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Solubility Workbook (DOC)

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					                                       Solubility Workbook



Period                                                         Worksheets              Quiz



1.       Solubility and Saturated Solutions.                         WS 1              1

2.       Ion Concentration Calculations and Ionic Equations.         WS 2              2

3.       Solubility to Ksp.                                          WS 3              3

4.       Ksp to Solubilty and Size of Ksp.                           WS 4              4
5.       Trial Ksp.                                                  WS 5              5

6.       Separating Ions                                             WS 6              6

7.       Common Ion Effect and                                       WS 7              7

8.       Titrations and Max Ion Concentration                        WS 8              8

9.       Review                                                      Web Review Practice Test 1

10.      Review                                                      Practice Test 2

11.      Test
Worksheet # 1       Solubility and Saturated Solutions

1.   Define and give units for solubility.


2.   Describe the relationship between the rate of dissolving and the rate of crystallization
     when a small amount of solute is added to an unsaturated solution.


3.   Describe the relationship between the rate of dissolving and the rate of crystallization
     when a small amount of solute is added to a saturated solution.


4.   Describe the relationship between the rate of dissolving and the rate of crystallization
     when a small amount of solute is added to a supersaturated solution.


5.   Which of the above solutions would need to be prepared in order to determine the
     solubility of an ionic solution.


6.   2.65 g of Ba(OH)2 is dissolved in 70.0 mL of water to produce a saturated solution at 20
     o
      C. Calculate the solubility in units of g/100 mL; g/L ; and M.




7.   A beaker containing 100. mL of saturated BaCO3 solution weighs 159.60 g. The beaker is
     evaporated to dryness and weighs 56.36 g. The empty beaker weighs 24.33 g. Calculate
     the solubility in units of g/100 mL; g/ L; and M.
8.   Write dissociation equations to represent the equilibrium present for a saturated solution
     of each ionic compound. Write the solubility product (Ksp expression) for each of the
     equilibrium systems. The first one is done.


     a)     Al2(SO4)3(s)   ⇄   2Al3+    +        3SO42-           Ksp = [Al3+]2 [SO42-]3



     b)     FeCO3(s)



     c)     Co2(SO4)3(s0



     d)     Na3PO4(s)



9.   Write formula, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for each.

     a)     H2SO4(aq)      + 2NaOH(aq) →          Na2SO4 + 2HOH(l)

            2H+ + SO42- + 2Na+ + 2OH- → 2Na+ + SO42- + 2HOH(l)

            H+ + OH- → HOH(l)

     b)     Mg(NO3)2(aq) +      Na2CO3(aq)         →




     c)     Al(NO3)3(aq) +     (NH4)3PO4(aq)       →




     d)     H3PO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)          →
Worksheet # 2        Solubility

1.    What is the concentration of each ion in a 10.5 M sodium silicate (SiO32-)solution?




2.    What is the concentration of each ion in the solution formed when 94.5 g of
      nickel (III) sulphate is dissolved into 850.0 mL of water?




3.    If 3.78 L of 0.960 M sodium fluoride solution is added to 6.36 L of 0.550 M calcium
      nitrate solution, what is the resulting concentration of [Ca+2] and [F-]?




4.    What is the concentration of each ion in the solution formed when 94.78 g of
      iron (III) sulphate is dissolved into 550.0 mL of water?




5.    If the [F-] = 0.200 M, calculate the number of grams AlF3 that would be dissolved in
      2.00 L of water.




6.    If the [SO42-] = 0.200 M in 2.0 L of Al2(SO4)3, determine the [Al3+] and the molarity of
      the solution.
Dissociation Equations      Write dissociation equations for any chemicals, which dissociate
when dissolved in water:

1.     HCl (aq)        →           H+     +     Cl-      ionic compounds dissociate

2.     C6H12O6(s)      →      C6H12O6(aq)     molecular compounds do not dissociate

3.     Na2S (s)

4.     Al(CH3COO)3 (s)

5.     MgBr2 (s)

6.     Na2CO3 (s)

7.     C12H22O11 (s)

8.     K3PO4 (s)

9.     CH3OH (l)

Net Ionic Equations

Write chemical equations, total ionic equations and net ionic equations for each reaction. The
first one is done for you. (assume that all reactions occur):

1.     Magnesium metal is placed in hydrochloric acid
              Mg (s)    + 2 HCl (aq)         →           MgCl2 (aq)     +       H2 (g)
              Mg (s) + 2 H+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) →          Mg2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + H2 (g)
              Mg (s)   + 2 H+ (aq)         →             Mg2+ (aq) +             H2 (g)

2.     Zinc metal is placed in silver nitrate solution




3.     Barium chloride solution is added to lead (II) nitrate solution.




4.     Sulphuric acid is added to strontium hydroxide solution.




5.     Sodium carbonate solution is added to nickel (III) nitrate solution.
6.     Aqueous chlorine is added to sodium bromide solution.




7.     Nitric acid is added to strontium hydroxide solution.




8.     Write the equilibrium equation and solubility product Ksp for each salt. The first one is
       done.
       a)     Ca(OH)2 (s) → Ca2+ + 2OH-                            Ksp = [Ca2+] [OH-]2

       b)      AgCl (s)

       c)      Na3PO4 (s)

       d)      (NH4)3PO4 (s)

       e)      Cu2SO4 (s)

       f)      Al(CH3COO)3 (s)

       g)      Ca3(PO4)2 (s)


Worksheet # 3                  Solubility to Ksp


The Ksp is a measure of the solubility of an ionic salt. The larger the value of the Ksp, the greater
is the solubility of the salt. You can only calculate a Ksp if the solution is saturated. Only
saturated salt solutions are in equilibrium. You can calculate the Ksp from the solubility of a salt,
since the solubility represents the concentration required to saturate a solution.

1.     Calculate the Ksp for CaCl2 if 200.0g of CaCl2 is required to saturate 100.0 mL of
       solution.




2.     Calculate the Ksp for AlCl3 if 100.0g is required to saturate 150.0 mL of a solution.
3.     The solubility of SrF2 is 2.83 x 10-5 M. Calculate the Ksp.




4.     The solubility of GaBr3 is 15.8 g per 100.0 mL. Calculate the Ksp.




5.     The solubility of Ag2SO4 is 1.33 x 10-7g per 100.0 mL. Calculate the Ksp.




6.     If 2.9 x 10-3 g of Ca(OH)2 is needed to saturate 250.0 mL of solution, what is the Ksp?




7.     At a certain temperature, a 40.00 mL sample of a saturated solution of barium hydroxide,
       is neutralized by 29.10 mL of 0.300 M HCl. Calculate the Ksp of Ba(OH)2.




Calculate the concentrations of all ions in each solution.

8.     0.50 M Al2(SO4)3(aq)
9.     25.7 g (NH4)3PO4(aq) in 250.0mL H2O.




10.    210. g CoCl2 • 6H2O in 800.0 mL H2O.




Worksheet # 4                         Ksp to Solubility

Calculate the solubility in M and g/L for each. Use the Ksp values found in your chart.

1.     BaCO3




2.     Fe(OH)2




3.     PbCl2




4.     How many grams of Mg(OH)2 are required to completely saturate 1.5 L of solution?
Review

1.    If 200.0 g of MgCl2 is required to saturate 1.5 L of solution at 20 oC, calculate the Ksp.




2.    If the Ksp for Al2O3 is 2.8 x 10-8, calculate [Al3+] and [O-2] in   mol
                                                                            /L.




