Cycling and Olympism

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					                             Cycling and Olympism




Summary

Foreword by the President of the FIAC.             Financing, training and improvement of techni-
                                                   cal officials, awards made by the FIAC,
General information on the FIAC and the UCI.       principal FIAC publications, films.
Part I                                             Part Ill
The History of the FIAC.
                                                   The competitions
The emergence of the velocipede, first compe-      - Technical aspects of cycling.
titions, first associations, from the ICA to the   - Cycling at the Olympic Games.
UCI, from the UCI to the FIAC.                       - Development of the programme.
Successive Presidents and Secretaries Gen-           - List of winners
eral.                                                - Participation by NOC from 1896 to 1984.
                                                     - Participation by event during the last three
The congresses.
                                                       Olympic Games.
Biographical Notes.
                                                   - World Championships.
Part II                                              - Host towns and development of the pro-
The administration of the FIAC.                        gramme.
                                                     - Honours list.
Organisation chart, member Federations,              - Major international competitions.
aims, Statutory and Extraordinary Con-
gresses, the Supervisory Committee, Commis-        Part IV
sions, the General Secretariat, Confedera-
tions.                                             Olympic awards obtained.

                                                                                              531
From the first bicycles.




  to the crossing of the finishing line by the competitors in the road event at the Games of the XVIIth
Olympiad (1960).

532
                                          Foreword




The sport of cycling never fails to surprise those who study its development from an objective
standpoint. Unlike many other sporting disciplines, our sport has, in a short space of time,
become established on the five continents.
Its ability to satisfy the aspirations and requirements of the greatest number of enthusiasts is
most extraordinary. Its energy is even more amazing if we consider that, since its introduction,
cycling has in many different ways formed and influenced the development of modern sport. Has
it not promoted the birth of the sports press, fostered the link between industry and sport ? And
has it not provided many a subject for literature ?
The expansion of other sporting disciplines, the advent of motorisation and automation,
encourage us to think of cycling as a sport blemished by anachronism, whereas on the contrary,
in a highly developed industrial society, the bicycle represents the complete expression of human
and social vocation, an instrument of leisure and sport satisfying the demands of health and
open air activity, a means of establishing a harmonious relationship with nature.
As far as its usefulness is concerned, the bicycle provides an economical, pollution-free answer
to the energy crisis, it encourages the short journey and, to an ever-increasing extent, captures
the attention of town-planners and ecologists, with a view to the creation of an environment with
human dimensions.
This reality is also mirrored in the sport of cycling. Millions of racers are already affiliated to more
than 130 national federations recognised by the FIAC. These sportsmen are reviving our sport,
improving its technical standard, and this is why we are able to state that the sport of cycling
is, as yet, on the threshold of its expansion.




                                                               Valery Syssoev
                                                         President of the FIAC




                                                                                                    533
              International Amateur Cycling Federation
                                FIAC




                                                   Year founded: 1965 as an integral part of the
                                                   “Union Cycliste Internationale”.
                                                   FIAC President in office: Valery Syssoev *
                                                   (URS)
                                                   FiAC Secretary General in office: Mrs. Carla
                                                   Giuliani* (ITA).
                                                   Address of the FIAC : Via dei Campi Sportivi 48,
                                                   00197 Rome, Italy.
                                                   Telephone : (39.6) 36 85 91 33/811 98 52
   Carla Giuliani                                  Telex : (43) 612 681.




                                Michal Jekiel




       International Cycling Union
                   UCI
Year founded : 1900.
UCI President in office : Luis Puig* (ESP).
UCI Secretary General in office : Michal Jekiel*
(POL), Vice-President of the FIAC.
Treasurer in office : Agostino Omini* (ITA).
Address of the UCI: 6, rue Amat, Geneva 1202,
Switzerland.
Telephone : (022) 32 29 14.
Telegram : UCINT Geneva.
                                                          Luis Puig on the new Los Angeles
* See biographical notes.                                 Olympic cycling track.

534
                                             Part I


                               The History of the FIAC

The emergence of the Velocipede                    dique de France, 1881), in Belgium (the Ligue
                                                   Vélocipédique, 1882). in Switzerland (the
Amongs the names of those who, through their       « Schweizerische Radfahrer Bund», 1883). in
imagination and their inventions, were reponsi-    Germany (the “Bund Deutscher Radfahrer”,
ble for the emergence of the velocipede, we        1885), in Italy, (I”‘Union Vélocipédique”, 1885).
would mention :
                                                   The first international organisation which
from the XVth century                              aimed to structure the cycling movement. the
- Leonardo da Vinci, the visionary                 International Cyclist Association (ICA), ‘was
                                                   founded in 1892 in London. It at once
at the end of the XVIIth century                   introduced world championships, the first of
                                                   which were held the following year in Chicago.
- Jacques Ozanam and his cart controlled by
  handles
                                                              From the ICA to the UCI
at the beginning of the XVllIth century
                                                   Although Frans Netcher (HOL), followed by Mr.
- Jacques de Vaucanson with his cog-chain          Staal (DEN), held the Presidency, the ICA was
                                                   in fact run by its Secretary General, Henry
at the end of the XVIIIth century                  Sturmey (GBR). The latter was soon unable to
- de Sivrac with his two-wheeled contrivance       subdue the resentment felt between the
  introduced in 1790                               members.
                                                   As a result of the rigid and confused interpre-
in the XlXth century                               tation of amateurism which was inflexibly
Baron de Drais de Sauerbron. responsible for       applied for entry into the World Champion-
the lakes and forests of the Grand Duchy of        ships, differences of opinion arose amongst
Bade, with his mobile steering.                    those in charge. In fact, the regulations
                                                   currently in force excluded the best cyclists of
- Louis Gompertz and Kirkpatrick McMillan,         the period from the most important world event
  the British innovators.                          in cycling, and prevented the development of
- Pierre and Ernest Michaux (FRA), father and      the sport, which let us not forget, enjoyed
  son, the inventors of gears and pedals, and      growing popularity, especially in Europe, pro-
  therefore of the velocipede (1861).              moting on the one hand industrial concerns
                                                   and on the other hand, coutinuing expansion of
- John Boyd Dunlop, the veterinary surgeon         the increasingly significant sports press.
  from Belfast and his tyres (which he
  invented in 1888).                               On 14th April 1900, delegates from six
                                                   associations and five countries assembled in
                                                   Paris : Emile de Beukelaer* for the “Ligue
First Competitions, First Associations
                                                   Velocipédique Belge”, the Frenchman Victor
From 1865 onwards, the first cycling competi-      Breyer for the “National Cycling Association”
tions were organised in response to the            in the United States, Alfred Riguelle for the
growing demands of cyclists. They gathered in      “Union velocipédique de France”, Count
clubs which put forward the idea of “races”.       Villers for the “Union des Societés Françaises
The first town to town race seems to have          de Sports Athlétiques”, Mario Bruzzone repre-
been “Paris-Rouen”. held in 1869 in France         senting the “Unione Velocipedistica ltaliana »
and won by James Moore (GBR). One by one           and the Frenchman Paul Rousseau’ for the
national associations began to appear, in          “Union Cycliste Suisse”, these delegates then
Great Britain (the Bicycle Union, established in   formed the “Union Cycliste Internationale”,
1878), in the USA (the League of American          and Emile de Benkelaer* became its Presi-
Wheelmen, 1880), in France (I’ “Union vélocipé-    dent

                                                                                                535
                                                 Successive UCI Presidents
                                                 1. Emile de Beukelaer* (BEL), from 1900 to
                                                    1922;
                                                 2. Leon Breton* (FRA), from 1922 to 1936,
                                                 3. Max Burgi* (SUI), from 1936 to 1939,
                                                 4. Alban Collignon* (BEL), from 1939 to 1947 ;
                                                 5. Achille Joinard* (FRA), from 1947 to 1958 ;
                                                 6. Adriano Rodoni* (ITA), from 1958 to 1981 ;
                                                 7. Luis Puig* (ESP), since 1981.


                                                 Successive UCI Secretaries General
                                                 1.   Paul Rousseau* (FRA), from 1901 to 1941 ;
                                                 2.   Victor Breyer (FRA), from 1946 to 1947 ;
                                                 3.   René Chesal (FRA), from 1947 to 1969,
                                                 4.   Michal Jekiel* (POL) since 1969.


                                                 From the UCI to the FIAC
                                                 Until 1965 the UCI governed both the amateur
                                                 and professional sectors of the sport of
                                                 cycling. Divergence between these two sec-
                                                 tors could have broken up the UCI if those in
                                                 charge had not realized that it was necessary
                                                 to grant autonomy to each of these sectors.
                                                 At the request of the International Olympic
                                                 Committee, this reform was put into effect on
                                                 1st and 3rd September 1965, during the
                  E. de Beukelaer                Congress at San Sebastian (ESP). Two Feder-
                                                 ations were formed within the UCI, one
                                                 resposible for the amateur section, the
                                                 “Federation lnternationale de Cyclisme Ama-
                                                 teur” (FIAC), and the other for the professional
                                                 section, the “Federation lnternationale de
                                                 Cyclisme Professionnel” (FICP). This develop-
                                                 ment fostered the expansion of all the
                                                 strengths and resources of world cycling.
                                                 The Statutes of these organisations guarantee
                                                 them of soverainty, full autonomy, the demo-
                                                 cratic election of their Executive Committees,
                                                 their own technical regulations. The UCI
                                                 remains a unifying body which deals with
                                                 general problems and with the ratification of
      L. Breton                     M. Burgi
                                                 decisions taken by the two individual organi-
                                                 sations.


                                                  Successive FIAC Presidents
                                                  1965 - 1981      Adriano Rodoni* (ITA):
                                                  1981             Luis Puig* (ESP)
                                                  From 1981        Valery Syssoev* (URS)

                                                 Successive FIAC Secretaries General.
                                                  1965 - 1969      René Chesal (FRA) :
                                                  1969 - 1981      Giuliano Pacciarelli (ITA)
 A. Collignon                       A. Joinard    From 1981        Mrs. Carla Giuliani* (ITA).

