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					                           A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION




                                    INDEX OF TOPICS
                              See page 608 for Index of Drugs
    Note: page numbers followed by a “t” indicate tables; page numbers in bold indicate images


12-step programs, 392–393                                      American Psychological Association
                                                                 Office on AIDS, 550
                                                               amniocentesis, 272
A
                                                               anal squamous intraepithelial lesions, 183
abbreviations, 471
                                                               anemia
abnormal uterine bleeding, 177–181                                 management, 151
access to care, 43                                                 during pregnancy, 293, 581–582
acute illness, 14                                              anovulation, 179
adherence                                                      antioxidants, 578–579
     among adolescents, 414, 415t
                                                               Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, 299, 470
     counseling during pregnancy, 304
     and depression, 361                                       anxiety
                                                                   medications, 367t
     improvement, 172, 173–174t
                                                                   misperceptions, 359t
     measures of, 171–172
     predictors, 168–170                                       aphthous ulcers
     special populations, 169–171                                  genital, image, 238
                                                                   genital, management, 195
adolescents
                                                                   oral, image, 239
     and adherence, 171
     care requirements, 408–416                                ARV therapy. see also individual drugs and
     epidemiology, 405–408                                       classes in drugs index
                                                                   adverse events, 114–118
     interview menmonic, 410t
                                                                   adverse fetal effects, 289–291
     pregnancy counseling, 242
                                                                   adverse maternal effects, 292–293
Adult Aids Clinical Trial Group, 548                               adverse pregnancy effects, 291–292
advance care planning                                              agents, 111–114
     counseling during pregnancy, 304                              indications, 118t
     at end of life, 440                                           initial regimens, 121–124t
adverse effects, 169                                               interactions with psychotropics, 368–369t
African American patients, 339–341                                 intrapartum, 306–308
AIDS                                                               in neonates, 310–311
     incidence in US, 1                                            nutritional considerations, 582–584, 588
     progression likelihood, 103                                   nutritional counseling, 585
AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth & Families, 548                  perinatal HIV transmission, 263
AIDS-defining illness, 120t                                        for postexposure prophylaxis, 463t
                                                                   pregnancy, pharmacokinetics during, 276,
AIDS dementia complex
     incidence, 362–363                                                         277–283t
     management, 146                                               pregnancy, use during, 272, 273–275t
                                                                   principles, 110
AIDS Education and Training Centers, 548                           principles, during pregnancy, 294–295,
AIDS Education Global Information System, 548                                   296–297t, 298–299
AIDS Info NYC, 549                                                 regimen change after treatment failure, 126t
AIDS Risk Reduction model, 55                                      in substance abusers, 395–396
AIDS Treatment Data Network, 549                                   treatment guidelines, 118–131
AIDSInfo, 549                                                  Asia, 21–22
AIDSMeds.com, 549                                              Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 550
alcohol, 395                                                   assumptions, 336t
alcohol addiction, 390                                         atypical glandular cells, 187
alcohol intoxication, 384                                      avascular necrosis, 117
allergies, topical, 213–214
altered status, 160                                            B
amenorrhea, 177–181                                            B-2 microgloblin, 16t
American Academy of HIV Medicine, 549                          bacterial vaginosis
American College of Obstetricians and                              management, 196–197
  Gynecologists, 550                                               during pregnancy, 252
American Foundation for AIDS Research, 550
                                                                                                                    TOPICS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   599
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Topics


bad news, 438                                                cervix development, 407
barrier contraception                                        cesarean delivery, 264, 304–306
    communicating about, 84                                  chancres, 233
    and HIV transmission, 77                                 chancroid
Bartholin’s abscess, 212                                          image, 236
behavioral interventions                                          management, 193
    models, 55–56                                            chemistry panel, 102
    substance withdrawal, 392–393                            childbearing imperative, 566
    trial results, 57–60, 58t                                children, and adherence, 171
Behçet’s syndrome, 194                                       chlamydia
bereavement. see grief                                            image, 236
beta-carotene, 580–581                                            management, 202
Bethesda system, 186–187                                     chorioamnionitis, 263
biophysical profile, 270                                     chorionic villus sampling, 272
bipolar mood disorder                                        chronic care model, 44–45
    medications, 367t                                        circumcision, 6
    misperceptions, 359t                                     clinical failure, 125
    vs. depression, 364t
                                                             clinical services pyramid, 41
The Body, 550
                                                             cocaine addiction, 390–391
body fluids, 454t
                                                             cocaine use, 395
The Body Pro, 551
                                                             coccidiomycosis, 301
bone disorders, 117
                                                             colorectal cancer, 219
boys, 564
                                                             colposcopy
Brazil, 571–574                                                   gential warts, 210
breast cancer, 216                                                recommendations, 186t
breast-feeding, 264–265, 308                                 comfort, at end of life, 441
breast lumps, 215–216                                        communication
                                                                  across culture, 334–336, 336–337t
C                                                                 breaking bad news, 438
                                                                  at end of life, 443–444
CAGE survey, 383                                                  essentials of, 35–36
Canadian AIDS Treatment Information                               and risk assessment, 48
  Exchange, 551                                                   risk reduction counseling, 66
candidiasis
                                                             communicationg about, 336t
    images, 232
    management, 141, 197–200, 199t                           Community Program for Clinical Research
                                                               on AIDS, 551
    during pregnancy, 251–252
                                                             complementary therapies
CD4 count                                                         communicating about, 336t
    associated complications, 134t
                                                                  at end of life, 441
    baseline evaluation, 99–100
    perinatal transmission, 262                              concomitant illness, 572
    in pregnancy, 250                                        condoms
    testing, during pregnancy, 294                                counseling during pregnancy, 303
                                                                  practices in Brazil, 572
CD4 subset analysis, 16t
                                                                  practices in Zambia, 569
CDC Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, 551                          as prevention tool, 70–76
CDC National Prevention Information                               use influences, 76t, 411t
  Network, 551
                                                             condoms (female), 245t
cervical cancer
    in Brazil, 572                                           condoms (male)
    in HIV patients, 183–184                                      characteristics, 245t
    prevalence in Zambia, 568                                     HIV transmission, 248–249
cervical caps, 245t                                          condyloma latum, 237
cervical dysplasia, 182                                      condylomata acuminata, 234
cervical ectopy, 5t, 6                                       confidentiality
                                                                  and adolescents, 408
cervical intrepithelial neoplasia, 234                            essentials of, 37
cervical lesions, 188–189
                                                             consultations, 302–303
cervicitis, 235
                                                             context, in communication, 335