Worksheet # 5                 Trial Ksp

1.    Will a precipitate form if 200.0 mL 0.00020M Ca(NO3)2 is mixed 300.0 mL of
      0.00030M Na2C03?




2.    Will a precipitate form if 25.0 mL of .0020M Pb(NO3)2 is mixed with 25.0 mL of
      0.040M NaBr.




3.    Will a precipitate form if equal volumes of 0.00020M Ca(NO3)2 is mixed with
      0.00030M Na2C03?
4.   Co(OH)2     Solubility = 3.0 x 10-3 g/L Calculate the Ksp at 250 C.




5.   Ag2C2O4 Solubility = 8.3 x 10-4 M         Ksp=?




6.   SrF2   Calculate the solubility in (M).




7.   Cu(IO3)2   Solubility Calculate the solubility in (g/L).
Worksheet # 6       Separation Positive Ions: Work from top to bottom of solubility chart!!

1.    Ag+    Mg2+ Ba2+

      i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

2.    Pb2+   Ba2+   Sr2+

      i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:



3.    Cu+    Ca2+   Sr2+

      i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

4.    Be2+   Sr2+   Ag+

      i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

5.    Be2+   Ca2+   Pb2+


      i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

      iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:
6.   Calculate the Ksp for CaCl2, if 50.0 g is required to saturate 25.0 mL of water.




7.   Calculate the molar solubility of Mg(OH)2.




8.   Will a precipitate form if equal volumes of 0.00020 M Na2CO3 is mixed with
     0.00020 M MgCl2.




9.   Write the formula, complete, and net ionic equation.

     Formula Equation:     CaCl2(aq) + AgNO3(aq) →




     Complete Ionic:




     Net Ionic:
Separation of Negative Ions: Work from bottom to top of solubility chart!!

1.     SO32- OH-     I-

       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

2.     CO32- OH-

       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:



3.     Br-    S2-    PO43-

       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

4.     PO43- OH-     S2-

       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

5.     OH-    S2-    SO42-

       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

6.     S2-    SO42- Cl-


       i)     Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       ii)    Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:

       iii)   Add:               Filter Out:               Net Ionic equation:
Common Ion Effect Worksheet # 7

Consider the following equilibrium system.          PbCl2(s) ⇄ Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

Describe what happens to the solubility of PbCl2 after each of the changes.



1.     PbCl2(s) is added
2.     Pb(NO3)2 is added
 3.    NaCl is added
 4.    H2O is added
5.     AgNO3 is added

6.     NaBr is added


Consider the following equilibrium system.          AgBr(s) ⇄ Ag+(aq) +       Br-(aq)

Describe what happens to the solubility of AgBr after each of the changes are made.



7.     AgBr(s) is added

8.     Pb(NO3)2 is added

9.     NaCl is added

10.    H2O is added

11.    AgNO3 is added

12.    NaBr is added


13.    Explain why more Zn(OH)2 dissolves when 3 M HCl is added to a saturated solution of
       Zn(OH)2. Start by writing the correct equilibrium equation.




14.    In an experiment, 0.1 M AgNO3 is added to 0.1 M NaCl, resulting in the formation of a
       white precipitate. When 0.1 M NaI is added to this mixture, the white precipitate
       dissolves and a yellow precipitate forms.
       The formula for the white precipitate is

       The formula for the yellow precipitate is

       The net ionic equation for the first equilibrium is

       The net ionic equation for the formation of the yellow precipitate is

       Explain why the white precipitate dissolves. Start by writing the equilibrium equation for
       the white precipitate, then, explain how adding NaI affects this equilibrium.




Titrations and Maximum Ion Concentration                     Worksheet # 8

1.     In a titration 25.0 mL of a 0.250 M AgNO3 solution was used to precipitate out all of the
       Br- in a 200.0 ml sample. Calculate [Br-].




2.   In a titration 26.5 mL of 0.100M Pb(NO3)2 was used to precipitate out all of the Cl- in a
     30.0 ml sample of water. Calculate [Cl-]
Maximum Ion Concentration

3.     Calculate the maximum concentration of OH- that can exist in a 0.200M Mg(N03)2
       solution.




4.     Calculate the maximum concentration of CO3-2 that can exist in a 0.500M AgNO3
       solution.
5.   Calculate the maximum concentration of IO3- that can exist in a 0.200M Cu(N03)2
     solution.




6.   Calculate the maximum concentration of Ca2+ that can exist in a 0.200 M Na2C03
     solution.




7.   Calculate the minimum number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 required to start precipitation in
     50.0 mL of 0.15 M ZnCl2.




8.   In a titration 12.5 mL of 2.00 x 10-5 M HCl is required to neutralize 250.0 mL of
     saturated AgOH solution. Calculate the [OH-] and then determine the Ksp for AgOH.




9.   When excess Ag2CO3(s) is shaken with 1.00 L of 0.200 M K2CO3 it is determined that
     6.00 x 10-6 moles of Ag2CO3 dissolves. Calculate the solubility product of Ag2CO3.
Solubility                 Quiz #1            Solubility and Saturated Solutions

1.      To determine the solubility of solute in water, a solution must be prepared that is:
        A.      saturated
        B.      unsaturated
        C.      concentrated
        D.      supersaturated

2.      From the list of salts below, how many are considered soluble at 25oC?
                CuCl2               CaSO4           PbS               Ag3PO4
        A.      zero
        B.      one
        C.      two
        D.      three

3.      Which one of the following equilibrium systems is described by K sp?
        A.       CaCO3(s) ⇄ CaO(s) + CO2(g)
        B.       CaCO3(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + CO32- (aq)
        C.       Ca 2+(aq) + CO32- (aq) ⇄ CaCO3(s)
        D.       Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) ⇄ CaCO3(s) + 2H2O(l)

4.      In a saturated solution, the rate of dissolving is
        A.        equal to zero
        B.        equal to the rate of crystallization
        C.        less than the rate of crystallization
        D.        greater than the rate of crystallization

5.      A soluble magnesium salt is
        A.      MgSO3
        B.      MgCO3
        C.      Mg(NO3)2
        D.      Mg3(PO4)2

6.      The equation that represents the equilibrium in a saturated solution of Fe 2(SO4)3 is
        A.       Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 3Fe2+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq)
        B.       Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Fe2+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq)
        C.       Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 3Fe3+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq)
        D.       Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Fe3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq)

7.      Which one of the following salts is soluble?
        A.     BaSO4
        B.     CaCO3
        C.     K3PO4
        D.     Fe(OH)2

8.      The equation representing the equilibrium in a saturated solution of CaSO4 is
      A.       CaSO4(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
      B.       CaSO4(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + S2-(aq) + 4O2-(aq)
      C.       CaSO4(s) + H2O(l) ⇄ CaO(aq) + H2SO4(aq)
      D.       CaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) ⇄ Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

9.    Which of the following units is commonly used to describe solubility?
      A.      mL/s
      B.      g/oC
      C.      mol/L
              o
      D.       C/mol

10.   Which of the following represents the equilibrium in a saturated solution of Cr 2(SO4)3
      A.       Cr2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ Cr2+(aq) + SO43-(aq)
      B.       Cr2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ Cr3+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
      C.       Cr2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Cr2+(aq) + 3SO43-(aq)
      D.       Cr2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Cr3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq)

11.   Which condition is essential to prepare a saturated solution of an ionic salt?
      A.      excess solute
      B.      any amount of solute
      C.      a temperature of 25 0C
      D.      a fixed volume of solvent