536
                                 The UCI Congresses

  1. Paris (FRA)          11 th August 1900      40. Paris (FRA)               1st August 1924
  2. Alexandria (EGY)      6th Febr. 1901        41. Pads (FRA)               7th Febr. 1925
  3. Berlin (ALL)          6th July 1901         42. Amsterdam (HOL)         14th August 1925
  4. Paris (FRA)          29th March 1902        43. Paris (FRA)              6th Febr. 1926
  5. Rome (ITA)            7th June 1902         44. Milan (ITA)             24th July 1926
  6. Paris (FRA)          14th Febr. 1903        45. Paris (FRA)              5th Febr. 1927
  7. Copenhagen (DEN)     15th August 1903       46. Cologne (ALL)           15th July 1927
  6. Paris (FRA)          13th Febr. 1904        47. Paris (FRA)              4th Febr. 1926
  9. London (GBR)          2nd Sept. 1904        46. Budapest (HUN)          14th August 1926
 10. Paris (FRA)          11 th Febr. 1905       49.Paris(FRA)                2nd Febr. 1929
11. Antwerp (BEL)         15th July 1905         50. Zurich (SUI)            10th August 1929
 12. Paris (FRA)          10th Febr. 1906        51. Paris (FRA)               1st Febr. 1930
 13. Geneva (SUI)         29th July 1906         52. Brussels (BEL)          23rd August 1930
 14. Paris (FRA)           9th Febr. 1907        53. Paris (FRA)              7th Febr. 1931
 15. Paris (FRA)          29th June 1907         54. Copenhagen (DEN)        22nd August 1931
 16. Paris (FRA)           6th Febr. 1906        55. Paris (FRA)              6th Febr. 1932
 17. Leipzig (ALL)        25th July 1906         56. Rome (ITA)              27th August 1932
 16. Paris (FRA)          13th Febr. 1909        57. Paris (FRA)              4th Febr. 1933
 19. Copenhagen (DEN)     14th August 1909       56. Paris (FRA)             11 th August 1933
 20. Paris (FRA)          12th Febr. 1910        59. Paris (FRA)              3rd Febr. 1934
 21. Brussels (BEL)       16th July 1910         60. Leipzig (ALL)           11 th August 1934
 22. Antwerp (BEL)        16th Sept. 1910        61. Paris (FRA)              2nd Febr. 1935
 23. Paris (FRA)          11th Febr. 1911        62. Brussels (BEL)          11 th August 1935
 24. Rome (ITA)           10th June 1911         63. Paris (FRA)              6th Febr. 1936
 25. Paris (FRA)          10th Febr. 1912        64. Zurich (SUI)            29th August 1936
 26. New York (USA)       24th August 1912       65. Paris (FRA)              6th Febr. 1937
 27. Paris (FRA)           6th Febr. 1913        66. Copenhagen (DEN)        21 st August 1937
 26. Berlin (ALL)         23rd August 1913       67. Paris (FRA)              5th Febr. 1937
 29. Paris (FRA)          14th Febr. 1914        66. Amsterdam (HOL)         27th August 1936
 30. Copenhagen (DEN)      1st August 1914       69. Paris (FRA)              4th Febr. 1939
 31. Paris (FRA)           1st Febr. 1920        70. Milan (ITA)             26th August 1939
 32. Antwerp (BEL)         6th August 1920       71. Milan (ITA)             10th Febr. 1940
 33. Paris (FRA)           5th Febr. 1921        72. Brussels (BEL)          9-10th Febr. 1946
 34. Copenhagen (DEN)     30th July 1921         73. Zurich (SUI)            1946
 35. Paris (FRA)           4th Febr. 1922        74. Luxembourg (LUX)        6th-6th Febr. 1947
 36. Liverpool (GBR)      26th July 1922         75. Paris (FRA)             25th July 1947
 37. Paris (FRA)           3rd Febr. 1923        76. Paris (FRA)              7th Febr. 1946
 36. Zurich (SUI)         1st August 1923        77. Maastricht (HOL)        20th August 1946
 39. Paris (FRA)          16th Febr. 1924        76. Zurich (SUI)            1946




Participants at the UCI Congress assembled in Pans at the UVF headquarters

                                                                                           537
79. Paris (FRA)           5th March 1949      109. Zurich (SUI)          26th Nov. 1956
80. Copenhagen (DEN)     19th August 1949     110. Paris (FRA)            7th March 1959
61. Zurich (SUI)         25th Nov. 1949       111. Amsterdam (HOL)        7th August 1959
62. Paris (FRA)          2nd March 1950       112. Zurich (SUI)          27th Nov. 1959
63. Liege (BEL)          11 th August 1950    113. Paris (FRA)            5th March 1960
64.Zurich(SUI)           1950                 114. Leiozia (GDR)          3rd August 1960
65. Paris (FRA)          3rd March 1951       115. Rome-(ITA)            25th August 1960
66. Milan (ITA)          25th August 1951     116. Zurich (SUI)          25th Nov. 1960
67. Zurich (SUI)         23rd Nov. 1951       117. Paris (FRA)            4th March 1961
                         (9.00 hours)         116. Zurich (SUI)          25th August 1961
 66. Zurich (SUI)        23rd Nov. 1951       119. Zurich (SUI)          24th Nov. 1961
                         (15.00 hours)        120. Paris (FRA)            3rd March 1962
 89. Paris (FRA)         1st March 1952       121. Milan (ITA)           23rd August 1962
 90. Luxemburg (LUX)     22nd August 1952     122. Zurich (SUI)          30th Nov. 1962
 91. Zurich (SUI)        26th Nov. 1952       123. Paris (FRA)            2nd March 1963
 92. San Sebastian (ESP)  7th March 1953      124. Liege (BEL)           31st July 1963
 93. Zurich (SUI)        22nd August 1953     125. Zurich (SUI)          29th Nov. 1963
 94. Zurich (SUI)        27th Nov. 1953       126. Paris (FRA)            6th March 1964
 95. Paris (FRA)          6th March 1954      127. Sallanches (FRA)       2nd Sept. 1964
 96. Cologne (FRG)       20th August 1954     126. Zurich (SUI)          27th Nov. 1964
 97. Zurich (SUI)        26th Nov. 1954       129. Geneva (SUI)           6th March 1965
 96. Sarrebruck (Saar)     5th March 1955     130. San Sebastian (ESP)    1st Sept. 1965
 99. Rome (ITA)          26th August 1955     131. Zurich (SUI)          26th Nov. 1965
100. Zurich (SUI)        25th Nov. 1955       132. Geneva (SUI)          25th March 1966
101. Paris (FRA)           3rd March 1956     133. Cologne (FRG)         24th August 1966
102. Copenhagen (DEN)    24th August 1956     134. Geneva (SUI)          25th Nov. 1966
103. Zurich (SUI)        16th Nov. 1956       135. Amsterdam (HOL)       22nd August 1967
104. Paris (FRA)           2nd March 1957     136. Geneva (SUI)          24th Nov. 1967
105. Liege (BEL)           9th August 1957
106. Zurich (SUI)        29th Nov. 1957         Since then UCI Congresses are held
107. Paris (FRA)           1st March 1956     annually on the last Friday of the month of
106. Reims (FRA)         29th August 1956     November.




                              The FIAC Congresses
3rd September 1965 in San Sebastian (ESP) :   2lst August 1967 in Amsterdam (HOL)
Constitutive Congress                         23rd November 1967 in Geneva (SUI)
                                              14th October 1966 in Mexico (MEX)
23rd August 1966 in Cologne (FRG)             14th August 1969 in Brno (TCH)
24th November 1966 in Geneva (SUI)            4th August 1970 in Leicester (GBR)
                                              23rd August 1971 in Varese (ITA)
                                              27th August 1972 in Munich (FRG)
  First FIAC Executive Committee              20th August 1973 in San Sebastian (ESP)
   1965                                       12th August 1974 in Montreal (CAN)
                                              16th August 1975 in Liege (BEL)
  PT: Adriano Rodoni* (ITA); VPTs: Alexei     16th July 1976 in Montreal (CAN)
  Kouprianov (URS). L OUIS Dauge (FRA).       23rd August 1977 in San Cristobal (VEN)
  Maurice Moyson (BEL), Antonio Elorza        14th August 1976 in Munich (FRG)
  (ESP) : Ms Jorgen Beyerholm (DEN)           20th August 1979 in Maastricht (HOL)
  Wlodzimierz Golebiewski (POL), Erwin        16th July 1960 in Moscow (URS)
  Hauck (FRG), Heinz Przybyl (GRD), Has-      24th August 1961 in Prague (TCH)
  sen Tahir (ALG), Charles King (GBR), Dr     22nd August 1962 in Leicester (GBR)
  P. Van Dijk (HOL) : TG Albert Veroug-       22nd August 1963 in Zurich (SUI)
  straete (BEL) ; SG René Chesal (FRA)        27th July 1964 in Los Angeles (USA)
  Assistant SG: Rodolfo Magnan (ITA)          22nd August 1985 in Bassano del Grappa
                                              (ITA)


538
                                     Biographical Notes




Emile de Beukelaer (BEL), founder President         Carla Giuliani, Secretary General of the FIAC
of the UCI in 1900, he held this post until his     since 1981.
death in 1922.
                                                    Married, and the mother of two children, she
                                                    has been the administrative secretary of the
                                                    Italian Cycling Federation since 1967.
                                                    Responsible mainly for international matters
                                                    within the Federation, she gains a wide
                                                    experience in this capacity. Once administra-
                                                    tive secretary of the FIAC, the responsibility of
                                                    the general        secretariat was    naturally
                                                    entrusted to her upon the death of Giuliano
                                                    Pacciarelli, for whom she was an outstandingly
                                                    efficient colleague.

                                                    Michal Jekiel, Vice-President of the FIAC,
                                                    Secretary General of the UCI since 1969 and
                                                    Honorary President of the Polish Cycling
                                                    Federation

                                                    Born in 1910 in Poland. From 1952 to 1969 he
                                                    was one of the organisors of the prestigious
From the town of Antwerp, he became Presi-          cycling race “The-Peace Race” (Warsaw -
dent of the Sports Committee for the Belgian        Berlin - Prague). Elected member of the UCI
Cyclists’ League, and was the representative        Executive Committee in 1956, Vice-President
of this Federation during the UCI Constitutive      in 1965, Vice-President of the FIAC since
Congress.                                           1969, he also temporarily took over the
                                                    Presidency of the FIAC in 1982.
Léon Breton (FRA), Assistant UCI Secretary
from 1910 to 1912. he became the Vice-
President (1912-1922) and then President            Achille Joinard, UCI President from 1947 to
(1922-1936). He died on 30th June 1940.             1958
                                                    Born in Paris on 28th October 1889. An
Max Burgi (SUI), Assistant Secretary for the        all-round sportsman, he devoted himself to
UCI from 1926 to 1936, he took over the             fencing, athletics and boxing. Once a director.
Presidency from 1936 to 1939. Died on 25th          he founded numerous associations and
April 1946.                                         became President of the French Cycling
                                                    Federation, and subsequently Vice-President
Alban Collignon (BEL), President of the UCI         of the French Olympic Committee.
from 1939 to 1947. subsequently Honorary
President until his death in 1955.                  Agostino Omini, Treasurer of the FIAC since
Instigator of the Brussels newspaper “Sport”        1981, as from 1981 President of the Italian
and of a large number of cycling races,             Cycling Federation.
including the “Tour de Belgique”, Paris -           Born on 4th October 1926 in Milan (ITA).
Brussels.                                           Active in the world of cycling since 1950. He
From 1908 onwards he took part in all the UCI       was successively President of the Regional
Congresses. In 1935 he was UCI Vice-                Committee of Lombardy, member of the Italian
President, and four years later was to take         Federation’s Committee, President of the
over the Presidency and to experience difficult     Organising Committee for the 1976 World
years : in spite of less than propitious interna-   Championships, President of the Italian Feder-
tional events he succeeded in retaining UCI         ation, Vice-President of the International
structures.                                         Federation of Professional Cycling.

                                                                                                 539
Giuliano Pacciarelli, Secretary General of the    onwards, he was responsible for the develop-
FIAC from 1969 to 1981.                           ment of world cycling, in particular the creation
                                                  of the FIAC, the introduction of the “open”, the
                                                  organisation of the anti-doping campaign and
                                                  the introduction of junior World Champion-
                                                  ships.


                                                  Paul Rousseau, UCI General Secretary from
                                                  1901 until his death on 21st May 1941.




Born in 1930. An excellent boxer and swim-
mer, he took part in national championships.
Secretary General of the Italian Cycling Feder-
ation from 1970 to 1981, he died several days
before the elections for the FIAC President,
which according to many, he would have won.

