation. However, the Capstone business partner or end-user is
responsible for the fuel delivery system, and may use any equipment that reliably
meets the fuel inlet requirements of the Capstone MicroTurbine.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 8 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Fuel Pressure Concerns
As mentioned previously, rotary sliding vane compressors have shown a tolerance
for hydrogen sulfide in low to moderate levels. However, regardless of the
compressor technology ultimately employed, the ability of the gas compressor (a.k.a.
fuel gas booster) to supply an adequate level of pressure is vital to the success of the
installation. The Capstone MicroTurbine Fuel Requirements Technical Reference
(410002) provides useful information indicating that a decrease in the energy content
of the fuel will require an increase in the available pressure at the fuel valve of the
MicroTurbine; however, the gas compressor is still required to provide gas pressures
in the range of 90-95 psig at the compressor discharge point for low and medium Btu
installations.
This increased pressure discharge from the compressor compensates for several
things. First, it provides sufficient pressure to overcome the pressure losses across
most devices downstream of the compressor and upstream of the MicroTurbine.
Second, it allows for a minimum of 12-15 psig pressure drop across the pressure
regulator on the external fuel kit near the inlet of the MicroTurbine. This pressure
drop allows the regulator to adequately protect the MicroTurbine from most moderate
pressure fluctuations upstream of the regulator as well as the fluctuations caused by
the starting/stopping of additional MicroTurbines consuming fuel from the same fuel
header. Third, this compressor discharge pressure allows the MicroTurbine to
receive the necessary fuel pressure it requires in steady fashion, which may be as
high as 70-74 psig in low Btu applications.
The ability of the gas compressor to maintain the required pressure levels, as well as
successfully operate in the long term, is affected by the levels of Hydrogen Sulfide
(H2S), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), gas moisture content and the actual frequency of oil
changes. Many compressors that operate on biogas will use specific oils intended to
both lubricate the compressor, as well as provide some degree of protection against
corrosion. Since the level of both H2S and CO2 in a fuel is very site specific, the rate
of oil degradation is site specific as well. Thus, it may be necessary to periodically
sample and test the oil to determine the frequency of required compressor oil
changes to maintain compressor life and performance.
A serious consideration for the gas compressor, regardless of the technology utilized,
is the temperature of the inlet gas stream. As discussed previously, the fuel coming
to the gas compressor will probably be saturated with moisture. Since the ability of
this type of fuel to hold moisture increases dramatically with temperature, it will often
be required to pre-cool the fuel to a lower temperature and remove the resulting
condensate (see Figure 1). This ensures that the moisture in the fuel does not leave
the vapor state as it passes through the gas compressor. Biogas from an anaerobic
digester, and at some landfills, may arrive at the pretreatment system at
temperatures in excess of 120 degrees Fahrenheit.




480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 9 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine



Ideally, the dew point temperature of the fuel entering the gas compressor should be
lower then 60° F for maximum protection of the compressor, but if 60° F or lower dew
point temperatures cannot be achieved, then the lowest possible dew point
temperatures should be obtained. In some cases, it may be necessary to modify the
compressor to run hotter internally to prevent moisture from condensing within the
compressor; although this is not always a viable option.
In some installations, a refrigerated gas dryer will be used instead of a chiller on the
discharge side (high pressure side) of the gas compressor. Many refrigerated dryers
use timer-based drainage systems for purging of the collected condensate. Since
many of these dryers are placed after the gas compressor, but still in close proximity
to the compressor discharge, there is the possibility that the dryer draining periods
will cause a local drop in pressure that can be detected by the gas compressor. This
condition often results in a cycle of the compressor rpm (for systems with a variable
speed drive) each time the dryers opens its drain. If such events are severe and
occur rapidly, it may result in an accelerated loss of compressor oil into the gas
stream. This situation, however, may be addressed in several ways, from the
addition of a small buffer tank, to the addition of a small restriction in the dryer drain
line that minimizes gas loss and local pressure fluctuation. Note that if the siloxane
filter vessel is located relatively close to the compressor and dryer, the vessel may
double as a high-pressure buffer tank. This minimizes the pressure fluctuation that
would otherwise be seen by the MicroTurbines while assisting the gas compressor to
cope with the local loss in pressure from the refrigerated dryer drain.