12.   Which compound will have the greatest solubility?
      A.     CoS
      B.     CuS
      C.     FeS
      D.     MgS




13.   Which compound will have the lowest solubility?
      A.     Na2S
      B.     Sr(OH)2
      C.     CaSO4
      D.     MgS

14.   The solubility of a solute is best determined from which type of solution?
      A.      a saturated solution
      B.      any solution at 25 0C
      C.      an unsaturated solution
      D.      a supersaturated solution

15.   Which compound will have the lowest solubility?
      A.     BeS
      B.     FeS
      C.     H2S
      D.     CsS

16.   Which of the solutes below is both ionic and most soluble?
      A.      RbOH
      B.       CH3OH
      C.       Ca(OH)2
      D.       Fe(OH)3

17.   Which of the solutes below is molecular?
      A.      RbOH
      B.      CH3OH
      C.      Ca(OH)2
      D.      Fe(OH)3

18.   Which of the following is commonly used to describe the solubility of a solute?
      A.      mass of solute moles of solute
      B.      moles of solution mass of solute
      C.      mass of solute volume of solution
      D.      mass of solution volume of solute

19.   Which of the solutes below can form an ionic solution with the highest conductivity?
      A.      PbS
      B.      CHCl3
      C.      NaNO3
      D.      CHCOOH

20.   Which of the following would form a saturated solution when 0.010 mol of the solid solute
      is added to 100. mL of water?
      A.       BaCO3
      B.       FeSO4
      C.       NaCN
      D.       Pb(NO3)2

21.   Which of the following would best describe the solubility of a solute?
      A.      litres per gram
      B.      moles per litre
      C.      grams per mole
      D.      grams per second


22.   Which of the following solutes will produce a molecular solution?
      A.      HCl
      B.      FeS
      C.      H2SO4
      D.      CH3OH

23.   Which of the following would have low solubility?
      A.      SrCO3
      B.      FeSO4
      C.      KCN
      D.      Pb(NO3)2

24.   What is the [Cl-] when 1.50 g of NaCl is dissolved in enough water to make 1000. mL of solution?
      A.       0.0150 M
      B.       0.0390 M
      C        0.0256 M
      D        0.390 M

25.   What is the concentration of the ions in 3.0 L of 1.0 M Al 2(CO3)3 ?
               [Al3+]            [CO32-]
        A.       0.33 M            0.50 M
        B.       0.66 M            1.0 M
        C.       2.0 M             3.0 M
        D.       3.0 M             4.5 M

26.     What is the concentration of the ions 6.0 moles Al2(CO3)3 in 3.0 L of solution?
                 [Al3+]            [CO32-]
        A.       12. M             18. M
        B.       2.0 M             3.0 M
        C.       1.5 M             1.5 M
        D.       4.0 M             6.0 M

Solubility       Quiz #2 Ionic Concentrations Calculations & Ionic Equations

1.      A 200.0 mL solution contains 0.050 mol of Ba(NO 3)2. The [NO3-] is
        A.      0.050 M
        B.      0.10 M
        C.      0.25 M
        D.      0.50 M

2.      The Ksp expression for a saturated solution of Ca3(PO4)2 is
        A.      Ksp = [Ca2+][PO43-]
        B.      Ksp = [Ca2+]3[PO43-]2
        C.      Ksp = [3Ca2+][2PO43-]
        D.      Ksp = [3Ca2+]3[2PO43-]2

3.      In 1.5 M (NH4)2SO4 , the ion concentrations are
        A.       [NH4+] = 1.5 M and [SO42-] = 1.5 M
        B.       [NH4+] = 1.5 M and [SO42-] = 3.0 M
        C.       [NH4+] = 3.0 M and [SO42-] = 1.5 M
        D.       [NH4+] = 3.0 M and [SO42-] = 3.0 M




4.      The Ksp expression for Ca3(PO4)2 is
        A.      Ksp = [Ca2+]3[PO43-]2
                         [Ca3(PO4)2]
        B.      Ksp = [2Ca2+][3PO43-]
                          [Ca3(PO4)2]
        C.      Ksp = [Ca2+]3[PO43-]2
        D.      Ksp = [2Ca2+][3PO43-]

5.      The solubility product expression for a saturated solution of Fe 2(SO4)3 is
        A.      Ksp = [Fe3+]2[SO42-]3
        B.      Ksp = [2Fe3+][3SO42-]
        C.      Ksp = [Fe3+]2[SO42-]3
                          [Fe2(SO4)3]
        D.      Ksp = [2Fe3+][3SO42-]
                          [Fe2(SO4)3]

6.      Molecular solutions do not conduct electricity because they contain
        A.       molecules only
        B.      cations and anions
        C.      molecules and anions
      D.       molecules and cations

7.    If equal volumes of 0.2 M KBr and 0.2M FeSO4 are mixed, then
      A.        no precipitate will be observed
      B.        a precipitate of FeBr2 will be observed
      C.        a precipitate of K2SO4 will be observed
      D.        a precipitate of both K2SO4 and FeBr2 will be observed

8.    Which of the following occurs when equal volumes of 0.20 M MgS and 0.20 M ZnSO 4             are mixed?
      A.      A precipitate does not form
      B.      A precipitate of ZnS forms
      C.      A precipitate of MgSO4 forms
      D.      Precipitates of MgSO4 and ZnS form

9.    In an experiment, 0.500 mol of Fe(NO3)3 is dissolved in water to produce a 2.00 L solution. The [NO3-] in
      this solution is
      A.        0.250 M
      B.        0.500 M
      C.        0.750 M
      D.        1.50 M

10.   The complete ionic equation for the reaction between MgCl2(aq) and AgNO3(Aq) is
      A.     Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s)
      B.     2AgNO3(aq) + MgCl2(aq) → 2AgCl(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq)
      C.     2Ag+(aq) + Mg2+(aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + 2Cl-(aq) → MgCl2(s) + 2Ag+(aq) + 2NO3- (aq)
      D.     2Ag+(aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) → 2AgCl(s) + Mg2+(aq)+ 2NO3- (aq)

11.   Which one of the following would form an ionic solution when dissolved in water?
      A.     I2
      B.     CH3OH
      C.     Ca(NO3)2
      D.     Cl2H22O11



12.   If the solubility of Pb (OH) 2 is 0.155g/L, then the concentration of each ion in a saturated solution of a
      Pb(OH) 2 is
      A.        [Pb2+] = 0.155 g/L and [OH-] = 0.155 g/L
      B.        [Pb2+] = 0.052 g/L and [OH-] = 0.103 g/L
      C.         [Pb2+] = 6.43 x 10-4 mol/L and [OH-] = 1.29 x 10-3 mol/L
      D.        [Pb2+] = 6.43 x 10-4 mol/L and [OH-] = 6.43 x 10-4 mol/L

13.   The Ksp expression for calcium hydroxide is
      A.      Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

      B.       Ksp =      1
                        [Ca2+][OH-]2

      C.       Ksp = [Ca2+][2OH-]2

      D.       Ksp =       1
                        [Ca2+][2OH-]2

14.   A precipitation reaction occurs when equal volumes of 0.2 M Pb(NO 3)2 and 0.2 M
      KI are mixed. The net ionic equation for this reaction is
      A.      Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) → PbI2(s)
      B.       PbI2(s) → Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq)
      C.       K+(aq) + NO3-(aq) → KNO3(s)
      D.       KNO3(s) → K+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