                                                  Born in Bordeaux in 1888. As a cyclist he
                                                  became French champion in 1888. As a
Luis Puig, President of the FIAC in 1981,         journalist he was in charge of the “Le Temps”
President of the UCI since 27th November          sports column and founder of “Argus”. Inter-
1981                                              national sports manager, his energy places
Born 11 th April 1915 in Alcudia (ESP). A         him amongst the greatest historical figures in
teacher of physical education at the University   the world of sport. He was amongst those
of Valencia, he dedicated himself from an early   responsible for the modern evolution of the
age to the organisation of the sporting move-     International Sports Federations, and as from
ment; he successively became President of          1921 was the President of their Standing
the regional Federations of swimming, hockey      Committee. Towards the end of his life in his
and cycling in Valencia. He was Technical         capacity as President, Vice-President, Secre-
Director of the Spanish Cycling Federation for    tary General, Secretary, Commissar, jury
some time and acquired universal recognition      member, or as a journalist, he was the holder
as a most competent organisor. Member of the      of twenty three national and international
Spanish Olympic Committee, President of the       awards from the world of athletics, motoring,
Spanish Cycling Federation, he became Vice-       aviation aerostatics, yachting, boxing and last
President of the FIAC before succeeding           but not least, cycling.
President Rodoni.

                                                  Valery Syssoev, President of the FIAC from
Adriano Rodoni, founder President of the FIAC     1982, Vice Minister for sport in the USSR as
from 1965 to 1981, and then Honorary Presi-       from 1983.
dent.                                             Born in Moscow (URS) in 1942. A road
Born 29th December 1898. In 1913 he founded       competitor, he was less than thirty years of
the Genoa Cycling Society, and became its         age when elected member of the National
President (1915-1941). A Milanese industria-      Cycling Federation. In 1969 he became
list, he had an enthusiastic interest in the      National Technical Director, and was particu-
progression of the sport of cycling and was       larly successful as such. In 1977 he became
nominated national technical representative of    Vice-President of the FIAC and of the UCI,
amateur cyclists (1939-1955), President of        positions which he fulfilled along with the
the Italian Federation of Cycling (1940-1955      Presidency of the National Federation. When
and 1957-1981), Vice-President of the Italian     Luis Puig was elected UCI President in 1981,
National Olympic Committee (1950-1956 and         Valery Syssoev took over from him at the head
1957-1972). At the head of the UCI from 1957      of the FIAC.

540
                                                Part II

                       The administration of the FIAC

•   Organisation Chart




•   Major Aims of the FIAC are as follows :                      The 123 Affiliated Federations
- to manage, regulate and control amateur
  cycling in all its forms                               1. With recognized National Olympic
                                                            Committees
- to unite all those national federations which
   practice the sport of amateur cycling by             NOC1           Creation       NOC1             Creation
  promoting liaison                              ALB        Before 1985              IRL2        Before    1965
- to encorage these federations to take part     ALG        Before 1965              ISR         Before    1965
  in the Olympic Games.                          FRG        Before 1965              ITA         Before    1965
                                                 ANG                 1977            JAM         Before    1965
  • Member Federations                           SAU        Before 1965              JPN         Before    1965
                                                 ARG        Before 1965              JOR                   1982
  Today, the FIAC unites 123 national affiliated AUS        Before 1965              KEN                   1967
  federations.                                   AUT        Before 1965              KUW                   1977
                                                 BRN provisionally affiliat- LIB                 Before    1965
  Progression of the number of federations       ed in 1983, to be ratified by LBA               Before    1965
  affiliated to the UCI and then to the FIAC :   the 1984 Congress                   LIE                   1971
                                                 BAN                 1977            LUX         Before    1965
  1900: 6            1960: 72                    BAR        Before 1965              MAD        Before     1965
  1912: 23           1980: 129
  1930: 42           1984: 123                    1
                                                    According to the alphabetical list in the   IOC Directory.


                                                                                                             541
CNO1        Creation     CNO1          Creation      • The Statutory Congress of the FIAC, the
                                                     supreme body, is held annually, usually at the
BEL     Before 1965      MAL         Before 1965
                                                     occasion of the World Championships or of the
BIZ            1960      MAW                 1972
                                                     Olympic Games. Extraordinary Congresses
BAH            1970      MLT         Before 1965
                                                     can be convened. The UCI Extraordinary
BER            1975      MAR         Before 1965
                                                     Congress is held each year in Autumn. FIAC
BIR            1967      MRI                 1973
                                                     and FICP delegates elected by their respective
BOL            1975      MEX         Before 1965
                                                     Congress, as well as representatives of mem-
BOT            1974      MGL         Before 1965
                                                     ber federations assemble for this. These
BRA            1960      NGR                  1972
                                                     Autumnal sessions are called UCI Statutory
BUL     Before 1965      NOR         Before 1965
                                                     Congresses.
CAY            1962      NZL                  1967
CMR    Before 1965       PAK         Before 1965     • The Executive Committee, an administra-
CAN     Before 1965      PAR                  1976   tive body, is made up of members elected by
CHI     Before 1965      HOL         Before 1965     the Congress for a period of four years and of
CHN    Before 1965       PHI         Before 1965     the Presidents of Continental federations.
CYP            1971      POL         Before 1965     These members choose from amongst them-
COL    Before 1965       PUR         Before 1965     selves four Vice-Presidents, the President
CGO            1979      POR         Before 1965     being elected by the Congress. They appoint a
KOR    Before 1965       GDR         Before 1965     Secretary General nominated on a permanent
CRC            1960      PRK         Before 1965     basis. In-the case of urgency, the President,
CIV     Before 1965      ROM         Before 1965     the Vice-Presidents, the Treasurer and the
CUB    Before 1965       RWA                  1979   Secretary General may assemble as the
DEN     Before 1965      SMR         Before 1965     Executive Board.
DOM     Before 1965      ESA                  1966
EGY     Before 1965      SEN                  1973   • Members of the Present Executive Com-
UAE            1976      SIN         Before 1965     mittee
ECU     Before 1965      SUD                  1975   PT: Valery Syssoev* (URS)
ESP     Before 1965      SRI         Before 1965     \/PTs: Khaled Al Turki (SAU), Hector Gallee
USA     Before 1965      SWE Before 1965             (BEL). Michal Jekiel* (POL), Simo Klimscheffs-
ETH     Before 1965      SUI         Before 1965     kij (FIN)
FIJ            1962      SYR         Before 1965     Ms: Francisco G. Almeda (PHI), Paul C.
FIN     Before 1965      TPE         Before 1965     Ambassa (CMR). Victor Norman Gailey (AUS).
FRA     Before 1965      TAN                  1974   Ahmed Kotbi (MAR), Angel Romero Llamas
GAB            1979      TCH         Before 1965     (MEX), Harrie J.C.M. Meuwese (HOL), Angel
GBR     Before 1965      THA         Before 1965     de Pablos (ESP), Jean Pitallier (FRA), Hans
GRE            1976      TOG                  1972   Schwelm (FRG), Miroslav Slavik ITCH). Benito
GUA            1973      TRI         Before 1965     Sobero Fernández (CUB), Walter Stampfil
GUI     Before 1965      TUN         Before 1965     (SUI). Hassen Tahir (ALG), Armando Ustariz
GUY     Before 1965      TUR         Before 1965     (VEN), Gerhard Voss (GDR)
HAI            1979      URS         Before 1965     T: Agostino Omini* (ITA)
VOL            1972      URU         Before 1965     SG: Mrs. Carla Giuliani (ITA). Wladimir Hole-
HKG    Before 1965       VEN         Before 1965     cek (TCH) in his capacity as President of the
HON            1974      ISV                  1979   lnternational Indoor Cycling Cornmission also
HUN            1967      YUG         Before 1965     attends the meetings of this Committee
IND     Before 1965      ZAI                  1966
INA     Before 1965      ZAM                  1973   •    Commissions
IRQ            1966      ZIM                  1960       – Technical Commission made up of three
IRN     Before 1965      2 Tripartite Committee.         members and presided by Harrie J.M.C.
                                                         Meuwese (HOL)
2. Without Recognized NOC
Brunei 1978                                              – Commission for Cyclist Solidarity made up of
Granada Islands 1976                                     three members and presided by Doctor
                                                         Khaled lbrahim Al Turki (SAU)
Macao 1978
St. Kitts 1978                                           – Cyclotouring Commission made up of five
St. Lucie 1980                                           members and presided by Walter Stampfli
The 1984 Congress is to ratify the affiliations          (SUI)
of: ANT, BRN, MON and also readmit the                   – Indoor Cycling Commission (cycleball and
following federations which were struck off in           artistic cycling) made up of nine members
1981 : PAN, PER, NIC, UGA.                               and presided by Vladimir Holecek (TCH).

542
•   Continental Confederations
The African, American, Asian and Oceanian
Continents have confederations whose aim is
to promote cycling in their respective lands
and to consult the FIAC over their individual
problems.
The duties endowed to each continental
confederation are as follows :
- the establishing of the regional programme
  of cycling races
- arranging for the organisation of regional
  courses carried out by the FIAC with a view
  to the training of representatives and techni-
  cians
- the organisation of continental champion-
  ships controlled by the FIAC.


•   The General Secretariat
With its headquarters in Rome, the FIAC
General Secretariat is responsible :
    – for the convening and organisation of meet-
    ings of the Executive Committee and of the
    Congress, for the drawing up of agendas
    and minutes and for the implementation of
    those decisions taken
    – for ensuring respect of the regulations
                                                        • Training and Improvement of Technical
                                                        Officials
    for technical coordination and the organisa-        Continuous efforts allow the FIAC to increase
    tion of cycling events in the Olympic Games         the number of specialised officials and of
    and of the official FIAC Championships              national representatives.
    – for ensuring the organisation of courses for      It was the first of the International Federations
    technicians, representatives and of semin-          to collaborate with Olympic Solidarity by
    ars for managers                                    organising, from 1973 onwards, several tech-
    – for coordinating the work of the Commis-          nical courses over various continents. In order
    sions                                               to unify interpretation and application of the
                                                        regulations, special refresher courses organ-
    – for establishing the programmes                   ised by the UCI gather international represen-
    – for maintaining contact with affiliated feder-    tatives together. The number of courses
    ations, affiliated confederations, the IOC and      organised for the training of technicians has
    the IFS.                                            been greatly increased. In June 1982 at Rome,
                                                        the first seminar for national managers of
Since 1969 the UCI Secretariat has been                 cycling federations was organised.
based in Geneva.
                                                        International courses for trainers are periodi-
                                                        cally included on the programme.
•   Financing of the Federation
Financing of the FIAC is mainly covered by :            •   Medical Code
–     annual subscriptions    from   the   affiliated   The FIAC provides a significant influence in the
    federations                                         domain of sport and morals, in particular
                                                        concerning the anti-doping campaign. A UCI
– television rights from the Olympic Games              regulation was enforced as early as 1965. The
Several promotion ventures are carried out              definition of “prohibited” drugs has quashed
thanks to subsidies from the UCI and from               bad habits in sport which could have tarnished
sponsors.                                               its image.