600 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
 See page 608 for           A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
  Index of Drugs                                                                               Index of Topics


contraception                                                  domestic violence
     access in Brazil, 573                                         in India, 565
     communicating about, 84                                       misperceptions, 359t
     counseling during pregnancy, 303                              prevalence in Zambia, 569
     effect on transmission, 5t                                    and risk reduction counseling, 67
     HIV transmission, 6–7                                     donovanosis, 194
     and HIV transmission, 77–78                               drug dependence, 385t
     methods, 243–246t                                         drug holidays, 131
     motivations, 242
                                                               drug interactions, 293
     prevention effectiveness, 79t
                                                               drug seeking, 433
contraction stress testing, 270
                                                               dry mouth, 435
core values
     African American culture, 339–340                         dysmenorrhea, 206
     Hispanic culture, 338                                     dysplasia
                                                                   anal, 183
cough, 157–158
                                                                   cervical, 182
counseling
     about testing, 51, 52t                                    dyspnea
     of adolescents, 409                                           management, 436
     after occupational exposure, 462                              treatment algorithm, 157–158
     essentials of, 43
     influence on prevention, 54–55                           E
     initial visit, 94                                         eating problems, 591t
     in practice, 60–65
                                                               ectopic pregnancy, 207
     during pregnancy, 303–304
     pregnant patients, 241–242                                education opportunities, 566
counselors, 570                                                embarrassment, 48
Critical Path AIDS Project, 551                                emotional milestones, 348, 349–350t
Crohn’s disease, 194                                           end-of-life issues, 441–447
cryptococcosis, 301                                            endometriosis, 206, 207
Cryptococcus neoformans                                        envelope sequences, 7
     management, 141–142                                       episiotomy, 264
     prophylaxis, 138t                                         evaluation, essentials of, 37–43
cultural competence                                            eyes, 95
     at end of life, 441
     risk reduction counseling, 66
     treating HIV patients, 38
                                                              F
                                                               Famciclovir Registry, 254
cyryptosporidiosis, 145
                                                               family-centered care, 42–43
cytomegalovirus
     baseline evaluation, 104                                  fat maldistribution syndrome, 216
     management, 143–144, 194                                  fatigue, 424–425
     during pregnancy, 255–256, 299                            fears, 351
     prophylaxis, 138t                                         female condoms, 72–75
                                                               fertility, 249–250
D                                                              fetal monitoring
                                                                    during labor and delivery, 304
death, 444. see also end-of-life issues                             perinatal HIV transmission, 264
delirium
                                                               fetal surveillance, 269–271
     misperceptions, 359t
     vs. depression, 364t                                      fetus, 289–291
dementia, 364t                                                 fever, 153, 157–158
depression                                                     fibroadenomas, 216
     access to services, 360–361                               fibrocystitis, 216
     identification, 358–360                                   fibroid tumors
     medications, 367t                                              bleeding cause, 179
detoxification, 391                                                 management, 206, 207
developing countries, 20–21                                    follow-up visits, 42
diaphragms, 245t                                               forceps use, 264
diarrhea, 154–156                                              Forum for African Women Educationists, 570
disclosure, 40                                                 fungal infection, 213
                                                                                                                    TOPICS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   601
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Topics