15.   When dissolved in water, which of the following procedures is an ionic solution?
      A.     O2
      B.     CH4
      C.     CaCl2
      D.     C12H22O11

16.   In a 200 mL sample of 0.030 M Na3PO4, the [Na+] is
      A.       0.006 M
      B.       0.010 M
      C.       0.018 M
      D.       0.090 M

17.   Which condition is essential to prepare a saturated solution of an ionic salt?
      A.      an excess of solute
      B.      any amount of solute
      C.      a temperature of 250C
      D.      a fixed mass of solvent

18.   Which compound will have the greatest solubility?
      A.     CoS
      B.     CuS
      C.     FeS
      D.     MgS

19.   What will be the [Cl-] when equal volumes of 0.10 M MgCl 2 and 0.30 M AlCl3 are combined?
      A.      0.35 M
      B.      0.55 M
      C.      0.30 M
      D.      1.1 M


20.   Which equation represents the correct reaction between Na 2CO3 and Ba(NO3)2?
      A.      Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq) → NaNO3(s)
      B       Ba2+(aq) + CO32-(aq) → BaCO3(s)
      C.      Na2CO3(s) → 2Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
      D.      Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)        → BaCO3(aq) + 2NaNO3(s)

21.   What is the Ksp expression for Zn(OH)2?
      A.       Ksp     =        [Zn2+][OH-]2
      B.       Ksp     =        [Zn2+]2OH-]2
      C.       Ksp     =        [Zn2+][OH-]
      D.       Ksp     =        [Zn2+]+[ OH-]2

22.   What is the Ksp expression for the precipitate formed when solutions of Fe(NO 3)3 and Sr(OH)2 are mixed?
      A.       Ksp     =        [Fe3+][NO3-]3
      B.       Ksp     =        [Sr2+]OH-]2
      C.       Ksp     =        [Fe3+][3OH-]3
      D.       Ksp     =        [Fe3+][OH-]3

23.   Which value best represents the total ion concentration when 0.10 moles of K 3PO4 is present in 0.5 L of
      solution?
      A.       0.1 M
      B.       0.2 M
      C.       0.4 M
      D.       0.8 M

24.   What will happen when equal volumes of 0.20 M (NH4)2S(aq) and 0.20 M Sr(OH)2(aq) are mixed?
      A.      SrS precipitates.
      B.      NH4OH precipitates.
      C.      Both NH4OH and SrS precipitate.
      D.      No precipitate forms.

25.   Which of the following is the Ksp expression for barium phosphate?
      A.      Ksp       =        [Ba2+]2[PO43-]3
      B.      Ksp       =        [Ba2+]3 + [PO43-]2
      C.      Ksp       =        [3Ba2+]3 + [2 PO43-]2
      D.      Ksp       =        [Ba2+]3[ PO43-]2

26.   Which of the following precipitates may form when equal volumes of AgNO 3, SrCl2, and Na2CO3 are
      mixed together?
      A.      SrCO3 and AgCl
      B.      Ag2CO3 and AgCl
      C.      SrCO3 and Ag2CO3
      D.      SrCO3, Ag2CO3, and AgCl

27.   What is the [Cl-] when 1.50 g of MgCl2 is dissolved in enough water to make 1000. mL      of solution?
      A.       0.0157 M
      B.       0.0315 M
      C.       0.256 M
      D.       0.390 M




28.   An equal number of moles of Na2S is added to four different 100.mL samples.
      Sample 1                   Sample 2                   Sample 3                    Sample 4
      0.50 M Ba2+(aq) 0.50 M Ca2+(aq) 0.50 M Mg2+(aq) 0.50 M Fe2+(aq)
      A precipitate forms in only one of the samples. Identify the cation which is present in the
      precipitate.
      A.       Ba2+
      B.       Ca2+
      C.       Mg2+
      D.       Fe2+

29.   What is the concentration of the ions in 0.50 M Al2(SO4)3
               [Al3+]            [SO42-]
      A.       0.33 M            0.50 M
      B.       1.0 M             1.5 M
      C.       1.5 M             1.5 M
      D.       3.0 M             4.5 M

30.   Which of the following will not form a precipitate when mixed with an equal volume of 0.2 M AgNO3 ?
      A.      0.2 M NaBr
      B.      0.2 M Na2SO4
      C.      0.2 M NaNO3
        D.       0.2 M NaCl

Solubility       Quiz #3 Solubility to Ksp

1.      In a saturated solution of manganese (II) hydroxide, Mn(OH) 2, and [Mn2+] equals
        4.5 x 10-5 M. therefore, the Ksp of Mn(OH)2 is
        A.        9.1 x 10-14
        B.        3.6 x 10-13
        C.        2.0 x 10-9
        D.        4.1 x 10-9

2.      The solubility of manganese (II) sulphide is 1.7 x 10 -7 M at 25oC. The solubility product constant is
        A.      2.9 x 10-14
        B.      1.7 x 10-7
        C.      3.4 x 10-7
        D.      4.1 x 10-4

3.      The compound Ag2S has a solubility of 1.3 x 10-4 moles per litre at 25oC. The Ksp for this
        compound is
        A.     2.2 x 10-12
        B.     8.8 x 10-12
        C.     1.7 x 10-8
        D.     3.4 x 10-8

4.      The solubility of barium oxalate, BaC2O4, is 4.8 x 10-4 M. The value of Ksp is
        A.      2.3 x 10-7
        B.      4.8 x 10-4
        C.      2.4 x 10-4
        D.      2.2 x 10-2

5.      The solubility of MnS is 4.8 x 10-7 M, at 25oC. The Ksp value is
        A.      2.3 x 10-13
        B.      4.8 x 10-7
        C.      9.6 x 10-7
        D.      6.9 x 10-4

6.      At 25oC, the solubility of an unknown compound is 7.1 x 10-5 M. the compound is
        A.      CuI
        B.      AgI
        C.      CaCO3
        D.      CaSO4

7.      The solubility of barium fluoride is 3.6 x 10 -3 M. the solubility product constant is
        A.      4.7 x 10-8
        B.      1.9 x 10-7
        C.      1.3 x 10-5
        D.      2.6 x 10-5

8.      At a certain temperature, the solubility of BaF2 is 7.4 x 10-3 moles per litre. The Ksp of BaF2 is
        A.        1.6 x 10-6
        B.       5.5 x 10-5
        C.       1.1 x 10-4
        D.       7.4 x 10-3

9.      What is the Ksp for Zn(OH)2 if it has a solubility of 1.3 x 10-7 mol/L ?
        A.       2.2 x 10-21
      B.       8.8 x 10-21
      C.       1.7 x 10-14
      D.       3.6 x 10-4

10.   The solubility of Mg(OH)2 is found to be 1.2 x 10-4 M .
      What is its Ksp ?
      A.       6.9 x 10-12
      B.       1.7 x 10-12
      C.       1.4 x 10-8
      D.       1.2 x 10-4

11.   Which one of the following equilibrium systems is described by K sp?
      A.       MgCO3(s) ⇄ CaO(s) + CO2(g)
      B.       MgCO3(s) ⇄ Mg2+(aq) + CO32- (aq)
      C.       Ca 2+(aq) + CO32- (aq) ⇄ CaCO3(s)
      D.       Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) ⇄ CaCO3(s) + 2H2O(l)