                                                                                                    543
Each year this list of banned products is              - Regulations for indoor cycling (1980 edition)
updated by the UCI Medical Commission. 38              - Regulations for cyclotouring (1982 edition).
UCI accredited laboratories are equipped to
carry out anti-doping controls using a standard
methodology. Experts from these laboratories
regularly participate in conferences which             •   Bibliography
encourages a valuable exchange of knowl-               - Aspects of Preparation for Competition Sport
edge. Besides this, medical conferences are              by Agostino Massagrande in French, Eng-
convened by the UCI in order to study aspects            lish, Spanish, Arabic
of physiology and pathology in relation to
cycling.                                               - Cycling edited by the FIAC
                                                         in French, English or Spanish
Finally, an international ruling on medical
controls is the basis of all affiliated federations’   - Doping by Professor Michele Montanaro
national regulations.                                    in French, Arabic or Spanish
Medical checks carried out during world                - Training of National Representatives by
championships and competitions on the FIAC               Messrs. Court, Fabri, Hansen, Jekiel, Pac-
programme are the responsibility of the UCI,             ciarelli, Robrieux, Spadoni
whereas those carried out during national                in French, English, Arabic, Spanish
events are undertaken by the national federa-          - Pocket Cyclists’ Dictionary
tions.
                                                       - The Open Air Velodrome
                                                          in French
•   Awards made by the FIAC                            - Agonistic Cycling by Agostino Massagrande
The UCI cycling merit is granted to managers             in English or Arabic
who have worked commendably for the sport
of international cycling for at least twelve
years.                                                 •   FIAC Films
The UCI-FIAC-FICP plaque will from 1984                “The Sport of Cycling“, the first Instructive film
onwards be awarded to a town or to a person            by the FIAC shot in 1965 and concerning the
in recognition of contributions towards the            preparation of a racing cyclist in French,
sport of cycling.                                      English or Spanish (90 minutes, black and
                                                       white)
                                                       Vldeocassettes in the Italian, French, English
• Principal FIAC Publications                          and Arabic language are currently available.
« Le Monde cycliste » (The Cyclists’ World),           – "Speed and mileage” (1982) : Emphasis on
published every four months since October                the preparation of the sprinter and on
1953 is the information mouthpiece of the UCI,           competition tactics.
the FIAC and the FICP.
                                                       – "Organisation of a Race” 1983) : Two sub-
“Sur deux roues” (On two Wheels), since 1983             jects, the individual ("in Iine”) race and the
regularly publishes complementary informa-               stage race
tion issued by the FIAC.
                                                       – “General Preparation of the Amateur Road
                                                         Cyclist” (1984) increase in efficiency of the
                                                         muscles, development of the respiratory and
Other Available Publications                             cardio-circulatory systems. development of
- Statutes - regulations of internal proceed-            coordination ability.
  ings - technical regulations - FIAC (1980            – “Special Training for the Amateur Road
  edition)                                               Cyclist” (1984) : 1st Stage - conditoning ;
- UCI medical control regulations (1981 edi-             2nd Stage - differentiated training
  tion)                                                – “Period of Preparation of the Amateur Road
- Statutes and regulations binding internal              Cyclist” (1984) : characteristics of a typical
  proceedings - UCI (1978 edition)                       microcyle in the preparation period, techni-
                                                         cal and tactical refinement, double file,
- General UCI Regulations (1983 edition)                 bordures, cycling infront, breakaways, team
- Regulations for UCI World Championships                Interplay, tactical sense, sprint, team inter-
  (1981 edition)                                         play in stage races, time trial races.

544
                                           Part III

                                    The Competitions




1976 - Montreal: Olympic sprint event.

                                1
Technical Aspects of Cycling                        tion, encouraging efficient breathing. Would it
   On an educational level the beneficial           be fair to say that cycling is an authentic
effects of cycling are not obviously inherent to    school of courage, of self-control, of determin-
other sporting disciplines. Involving all the       ation to practice a relatively difficult sport
athlete’s strength and posing considerable          which demands constant physical effort ?
difficulties, it teaches him to use his energy in     “Don’t give up ! ” Here is the true lesson of
a rational way.                                     the sport of cycling, learnt through strength
  When intending to go out on two wheels,           and courage.
there are two essential conditions which we
are obliged to bear in mind :
                                                    Major Competition Rules
- a correct proportion of activity based on age,
  sex, physical condition of the cyclist               The racing cyclist may specialise according
                                                    to his potential, as a sprinter, a flat racer or a
- the correct cycling position in order to gain     hill specialist.
  the greatest efficiency from the least effort.
                                                       Cycling competitions are subdivided into
   Cycling is based upon suppleness and             three major categories : road, track and indoor
strength. This strength is dependent upon the       cycling.
cyclist’s constitution whereas suppleness,
vital for optimum performance, can be
increased with continuous effort to improve         Road Events
technique whereby the cyclist works towards
harmony of movement, and ensures muscle             - lndividual (“in line”) races over a distance of
fitness to dissipate fatigue and increase           around 60 km. (for women), 120 km. (for
general performance.                                juniors) or 200 km. (for seniors), either
                                                    between two towns, or following a circuit.
   Cycling is a symmetrical sport since the
lower and upper limbs are equally exercised.        - Stage races: held in the form of a series of
This arises from the perfect distribution of the      individual (“in line”) races organised over
athlete’s weight over the bicycle : 50 % of his       successive days, the overall positions are
weight is placed on the handlebars, in equal          determined on a daily basis, either by a
proportion over his two arms - the remaining          system of points, or according to times
weight being evenly distributed over the
                                                     1
saddle and the pedals. The cycling position          Chapter written by Guiliano Pacciarelli * and revised by Mrs.
allows thorax expansion and pulmonary dila-         Carla Giubani*, FIAC Secretary General.


                                                                                                             545
  recorded. These races must not exceed an          - Team pursuit whereby teams of four racers
  average distance of 140 km. a day over              compete according to the system for indivi-
  twelve relays.                                      dual pursuit. Times are clocked against the
                                                      third racer’s performance, and thus a team
- lndividual time trial Races whereby the dis-
                                                      which loses more than two racers is
  tance varies between a minimum of 8 km.
                                                      knocked out. However, only during the
  and a maximum of 40 km. The competitors
                                                      qualifying rounds in the case of a mechani-
   start separately at regular intervals. The
                                                      cal fault can the Technical Director halt the
   racer must cover the distance without
                                                      team and give them a second start.
  following in the slipstream of other cyclists
  or of cars, or being sheltered from the wind      - lndividual km. Time Trial: the cyclist sets off
   in any way. These races can be held over            individually around the track after a standing
   mountainous country.                                start, and aims to cover the distance in the
                                                       best possible time.
- Team time trial Races whereby the classic
  event is made up of teams of four racers who      - Tandem: is held according to the same
  compete over a distance of around 100 km.           regulations for the sprint event, but with
  The junior event is restricted to 70 km.            teams of two cyclists on a bicycle designed
                                                      for two people.
- Cyclocross which is practiced in winter
  mainly across woods. At least a quarter of        - lndividual points race: held over a distance
  the distance must cover varied terrain,              of 30 km. with intermediary sprints every five
  fields, undergrowth, unsurfaced tracks,              laps; points are allocated to those placed
  obliging competitors to race carrying their          amongst the first four. The sprint held half
  bicycles at intervals. The remainder of the         way through the race and at the start are
  race covers paths, tracks or roads allowing         worth double the number of points. The
  participants to cycle.                               winner is the cyclist who gains the greatest
                                                       number of points.
Track Events                                        - Motor-paced: Each racer runs this event
                                                       behind a pacemaker who is on a motorbike.
- Sprint: this competition takes place over two
  or three laps of the track depending on the
  length of the circuit. The tournament table is    Indoor Cycling
  drawn up in accordance with the number of
                                                       In this section are included cycleball
  participants with the following programme :
  series, repechages, eighth finals or quarter      matches in teams of two and artistic cycling,
                                                    an individual event and pairs event for men and
  finals, semi-finals and finals. Two to four
  cyclists compete in each heat. As from the        for women.
  quarter finals, events are held in two legs
  with a further heat, if necessary. For the        The International Programme
  previous single leg events there should
  always be the possibility of a repechage.            An annual calendar for amateur and profes-
                                                    sional cycling races is drawn up and adopted
- lndividual Pursuit: run over 4000 metres with     by the UCI Congress. The 1984 calendar
   the two competitors situated at the start of
                                                    includes more than 500 amateur races. These
   the race at the two opposite sides of the        are all international races in which athletes
   back stretches, and if possible mid-distance     from at least four nations participate. All other
   along the home straights. In relation to the
                                                    events are at national level. Let us consider
   number of participants the tournament may
                                                    the increase in the number of competitions
   have qualifying rounds, eighth finals,           included on the international amateur calendar
   quarter, semi-finals and finals. For the         for some years :
   qualifying rounds those cyclists with the
   best times continue in the subsequent heat;
   the commissars attempt to put together           Road Races            1981 1982 1983 1984
   racers who are evenly matched (the stron-        Men                    341    338     372    383
   gest cyclists with the strongest cyclists, the   Women                    8      8      42     50
   weakest with the weakest).                       Juniors                 29     30      36     68
                                                    Track Races                    68      77     68
  For the drawing-up of eighth finals, quarter      Open Races
  finals and semi-finals, the racer who has         (Amateur
  gained the best time is matched against the       Professional
  racer who has gained the worst time etc.          programme)              20      17     28     36

546
                         Cycling and the Olympic Games
                             Development of the Programme

              Men’s cycling events have always been part of the Olympic
              programme with the sole exception of the 1904 one in accordance
              with the development as shown below.


    • Road                 1896    1900   1904   1908   1912   1920   1924   1928   1932 1936




•     Track




•    Road                   1948   1952   1956   1980 1964     1968   1972   1976   1980   1984




•     Track




                                                                                            547
                                       Women’s cycling will, for the
                                       first time, appear on the pro-
                                       gramme of the 1984 Olympic
                                       Games in Los Angeles in the
                                       form of a road race. The FIAC
                                       would also like to see two
                                       women’s track events added to
                                       the programme in the future,
                                       individual pursuit and sprint :



                                        Date            Number of events
                                        1896                  7
                                        1900                  1
                                        1904                  0
                                        1908                  6
                                        1912                  3
                                        1920 to 1960          6
                                        1964 to 1972          7
                                        1976 to 1980          6
                                        1984                  8



                                        D. Morelon (FRA, on the left)
                                        and A. Tkac (TCH).




                            Participation by Event at the last three
                                        Olympic Games

                                                               Munich         Montreal        Moscow
                                                           Athl.   NOCs    Athl.   NOCs   A thl.     NOCs
Men
lndividual road race                                       163      48     134      40    115         32
100 km team time-trial                                                              28                23
1 km time-trial                                             32      35      31      31     18         18
lndividual sprint                                           51      30      31      31     15         12
Tandem                                                              14              *
lndividual pursuit                                           28     28      28      28    14          14
Team pursuit                                                        22              17                13
lndividual points race                                              **              **                **

Women
                                                                     **              **               **
lndividual road race
 * Not on the programme.
** Not on the programme, but will be included in 1984


548
Participation by NOC from 1896 to 1984




                                         549
550
551
List of Olympic Winners (Men)            • Road team event
                                         1912 Eric Friborg, Algot Lönn, Ragnar Malm,
                                              Axel Persson (SWE)
                                         1920 Fernand Canteloube, Georges
                                              Detreille,   Marcel Gobillot, Achille
                                              Souchard (FRA)
                                         1924 Armand Blanchonnet, René Hamel,
                                              Georges Wambst (FRA)
                                         1928 Henry Hansen, Orla Jorgensen, Leo
                                              Nielsen (DEN)
                                         1932 Giuseppe Olmo, Attilio Pavesi,
                                              Guglielmo Segato (ITA)
                                         1936 Robert Charpentier, Robert Dorgebray,
                                              Guy Lapébie (FRA)
                                         1948 Leon Delathouwer, Eugene Van
                                              Roosbroeck, Lode Wouters (BEL)
                                         1952 Robert Grondelaers, Andre Noyelle,
                                              Lucien Victor (BEL)
                                         1956 Armand Geyre, Maurice Moucheraud,
            A Konstantinidis (GRE)            Michel Vermeulin (FRA)

•   Road, individual
1896    Aristidis Konstantinidis (GRE)
1912    Rudolph Lewis (SAF)
1920    Harry Stenqvist (SWE)
1924    Armand Blanchonnet (FRA)
1928    Henry Hansen (DEN)
1932    Attilio Pavesi (ITA)
1936    Robert Charpentier (FRA)
1948    Jose Beyaert (FRA)
1952    Andre Noyelle (BEL)
1956    Ercole Baldini (ITA)
1960    Viktor Kapitonov (URS)
1964    Mario Zanin (ITA)
1968    Pierfranco Vianelli (ITA)
1972    Hennie Kuiper (HOL)
1976    Bernt Johansson (SWE)
1980    Serguei Sukhoruchenkov (URS)
1984
                                         V. Kapitonov (URS). L. Trape (ITA, 2nd) and W
                                         Berghen (BEL, 3rd).