Filter Element Concerns
Following commissioning of MicroTurbines using digester gas or landfill gas as fuel,
the coalescing filters on the Capstone external fuel kit and inside the MicroTurbine
enclosure should be inspected once a week during the first month of operation.
These inspections will determine whether the filters are wet or dry, and if they are
collecting significant amounts of particulate matter (such as carbon particles from the
siloxane filters).
If the filters are wet, the gas does not meet the Capstone fuel specification. As a
consequence, performance of the MicroTurbine will be impacted, and the warranty
may be voided if damage to fuel system components is caused by fuel moisture. If
this occurs, take corrective action to the fuel delivery system: replace the filter
elements, and continue checking once a week for several weeks, to verify that the
filters remain dry. Notice that the inside surface of the cylindrical filter element is the
surface that collects the particulate matter.
Once the weekly filter inspections have verified that the fuel is dry, it is recommended
that at least one filter be inspected every month for several months. Depending on
the results of these inspections, it may be necessary to change the filter elements
more often than every 8,000 hours (which is the guideline for pipeline-quality natural
gas), as noted in the MicroTurbine Standard Maintenance Work Instruction (440000).

480002-001 Rev C (February 2004)                                                                                                                        Page 10 of 16
 This information is proprietary to Capstone Turbine Corporation. Neither this document nor the information contained herein shall be copied, disclosed to others, or used for any
purposes other than the specific purpose for which this document was delivered. Capstone reserves the right to change or modify without notice, the design, the equipment ratings,
              and/or the contents of this document without incurring any obligation either with respect to equipment previously sold or in the process of construction.
                Capstone Turbine Corporation • 21211 Nordhoff Street • Chatsworth • CA 91311 • USA
                   Application Guide: Landfill/Digester Gas Use with the Capstone MicroTurbine


Moreover, the fuel filters should be inspected within 1000 hours of a siloxane filter
media change. The change of the siloxane media introduces new particulate
impurities to the system that will likely be captured by the fuel filters at the inlet of the
MicroTurbine (if the siloxane removal system is placed as shown in Figure 1). Thus,
it may be necessary to change the fuel filters soon after a change of the siloxane
filtration media to ensure that the fuel filters do not become significantly clogged and
allowing additional impurities to pass into the MicroTurbine.


Siloxane Concerns
Siloxanes are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and silicon (Si)
and are relatively volatile organic/silicon compounds manufactured and used as a
basic building block monomer for polymerized silicone formations. Further, siloxanes
are used extensively in consumer products as a volatile dispersant agent to help
evenly spread organic-based specialty chemicals. Some of these products include
deodorant, lipstick, and makeup.
As man-made compounds that typically are washed down the drain or thrown in the
trash, siloxanes are ALWAYS found in landfill gas and wastewater treatment plant
digester gas. However, siloxanes are NOT likely to be found in certain other types of
digester gases. Examples of operations that are likely to produce siloxane-free
digester gas include the following:
       !      Dairy and hog farms (manure digesters).
       !      Breweries and ethanol plants.
       !      Food processing plants.
Analysis of biogas from wastewater treatment plant digesters and landfills reveals
that cyclic (ring-structure) siloxanes are the most prevalent form. Figure 3 presents
the structure of a specific siloxane molecule, commonly called D4, found in
wastewater treatment plant digester gases. However, since many other types of
siloxanes may be present in biogas, a complete fuel analysis should be performed to
identify the types and quantities of other present siloxane molecules, so that the
appropriate graphite media may be used for op