12.   When solid is added to an unsaturated solution, the rate of dissolving is
      A.     equal to zero
      B.     equal to the rate of crystallization
      C.     less than the rate of crystallization
      D.     greater than the rate of crystallization

13.   A soluble calcium salt is
      A.      CaSO3
      B.      CaCO3
      C.      CaS
      D.      Ca3(PO4)2

14.   Which of the following units is commonly used to describe solubility?
      A.      mL/s
      B.      g/min
      C.      mol/L
      D.      M/L

15.   Which of the solutes below is both ionic and most soluble?
      A.      MgSO4
      B.      CH3OH
      C.      C12H22O11
      D.      Fe(OH)3

16.   Which of the solutes below can form an ionic solution with the highest conductivity?
      A.      PbS
      B.      CHCl3
      C.      BaS
      D.      CHCOOH

17.   What is the concentration of the ions in 2.0 L of 1.5 M Ga 2(CO3)3 ?
               [Ga3+]            [CO32-]
      A.       0.33 M            0.50 M
      B.       0.66 M            1.0 M
      C.       1.5 M             3.0 M
      D.       3.0 M             4.5 M

18.   What is the concentration of the ions 1.0 moles Al2(CO3)3 in 0.50 L of solution?
               [Al3+]             [CO32-]
        A.     12. M              18. M
        B.     2.0 M              3.0 M
        C.     1.5 M              1.5 M
        D.     4.0 M              6.0 M
19.     When dissolved in water, which of the following procedures is an ionic solution?
        A.     O2
        B.     CH4
        C.     CaCl2
        D.     C12H22O11

20.     In a 300 mL sample of 0.030 M K3PO4, the [K+] is
        A.       0.006 M
        B.       0.010 M
        C.       0.018 M
        D.       0.090 M



Solubility       Quiz #4 Ksp to Solubility and Size of Ksp

1.      Identify the most soluble sulphide
        A.        HgS,    Ksp = 1.6 x 10-54
        B.        PbS,    Ksp = 7.0 x 10-29
        C.        FeS,    Ksp = 3.7 x 10-19
        D.        MnS, Ksp = 2.3 x 10-13

2.      Saturated solutions of Na2S, CuS, SnS2, and Al2S3 are prepared at 25oC. The [S2-] will be greatest in the
        solution of
        A.       Na2S
        B.       CuS
        C.       SnS2
        D.       Al2S3

3.      A solution of AgNO3 is slowly added to a mixture containing 0.10 M I -, Cl-, Br-, and IO3-. The precipitate,
        which forms first, is
        A.       AgI
        B.       AgCl
        C.       AgBr
        D.       AgIO3

4.      The [OH-] is measured to be 3.3 x 10-3 mol/L in a 100 mL sample of saturated solution of Al(OH)3. The
        solubility of Al(OH)3 is
        A.        1.1 x 10-4 mol/L
        B.        3.3 x 10-4 mol/L
        C.        1.1 x 10-3 mol/L
        D.        3.3 x 10-3 mol/L

5.      The [SO42-] in a saturated solution of PbSO4 is (Ksp = 1.1 x 10-8)
        A.      1.2 x 10-16 M
        B.      5.5 x 10-9 M
        C.      1.1 x 10-8 M
        D.      1.0 x 10-4 M

6.      The least soluble salt in water is
        A.       BaS
      B.       AlCl3
      C.       CaSO3
      D.       ZnSO4

7.    The solubility of AgBrO3 is
      A.       2.8 x 10-9 M
      B.      5.3 x 10-5 M
      C.      1.1 x 10-4 M
      D.      7.3 x 10-3 M

8.    At 25oC, the solubility of Mg(OH)2 is
      A.      1.1 x 10-32 M
      B.      5.6 x 10-12 M
      C.      2.4 x 10-6 M
      D.      1.1 x 10-4 M

9.    A student evaporated 200.0 mL of a saturated solution of SrCrO 4 to dryness. The residue contained
      1.2 x 10-3 mol SrCrO4. The solubility of SrCrO4 is
      A.       1.4 x 10-6 M
      B.       3.6 x 10-5 M
      C.       2.4 x 10-4 M
      D.       6.0 x 10-3 M

10.   The solubility of magnesium carbonate is

      A.       9.3 x 10-5 M
      B.       3.4 x 10-6 M
      C.       6.8 x 10-6 M
      D.       2.6 x 10-3 M




11.   A saturated container of NiCO3 was evaporated to dryness. A 250.0 mL sample was found to contain
      1.1 x 10-2 g NiCO3. The molecular mass of NiCO3 is 118.7 g/mol. The molar solubility of NiCO3 is
      A.       9.3 x 10-5 M
      B.       3.7 x 10-4 M
      C.       4.4 x 10-2 M
      D.       1.4 x 10-7 M

12.   Which of the following is the least soluble in water at 25 oC ?
      A.      CaCO3
      B.      BaSO4
      C.      CuSO4
      D.      MgSO4

13.   Which of the following salts has the lowest solubility?
      A.      copper (I) chloride
      B.      ammonium sulphide
      C.      potassium hydroxide
      D.      mercury(II) sulphate

14.   Which compound will have the lowest solubility?
      A.     AgNO3
      B.     AgBrO3
      C.       SrSO4
      D.       SrCO3

15.   Which compound will have the highest solubility?
      A.     FeS
      B.     PbSO4
      C.     CaCO3
      D.     AgBrO3

16.   Which compound will have the lowest solubility?
      A.     MgSO4
      B.     BaS
      C.     SrSO4
      D.     Na2CO3

17.   Which compound will have the greatest solubility?
      A.     MgSO4
      B.     ZnS
      C.     CaSO4
      D.     CaCO3

18.   Which of the following is commonly used to describe the solubility of a compound?
      A.      mass of solute / moles of solute
      B.      moles of solution / mass of solute
      C.      mass of solute / volume of solution
      D.      mass of solution / volume of solute

19.   At some temperature greater than 25 0C, the Ksp for lead (II) sulphate becomes
      1.0 x 10-7. What is the solubility of the lead (II) sulphate at this temperature?
      A.       1.0 x 10-14
      B.       5.0 x 10-8
      C.       2.0 x 10-7
      D.       3.2 x 10-4

20.   The following data was collected to determine the solubility of a substance:
      Mass of solute dissolved 5.00 g
      Volume of solvent                  2500.0 mL
      Molar mass of solute               100.0 g/mol
      Molar mass of solvent              200.g/mol
      Which of the following best describes its solubility?
      A.       2.00 g/L
      B.       0.0500 mol
      C.       0.250 mol
      D.       1.00 mol/L

21.   The following data was collected to determine the solubility of a substance:
      Mass of solute dissolved 500.g
      Volume of solvent                  5000.0 mL
      Molar mass of solute               100.0 g/mol
      Molar mass of solvent              200.g/mol
      Which of the following best describes its solubility?
      A.       0.0200 g/mL
      B.       0.0500 mol
      C.       0.250 mol
      D.       1.00 mol/L
22.     Which of the following is true for the salt SrF2 at 25 0C ?
        A.      It has a high solubility.
        B.      It will not dissolve at all.
        C.      Its solubility is 0.0016 M.
        D.      Its solubility is 0.0010 M.

23.     Which of the following ions could be used in the lowest concentration to remove Ag+ ions from a polluted
        water sample?
        A.      I-
        B.      Br-
        C.      BrO3-
        D.      IO3-

24.     For a saturated solution, the Ksp expression does not contain any solid solute term. What is the reason for
        this?
        A.       The solid solute is not important.
        B.       The solid solute does not have a concentration.
        C.       The solid solute continues to change in amount.
        D.       The solid solute has a constant concentration.

