Exercise 2

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					Qualitative Approaches for Food Security Assessment
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            Exercise 2.3. Semi-Structured Group Interviewing Game

Guiding Principles:

   Optimal Ignorance: the team should focus on what is most important and leave the rest
    aside (i.e. we don’t need to know everything; the team must be willing to remain
    ignorant in some areas in order to focus on critical areas that are of most importance.)
   Appropriate Imprecision: there is an acceptable level of imprecision, that the
    information does not need to be overly specific (e.g. The team does not need to know for
    the sake of an initial EFSA that the level of severe malnutrition is 12.3456%. Knowing
    that it is “over 10%” or “higher than pre-crisis” is appropriate for the sake of
    recommending whether or not an immediate response is needed.
   Learning from, with the people: the local community has pertinent knowledge and its
    own prioritiies, and that the team should try to understand those problems and
    priorities from the community’s perspective
   Triangulation: the same issue should be examined from different perspectives and by
    different team members, andinformation should be sought from different sources and
    then cross-checked.


Interviewing Tips
 No “leading” questions - allow them to tell their story
 Avoid “close-ended” questions – they impede discussion
 Probe if needed for clearer response:
        Repeat the question: this gives more time to think
        Pause for the answer: a thoughtful nod or expectant look can show you want more
        Repeat the reply: this can stimulate conversation.
        Ask when, what, where, which, and how: these can provoke more detailed
        information.
        Use neutral comments: Anything else? Why do you feel this way?




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Rapid Emergency Assessment - Team Member Role Guide

Context
You have been in Maklahawa for two days, and you have already had meetings with WFP
colleagues, have been introduced to the local officials, and spent a significant amount of
time reading available documents on the context and living conditions in Maklahawa.
Because you have been working very efficiently in preparing for the assessment, you also
have formulated your assessment plan and data collection and storage tools.
You have already learned (and observed first hand as you are moving within Maklahawa)
that the recent Adalati military operation has indeed caused a lot of damage to
infrastructure, agricultural areas, and residential areas. You have read local reports that
suggested that as many as 4,000 households are now without shelter as a result of the
offensive. Your observations –so far- do not confirm this. In fact, one of the observations
noted by two of your team members during a drive in the Bandora Mahaliya suggest that
“while public infrastructure damage is clear throughout the northern areas, it seems to be
confined to areas where military bases are located. The scale of damage reported in the
media seems to be ecaggerated”.
Today, you will be visiting Hayashi, an agricultural community in the northern parts of
Maklahawa which was one of the worst affected communities by the recent Adalati
offensive. Initial reports estimate that of the 7,563 inhabitants (1090 households) some
2,000 individuals (300 households) are living in tents and under the ruins of their homes in
Hayashi. An additional 100 households are belived to be living with host families and
makeshift shelters established by UNHCR. Reportedly, many of the households that have
lost their homes and belongings have also lost their income from agriculture. UNHCR in
collaboration with WFP has already stepped in and began providing ready-to-eat meals and
energy biscuits in Hayashi. WFP reports providing some 3,000 meals per day.
The Exercise
You are about to conduct a group interview with several villagers from Hayashi, including
an elder Hayashian (who is also the manager of a small local agricultural cooperative), and
two heads of agricultural households who lost their homes. Your goal is to understand
just how severe the impact of the recent Adalati offensive is –from a food and
nutrition security perspective- on local agriculture, internally displaced people
(IDPs) and households who had their homes damaged and to identify their needs.
You have heard that other organizations are stepping in and providing several types of
assistance in the area, including food, cooking utensils, blankets and hygiene kits.
You have twenty minutes to prepare a semi-structured interview collection tool that you
will use in conducting the interview, based on the attached interview guides (which you will
need to modify to make them more relevant to your objective and situation). You may
organise your team however you want. You will have a total of 30 minutes to prepare for
and undertake the interviews; so, use your time wisely. Remember though: It is often
advised that you take some time to plan for triangulation and getting valid and reliable
data. It is also advised that each member has a list of topics for which s/he is responsible.
FINAL NOTE: Make space for recording your observations, noting quotes, and writing
initial conclusions/thoughts. Do not plan on asking all the questions on the checklist of
suggested questions.