G                                                            hiccups, 435
Gay Men’s Health Crisis Women and Family                     hidradenitis suppurativa, 195
  Services, 552                                              Hispanic patients, 337–339
gender inequities, 571–572                                   Histoplasma capsulatum, 138t
gender roles, 332–333                                        histoplasmosis, 301
genital masses, 212                                          history-taking
genital tract infections, 179                                    initial evaluation, 92–95
genital warts, 210–211                                           and risk assessment, 49
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency,                HIV
  105–106                                                        classification, 10t
goal setting                                                     common symptoms, 422t
    at end of life, 439–440                                      diagnostic influences, 14–15
    risk reduction counseling, 62, 64t, 65                       mutations and resistance, 128–129t
                                                                 natural history, under HAART, 19–20
gonorrhea
    management, 201–202                                          natural history, untreated, 13–19, 101
    screening recommendations, 219                               progression factors, 18–19t
                                                                 staging, 8–9, 11–12t, 12–13
granuloma inguinale, 194                                         transmission factors, 4–8
grief                                                            transmission modes, 3–4
    process, 445–447                                             viral detection methods, 98–99
    vs. depression, 364t
                                                             HIV/AIDS
Growth House, 552                                                epidemic impact, 21–23
                                                                 nutritional needs by stage, 592t
H                                                                regional statistics, 2t
HAART                                                        HIV-associated dementia, 362–363
    availability in Brazil, 571                              HIV encephalopathy, 146
    availability in developing countries, 20                 HIV infection
    as cervical dysplasia therapy, 189                           acute treatment, 132–133
headache, 159                                                    diagnosis in neonates, 310
Health Belief model, 55, 56t                                     Pediatric Classification System, 312t
                                                                 perinatal transmission, 259–265
health care access, 567
health care system, 340                                      HIV Medication Guide, 553
health literacy, 336t                                        HIV Medicine Association, 553
healthcare workers                                           HIV testing
    grief among, 447                                             enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 97
    seropositivity, 465                                          nucleic acid amplification, 98
                                                                 rapid tests, 99
Healthy Intiatives for Youth, 552                                adolescents, 409
hepatic steatosis, 115
                                                             HIVandHepatitis, 552
hepatitis A, 138t
                                                             HIVdent, 553
hepatitis A vaccine, 302
                                                             HIVInSite, 553
hepatitis B
                                                             home-based care, 570
    management, 150
    during pregnancy, 257–258                                homeless patients, 171
    prophylaxis, 137t                                        hope, 439–440
hepatitis B vaccine, 301                                     hospice, 419–420
hepatitis C                                                  HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau, 553
    among substance abusers, 380–381                         HRSA Information Center, 554
    baseline evaluation, 105                                 human papillomavirus, 181–182
    management, 150–151                                      hydrosalpinx, 208
    during pregnancy, 258–259                                hygiene, 570
hepatotoxicity                                               hyperglycemia
    in pregnancy, 292                                            during pregnancy, 293
    presentation, 115–116                                        presentation, 116
HEPP Report, 552                                             hyperlipidemia, 117
herpes (genital), 68
herpes simplex
    lesions, image, 237, 238                                 I
    management, 142–143, 190–192                             immune globulins, 302
    during pregnancy, 253–254                                immune response, 262

602 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
 See page 608 for           A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
  Index of Drugs                                                                               Index of Topics


immunizations, 301–302                                         lymphogranuloma venereum, 194
immunologic failure, 125                                       lymphoma, 147–148
imunizations, 413t
incarcerated patients, 170                                    M
incontinence (urinary), 209                                    major depressive disorder
India                                                              diagnosis, 363–364, 364t
     HIV prevalence, 563–564                                       medications, 367t
     treatment programs, 564–567                                   misperceptions, 359t
inflammation, 6                                                malaria, 568
influenza, 137t                                                malnutrition, 578
influenza vaccine, 301                                         mammograms
injection drug use, 379                                            recommendations, 215
insomnia                                                           screening recommendations, 219
     management, 433–434                                       marriage, 565–566
     medications, 367t                                         mastitis, 216
intensification, 127                                           medical orders, 441, 442t
International Association of Physicians in                     medication toxicity, 124–125
  AIDS Care, 554
                                                               Medscape, 555
International Center for Research on Women, 554
                                                               membrane rupture, 263
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, 554
                                                               meningitis, 141–142
interstitial cystitis, 209
                                                               menopause, 217–218
intrapartum management, 304–308
                                                               menstruation
intrauterine devices                                               abnormal bleeding, 177–181
     characteristics, 245t                                         communicating about, 84
     HIV transmission, 78, 248                                     effect on transmission, 5t
iron                                                               HIV transmission, 6
     supplementation during pregnancy, 581–582                 mental health services, 360–361
     supplementation recommendations, 587
                                                               mental illness
itching, 213–214                                                   in adolescents, 416
                                                                   and subatance abuse, 381–382
J                                                              microsporidiosis, 145
Johns Hopkins University AIDS Service, 555                     milestones, emotional, 348, 349–350t
                                                               minerals, 578
                                                               mitochondrial toxicity, 290–291
K
                                                               mittelschmerz, 206
Kaiser Family Foundation, 555
                                                               molluscum contagiosum, 212
Kaposi’s sarcoma, 147
                                                               mother-to-child transmission. see perinatal
                                                                transmission
L                                                              motherhood, imperative, 565
laboratory tests, 16t                                          multiple loss, 445–446
lactic acidosis                                                multiservice programs, 357–358
     in pregnancy, 292–293                                     mutation
     presentation, 115                                             perinatal transmission, 260–261
lice, 214–215                                                      and therapy adherence, 167
life review, 443–444                                           Mycobacterium avium complex
limited resource settings, 40                                      management, 144
lipid profile                                                      during pregnancy, 299, 300t
     baseline evaluation, 106                                      prophylaxis, 137t
     screening recommendations, 219                            Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 136t
lipodystrophy
     management, 582–583                                      N
     presentation, 116
                                                               National AIDS Hotline, 555
listening, 62
                                                               National Association of People with AIDS, 555
long-term survivors, 17
                                                               National Association on AIDS Over Fifty, 556
lungs, 96
                                                               National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug
lymph nodes, 95                                                 Information, 556
lymphocyte count, 16t
                                                                                                                    TOPICS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   603
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Topics