                                         •   100 km team Time Trial Event
                                         1960   Antonio Bailletti, Ottavio Cogliati,
                                                Giacomo Fornoni, Livio Trape (ITA)
                                         1964   Evert G. Dolman, Gerben Karstens,
                                                Johannes Pieterse, Hubertus Zoet
                                                (HOL)
                                         1968   Fedor den Hertog, Jan Krekels,
                                                Marinus Pijnen, Joop Zoetemelk (HOL)
                                         1972   Boris Schuchov, Gennadi Komnatov,
                                                Valeri Jardi, Valeri Lichatschov (URS)
                                         1976   Anatoli Tschukanov, Valeri
                                                Tschaplygin, Vladimir Kaminski, Aawo
                                                Pikkuus (URS)
                                         1980   Yuri Kashirin, Oleg Logvin, Serguei
                                                Shelpakov, Antali Yarkin (URS)
H. Kuiper (HOL).                         1984

552
•       Sprint
1896 Paul Masson (FRA)
1900 Georges Taillandier (FRA)
1908 Final cancelled
1920 Maurice Peeters (HOL)
1924 Lucien Michard (FRA)
1928 Roger Beaufrand (FRA)
1932 Jacobus Van Egmond (HOL)
1936 Toni Merkens (ALL)
1948 Mario Ghella (ITA)
1952 Enzo Sacchi (ITA)
1956 Michel Rousseau (FRA)
1960 Sante Gaiardoni (ITA)
1964 Giovanni Pettenella (ITA)
1968 Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1972 Daniel Morelon (FRA)
1976 Anton Tkac (TCH)
1980 Lutz Hesslich (GDR)
1984                                               T. Merkens (ALL)


    •   1 km Time Trial               • 20 km Track Event
18961       Paul Masson (FRA)         1908 Charles B. Kingsbury (GBR)
19082       Victor L. Johnson (GBR)
1928        Willy Falk Hansen (DEN)
1932        Edgar Gray (AUS)          • 50 km Track Event
1936        Arie Van Vliet (HOL)      1920 Henry George (BEL)
1948        Jacques Dupont (FRA)      1924 Jacobus Willems (HOL)
1952        Russel Mockridge (AUS)
1956        Leandro Faggin (ITA)
1960        Sante Gaiardoni (ITA)     • 100 km Track Event
1964        Patrick Sercu (BEL)
1968        Pierre Trentin (FRA)      1896 Leon Flameng (FRA)
1972        Niels Fredborg (DEN)      1908 Charles H. Bartlett (GBR)
1976        Klaus Grünke (GDR)
1980        Lothar Thorns (GDR)
1984                                  •   12 Hour Event
1
    333,33 m.
                                      1896 Adolf Schmal (AUT)
2
    660 yards



• Individual Pursuit (4000 m)
1964      Jiri Daler (TCH)
1968      Daniel Rebillard (FRA)
1972      Knut Knudsen (NOR)
1976      Gregor Braun (FRG)
1980      Robert Dill-Bundi (SUI)
1984


• 5 km Track Event
1908 Benjamin Jones (GBR)


• 10 km Track Event
1896 Paul Masson (FRA)                            K. Knudsen (NOR)

                                                                        553
                                                                   1980 - Moscow : on the
                                                                  podium for the team
                                                                  pursuit event URS (1st),
                                                                  GDR (2nd) and TCH
                                                                  (3rd).




•    Tandem                                   • Team Pursuit
1908 Maurice Schilles - André Auffray (FRA)   1908 Leon Meredith, Benjamin Jones, Ernest
1920 Thomas Lance - Harry Ryan (GBR)               Payne, Charles Kingsbury (GBR)
1924 Lucien Choury - Jean Cugnot (FRA)        1920 Franco Giorgetti, Ruggero Ferrario,
1928 Daan Van Dijk - Bernhard Leene (HOL)          Arnaldo Carli, Primo Magnani (ITA)
1932 Louis Chaillot - Maurice Perrin (FRA)    1924 Alfredo Dinale, Francesco Zucchetti,
1936 Ernst lhbe - Carl Lorenz (ALL)                Angelo De Martino, Aleardo Menegazzi
1948 Renato Perona - Ferdinando Terruzzi           (ITA)
      (ITA)                                   1928 Luigi Tasselli, Giacomo Gajoni, Cesare
1952 Lionel Cox - Russel Mockridge (AUS)           Facciani, Mario Lusiani (ITA)
1956 Ian Browne - Anthony Marchant (AUS)      1932 Marco Cimatti, Paolo Pedretti, Alberto
1960 Giuseppe Beghetto - Sergio Bian-              Ghilardi, Nino Borsari (ITA)
      chetto (ITA)                            1936 Robert Charpentier, Jean Goujon, Guy
1964 Sergio Bianchetto - Angelo Damiano            Lapébie, Roger Le Nizerhy (FRA)
      (ITA)                                   1948 Charles     Coste,    Serge    Blusson,
1968 Daniel Morelon - Pierre Trentin (FRA)         Ferdinand Decanali, ‘Pierre Adam
1972 Vladimir Semenetz - lgor Tselovalnikov        (FRA)
      (URS)                                   1952 Marino Morettini, Guido Messina, Mino
                                                   De Rossi, Loris Campana (ITA)
                                              1956 Leandro Faggin, Valentino Gasparella,
                                                   Antonio Domenicali, Franco Gandini
                                                   (ITA)
                                              1960 Luigi Arienti, Franco Testa, Mario
                                                   Vallotto, Marino Vigna (ITA)
                                              1964 Lothar Claesges, Karlheinz Henrichs,
                                                   Karl Link, Ernst Streng (FRG)
                                              1968 Gunnar Asmussen, Per Lyngemark.
                                                   Reno B. Olsen, Mogens Frey (DEN)
                                              1972 Jürgen Colombo, Günther Haritz, Udo
                                                   Hempel, Günther Schumacher (FRG)
                                              1976 Gregor Braun, Hans Lutz, Günther
                                                   Schumacher, Peter Vonhof (FRG)
                                              1980 Viktor Manakov, Valery Movchan,
                                                   Vladimir Osokin, Vitaly Petrakov (URS)
                                              1984

                                              • individual Points Race
          L. COX - R Mockridge (AUS)          1984

    554
                  Senior Track and Road World Championships

Host Towns and the Development                     1934          Leipzig                    ALL
of the Programme                                   1935          Brussels                   BEL
From 1893 to 1921 two events are included on       1936          Zurich                     SUI
the programme: the sprint and the motor-           1937          Copenhagen                 DEN
paced race over 100 km. The few exceptions         1938          Amsterdam                  HOL
are mentioned below.                               1939          Milan                      ITA
                                                   Only the sprint event was held.
1893          Chicago                    USA
1894          Antwero                    BEL       1940-1945 No Championships held
                                                   1946          Zurich                     SUI
1895          Cologne                    ALL
1896          Copenhagen                 DEN       From 1946 to 1957 a third event, the individual
1897          Glasgow                    GBR       pursuit, was added to the traditional events,
                                                   the sprint and the road event.
1898          Vienna                     AUT
1899          Montreal                   CAN        1947         Paris                      FRA
1900          Paris                      FRA        1948         Amsterdam                  HOL
1901          Berlin                     FRG        1949         Copenhagen                 DEN
1902          Rome                       ITA        1950         Liege                      BEL
1903          Copenhagen                 DEN       1951          Milan                      ITA
1904          London                     GBR       1952          Paris                      FRA
1905          Antwerp                    BEL                     Luxembourg                 LUX
1906          Geneva                     SUI       The road event took place in Luxembourg.
1907          Paris                      FRA       1953          Zurich                    SUI
1908          Leipzig                    ALL       1954          Cologne                   FRG
1909          Copenhagen                 DEN       1955          Milan                     ITA
1910          Brussels                   BEL       1956          Copenhagen                DEN
1911          Rome                       ITA       1957          Rocourt                   BEL
1912          Newark                     USA       1958          Paris                     FRA
Only the sprint event was held.                                  Leipzig                   GDR
1913          Leipzig                    ALL       Introduction of women’s events : individual
1914          Copenhagen                 DEN       road event, sprint and pursuit. Re-introduced
Only the motor-paced race (100 km)       event     into the programme, the motor-paced event (1
was held.                                          hour) took place separately in Leipzig.
1915-1919. No Championships held.                  1959         Amsterdam             HOL
1920          Antwerp                    BEL                    Luxembourg            LUX
Only the sprint event was held.                                 Liege                 BEL
                                                   The women’s events took place in Luxem-
1921          Copenhagen                  DEN      bourg (road) and Liege (track).
From 1921 onwards a road event was added
to the programme. It was held in the same          1960         Leipzig                   GDR
organising country as the track events, but        1961         Zurich                    SUI
seldom in the same town,                           1962         Milan                     ITA
  1922        Liverpool                    GBR     The Olympic pursuit was added to the pro-
 From 1922 until 1958 the motor-paced event        gramme of track events and the team time trial
 was not included on the programme. Thus           race (about 100 km) completed the road
 there were only two events : the sprint and the   programme.
 road event.                                       1963          Liege                     BEL
 1923         Zurich                       SUI     1964           Paris                    FRA
 1924         Paris                        FRA
                                           HOL     1965           San Sebastian            ESP
 1925         Amsterdam
 1926         Milan                        ITA     1966          Frankfurt                 FRG
 1927         Cologne                      ALL     Two traditional events : tandem and 1 km. time
                                                   trial.
  1928        Budapest                     HUN
 1929         Zurich                       SUI     1967         Amsterdam          HOL
 1930         Brussels                     BEL     1968          Montevideo        URU
 1931         Copenhagen                   DEN                   Rome              ITA
 1932         Rome                         ITA     The motor-paced event and the women’s
 1933         Paris                        FRA     events took place in Rome.

                                                                                              555
     1980 :
S. Sukhoruchenkov
is ahead of
c. Lang (POL).
               1980
R: Dill-Bundi (SUI).

     1976 - B. Johansson (SWE).




   1969          Brno                       TCH     1976           Monteri di Lecce            ITA
   1970          Leicester                  GBR     Introduction of the individual points race.
   1971          Varese                     ITA     1977            San Cristobal                     VEN
   1972          Marseille                  FRA     1978            Munich                            FRG
   From now on, during Olympic years, the World     1979            Valkenburg                        HOL
   Championship Programme was reduced to            1980            Besançon                          FRA
   events not held as part of the Olympic Games :   1981            Prague                            TCH
   the motor-paced race, women events.              1982            Leicester                         GBR
   In 1972, 1973 and from 1975 onwards, the         1983            Zurich                            SUI
   motor-paced was held over 50 km.                 1984            Barcelona                         ESP
   1973          San Sebastian              ESP     1985            Veneto Region                     ITA
    1974         Montreal                   CAN     1986            Colorado Springs                  USA    l


    1975         Liege                      BEL
                 Luxembourg                 LUX     *With the exception of the motor-paced event which will be
    Road in Luxembourg and track in Liege.          organised in Switzerland.