25.     Which of the following ions would have the highest concentration in 0.10 M CO 32- ?
        A.      Ba2+
        B.      Ca2+
        C.      Sr2+
        D.      Mg2+

Solubility       Quiz #5 Trial Ksp

1.     In an experiment, a student mixes equal volumes of 0.0020 M Pb 2+ ions with 0.0040 M I- ions. The trial ion
       product is
       A.         4.0 x 10-9
       B.         3.2 x 10-8
       C.         1.3 x 10-7
       D.         8.0 x 10-6

2.     In an experiment, 20.0 ml of 0.0060 M CaCl2 and 20.0 mL of 0.0050 M NaSO4 are mixed together. The trial
       ion product (trial Ksp) is
       A.        7.5 x 10-6 and a precipitate will form
       B.        7.5 x 10-6 and a precipitate will not form
       C.        3.0 x 10-5 and a precipitate will form
       D.        3.0 x 10-5 and a precipitate will not form

3.     In a saturated solution of Zn(OH)2, the [Zn2+] is
       A.         less than 0.10 M
       B.         more than 10.0 M
       C.         more than 0.10 M but less than 1.0 M
       D.         more than 1.0M but less than 10.0 M

4.     When 0.20 M Al2(SO4)3 is added to an equal volume of 0.20 M CaCl2,
       A.      AlCl3 precipitates
       B.      CaSO4 precipitates
       C.      AlCl3 and CaSO4 precipitate
       D.      no precipitate forms

5.     When a student mixes equal volumes of 0.20 M Na2S and 0.02 M Sr(OH)2.
       A.       no precipitate forms
      B.        a precipitate of only SrS forms
      C.        a precipitate of only NaOH forms
      D.        precipitates of both NaOH and SrS form

6.    When solutions of Pb(NO3)2 and NaCl are mixed, the trial ion product (Trial Ksp)
      is 9.8 x 10-6. Which of the following statements is true?
      A.         A precipitate forms because Ksp > 9.8 x 10-6
      B.         A precipitate forms because Ksp < 9.8 x 10-6
      C.         A precipitate does not form because Ksp < 9.8 x 10-6
      D.         A precipitate does not form because Ksp > 9.8 x 10-6

7.    When equal volumes of 0.060 M AgNO3 and 0.00090 M NaBrO3 are mixed, the trial ion product (TIP) is
      A.      less than Ksp and a precipitate forms
      B.      greater than Ksp and a precipitate forms
      C.      less than Ksp and no precipitate forms
      D.      greater than Ksp and no precipitate forms

8.    The mixture that could produce a precipitate of two compounds is
      A.       0.2 M HgSO4 and 0.2 M FeCl2
      B.       0.2 M AgNO3 and 0.2 MgCl2
      C.       0.2 M K2CO3 and 0.2 CuSO4
      D.       0.2 M ZnSO4 and 0.2 Ba(OH)2

9.    Which of the following has a solubility of less than 0.10 M?
      A.       SrS
      B.       SrCl2
      C.       SrSO4
      D.       Sr(OH)2

10.   When equal volumes of 2.0 M Pb(NO3)2 and 2.0 M KCl are mixed
      A.        a precipitate forms because trial ion product < Ksp
      B.        a precipitate forms because trial ion product > Ksp
      C.        a precipitate does not form because trial ion product < K sp
      D.        a precipitate does not form because trial ion product > K sp
11.   A solution is found to have an initial [Pb2+] of 0.0066 M and a [Br-] of
      0.00050 M. What will be observed as the ions interact?
                Observation                  Reason
      A.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp > Ksp
      B.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp < Ksp
      C.        no precipitate               Trial Ksp > Ksp
      D.        no precipitate               Trial Ksp < Ksp

12.   A solution is found to have an initial [Pb2+] of 0.066 M and a [Br-] of
      0.050 M. What will be observed as the ions interact?
                Observation                  Reason
      A.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp > Ksp
      B.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp < Ksp
      C.        no precipitate               Trial Ksp > Ksp
      D.        no precipitate               Trial Ksp < Ksp

13.   A solution is found to have an initial [Pb2+] of 0.00264 M and a [Br-] of
      0.050 M. What will be observed as the ions interact?
                Observation                  Reason
      A.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp > Ksp
      B.        precipitate                  Trial Ksp = Ksp
      C.        no precipitate               Trial Ksp > Ksp
       D.        no precipitate              Trial Ksp = Ksp

14.     What happens when equal volumes of 0.40 M BaCl2 and 0.40 M Pb(NO3)2 are mixed?
        A.      Only PbCl2 precipitates.
        B.      Only Ba(NO3)2 precipitates.
        C.      Both PbCl2 and Ba(NO3)2 precipitate.
        D.      No precipitate forms.

15.     Which of the ions below could be used in a precipitation reaction to determine the [SO42-] in a water
        sample?
        A.      H+
        B.      Cs+
        C.      Sr2+
        D.      NH4+

16.     Two salt solutions were mixed and a Trial Ksp was calculated to be
        4.4 x 10-12. The Ksp value is 5.6 x 10-13. From this information, which of the following is a true statement?

                 Ksp comparison    Outcome
        A.       Trial Ksp < Ksp   precipitate forms
        B.       Trial Ksp > Ksp   precipitate forms
        C.       Trial Ksp < Ksp   no precipitate forms
        D.       Trial Ksp > Ksp   no precipitate forms

17.     Two salt solutions were mixed and a Trial Ksp was calculated to be 8.4 x 10 -14. The Ksp value is
        5.6 x 10-13. From this information, which of the following is a true statement?
                 Ksp comparison Outcome
        A.       Trial Ksp < Ksp precipitate forms
        B.       Trial Ksp > Ksp precipitate forms
        C.       Trial Ksp < Ksp no precipitate forms
        D.       Trial Ksp > Ksp no precipitate forms



18.     When equal volumes of 0.40 M NaOH and 0.40 M CaS are mixed together,
        A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be less than Ksp.
        B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be less than Ksp.
        C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be greater than Ksp.
        D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be greater than Ksp.

19.     When equal volumes of 0.00020 M NaOH and 0.00020 M MgS are mixed together,
        A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
        B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
        C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.
        D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.

20.     When equal volumes of 0.00040 M NaOH and 0.00040 M MgS are mixed together,
        A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
        B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
        C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.
        D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.