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Interviewee # 1: Elder Farmer – Role Guide

You are an elder from Hayashi, a small village of 7,500 inhabitants in the northern part of
Maklahawa. Hayashi is one of numerous communities that was hard hit during the recent
Adalati offensive. Some 300-400 households in Hayashi had their homes destroyde during
the offensive, many of them wheat and rice farmers who are members in a cooperative you
helped establish a little over two years ago.

A WFP assessment team member is coming to ask you questions about conditions in
Hayashi. Your aim is to convince the team member that things are very bad in Hayashi so
that WFP will deliver a lot of food assistance to your village. You also have a political
statement to make (in support of the Speratisits). You are never brief in answering and you
love giving details and digressing.

You have made arrangements to bring along two heads of household from the community to
demonstrate to the team that you are transparent. These two individuals, however, are
your neice (who is a widowed head of household) and son-in-law (who is a member in your
cooperative and is one of the well known farmers in the community). You will try do
everything you can, including syaing that respect for local traditions necissitates you being
there, to make sure that the team inteviews your son-in-law and neice in your presence to
make sure that what they say is consitent with what you say. But you will do this without
making your intentions and mischeif too obvious to the team.

             What you know to be true                      What you prefer to tell the team
The population has been relatively constant in          The population has been steadily
Hayashi for the past six years due to a high level of   increasing due to high fertility rates.
migration among the educated.
There are about 300-400 households whose homes          400 households have lost their homes
have sustained damage. Only 127 of these, however,      and are now living on the ruins of these
had their homes completely destroyed. The other         homes. They all need help. Our
278 households sustained partial damages and are        cooperative is doing all it can to assist
able to remain in their homes.                          the people, but our resources

A little over three quarters of the households whose    A few of the households whose homes
homes sustained damage (partial and complete)           sustained damage (partial and
own and/or have use rights of agricultural lands        complete) own and/or have use rights
that were not affected by the recent offensive.         of agricultural lands that were not
                                                        affected by the recent offensive.
Many of the 127 households whose homes have             People have lost everything they have.
been destroyed own other homes elsewhere which
have not been affected by the offensive. People
make sure that they are present on the ruins of their
homes during the day when most humanatrian
relief organizations visit the area.
Few people whose homes have been destroyed              If you salavaged something you were
managed to salvage a lot of their belongings.           lucky.
However, most families managed to salvage their

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food stocks because they wer kept outside their
homes.
The worst hard-hit community is Attatro to the          Hayashi is the worst hit of all
north of Hayashi.                                       communities in Maklahawa.
Hayashi is one of the strongholds of the Spratist       No one did anything to help us with
army. Households whose homes were damaged in            shelter. Even if people receive
any way have received a cash grant from the regime      assistance, they will not find a place to
to rent homes and/or rennovate their homes.             rent in the entire Maklahawa.
While the main source of income for most                Most Hayashians are farmers and
households in Hayashi is agriculture. The               pastoralits. Their main source of
overwhelming majority of households in Hayashi          income is agriculture.
have members working in the armed forces of the
sepratists regime. Thus, most households have at
least one source of income still.
The security situation is fine, although still tense.   The security situation is fine now, but
Most people are trying to get back to their normal      people are worried. They want
lives.                                                  assistance to get back to normal.
The offensive came during the off-season from           200 hectares were razed, and losses are
common crops, hence crop losses were negligible.        huge. Water wells, agricultural sheds
However, a large area (100 hectares) was razed.         and equipment have been seriously
                                                        damaged.
About 200 hectares of land cultivated with rice,        Evade questions related to unaffected
wheat, legumes, and vegatables have not been            lands.
affected. Most of the households that had their
agricultural lands razed during the offensive, have
use rights and/or own these unaffected lands.
Food is available in the local market and in near by    Not everything is available, and most
communities. The problem is economic access to          foods are highly priced. People are
food.                                                   eating less and cheaper foods than ever
                                                        before.
The priorities are shelter, cash assistance and         Gauge what the team thinks about the
rehabilitation of agricultural lands. The               priorities and agree to win their
distribution of ready-to-eat meals should be            confidence. You can do this by asking
significantly scaled down only to the households        the team to give examples of priorities.
that have no shelter and cooking resources. The
high-energy biscuits are no longer needed because       If pressured: priorities are cash
most people can cook.                                   assistance, shelter and land
                                                        rehabilitation