National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse/Neglect                oropharynx, 95
 Information, 556                                            osteonecrosis, 117
National Clinicians’ Post-Exposure Prophylaxis               osteoporosis, 219
 Hotline, 556                                                ovarian cysts, 206, 207
National Library of Medicine, 557                            ovarian torsion, 206
National Minority AIDS Council, 557
National Minority AIDS Education and Training
 Center, 557                                                 P
National Network to End Domestic Violence, 557               p24 antigen, 16t
needle aspiration, 215                                       pain
neonatal infection. see also perinatal transmission              intensity scales, 423t
    care protocol, 310–311, 313                                  scope of, 425–426
    congenital syphilis, 255                                 pain relief
    cytomegalovirus, 256                                         barriers, 427, 428t
    hepatitis B, 258                                             principles, 427–430
    hepatitis C, 259                                             WHO ladder, 429t
    herpes simplex, 253                                      Pap smears
    toxoplasmosis, 257                                           abnormal, management of, 188t
neoplasia                                                        anal, technique, 186
    abdominal, management, 208                                   baseline evaluation, 106
    management, 195                                              recommendations, 218
neopterin, 16t                                                   use, 184–187, 185t
nervous system, 96                                           papillomavirus
neurologic deficits, 160                                         image, 234
                                                                 during pregnancy, 254
neuropathic pain, 426, 427t
                                                             Partnership for Caring, 558
neuropathy
    management, 145                                          patient education, 172
    treatment algorithm, 161                                 patient evaluation
New Mexico AIDS Infonet, 557                                     follow-up visits, 42
                                                                 initial visit, 41–42
New York Online Access to Health, 557
                                                                 intake flow sheet, 108–109
NIAID Database for Anti-HIV Compounds, 558
                                                             Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group, 558
nonstress testing, 270
                                                             Pediatric Classification System, 312t
nutrition counseling
    assessment, 586, 590t                                    pelvic examination, 96
    indications for, 593t                                    pelvic inflammatory disease
    principles, 584–585                                          image, 236
    recommendations, 586–587                                     IUD use, 248
    risk assessment, 591t                                        management, 204–206
    summary, 589t                                            pelvic mass, 207–208
                                                             pelvic pain, 203–206
                                                             percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, 272
O                                                            perimenopause, 179
occupational exposure
    counseling, 462                                          perinatal transmission
                                                                 in Brazil, 573–574
    evaluation, 460
                                                                 factors, 259–265
    magnitude of risk, 456
                                                                 prevention regimen comparison, 296–297t
    prevention, 458–459
                                                                 prevention strategies, 265
    risk factors, 456–457
                                                                 trials review, 276, 284–288t
    testing, 461
                                                             peripheral neuropathy, 145
odynophagia, 162
                                                             pH (vaginal), 5t, 6
opiate addiction, 389–390
                                                             pharmacokinetics
opiate intoxication, 384
                                                                 ARV/psychotropics interactions, 368–369t
opiate use, 395                                                  during pregnancy, 276, 277–283t
opportunistic diseases                                           in pregnancy, 470
    under HAART, 151–152
                                                             physical examination, 95–96
    nutritional counseling, 585
    overview, 134–135                                        placental abruption, 263
    during pregnancy, 299–301                                pneumococcal vaccine, 301
    prophylaxis, 135–136, 136–139t                           Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
                                                                 as diagnostic marker, 135


604 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
 See page 608 for           A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
  Index of Drugs                                                                               Index of Topics