   556
List of Winners                            1959    Valentino Gasparella (ITA)
for Men’s Track Events                     1960    Sante Gaiardoni (ITA)
                                           1961    Hendrick Nijdam (HOL)
                                           1962    Sergio Bianchetto (ITA)
                                           1963    Patrick Sercu (BEL)
•   Sprint                                 1964    Pierre Trentin (FRA)
 1893   Arthur Augustus Zimmermann (USA)   1965    Omari Pkhakadze (URS)
 1894   August Lehr (ALL)                  1966    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1895   Jaap Eden (HOL)                    1967    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1896    Harry Reynolds (IRL)              1968    Luigi Borghetto (ITA)
 1897   Edwin Schrader (DEN)               1969    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1898   Paul Albert (ALL)                  1970    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1899   Tommy Summersgill (GBR)            1971    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1900   A. Didier Nauts (BEL)              1973    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1901   Emile Maitrot (FRA)                1974    Anton Tkac (TCH)
 1902   Charles Piard (FRA)                1975    Daniel Morelon (FRA)
 1903   Arthur L. Reed (GBR)               1977    Hans-Jurgen Geschke (GDR)
 1904   Marcus Hurley (USA)                1978    Anton Tkac (TCH)
 1905   Jimmy S. Benyon (GBR)              1979    Lutz Hesslich (GDR)
 1906   Francesco Verri (ITA)              1981    Serguei Kopylov (URS)
1907    Jean Devoissoux (FRA)              1982    Serguei Kopylov (URS)
1908    Victor L. Johnson (GBR)            1983    Lutz Hesslich (GDR)
1909    William J. Bailey (GBR)
1910    William J. Bailey (GBR)
1911    William J. Bailey (GBR)
                                           •   lndividual Pursuit
1912    Donald MacDugall (USA)             1946    Roger Rioland (FRA)
1913    William J. Bailey (GBR)            1947    Arnaldo Benfenati (ITA)
1920    Maurice Peeters (HOL)              1948    Guido Messina (ITA)
1921    H. Brask Andersen (DEN)            1949    Knud E. Andersen (DEN)
1922    Thomas Johnson (GBR)               1950    Sidney Patterson (AUS)
1923    Lucien Michard (FRA)               1951    Nino de Rossi (ITA)
1924    Lucien Michard (FRA)               1952    Piet Van Heusden (HOL)
1925    Jaap Meyer (HOL)                   1953    Guido Messina (ITA)
1926    Avanti Martinetti (ITA)            1954    Leandro Faggin (ITA)
1927    Mathias Engel (ALL)                1955    Norman Sheil (GBR)
1928    Willy Falck Hansen (DEN)           1956    Ercole Baldini (ITA)
1929    Antoine Mazairac (HOL)             1957    Franco Gandini (ITA)
1930    Louis Gerardin (FRA)               1958    Norman Sheil (GBR)
1931    Helger Harder (DEN)                1959    Rudi Altig (FRG)
1932    Albert Richter (ALL)               1960    Marcel Delattre (FRA)
1933    Jacobus Van Egmond (HOL)           1961    Hendrik Nijdam (HOL)
1934    Benedetto Pola (ITA)               1962    Kaj Erik Jensen (DEN)
1935    Toni Merkens (ALL)                 1963    Jean Walschaerts (BEL)
1936    Arie Van Vliet (HOL)               1964    Tiemen Groen (HOL)
1937    Johan Van der Vijver (HOL)         1965    Tiemen Groen (HOL)
1938    Johan Van der Vijver (HOL)         1966    Tiemen Groen (HOL)
1939    Jan Derksen (HOL)                  1967    Gerard Bongers (HOL)
1946    Oscar Plattner (SUI)               1968    Mogens Frey (DEN)
1947    Reginald Harris (GBR)              1969    Xaver Kurmann (SUI)
1948    Mario Ghella (ITA)                 1970    Xaver Kurmann (SUI)
1949    Sidney Patterson (AUS)             1971    Martin-Emilio Rodriguez (COL)
1950    Maurice Verdeun (FRA)              1973    Knut Knudsen (NOR)
1951    Enzo Sacchi (ITA)                  1974    Hans Lutz (FRG)
1952    Enzo Sacchi (ITA)                  1975    Thomas Huschke (GDR)
1953    Marino Morettini (ITA)             1977    Norbert Durpisch (GDR)
1954    Cyril Peacock (GBR)                1978    Detlef Macha (GDR)
1955    Giuseppe Ogna (ITA)                1979    Nicolai Marakov (URS)
1956    Michel Rousseau (FRA)              1981    Detlef Macha (GDR)
1957    Michel Rousseau (FRA)              1982    Detlef Macha (GDR)
1958    Valentino Gasparella (ITA)         1983    Victor Koupovets (URS)

                                                                                   557
•   1 km Time Trial                          •   Motor-paced race
1968    Pierre Trentin (FRA)                 1893    Laurens S. Meintjes (SAF)
1967    Niels Fredborg (DEN)                 1894    Wilhelm Henie (NOR)
1968    Niels Fredborg (DEN)                 1895    Mathieu Cordana (HOL)
1969    Gianni Sartori (ITA)                 1896    Ferdinand Ponscarme (FRA)
1970    Niels Fredborg (DEN)                 1897    Edward Gould (GBR)
1971    Eduard Rapp (URS)                    1898    Albert John Cherry (GBR)
1973    Janusz Kierzkowski (POL)             1899    John A. Nelson (USA)
1974    Eduard Rapp (URS)                    1900    Louis Bastien (FRA)
1975    Klaus Grünke (GDR)                   1901    Heinrich Sievers (ALL)
1977    Lothar Thoms (GDR)                   1902    Alfred Goernemann (ALL)
1978    Lothar Thoms (GDR)                   1903    Edmond Audemars (SUI)
1979    Lothar Thoms (GDR)                   1904    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
1981    Lothar Thoms (GDR)                   1905    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
1982    Fredy Schmidcke (FRG)                1906    Maurice Bardonneau (SUI)
1983    Serguei Kopylov (URS)                1907    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
                                             1908    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
                                             1909    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
•   Tandem - Sprint                          1910    Henri Hens (BEL)
                                             1911    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
1986 Pierre Trentin, Daniel Morelon (FRA)    1913    Leon I. Meredith (GBR)
1967 Bruno Gonzato, Dino Verzini (ITA)       1914    Cor Blekemolen (HOL)
1968 Walter Gorini, Giordano Turrini (ITA)   1921    Gunther Skold (SWE)
1969 Jürgen Geschke, Werner Otto (GDR)       1958    Lothar Meister (GDR)
1970 Jürgen Barth, Rainer Müller (FRG)       1959    Arie Van Houwelingen (HOL)
1971 Jürgen Geschke, Werner Otto (GDR)       1960    Georg Stoltze (GDR)
1973 Vladimir Vackar, Miroslav Vymazal       1961    Leendert Van der Meulen (HOL)
     (TCH)                                   1962    Romain De Loof (BEL)
1974 Vladimir Vackar, Miroslav Vymazal       1963    Romain De Loof (BEL)
     (TCH)                                   1964    Jacobus Oudkerk (HOL)
1975 Benedykt Kocot, Janusz Kotlinski        1965    Gabriel Mas (ESP)
     (POL)                                   1966    Piet De Wit (HOL)
1976 Bededykt Kocot, Janusz Kotlinski        1967    Piet De Wit (HOL)
     (POL)                                   1968    Giuseppe Grassi (ITA)
1977 Vladimir Vackar, Miroslav Vymazal       1969    Albertus Boom (HOL)
     (TCH)                                   1970    Cornelius Stam (HOL)
1978 Vladimir Vackar, Miroslav Vymazal       1971     Horst Gnas (FRG)
     (TCH)                                   1972    Horst Gnas (FRG)
1979 Yave Cahard, Frank Depine (FRA)         1973     Horst Gnas (FRG)
1980 Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek (TCH)      1974    Cornelius Stam (HOL)
1981 Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek (TCH)      1975     Gaby Minneboo (HOL)
1982 Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek (TCH)      1976    Gaby Minneboo (HOL)
1983 Philippe Vernet, Frank Depine (FRA)     1977     Gaby Minneboo (HOL)
1984                                         1978     Rainer Podlesch (FRG)
                                             1979     Matthe Pronk (HOL)
                                             1980     Gaby Minneboo (HOL)
                                              1981    Matthe Pronk (HOL)
                                              1982    Gaby Minneboo (HOL)
                                              1983    Rainer Podlesch (FRG)
                                              1984
•    Individual Points race

1976    Walter Baumgartner (SUI)
1977    Constant Tourne (BEL)
1978    Noel de Jonckheere (BEL)
1979    Jiri Slama (TCH)
1980    Gary Sutton (AUS)
1981    Lutz Haueisen (GDR)
1982    Hans Joachim Pohl (GDR)
1983    Michael Marcussen (DEN)

558
1. 1952: A Noyelle (BEL).
2. 1928: L. Tasselli. C. Faccioani. M.
Lusiani, L Gajoni (ITA)
3. Willy Falck-Hansen (DEN)
4. 1980: Y. Kashirin, O. Login, S
Shelpakov, A. Yarkin (URS).
5. 1972: U. Hempel, J. Colombo, G
Schumacher G. Haritz.
6. 1980: L. Thoms (GDR, 1st, in the
centre), A. Pantilov, (URS, 2nd, on
the left), D, Weller (JAM, 3rd).