Feel free to make up other information that is in line with your character. Digress and give
details when you feel you can. However, your interest is to come-off as a credible source of
informanation. So, if you realize that the assessment team is questionning the reliability of
answers try to find a way to give the right answer, but without discrediting yourself. Use
the “I did not understand your question” or “I misunderstood your question” lines.




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Interviewee # 2: Male Head of Household – Farm Family Role Guide

You are the head of a household in Hayashi, a small village of 7,500 inhabitants in the
northern part of Maklahawa. Hayashi is one of numerous communities that was hard hit
during the recent Adalati offensive. Some 300-400 households in Hayashi had their homes
destroyed during the offensive, many of them wheat and rice farmers who are members in a
cooperative in which you are member and your father-in-law (the elder in the interview)
helped establish a little over two years ago.

A WFP assessment team member is coming to ask you questions about conditions in
Hayashi. You defer to elder unless pressed by the team to respond to questions yourself.
You give short answers and try to complain about your losses all the time.

                What you know                         What you prefer to tell the team if asked
Your family of six (two adults and four               What you know.
children, enrolled in school) is fine, thank
God. You are only breadwinner in the
family.
Your main source of livelihood is agriculture.        My home was destroyed. We constructed a
Your income has not changed, depsite the              shack from the ruins of our home and we are
fact that your home was destroyed and a               staying in it. A parcel of land I own has
small parcel of land (1000 m2) you own was            been completely razed.
razed. You are being hosted by your father-
in-law. In anticipation of receiving
assistance, you have asked your wife and
little kids spend most of their day in a small
shack you built on the ruins of your home.
You make sure to be present in the shack
yourself when you see UN cars rolling into
the community. Most of your agricutural
income is derived from a three hectares
parcel of land you own in the part of the
community that was not affected.
Your income has not changed. The land                 My land was not cultivated. Now, I will need
razed was not cultivated yet when it was              thousands of Liras to rehabilitate and
razed. Income from this land will be lost as          recultivate it.
you are not interested in recultivating it
(due to risk) on your own. This parcel made
up no more than 2% of your annual income
from agriculture.
You did not salavage any of your belongings,          We did not salvage anything but some food
except for food stocks and all of your                and agricultural equipment. You brought
farming equipment stored in a small shed.             those to your father-in-law’s house.
Your wife was wearing most of the jewlery
she owns when you left the house before it
was destroyed.
The sources of water in your father-in-law’s          Your main source of water now is a local

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house is a water collection well and a water          water point in the center of town that we get
point in the center of town. Your water               for free. The que is too long and it takes
consumption (for all purposes) has                    hours to get water on most days. This is
significantly decreased because there are 20          why we ration our water use.
people now livining in your father-in-law’s
house and water is scarce. Your family is
responsible for ciollecting and lugging 50
liters of water every day for comon
purposes. On most days, this taks takes an
hour, but occasionally when there are long
ques due to low water pressure getting
water could take up to five hours.
Your household has been receiving ready-to-           We have received food from the UN and we
eat meals since the ceasfire.                         have no problems with quality or quantity.
Besides the ready to eat meals, the                   Thank God for eveything. We are doing just
household eats whatever the elder makes               fine, thanks to the help of the UN. We ate
available.                                            rice and canned meat and soup (from UN)
                                                      for the past seven days. The kids had
                                                      biscuits too. The elder often brings food to
                                                      us.
                                                      Our diet has changed significantly. We used
                                                      to eat vegetables, fruits, fresh meat
                                                      occasionally.
Everything is available in the local markets,         There are many shortages, but main foods
but prices are high.                                  and basic commodities are available. Prices
                                                      are too high though for most people.
Most of the household’s current                       We do not spend hardly anything on food,
expenditures are going to paying                      we get by with the minumum.
agricultural laborers as cultivation is now
starting.                                             You will evade giving specific answers.
Your current source of cash are small                 We have little cash availableto us from
savings you had and the cash assistance you           modest savings we had. I am planning to
received from the local authorities.                  sell the last two pieces of jewelery my wife
                                                      has.
The household has debt to agricultural input
providers (7,000 liras), cooperative loan
(2,500 liras) and local shop keepers (300
liras).

