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Study Guide Chapters 31-32

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					Chapters 30/31                  United States History                     Study Guide

1. Election of 1968 - Vietnam War, crime, and civil rights issues
   (D) Hubert H. Humphrey -191 electoral votes/31.2 million popular votes
   (R ) Richard M. Nixon - 301 electoral votes/31.7 million popular votes
   (A) George Wallace - 46 electoral votes/9.9 million popular votes

2. Cultural & Societal Changes, 1960’s & 1970’s
   A. Hispanic (“Latino”) Civil Rights Movement
       -Cesar Chavez and farm workers union movement (UFWOC)
                                                nd
   B. American Indian Movement (AIM) and the 2 Battle of Wounded Knee, 1973
   C. Woman’s Rights Movement
       -NOW, 1966
       -Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 1972
       -Roe vs Wade, 1973 (Abortion court decision)
   D. “Counterculture” of the late 1960’s

3. Nixon’s Domestic Policy, 1969-1974
   A. “New Federalism” - Revenue Sharing Act, 1972 - provided for the distribution of Federal dollars to
       state and local governments over a five-year period with 1/3 of the money for state use and 2/3 for
       local government use
   B. Family Assistance Plan - welfare reform plan
   C. Moderate expansion of social programs (social security, Medicare, Food Stamps, housing, & Job
       Corps)
   D. “Law & Order” Politics - use of domestic spying and “enemies list”
   E. Swann vs Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education, 1971 - “De facto Segregation” & integration
       achieved through the use of court ordered school busing
   F. U.S. Supreme Court nominations (Burger, Blackmun, Rehnquist, Powell)
          th
   G. 26 Amendment, 1971 - 18-year voting rights
   H. Environmental Policy
       -“Earth Day,” April 22, 1970
       -Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1970
       -Clean Air Act, 1970 & Water Pollution Act, 1972
   I. National Cancer Act, 1971 - “War on Cancer”
   J. Work place safety and creation of OSHA, 1970
   K. Problems with “stagflation” -rising inflation and unemployment
      1. Causes of “Stagflation”
         -Vietnam War & “Great Society” deficit spending
         -U.S. foreign trade deficit
         -Flood of new workers (“baby boomers” and women)
         -Energy problems (OPEC)
      2. Nixon’s attempts to fight inflation
         -Reduction of Federal spending (fiscal policy)
         -“Wage and Price” Controls, 1971
         -“Impoundment” of Federal funds

4. Nixon’s Foreign Policy, 1969-1974
   A. Vietnam War
      1. “Vietnamization,” 1969-1973
      2. Cambodia
          -Secret Bombing of the “Ho Chi Minh Trail,” 1969-1970
          -Invasion of Cambodia and the “Kent State Massacre,” April-May, 1970
      3. “My Lai Massacre” and Army court martial of 1LT Calley, 1971
      4. Paris Peace Talks, 1969-1972
      5. Nixon-Kissinger Peace Plan and “Christmas Bombings,” 1972
      6. Paris Peace Accords, January, 1973
      7. War Powers Act, 1973 - limits the use of U.S. military forces to 90-days (60/30) by the
          President without a Congressional declaration of war

   B. “Rapprochement” with the People’s Republic of China
       1. Nixon China Trip, February, 1972
      2. “One China Policy” and the beginning of normalization of relations
   C. “Détente” with the Soviet Union
      1. SALT I, 1972 - five-year ban on the production of nuclear weapons
      2. ABM Treaty, 1972 - anti-ballistic missile agreement
   D. Middle East
      1. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) - Yasser Arafat and Arab terrorism
      2. U.S.-Israeli strategic relationship and Arab concerns
      3. Yom Kippur War, October, 1973
         -U.S. military support of Israel
         -Russian threat of military intervention and “Cold War” crisis
         -Arab Oil Embargo, 1973-1974 and “Energy Crisis”
      4. Kissinger’s “Shuttle Diplomacy” - pursuit of Middle East peace

5. Election of 1972
   (R ) Nixon - 520 electoral votes/47.1 million popular votes
   (D) NcGovern - 17 electoral votes/29.1 million popular votes

6. Watergate Scandal, 1972-1974
   A. Illegal activities of CREEP
   B. Justice Department of Congressional Investigations, 1973-1974
   C. Vice-President Agnew scandal and resignation, 1973
   C. U.S. vs Nixon, 1974
   D. Resignation of President Nixon, August 9, 1974

7. Ford Presidency, 1974-1977
   A. Domestic Policy
      1. Pardon of Nixon, Sept. 1974
      2. Vietnam Limited Amnesty Program
      3. Problems with Inflation
         -WIN Program (voluntary wage & price controls)
         -Use of the Presidential veto to control Congressional spending
      4. Energy Program - creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)
   B. Foreign Policy
      1. Henry Kissinger and Middle East “Shuttle Diplomacy”
      2. Continuation of “Détente” with the Soviet Union & “Rapprochement” with Communist China
      3. Southeast Asia
         -Fall of Cambodia, March, 1975 (Khmer Rouge - Pol Pot)
         -Fall of South Vietnam, April, 1975
         -S.S. Mayaguez Incident, May, 1975 - use of U.S. military forces by President Ford to rescue
          U.S. merchant ship crew from the Khmer Rouge (41 USMC Killed in the operation)

8. Election of 1976
   (R ) Ford - 240 electoral votes/39.1 million popular votes
   (D) Carter - 297 electoral votes/40.8 million popular votes

9. Jimmy Carter Presidency, 1977-1981
   A. Domestic Policy
      1. “Open Administration”
      2. Vietnam War Amnesty Program, 1977
      3. Inflation Problems & Carter Administration’s response
         -Voluntary “wage & price” controls
         -Cuts in Federal spending
      4. Energy Program
         -National Energy Act, 1978 and the development of a national energy policy
         -Creation of the Department of Energy, 1978
       5. HEW reorganization - HHS & Department of Education
       6. Bakke vs the Regents of the University of California, 1978 - “reverse discrimination”

9. Carter Presidency, 1977-1981
   B. Foreign Policy
      1. Carter’s “Human Rights” Principles
      2. Panama Canal Treaty, 1977-1978
      3. Camp David Accords, 1978-1979
      4. SALT II, 1979
      5. Recognition of China, 1979
      6. Nicaragua’s “Sandinista” Revolution, 1979
      7. Polish “Solidarity” Movement, 1980
      8. Russian Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
        -Reasons for Brezhnev’s war in Afghanistan
        -Carter’s Economic & Political response
          a. Soviet “grain embargo”
          b. U.S. boycott of Moscow Olympic Games, 1980
          c. Withdrawal of SALT II Treaty from U.S. Senate ratification
          d. “Carter Doctrine,” 1980
      9. Iranian Revolution & Hostage Crisis, 1979-1981

10. Election of 1980
    (R ) Reagan - 489 electoral votes/43.9 million popular votes
    (D) Carter - 49 electoral votes/39.1 million popular votes
    (I) Anderson - 0 electoral votes/5.7 million popular votes

				
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