    management, 140–141                                        psychosocial issues
    neonatal prophylaxis, 313                                      among adolescents, 415–416
    during pregnancy, 299, 300t                                    at diagnosis, 334
    prophylaxis, 136t                                              intervention suggestions, 342–343
polio vaccine, 302                                             puberty, 414
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 98                            pyosalpinx, 208
Population Council, 558
post-exposure prophylaxis, 81–82                              Q
postexposure prophylaxis                                       quality of life, 420–421
    mucous membrane exposure, 455t
    percutaneous exposure, 454t
    site management, 459                                      R
postpartum care, 308–309                                       rash
poverty                                                             as adverse treatment effect, 117–118
    access to care, 331–332                                         in pregnancy, 292
    among adolescents, 408                                     relapse, 393–394
    in Brazil, 573                                             relationships, 348, 351–352
    and seeking care, 352–354                                  renal stones, 209
    treatment barrier in Zambia, 568–569
                                                               reproductive cancer, 179
pregnancy                                                      Reproductive Health Online, 559
    adverse outcomes, 252t
    adverse outcomes, ARV therapy, 291–292                     resistance
                                                                    causes, 20
    among adolescents, 406
                                                                    intrapartum nevirapine, 307
    antepartum history, 266
                                                                    perinatal transmission, 260–261
    ARV pharmacokinetics, 276, 277–283t
                                                                    and postexposure prophylaxis, 464
    ARV therapy during, 294–295, 296–297t,
                                                                    and pregnancy, 293
                 298–299
                                                                    testing for, 127–131
    drug categories, 472
                                                                    in treatment-naive patients, 294
    drug pharmacokinetics, 470
    HIV natural history, 250–251                               resource-poor settings, 59–60
    laboratory evaluation, 267–269t                            respect, 36
    nutritional status during, 579                             retinitis, 143–144
    and postexposure prophylaxis, 464                          retinol, 580
    substance abuse, 394–395                                   risk assessment, 48–49, 49t
    testing, 249                                               risk reduction, 60–65
    vs. amenorrhea, 179                                        RNA level
prenatal care                                                       perinatal transmission, 260
    in Brazil, 573–574                                              in pregnancy, 250
    nutritional counseling, 584                                     test characteristics, 16t
preterm delivery, 263                                               in tissue, 14
prevention messages, 82–85                                     RNA testing, 104t
prevention models, 411–412
priorities, 336t
                                                              S
prisons, substance abusers in, 397–398
                                                               San Francisco AIDS Foundation, 559
prognosis
    in depressed patients, 361–362                             scabies, 214
    determining, 436–437                                       seizures, 160
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, 148                self-help programs, 392–393
Project Inform, 559                                            sensitivity, 36–37
provider-patient relationship                                  serology, 97–98
    and adherence, 169, 174t                                   set points, 14
    cautions for providers, 371–372                            sex differences, 17
    communication across culture, 334–336,                     sex information, 564–565
                 336–337t                                      sex workers, 566–567
providers, 38                                                  sexual abuse
pruritus, 435                                                       misperceptions, 359t
psychosis                                                           as risk factor, 354–356
    medications, 367t                                          sexual activity
    misperceptions, 359t                                            among adolescents, 405–406
                                                                                                                    TOPICS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   605
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Topics


     perceived risks, 1                                          counseling during pregnancy, 303
     perinatal HIV transmission, 263                             essentials of, 39–40
     as risk factor, 48                                      symptoms
sexual mores                                                     individual management, 423
     adolescents, 407                                            quantification, 423
     in Brazil, 572                                              treatment at end of life, 442–443
     in Zambia, 569–570                                      syncytium-inducing phenotype, 16t
sexually transmitted infections                              syphilis
     among adolescents, 406                                      baseline evaluation, 102
     baseline evaluation, 106                                    chancres, image, 233
     behavioral interventions, 57, 59                            condyloma image, 237
     communicating about, 83–84                                  management, 192–193t
     condom use, 71                                              during pregnancy, 254–255
     perinatal HIV transmission, 262                             screening recommendations, 218
     prevalence in Zambia, 568
     as risk factor, 67–70
     screening recommendations, 218–219                      T
shedding, 580                                                team approach, 37–38
skin, 96                                                     testing
slim disease. see wasting syndrome                                abnormal bleeding protocol, 180–181
                                                                  availability, 50
smoking, 263
                                                                  baseline evaluation, 99–106
Social Cognitive Theory, 55, 56t                                  benefits of, 50
special populations, 39                                           evaluation during pregnancy, 267–269t
spermicides, 78                                                   initial diagnosis, 97–99
spirituality                                                      for pregnancy, 249
     cultural aspects, 340                                        rapid results, 53–54
     at end of life, 444                                          resistance mutations, 130–131t
     and HIV care, 39                                        tetanus-diphtheria vaccine, 301
States of Change theory, 55–56, 56t                          Theory of Reasoned Action, 55, 56t
steatosis, 292–293                                           tobacco, 394
sterilization, 78, 246t                                      toxoplasmosis
stigma                                                            baseline evaluation, 104
     access to care, 332–333                                      management, 142
     and palliative care, 420                                     during pregnancy, 256–257, 299, 300t
     in Zambia, 570                                               prophylaxis, 137t
Streptococcus pneumoniae, 137t                               transmission, 564
substance abuse                                              treatment failure
     abnormal menstruation, 180                                   regimen change, 126t
     among women, 381–382                                         and regimen selection, 125–127
     comorbidities, 380–381                                  treatment interruptions, 131
     counseling during pregnancy, 303                        Trevor Project Helpline, 559
     epidemiology, 378
                                                             trichomonas, 231, 235
     harm reduction, 387
     HIV risk factor, 379–380                                trichomoniasis, 200–201
     identification, 382–386                                 truth, telling, 438
     medications, 367t                                       tubal ligation, 78
     in pregnancy, 394–395                                   tuberculosis
     prevalence, 377                                              baseline evaluation, 105
     relapse potential, 393–394                                   genital, management, 194
     as risk factor, 356–357                                      management, 144–145
     social perceptions, 382                                      prevalence in Zambia, 567
     treatment, 387–393                                           urinary, management, 209
substance abusers                                                 in Zambia, 567
     adolescents, 416
     pain management, 432–433                                U
suicidal ideation, 359t                                      ulcers (genital), 190–196
suicide risk, 370                                            ulcers (aphthous)
support systems                                                  genital, image, 238
     access to care, 333