                                 559
•   Team Pursuit                                  1928   Allegro Grandi (ITA)
                                                  1929   Pierino Bertolazzo (ITA)
1962    Ehrenfried Rudolph, Klaus May, Lothar     1930   Giuseppe Martano (ITA)
        Claesges, Bernd Rohr (FRG)                1931   Henri Hansen (DEN)
1963    Arnold Belgart, Leonid Kolumbet,          1932   Giuseppe Martano (ITA)
        Stanislav Moskvin, Serguei                1933   Paul Egli (SUI)
        Tereschenko (URS)                         1934   Kees Pellenaers (HOL)
1964    Lothar Claesges, Karl-Heinz Henrichs,     1935   Ivo Mancini (ITA)
        Karl Link, Ernst Streng (FRG)             1936   Werner Buchwalder (SUI)
        Stanislav Moskvin, Leonid Vaukolov,       1937   Adolfo Leoni (ITA)
1965
        Serguei Terehtchenkov, Mikhail            1938   Hans Knecht (SUI)
        Koluchev (URS)                            1946   Henri Aubry (FRA)
1966    Antonio Castello, Cipriano Chemello,      1947   Alfo Ferrari (ITA)
        Gino Pancino, Luigi Roncaglia (ITA)       1948   Harry Snell (SWE)
1967    Dzintars Latsis, Stanislav Moskvin.       1949   Henk J. Faanhof (HOL)
        Viktor Bykov, Mikhail Kolusev (URS)       1950   Jack Hoobin (AUS)
1968    Lorenzo Bosisio, Giorgio Morbiato,        1951   Gianni Ghidini (ITA)
        Cipriano Chemello, Luigi Roncaglia        1952   Luciano Ciancola (ITA)
                                                  1953   Riccardo Filippi (ITA)
        (ITA)                                     1954   Emile Van Cauter (BEL)
1969    Victor Bykov, Serguei Kuzkov, Vladimir
        Kuznekov, Stanisrav Moskvin (URS)         1955   Sante Ranucci (ITA)
1970    Gunther Haritz, Peter Vonhof, Udo         1956   Frans Mahn (HOL)
        Hempel, Ernst Claussmeier (FRG)           1957   Louis Proost (BEL)
1971    Giacomo Bazzan, Pietro Algeri, Giorgio    1958   Gustaf Adolf Schur (GDR)
        Morbiato, Luciano Borgononi (ITA)         1959   Gustaf Adolf Schur (GDR)
        Gunther Haritz, Peter Vonhof, Hans        1960   Bernhard Eckstein (GDR)
1973
        Lutz, Gunther Schumacher (FRG)            1961   Jean Jourden (FRA)
1974    Hans Lutz, Peter Vonhof, Dieter           1962   Renato Bongioni (ITA)
        Thurau, Gunther Schumacher (FRG)          1963   Flaviano Vicentini (ITA)
1975    Hans Lutz, Gregor Braun, Peter Vonhof,    1964   Eddy Merckx (BEL)
        Gunther Schumacher (FRG)                  1965   Jacques Botherel (FRA)
1977    Norbert Durpisch, Gerd Mortag,            1966   Evert Dolman (HOL)
        Mathias Wiegand, Volker Winkler           1967   Graham Webb (GBR)
                                                  1968   Vittorio Marcelli (ITA)
        (GDR)                                     1969   Leif Mortensen (DEN)
1978    Mathias Wiegand, Gerd Mortag, Volker
                                                  1970   Joergen Schmidt (DEN)
        Winkler, Lutz Haueissen (GDR)
                                                  1971   Regis Ovion (FRA)
1979    Lutz Haueissen, Volker Winkler, Axel
                                                  1973   Ryszard Szurkowski (POL)
        Grosser, Gerd Mortag (GDR)
                                                  1974   Janusz Kowalski (POL)
1981    Detlef Macha, Bernd Dittert, Axel Gros-
                                                  1975   Adrianus Gevers (HOL)
        ser, Volker Winkler (GDR)
                                                  1977   Claudio Corti (ITA)
1982    Alexandre Krasnov, Serguei Nikitenko,
        Valeri Movtchan, Konstantin Khrabtsov     1978   Gilbert Glaus (SUI)
                                                  1979   Gianni Giacomini (ITA)
        (URS)                                     1981   Andrei Verdernikov (URS)
1983    Rolf Gölz, Roland Gunther, Michael
        Marx, Gerhard Strittmer (FRG)             1982   Bernd Drogan (GDR)
                                                  1983   Uwe Raab (GDR)




List of Winners - Men’s Road Events               •   Team Time Trial Race
                                                  1962 Danilo Grassi, Mario Maino, Antonio
•   lndividual   Event                                  Tagliani, Dino Zandegu (ITA)
1921   Gunnar Should (SWE)                        1963 Michel Bechet, Marcel Bidault,
1922   Dave Marsh (GBR)                                 Georges Chappe, Dominique Motte
1923   Luigi Ferrario (ITA)                             (FRA)
1924   Andre Leducq (FRA)                         1964 Severino Andreoli, Luciano Dalla Bona,
1925   Henri Hoevenaers (BEL)                           Pietro Guerra, Ferruccio Manza (ITA)
1926   Octave Dayen (FRA)                         1965 Luciano Dalla Bona, Pietro Guerra,
1927   Jean Aerts (BEL)                                 Giacomo Denti, Giuseppe Soldi (ITA)

560
1966       Verner Blaudzun, Jörgen Hansen, Ole
           Hojlund, Fleming Wewer (DEN)
1967       Gosta, Erik, Sture and Thomas
           Petterson (SWE)
1968       Gosta, Erik, Sture and Thomas
           Petterson (SWE)
1969       Gosta, Erik, Sture and Thomas
           Petterson (SWE)
1970       Valeri Jardi, Vladimir Sokolov, Boris
           Shukhov, Valeri Likhachev (URS)
1971       Gustaaf Hermans, Gustaaf Van Cauter,
           Louis Verreydt, Ludo Vanderliden
           (BEL)
1973       Lucjan Lis, Ryszard Szukowski,
           Stanislas Szozda, Vajsiech Matusiak
           (POL)
    1974   Sven Ake Nilsson, Bernt Johansson,                     B. Burton (GBR).
           Lennart Fagerlund, Tord Filipson
           (SWE)                                    1974   Tamara Piltsikova (URS)
1975       Tadeusz Mytnik, Mieczysl Nowicki,
                                                    1975   Sue Novarra (USA)
           Ryszard Szurkowski, Stanislas Szozda
                                                    1976   Sheila Young (USA)
           (POL)                                    1977   Galina Tsareva (URS)
1977       Vladimir Kamininski, Aavo Pikkus,
                                                    1978   Galina Tsareva (URS)
           Valeri Chaplinguin, Anatoli Chukanov
                                                    1979   Galina Tsareva (URS)
           (URS)                                    1980   Sue Novarra-Reber (USA)
1978       Bert Oosterbosch, Jan Van
                                                    1981   Sheila Young-Ochowitz (USA)
           Houwelingen, Bart Van Est, Augustinus
                                                    1982   Connie Paraskevin (USA)
           Blerings (HOL)                           1983   Connie Paraskevin (USA)
1979       Falk Boden, Andreas Petermann,
                                                    1984
           Bernd Drogan, Hans-Joachim Hartnick
           (GDR)
1981       Falk Boden, Bernd Drogan, Mario
           Kummer, Olaf Ludwig (GDR)                •   Pursuit
1982       Maarten Ducrot, Geert Schipper, Gerrit   1958   Lubov Kotchetova (URS)
           Solleveld, Frits Bindsbergen (HOL)       1959   Beryl Burton (GBR)
1983       Yuri Kachirin, Serguei Novolokin, Oleg   1960   Beryl Burton (GBR)
           Tchouzda, Alexandre Zinoviev (URS)       1961   Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                                    1962   Beryl Burton (GBR)
                                                    1963   Beryl Burton (GBR)
List of Winners                                     1964   Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                                    1965   Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
for Women’s Track Events                            1966   Beryl Burton (GBR)
•     Sprint                                        1967   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
                                                    1968   Raisa Obodovskaja (URS)
1958       Galina Ermolaeva (URS)                   1969   Raisa Obodovskaja (URS)
1959       Galina Ermolaeva (URS)                   1970   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
1960       Galina Ermoaeva (URS)                    1971   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
1961       Galina Ermolaeva (URS)                   1972   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
1962       Valentina Savina (URS)                   1973   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
1963       Galina Ermolaeva (URS)                   1974   Tamara Gorkushina (URS)
1964       lrina Kirichenko (URS)                   1975   Keeti Van Oosten Hage (HOL)
1965       Valentina Savina (URS)                   1976   Keeti Van Oosten Hage (HOL)
1966       lrina Kirichenko (URS)                   1977   Vera Kuznetsova (URS)
1967       Valentina Savina (URS)                   1978   Keeti Van Oosten Hage (HOL)
1968       Alla Baguiniantz (URS)                   1979   Keeti Van Oosten Hage (HOL)
1969       Galina Careva (URS)                      1980   Nadedjda Kibardina (URS)
1970       Galina Careva (URS)                      1981   Nadedjda Kibardina (URS)
1971       Galina Careva (URS)                      1982   Rebecca Twigg (USA)
1972       Galina Ermolaeva (URS)                   1983   Connie Carpenter (USA)
1973       Sheila Young (USA)                       1984

                                                                                         561
Winners - Women’s Road Events       1958        Elsy Jacobs (LUX)
                                    1959        Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                    1960        Beryl Burton (GBR)
                                    1961        Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                    1962        Marie-Rose Gaillard (BEL)
                                    1963        Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                    1964        Emmilia Sonka (URS)
                                    1965        Elizabeth Eicholz (GDR)
                                    1966        Yvonne Reynders (BEL)
                                    1967        Beryl Burton (GBR)
                                    1968        Cornelia Hage (HOL)
                                    1969        Audrey McElmury (USA)
                                    1970        Anna Konkina (URS)
                                    1971        Anna Konkina (URS)
                                    1972        Genevieve Gambillon (FRA)
                                    1973        Nicole Van der Broeck (BEL)
                                    1974        Genevieve Gambillon (FRA)
                                    1975        Tineke Fopma (HOL)
                                    1976        Cornelia Van Oosten Hage (HOL)
                                    1977        Josiane Bost (FRA)
                                    1978        Beate Habetz (FRG)
                                    1979        Petra De Bruin (HOL)
                                    1980        Beth Heiden (USA)
                                    1981        Ute Enzenauer (FRG)
                                    1982        Mandy Jones (GBR)
                                    1983        Marianne Berlung (SWE)


                                     Beth Heiden (USA), at the same time both
                                     Olympic medallist and World Champion for
                                     speed skating, also World Road Cycling Cham-
                                     pion, becomes a legendary figure with her
                                     contrywoman, Sheila Young, Olympic Speed
                                     Skating Champion and World Track Cycling
                                     Champion.



World Cyclocross Championships

Date     Place                     lndividual                                Team
1967     Zurich (SUI)              Michel Pelchat (FRA)                          FRA
1968     Luxembourg (LUX)          Roger de Vlaeminck (BEL)                      BEL
1969     Magstadt (GDR)            René de Clercq (BEL)                          BEL
1970     Zolder (BEL)              Robert Vermeire (BEL)                         BEL
1971     Apeldoorn (HOL)           Robert Vermeire (BEL)                         HOL
1972     Prague (TCH)              Norbert Dedeckere (BEL)                       FRG
1973     London (GBR)              Klaus Peter Thaler (FRG)                      FRG
1974     Vera Bisadoa (ESP)        Robert Vermeire (BEL)                         FRG
1975     Melchnau (SUI)            Robert Vermeire (BEL)                         BEL
1976     Chazay d’Azergues (FRA)   Klaus Peter Thaler (FRG)                      FRG
1977     Hanover (FRG)             Robert Vermeire (BEL)                         FRG
1978     Amorebieta (ESP)          Roland Liboton (BEL)                           SUI
1979     Saccolongo (ITA)          Vito Di Tano (ITA)                            POL
1980     Wetzikon (SUI)            Fritz Saladin (SUI)                            SUI
1981     San Sebastian (ESP)       Milos Fisera (TCH)                             ITA
1982     Brest (FRA)               Milos Fisera (TCH)                            TCH
1983     Birmingham (GBR)          Radomir Simunek (TCH)                         TCH
1984     Nijmegen (HOL)            Radomir Simunek (TCH)                         TCH

562
1949 - The first World Cycleball Champions, Walter Gebs and Ottavio Zollet (SUI) do battle with
Josef Janke (AUT).