Feel free to make up other information that is in line with your character.




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Interviewee # 3:         Single Female Head of Household– Agro-pastoralist Family Role
                         Guide

You are a single female head of a household in Hayashi, a small village of 7,500 inhabitants
in the northern part of Maklahawa. Hayashi is one of numerous communities that was hard
hit during the recent Adalati offensive. Some 300-400 households in Hayashi had their
homes destroyed during the offensive, many of them wheat and rice farmers.

A WFP assessment team member has made arrangements with your uncle (an elder in
Hayashi) to visit the community to assess local conditions. Since your house was partially
damaged your unlce brought you along for the team to interview you. You have a lot of
respect for your uncle, and this why you will maintain quite and not say anything that
contradicts anything your unlce says, unless you are interviewed sperately. Anyway, you
are generally quite and will only answer question asked (you will not elobrate voluntarily).

You have made arrangements to bring along two heads of household from the community to
demonstrate to the team that you are transparent. These two individuals, however, are
your neice (who is a widowed head of household) and son-in-law (who is a member in your
cooperative and is one of the well known farmers in the community).

                 What you know and what you will say if asked directly
Despite the fact that your home sustained serious damage during the offensive (one of the
two rooms is no longer inhabitable), you continue to live in your house. The house is less
spacious than before, but you are resilient and can cope. Your outhouse has not been
affected. kitchen Your family of four (yourself and your three young children) is fine. You
are only breadwinner in the family.
Your main source of livelihood is agriculture labour. Your income has not changed, as the
lands of the landowner you work were not affected by the offensive.
The room that was destroyed had very little in it: two matresses and some blankets. These
were lost.
Your household has not been receiving ready-to-eat meals. You think that there are other
people in the community who are in more need for these meals.
You continue to eat the same foods as before the war, but prices are expensive. Due to
cooking gas shortages, you have been resourting to using firewood to cook food. Collecting
firewood is a time consuming and onerous task.
Everything is available in the local markets, but prices are high. You are eating less food
yourself, but you make sure that your children get the foods they need.
Your current source of cash is the wages you derive from agriculture.
Your expenditures on food have increased on account of the higher prices. Most of your
income goes to food and health expenditures. You have not been able to buy any new
clothes for the kids for several months. You have not been able to undertake any home
rennovations as prices of construction materials are way too high.
You do not believe in borrowing money from anyone. You only buy what you have money
for. This is why you have no debt.
You have heard that some 300 homes have been completely destroyed, but you think that
the number is exaggerated. Residents who had their homes destroyed received a cash
grant from the local authorities to rennovate their homes or rent new homes. You did not

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receive any assistance, and you did not ask for it.
While the main source of income for most households in Hayashi is agriculture. The
overwhelming majority of households in Hayashi have members working in the armed
forces of the sepratists regime. Thus, most households have at least one source of income
still.
The security situation is fine, although still tense. Most people are trying to get back to
their normal lives.
The offensive came during the off-season from common crops, hence crop losses were
negligible. However, a large area (100 hectares) was razed.
About 200 hectares of land cultivated with rice, wheat, legumes, and vegatables have not
been affected. Most of the households that had their agricultural lands razed during the
offensive, have use rights and/or own these unaffected lands.
Priorities for you is rennovating the destroyed room. Some food assistance would be nice.
However, there are others who you think need assistance more than you. These are the
few families that lost their homes and their lands, and households with no breadwinner
and/or source of income. These have not been assisted or targeted by anyone.

Feel free to make up other information that is in line with your character.




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