606 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
 See page 608 for           A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
  Index of Drugs                                                                               Index of Topics


    genital, management, 195                                   Women Organized to Respond to Life-threatening
    oral, image, 239                                            Disease, 561
ultrasound, 271–272                                            women who have sex with women, 75
umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry, 270                      World Health Organization HIV/AIDS Department,
UNAIDS Joint UN Programme on AIDS, 560                          561
universal precautions
    described, 458                                            X
    during labor and delivery, 304                             xerostomia, 435
urinary retention, 209
urinary tract infection, 209
urine testing, 386
                                                              Y
uterine bleeding, 177–181                                      YR Gaitonde Center for AIDS Research and
                                                                Education, 565–567

V                                                             Z
vaginal cleansing, 308
                                                               Zambia, 564, 567
vaginal discharge, 196–203
vaginal infection, 68
vaginitis, 231
varicella, 104
varicella zoster, 137t
viral load
    baseline evaluation, 102
    communicating about, 83
    perinatal transmission, 260
    sex differences, 17–18
    and therapy adherence, 168
    untreated HIV, 14
viral replication, 4–6
viral shedding, 247
virginity, 564–565
virologic failure, 125
vitamin A
    perinatal HIV transmission, 262
    supplementation benefits, 580–581
    supplementation recommendations, 588
vitamins, 578–579
vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, 233

W
Warmline: The National HIV Telephone
  Consultation Service, 560
warts (genital), 210–211
wasting
    causes, 592t
    management, 146–147
    nutritional recomendations, 588
    during pregnancy, 579
The Well, 560
WhatUDo, 560
withdrawal (substance), 367t
Women, Children, and HIV, 561
women, devaluation of
    in India, 564
    and risk reduction counseling, 66
    in Zambia, 569–570
Women Alive, 560
                                                                                                                    TOPICS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




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                                   INDEX OF DRUGS
                             See page 599 for Index of Topics
    Note: page numbers followed by a “t” indicate tables; page numbers in bold indicate images


5-fluorouracil, 189                                          aztreonam, 497

A                                                           B
abacavir                                                     Bactrim. see trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    characteristics, 473                                     benzodiazepines, 391
    clearance insufficiency, 538                             Biaxin. see clarithromycin
    interactions, 502                                        buprenorphine, 390
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 278t
                                                             bupropion, 368t
    during pregnancy, 273t
ABC. see abacavir
acetaminophen, 534                                          C
acyclovir                                                    carbamazepine
    characteristics, 491                                          ARV interaction, 369t
    herpes neonatal transmission, 253                             side effects, 366
Agenerase. see amprenivir                                    caspofungin, 494
albendazole, 490                                             cephalosporins, 496
Albenza. see albendazole                                     chaparral, 536
alprazolam, 369t                                             chloramphenicol, 497
alternative/complementary therapies, 133                     chlorazepate, 369t
aminoglycosides, 497                                         chlordiazepoxide, 369t
amitriptyline, 368t                                          chlorhexidine, 308
amphotericin B, 486                                          cidofovir, 493
amprenavir                                                   citalopram, 368t
    adverse fetal effects, 290                               clarithromycin, 483
    characteristics, 480                                     clindamycin, 496
    clearance insufficiency, 540                             clomipramine, 368t
    food interaction, 534                                    clonazepam, 369t
    interactions, 522–525
                                                             clotrimazole, 487
    oral contraceptive interaction, 247
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 282t                  codeine, 432t
    during pregnancy, 274t                                   comfrey, 536
Ancobon. see flucytosine                                     Cotrim. see trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Antabuse. see disulfiram                                     Crixivan. see indinavir
antiretroviral drugs                                         Cytovene. see ganciclovir
    effects buried in cocktail, 469
    methadone interactions, 396–397t                        D
APV. see amprenivir                                          dapsone, 491
aripiprazole, 369t                                           Daraprim. see pyrimethamine
atazanavir                                                   ddC. see zalcitabine
    adverse fetal effects, 290
                                                             ddI. see didanosine
    characteristics, 480
    clearance insufficiency, 541                             delavirdine
    food interaction, 534                                        characteristics, 477
    interactions, 529–532                                        clearance insufficiency, 539
    norethindrone interaction, 247                               interactions, 505–508
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 282t                      pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 280t
    during pregnancy, 274t                                       during pregnancy, 274t
atovaquone, 485                                              depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 244t
ATV. see atazanavir                                          desipramine, 368t
azithromycin, 482                                            diazepam, 369t
azole antifungals, 198–200                                   didanosine
                                                                 characteristics, 475
AZT. see zidovudine                                              clearance insufficiency, 537