World Indoor Cycling Championships
Date Place                                       1976   Munster (FRG)
                                                 1977   Brno (TCH)
1949   Copenhagen (DEN)
                                                 1978   Herning (DEN)
1950   Liege (BEL)                               1979   Schiltigheim (FRA)
1951   Milan (ITA)
                                                 1980   Rheinfelden (SUI)
1952   Mondorf-les-Bains (LUX)                   1981   Heerlen (HOL)
1953   Zurich (SUI)
                                                 1982   Wiesbaden (FRG)
1954   Cologne (FRG)                             1983   Vienne (AUT)
1955   Milan (ITA)                               1984   Schiltigheim (FRA)
1956   Copenhagen (DEN)                          1985
1957   Rocourt (BEL)                                                  (SUI)
1958   Karl-Marx-Stadt (GDR)
1959   Stuttgart (FRG)                           Cycleball
1960   Mulhouse (FRA)
1961   St-Gall (SUI)                             1949 Walter Gebs - Ottavio Zollet (SUI)
1962   Vienna (AUT)                              1950 Walter Osterwalder - Rudi Breiten-
1963   Basle (SUI)                                     moser (SUI)
1964   Gladsaxe (DEN)                            1951 Walter Osterwalder - Rudi Breiten-
1965   Prague (TCH)                                    moser (SUI)
1966   Cologne (FRG)                             1952 Walter Osterwalder - Rudi Breiten-
1967   Amsterdam (HOL)                                 moser (SUI)
1968   Montevideo (URU)                          1953 Walter Osterwalder - Rudi Breiten-
1969   Erfurt (GDR)                                    moser (SUI)
1970   Ostrava (TCH)                             1954 Fritz Flachsmamn - Rudi Breitenmoser
1971   Baden (FRG)                                      (SUI)
1972   Offenburg (GDR)                           1955 Rudi Pensel - Willi Pensel (FRG)
1973   Vienna (AUT)                              1956 Walter Osterwalder - Rudi Breiten-
1974   Heerlen (HOL)                                   moser (SUI)
1975   Gand (BEL)                                1957 Rudi Pensel - Willi Pensel (FRG)

                                                                                           563
1958   Gerth Martin - Gerhard Degenkolb         1977    Kurt Hunsänger (FRG)
       (GDR)                                    1978    Kurt Hunsänger (FRG)
1959   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)     1979    Franz Kratochvil (FRG)
1960   Erwin Oberhansli - Adolf Oberhansli      1980    Franz Kratochvil (FRG)
       (SUI)                                    1981    Franz Kratochvil (FRG)
1961   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)     1982    Franz Kratochvil (FRG)
1962   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)     1983    Peter Nienatschker (FRG)
1963   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)     1984
1964   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)
1965   Karl Buchholz - Oscar Buchholz (FRG)
1966   Gerth Martin - Erich Dusin (GDR)
1967   Werner Wenzel - Günter Bittendorf        •   Artistic Cycling in Pairs
       (FRG)
1968   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1980 Rhenhold Korn - Rudolf Fries (FRG)
1969   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1981 Rolf Halter - Helmut Schneider (FRG)
1970   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1982 Rolf Halter - Helmut Schneider (FRG)
1971   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1983 Rolf Halter - Helmut Schneider (FRG)
1972   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1984
1973   Jan Posoisil - Jindrich Posoisil (TCH)
1974   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)
1975   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)
1976   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)
1977   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   •   Six-man Quadrille
1978   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1980 Werner Donath - Wolfgang Donath -
1979   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)        Ralf Botta - Herbert Merk - Rainer
1980   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)        Tschirlich - Heinz Wenzel (FRG)
1981   Jan Pospisil - Jindrich Pospisil (TCH)   1981 Werner Donath - Wolfgang Donath -
1982   Tomas Steinmeier - Andreas Stein-             Ralf Botta - Herbert Merk - Rainer
       meier (FRG)                                   Tschirlich - Heinz Wenzel (FRG)
1983   Thomas Steinmeier - Andreas Stein-
       meier (FRG)
1984

                                                Women’s Artistic Cycling

Men 's Artistic Cycling                         •   lndividual Event
                                                1970     Anne-Marie Flaig (FRG)
•   lndividual Event                            1971     Anne-Marie Schlosser-Flaig (FRG)
                                                1972     Anne-Marie Schlosser-Flaig (FRG)
1956    Arnold Tschopp (SUI)                    1973     Elizabeth Binanzer (FRG)
1957    Arnold Tschopp (SUI)                    1974     Anna Matouskova (TCH)
1958    Heinz Pfeiffer (FRG)                    1975     Anna Matouskova (TCH)
1959    Heinz Pfeiffer (FRG)                    1976     Anna Matouskova (TCH)
1960    Arnold Tchopp (SUI)                     1977     Anna Matouskova (TCH)
1961    Arnold Tschopp (SUI)                    1978     Gabi Höhler (FRG)
1962    Arnold Tschopp (SUI)                    1979     Anna Matouskova (TCH)
1963    Arnold Tschopp (SUI)                    1980     Eliane Maggi (SUI)
1964    Hans Tissen (FRG)                       1981     Petra Bender (FRG)
1965    Hans Tissen (FRG)                       1982     Maria Beerlage (FRG)
1966    Willy Eichin (FRG)                      1983     Maria Beerlage (FRG)
1967    Gerhard Blotny (GDR)                    1984
1968    Manfred Naute (FRG)
1969    Gerhard Blotny (GDR)
1970    Willy Eichin (FRG)
                                                •   Artistic Cycling in Pairs
1971    Manfred Naute (FRG)                     1980 Ruth and Ute Jiskra (FRG)
1972    Manfred Naute (FRG)                     1981 Ruth and Ute Jiskra (FRG)
1973    Gerhart Obert (FRG)                     1982 The Maas sisters (FRG)
1974    Gerhart Obert (FRG)                     1983 Manuela Kramp and Stefanie Teuber
1975    Gerhard Obert (FRG)                           FRG)
1976    Kurt Hunsanger (FRG)                    1984

564
                              Junior World Championships

Road and Track                             1982 Paulo Ribeiro (ITA)
                                           1983 Andreas Kappes (FRG)
Date   Place                               1984
1975   Lausanne (SUI)
1976   Liege (BEL)                          • Team Pursuit
1977   Vienna (AUT)
1978   Washington (USA)                    1975    Blochin, Jelisarow, Kouchtin, Pelipenko
1979   Buenos Aires (ARG)                          (URS)
                                           1976    Mortaq, Lippold, Macha, Hell (GDR)
1980   Mexico (MEX)
                                           1977    Schnelle, Kumaner, Gerlach, Pohl
1981   Leipzig (GDR)
1982   Florence (ITA)                              (GDR)
                                           1978    Krasnov, Cuznetsov, Monakov,
1983   Wanganui (NZL)
1984   Caen (FRA)                                  Michenko (URS)
                                           1979    Gadis Liepich, Petzow, Baluk, Daynis
•   Sprint                                         Liepiche (URS)
                                           1980    A. Lotsmelis, A. Liepinche, D. Palis, S.
1975   Octavia Dazzan (ARG)                        Agoupov (URS)
1976   Lutz Hesslich (GDR)                 1981    D. Palis, J. Kasakow, D. Grantinche,
1977   Lutz Hesslich (GDR)                         Marat Ganejev (URS)
1978   Serguei Kopilov (URS)               1982    Marat Ganejev, ‘Valery Grinkovski,
1979   Freddy Schmidtke (FRG)                      Armande Freymanis, Oleg Dajtchenko
1980   Maic Malchow (GDR)                          (URS)
1981   Olaf Arndt (GDR)                    1983    Olsen, Ropke, Kubach, Kynde (DEN)
1982   Nikolai Kovtche (URS)               1984
1983   Takashi Seike (JPN)
1984                                        • lndividual Road Event
• Individual Pursuit                       1975    Robert Visentini (ITA)
                                           1976    Ronald Bessems (HOL)
1975    Robert Dill-Bundi (SUI)            1977    Ronny Van Holen (BEL)
1976    Robert Dill-Bundi (SUI)            1978    Vladimir Makarkin (URS)
1977    Hans J. Pohl (GDR)                 1979    Greg Lemond (USA)
1978    Axel Grosser (GDR)                 1980    Roberto Ciampi (ITA)
1979    Gadis Liepich (URS)                1981    Beat Schumacher (SUI)
1980    Daynis Liepich (URS)               1982    Roger Six (BEL)
1981    Albert Reinhard (FRG)              1983    Soren Litholt (DEN)
1982    Carsten Wolf (GDR)                 1984
1983    Dean Wood (AUS)
1984                                        • Team Road Time Trail Race
• 1 Km Time Trial Race                      1975    Bondarenko, Karawajev, Romanov,
                                                    Toropov     (URS)     .
1977   Rainer Hoenish (GDR)                 1976    Donadio, Giacomini, Maffei, Primavera
1978    Frank Micke (GDR)
1979   Freddy Schmidtke (FRG)                       (ITA)
                                            1977    Barth, Falk Boden, Olaf Ludwig, Kluge
1980   Maic Malchow (GDR)
1981   Marcelo Alexandre (ARG)                      (GDR)
                                            1978    Barth, Falk Boden, Olaf Ludwig, Smek-
1982   Andreas Ganske (GDR)                         talla (GDR)
1983   Allan Miller (NZL)                   1979    Staroudoubter, Demidenko, Chpak,
1984                                                Volochin (URS)
• lndividual Points Race                    1980    S. Zhoak. S. Voroniv. O. Tchuoda.
                                                    Demidenko (URS)
1975   Henri Rinklin (FRG)                  1981    Dan Radtke, Frank Jesse, Uwe Ampler,
1976   Rijdiger Leitloff (FRG)                      Ralf Wodynski (GDR)
1977   Miroslav Junec (TCH)                 1982    Uwe Ampler, Globmann, Heddner,
1978   Robert De Maerteleire (BEL)                  Andreas Lux (GDR)
1979   Teum Van Vliet (HOL)                 1983    Soren Litholt, Pedersen, Sorensen,
1980   Uwe Messerschmidt (FRG)                      Olsen (DEN)
1981   Fabio Lana (ITA)                     1984

                                                                                       565
Cyclocross                                                   1980       Radomir Simunek (TCH)
                                                             1981       Rigobert Matt (FRG)
Date Place
                                                             1982       Beat Schumacher (SUI)
1979     Villafranca de Ordizia (ESP)                        1983       Roman Kreuziger (TCH)
1980     Wetzikon (SUI)                                      1984       Ondrej Glajza (TCH)
1981     San Sebastian (ESP)
1982     Brest (FRA)
1983     Birmingham (GBR)
1984     Nijmegen (HOL)                                     •        Team
                                                            1979 BEL                      1982   GBR
•     lndividual                                            1980 SUI                      1983   TCH
1979 José Vijandi (ESP)                                     1981 SUI                      1984   TCH


                                    Major International Competitions
                                               1984                  1985          1986          1987       1988

Olympic Games                             Los Angeles            -                   -                  -   Seoul
                                             (USA)                                                          (KOR)

Track World Champ.                         Barcelona        Bassano del Colorado                  x          X1
                                            (ESP)1            Grappa Springs (USA)2
                                                               (ITA)
Road World Champ.                                                        Colorado                 x
                                                               (ITA)  Springs (USA)               x
World Cyclocross                          Nigmegen            Munich         x                    x           x
 Championships                              (HOL)
World Indoor Champ.                      Schlietigheim           (FRG)               x            x           x
                                            (FRA)
Junior World Champ. :
  a) road                                 Caen (FRA)       FRG                       x            x           x
  b) track                                Caen (FRA)       FRG                       x            x           x
  c) cyclocross                         Nijmegen (HOL) Munich (FRG)                  x            X           x
                                                             2
1                                                              Exception: the motor-paced event will take place in
    For non-Olympic disciplines as a result of the Games.    Switzerland.

Other International Competitions :                           Panamerican Championships
South East Asian Games                                       Panamerican Games
Asian Championships                                          Bolivarian Games
Asian Games                                                  Central American Games
International Military Championships                         Universiad
Commonwealth Games                                           Hapoel Games
Oceania Championships                                        Mediterranean Games
Central American and Caribbean Games


                                                       Part IV

                                                             Olympic Awards obtained
                                                                A FIAC member
                                                                holder of the Olympic Order
                                                                Silver Medal
                                                                1978 Adriano Rodoni *

                                                                *See biographical notes


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