Solubility                         Quiz #6           Separating Ions
1.   During a lab on qualitative analysis, an unknown solution containing one cation was analyzed and the
     following data were collected:

       0.2 M Anions Added to the                   Observation
           Unknown Solution
                  S2-                             no precipitate
                 SO42-                             precipitate
                 OH-                               precipitate
                CO32-                              precipitate

     Which one of the following cations is found in the unknown solution?
     A.     Mg2+
     B.     Be2+
     C.     Sr2+
     D.     Ba2+

2.   Which of the following could be used to precipitate both Mg2+ and Ca2+ from hard water?
     A.      Lithium sulphate
     B.      Sodium phosphate
     C.      Potassium sulphide
     D.      Ammonium chloride

3.   A reagent that may be used to separate Cl- from S2- by precipitation is
     A.      KNO3
     B.      AgNO3
     C.      Pb(NO3)2
     D.      Al(NO3)3

4.   The precipitate formed when equal volumes of 0.2 M Sr(OH)2 and 0.2 M MgS are mixed is
     A.      SrS
     B.      Mg(OH)2
     C.      a mixture of Mg(OH)3 and SrS
     D.      a mixture of Sr(OH)2 and MgS

5.   Which of the following ions could be used to separate Cl-(aq) from SO42-(aq) by precipitation?
     A.      Ag+
     B.      Ca2+
     C.      NH4+
     D.      Pb2+

6.   Which of the following ions could be added to an aqueous mixture containing Pb 2+ and Ba2+ to separate the
     ions by precipitating one of them?
     A.       I-
     B.       NO3-
     C.       PO43-
     D.       SO42-

7.   Which of the following would precipitate the Ca2+ and Mg2+ found in hard water?
     A.      S2-
     B.      PO43-
     C.      SO42-
     D.      CH3COO-

8.   A solution containing an unknown cation was added to three solutions and the following observations were
     recorded:
     SOLUTION            OBSERVATION
            NaI                  no precipitate
           Na2SO4                 precipitate
           NaOH                  no precipitate

         The unknown cation is
         A.      Pb2+
         B.      Sr2+
         C.      Ca2+
         D.      Ag+

9.       To remove Mg2+ from a solution by precipitation, a student should add
         A.     NaI
         B.     KOH
         C.     Li2SO4
         D.     (NH4)2S

10.      Which of the following could be used to separate Pb2+ from Ba2+ by precipitation?
         A.      Na2S
         B.      NaOH
         C.      Na2CO3
         D.      Na3PO4

11.      A student wishes to identify an unknown cation in a solution. A precipitate does not form with the addition
         of SO42-, but does form with the addition of S2-. Which of the following is the unknown cation?
         A.        Ag+
         B.        Mg2+
         C.        Ca2+
         D.        Cu2+




12.      A solution contains CO32- and OH-. Separation of these two anions by selective precipitation is
         accomplished by first adding Sr(NO3)2 solution, then filtering and finally adding to the filtrate a solution of
         A.       HNO3
         B.       RbNO3
         C.       NH4NO3
         D.       Zn(NO3)2

13.      A nitrate solution containing an unknown cation is added to each of the following three test tubes.




      1.0 M Na2SO4            1.0 M Na2S            1.0 M NaOH
         A precipitate forms in one test tube only. The unknown cation is
         A. Ag+
         B. Ca2+
      C. Sr2+
      D. NH4+


14.   A solution containing a single unknown cation is added to three test tubes. the following anions were added
      and observations were recorded.

       TEST TUBE                          ANION ADDED                          OBSERVATION
           1                                  SO42-                              precipitate
           2                                   S2-                               precipitate
           3                                  OH-                                precipitate

      The solution contains
      A. Sr2+
      B. Ag+ or Pb2+
      C. Ca2+ or Ba2+
      D. K+, NH4+ or H+

15.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the anions SO42- and CO32- from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       AgNO3(aq)
      C.       Fe(NO3)3(aq)
      D.       Ba(NO3)2(aq)

16.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the anions PO 43- and OH- from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       AgNO3(aq)
      C.       Fe(NO3)3(aq)
      D.       Sr(NO3)2(aq)

17.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the anions S 2- and OH- from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       AgNO3(aq)
      C.       Fe(NO3)3(aq)
      D.       Ba(NO3)2(aq)

18.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Ba 2+ and Sr2+ from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
      C.       K2SO4(aq)
      D.       KOH(aq)

19.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Ca 2+ and Mg2+ from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
      C.       K2SO4(aq)
      D.       KOH(aq)
20.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Be 2+ and Pb2+ from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaCl(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
        C.       KNO3(aq)
        D.       KOH(aq)

21.     Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate Sr 2+, Ca2+, and Ag+?
        A.      NaCl(aq), Na2CO3(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
        B.      NaCl(aq), Na2SO4(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)
        C.      Na2CO3(aq), NaCl(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
        D.      NaCl(aq), NaOH(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)

22.     Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate Zn 2+, Be2+, and Sr2+?

        A.       NaOH(aq), Na2CO3(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
        B.       Na2S(aq), NaOH(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)
        C.       Na2CO3(aq), NaCl(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
        D.       NaCl(aq), Na2SO4(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)

23.     Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate OH - , CO32-, and S2-?
        A.      NaNO3(aq) , Ba(NO3)2(aq), and Zn(NO3)2(aq)
        B.      AgNO3(aq), Ba(NO3)2(aq), and Zn(NO3)2(aq)
        C.      Fe(NO3)3(aq), Ba(NO3)2(aq), and Zn(NO3)2(aq)
        D.      Sr(NO3)2(aq), Ba(NO3)2(aq), and Zn(NO3)2(aq)

24.     Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate OH - , S2-, and SO42-?
        A.      NaNO3(aq) , Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        B.      AgNO3(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        C.      Be(NO3)2(aq), Fe(NO3)3(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        D.      Sr(NO3)2(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Pb(NO3)2(aq)




25.     Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate    Cl-, CO32-, and S2-?
        A.      NaNO3(aq) , Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        B.      AgNO3(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        C.      Fe(NO3)3(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Ba(NO3)2(aq)
        D.      Sr(NO3)2(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and AgNO3(aq)


Solubility       Quiz #7 Common Ion Effect

1.      Consider the following equilibrium: CaCO3(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) +CO32-(aq)
        Which of the following reagents, when added to the equilibrium system, would cause more CaCO 3 to
        dissolve?
        A.       KNO3(s)
        B.       CaCO3(s)
        C.       H2C2O4(s)
        D.       Na2CO3(s)

2.      A solution contains a mixture of SO42- and S2-. Which of the following cations could be used to remove
        only the SO42- from the solution by precipitation?
        A.       K+
        B.       Sr2+
        C.       Pb2+
        D.       Cu2+
3.    Consider the following solubility equilibrium: MgCO3(s)⇄ Mg2+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
      The addition of which of the following substances would decrease the solubility of MgCO3?
      A.      H2O
      B.      NaCl
      C.      NaOH
      D.      Na2CO3

4.    A student could precipitate silver chloride from a saturated solution of silver chloride by adding
      A.      water
      B.      sodium iodide
      C.      sodium nitrate
      D.      sodium chloride

5.    The greatest mass of solid SnS will dissolve in 1.0 L of
      A.      H2O
      B.      0.10 M MgS
      C.      0.10 M (NH4)2S
      D.      0.10 M Sn(NO3)2

6.    Magnesium carbonate would be the most soluble in a solution of
      A.     MgCl2
      B.     NaNO3
      C.     Na2CO3
      D.     Mg(NO3)2

7.    Sodium iodide is added to a saturated solution of lead (II) iodide. The net change is
      A.      [I-] increases and [Pb2+] increases
      B.      [I-] decreases and [Pb2+] decreases
      C.      [I-] increases and [Pb2+] decreases
      D.      [I-] decreases and [Pb2+] increases

8.    Consider the following equilibrium: Pbl2(s) + heat ⇄ Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq)
      Which of the following changes would result in more Pbl 2 dissolving?
      A.      Adding more Pbl2
      B.      Increasing the pressure
      C.      Adding some Pb(NO3)2
      D.      Increasing the temperature

9.    Consider the following equilibrium: AgCl(s) ⇄ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
      Sodium chloride is added to a saturated solution of AgCl. The amount of solid AgCl will
      A.      increase as the equilibrium shifts to the left
      B.      decrease as the equilibrium shifts to the left
      C.      increase as the equilibrium shifts to the right
      D.      decrease as the equilibrium shifts to the right

10.   Consider the following equilibrium: NH4Cl(s) + energy ⇄ NH+4(aq) + Cl-(aq)
      Which of the following will increase the solubility of ammonium chloride?