608 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
    See page 599 for        A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
     Index of Topics                                                                           Index of Drugs


    food interaction, 534                                      Fortovase. see saquinavir
    interactions, 499–500                                      fosamprenivir
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 278t                        characteristics, 479
    during pregnancy, 273t                                         clearance insufficiency, 541
dideoxycytidine. see zalcitabine                                   interactions, 525–526 (see also amprenivir,
diet teas, 536                                                                  interactions)
Diflucan. see fluconazole                                          pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 282t
disulfiram, 390                                                    during pregnancy, 274t
DLV. see delavirdine                                           fosAPV. see fosamprenivir
DMPA. see depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate                     foscarnet, 493
doxepin, 368t                                                  Foscavir. see foscarnet
Droxia. see hydroxyurea                                        FTC. see emtracitabine
d4T. see stavudine                                             FTV. see saquinavir
                                                               Fungizone. see amphotericin B
                                                               fuseon, 533
E                                                              fusion inhibitors, 114
efavirenz                                                      Fuzeon. see enfuvirtide
    adverse fetal effects, 289–290
    characteristics, 476
    clearance insufficiency, 539                              G
    food interaction, 534                                      ganciclovir, 492
    interactions, 508–510                                      germander, 536
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 279t
    during pregnancy, 274t
EFV. see efavirenz                                            H
emtracitabine                                                  haloperidol, 368t
    characteristics, 475                                       Hivid. ¶zalcitabine
    clearance insufficiency, 538                               hormone replacement therapy, 217–218
    interactions, 502                                          Hydrea. see hydroxyurea
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 278t                    hydrocodone, 432t
    during pregnancy, 273t                                     hydromorphone, 432t
Emtriva. see emtracitabine                                     hydroxyurea
enfuvirtide                                                        adverse fetal effects, 290
    characteristics, 481                                           characteristics, 485
    clearance insufficiency, 541
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 283t
    during pregnancy, 275t                                    I
ephedra, 535                                                   IDV. see indinavir
Epivir. see lamivudine                                         imipenem, 497
erythromycin, 496                                              imipramine, 368t
erythropoietin, 149t                                           Indian tobacco, 536
escitalopram, 368t                                             indinavir
estazolam, 369t                                                     adverse fetal effects, 290
ethambutol, 485                                                     characteristics, 479
                                                                    clearance insufficiency, 539
ethinyl estradiol, 247
                                                                    food interaction, 534
                                                                    interactions, 510–513
F                                                                   pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 281t
famciclovir                                                         during pregnancy, 274t
     characteristics, 491                                      INH. see isoniazid
     herpes neonatal transmission, 253–254                     interferon, 494
Famvir. see famciclovir                                        Intron. see interferon
fluconazole, 487                                               INV. see saquinavir
flucytosine, 486                                               Invirase. see saquinavir
fluoroquinolones, 497                                          isoniazid, 484
fluoxetine, 368t                                               itraconazole
flurazepam, 369t                                                    characteristics, 487
fluvoxamine, 368t                                                   food interaction, 534
food interactions, 534
                                                                                                                    DRUGS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   609
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Drugs


K                                                            nevirapine
Kaletra, 274t, 282t. see lopinavir                               characteristics, 477
                                                                 clearance insufficiency, 539
                                                                 hepatotoxicity, 115–116
L                                                                interactions, 503–505
l-a-acetyl-methadol (LAAM), 389                                  intrapartum management, 307
lamivudine                                                       for perinatal transmission, 260
     characteristics, 475                                        perinatal transmission prevention, 297t
     clearance insufficiency, 538                                pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 279t
     interactions, 501–502                                       during pregnancy, 274t
     perinatal transmission prevention, 296t                 NFV. see nelfinavir
     pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 277t                 niacin, 535
     during pregnancy, 273t                                  nitrofurantoin, 497
lamotrigine, 369t                                            nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase
levonorgestrel, 246t                                           inhibitors
levorphanol, 432t                                                characteristics, 112, 113t
Lexiva. see fosamprenivir                                        pros and cons, 122t
lithium, 366                                                 nonoxynol-9, 78
lobelia, 536                                                 nonsteroidal anti-inflmmatory drugs (NSAIDs), 534
lopinavir                                                    norethindrone, 247
     characteristics, 478                                    Norplant, 244t
     clearance insufficiency, 540                            nortriptyline, 368t
     clearance insufficiency, plus ritonavir, 540            Norvir. see ritonavir
     interactions, 526–529                                   nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase
     pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 282t                   inhibitors
     during pregnancy, 274t                                      characteristics, 111, 112t
lorazepam, 369t                                                  pros and cons, 123t
Lunelle, 243t                                                Nuva Ring, 243t
                                                             NVP. see nevirapine
M                                                            Nydrazid. see isoniazid
Ma huang, 535                                                nystatin, 486
magnolia, 536
Mepron. see atovaquone                                       O
methadone                                                    olanzapine, 368t
    dosage equivalence, 432t                                 opiate antagonists, 390
    interactions with antiretroviral drugs,                  opioids
                396–397t                                         dosage equivalence, 431, 432t
methenamine, 497                                                 side effects, 430–431, 431t
methergine, 534                                              oral contraceptives
metronidazole, 496                                               characteristics, 243t
metropenem, 497                                                  interactions, 247
microbicides, 79–80                                          oxazepam, 369t
midazolam, 369t                                              oxcarbazepine
mirtazepine, 368t                                                ARV interaction, 369t
                                                                 side effects, 366
morphine, 432t
Myambutol. see ethambutol                                    oxycodone, 432t
Mycobutin. see rifabutin                                     oxymorphone, 432t


N                                                            P
narcotic analgesics, 534                                     paroxetine, 368t
nefazodone, 368t                                             peg-interferon, 494
nelfinavir                                                   Peg-Intron. see peg-interferon
    characteristics, 479                                     Pegasys. see peg-interferon
    clearance insufficiency, 539                             penicillins
    interactions, 519–521                                        safety profile, 496
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 280t                      syphilis during pregnancy, 255
    during pregnancy, 275t                                   pentamidine, aerosolized, 489


610 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau
    See page 599 for        A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
     Index of Topics                                                                           Index of Drugs


pentamidine, intravenous, 490                                  stavudine
perphenazine, 368t                                                 characteristics, 474
primaquine, 490                                                    clearance insufficiency, 537
progestin contraceptives, 243–244t                                 interactions, 501
                                                                   pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 278t
protease inhibitors. see also individual drugs
                                                                   during pregnancy, 273t
    characteristics, 113–114t
    pros and cons, 123t                                        Stephania, 536
psychotropics, 365–366                                         sulfadiazine, 489
pyrazinamide, 483                                              Sulfatrim. see trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
pyrimethamine, 488                                             Sustiva. see efavirenz


Q                                                             T
quetiapine, 369t                                               T-20. see enfuvirtide
                                                               3TC. see lamivudine
                                                               TDF. see tenofovir
R                                                              temazepam, 369t
Rebetrol. see ribavirin                                        tenofovir
Rescriptor. see delavirdine                                         adverse fetal effects, 290
Retrovir. see zidovudine                                            characteristics, 476
Reyataz. see atazanavir                                             clearance insufficiency, 538
ribavirin                                                           interactions, 502–503
     characteristics, 493                                           pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 278t
     as teratogen, 259                                              during pregnancy, 273t
rifabutin, 484                                                 terbutaline, 534
Rifadin. see rifampin                                          tetracyclines, 496
rifampin, 484                                                  thalidomide, 495
risperidone, 369t                                              Thalomid. see thalidomide
ritodrine, 534                                                 thioridazine, 368t
ritonavir                                                      tipranavir/ritonavir, 532
     characteristics, 478                                      TMP-SMX. see trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
     clearance insufficiency, 540                              trazodone, 368t
     clearance insufficiency, plus lopinavir, 540              triazolam, 369t
     food interaction, 534                                     trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
     interactions, 516–519                                          characteristics, 482
     interactions, plus tipranavir, 532                             PCP management, 140
     pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 282t
                                                               L-tryptophan, 536
     during pregnancy, 274t, 275t
                                                               Tubizid. see isoniazid
Roferon. see interferon
RTV. see ritonavir
                                                              V
                                                               vaccines, against HIV, 80–81
S
                                                               valacyclovir, 491
saquinavir
     characteristics, 478                                      Valcyte. see valganciclovir
     clearance insufficiency, 540                              valganciclovir
     interactions, 513–516                                          characteristics, 492
     pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 281t                        food interaction, 534
     during pregnancy, 275t                                    valprioc acid, 366
selenium, 535                                                  Valtrex. see valacyclovir
Septra. see trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole                      vancomycin, 497
sertraline, 368t                                               venlafaxine, 368t
spermicides                                                    Vfend. see voriconazole
     characteristics, 245t                                     Videx. see didanosine
     HIV transmission, 248                                     Viracept. see nelfinavir
Sporanox. see itraconazole                                     Viramune. see nevirapine
SQV. see saquinavir                                            Viread. see tenofovir
St. John’s wort, 535                                           Vistide. see cidofovir
                                                                                                                    DRUGS
                                                                                                                    INDEX




U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau   611
A GUIDE TO THE CLINICAL CARE OF WOMEN WITH HIV - 2005 EDITION
Index of Drugs


vitamin A, 535
vitamin B3. see niacin
vitamin B6, 535
voriconazole, 488

W
white willow bark, 536
wormwood, 536

Z
zalcitabine
    characteristics, 476
    clearance insufficiency, 537
    interactions, 500–501
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 279t
    during pregnancy, 273t
ZDV. see zidovudine
Zerit. see stavudine
Ziagen. see abacavir
zidovudine
    adverse fetal effects, 289
    anemia during pregnancy, 293
    characteristics, 473
    clearance insufficiency, 537
    food interaction, 534
    interactions, 498
    intrapartum use, 307
    neonatal prophylaxis, 310–311
    perinatal transmission prophylaxis, 294–295,
                 296–297t
    pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, 277t
    during pregnancy, 273t
ziprasidone, 369t
Zithromax. see azithromycin
zolpidem, 369t
Zovirax. see acyclovir




612 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau

				
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