      A.       Stirring the solution
      B.       Adding more water
      C.       Adding more NH4Cl(s)
      D.       Increasing the temperature
11.   Which of the following substances will have the least effect on the equilibrium in a saturated solution of
      PbBr2(s)?
      A.        HI
      B.        Na2S
      C.        KNO3
      D.        Pb(NO3)2

12.   Which of the following substances will have the greatest effect on the equilibrium in a saturated solution of
      PbBr2(s)?
      A.        1.0 M Pb(NO3)2
      B.        1.0 MNaBr
      C.        1.0 M CaBr2
      D.        1.0 M AlBr3

13.   Which compound will have the lowest solubility?
      A.     BeS
      B.     FeS
      C.     ZnS
      D.     Cs2S

14.   Which compound will have the highest solubility?
      A.     CuS
      B.     FeS
      C.     ZnS
      D.     Cs2S

15.   Which anion would be most effective in removing the cations (Mg 2+ and Ca2+) that are responsible for hard
      water?
      A.      S2-
      B.      Cl-
      C.      PO43-
      D.      SO42-
16.   Which of the following ions could be used in the lowest concentration to remove Ag+ ions from a polluted
      water sample?
      A.      I-
      B.      Br-
      C.      BrO3-
      D.      CO32-

17.   What will be the effect of adding some solid AgNO3 to a saturated solution of AgCl ?
      A.      The AgNO3 will not dissolve.
      B.      More solid AgCl will dissolve.
      C.      More solid AgCl will be produced.
      D.      There will be no effect on AgCl equilibrium.

18.   An experiment is conducted to identify an unknown cation that is present in each of four beakers. The
      following chemicals are added to an unknown solution containing one cation.
      RbNO3             (NH4)2S MnSO4 Na2CO3
      no ppt            ppt              no ppt           ppt
      Which of the following could be the unknown cation?
      A.      Ag+
      B.      Fe3+
      C.      Ba2+
      D.      Be2+

19.   An equal number of moles of Na2CO3 is added to four different 100.mL samples.
      Sample 1          Sample 2           Sample 3         Sample 4
      0.50 M Ba2+       0.50 M Ca2+        0.50 M Mg2+      0.50 M Sr2+
      A precipitate forms in only one of the samples. Identify the cation which is present in the
      precipitate.
      A.       Ba2+
      B.       Ca2+
      C.       Mg2+
      D.       Sr2+

20.   An equal number of moles of Na2CO3 is added to four different samples that contain the cations below in
      low concentration.
      Sample 1          Sample 2           Sample 3          Sample 4
      Ba2+              Ca2+               Mg2+              Sr2+
      A precipitate forms in three of the samples. Identify the cation which is present in sample that does not
      precipitate.
      A.       Ba2+
      B.       Ca2+
      C.       Mg2+
      D.       Sr2+

21.   Consider the following equilibrium:        Mg(OH)2(s) ⇌ Mg2+ + 2OH-
      Adding which of the following would cause the solid to dissolve?
      A.      HCl
      B.      KOH
      C.      Mg(OH)2
      D.      Mg(NO3)2




22.   Consider the following equilibrium:        Mg(OH)2(s) ⇌ Mg2+ + 2OH-
      Adding which of the following would cause the most solid to precipitate?
      A.      1.0 M HCl
      B.      1.0 M KOH
      C.      1.0 M Sr(OH)2
      D.      1.0 M Mg(NO3)2

23.   When equal volumes of 0.40 M Ca(NO3)2 and 0.40 M Na2SO4 are mixed together,
      A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be less than Ksp.
      B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be less than Ksp.
      C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be greater than Ksp.
      D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp would be greater than Ksp.

24.   When equal volumes of 0.002 M Ca(NO3)2 and 0.002 M Na2SO4are mixed together,
      A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
      B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
      C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.
      D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.

25.   When equal volumes of 0.02 M Ca(NO3)2 and 0.02 M Na2SO4are mixed together,
      A.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
      B.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is less than Ksp.
      C.     a precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.
      D.     no precipitate forms and the Trial Ksp is greater than Ksp.
26.     Which of the following is commonly used to describe the solubility of a compound?
        A.      mass of solute / moles of solute
        B.      moles of solution / mass of solute
        C.      mass of solute / volume of solution
        D.      mass of solution / volume of solute

Solubility       Quiz #8 Titrations and Max Ion Concentration

1.      What is the maximum [Ag+] that can exist in 0.20 M NaBrO3?
        A.       1.1 x 10-5 M
        B.       5.3 x 10-5 M
        C.       2.6 x 10-4 M
        D.       7.3 x 10-3 M

2.      What is the maximum [Sr2+] that can exist in a solution of 0.10 M Na2SO4?
        A.       3.4 x 10-7M
        B.       3.4 x 10-6 M
        C.       1.7 x 10-6 M
        D.       5.8 x 10-4 M

3.      A student titrates a 25.00 mL sample of well water with 18.2 mL 0.100 M AgNO 3 to completely precipitate
        the chloride ion. The [Cl-] is
        A.       1.82 x 10-3 M
        B.       7.28 x 10-2 M
        C.       1.37 x 10-1 M
        D.       1.50 x 10-1 M




4.      What is the maximum concentration of sodium sulphate, Na 2SO4, that will dissolve in 1.0 L of 0.10 M
        Pb(NO3)2 without forming a precipitate?
        A.       1.8 x 10-8 M
        B.       1.8 x 10-7 M
        C.       1.3 x 10-4 M
        D.       1.0 x 10-1 M

5.      Consider the following equilibrium: AgCl(s) ⇄ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
        When Br-(aq) is added to a saturated solution of AgCl,
        A.      more AgCl dissolves and its solubility product increases
        B.      more AgCl precipitates and its solubility product decreases
        C.      more AgCl dissolves and its solubility product remains constant
        D.      more AgCl precipitates and its solubility product remains constant

6.      In a saturated solution of zinc hydroxide, at 40 oC, the [Zn2+] = 1.8 x 10-5 M.
        The Ksp of Zn(OH)2 is
        A.        5.8 x 10-15
        B.        2.3 x 10-14
        C.        1.8 x 10-14
        D.        6.5 x 10-10

7.      What is the [Co2+] and [Cl-] when 0.35 mol of CoCl2 is dissolved in enough water to make 100.0 mL of
        solution?
        A.       [Co2+] = 3.5 M and [Cl-] = 3.5 M
      B.       [Co2+] = 3.5 M and [Cl-] = 7.0 M
      C.       [Co2+] = 0.35 M and [Cl-] = 0.35 M
      D.       [Co2+] = 0.35 M and [Cl-] = 0.70 M

8.    In which of the following would solid AgCl be most soluble?
      A.      1 M HCl
      B.      1 M MgCl2
      C.      1 M AgNO3
      D.      1 M NH4NO3

9.    At 25oC, the maximum [Zn2+] that can exist in a 0.250 M Na2S is
      A.      5.0 x 10-26
      B.      2.0 x 10-25
      C.      8.0 x 10-25
      D.      4.5 x 10-13

10.   The molar solubility of iron (II) sulphide is
      A.      3.6 x 10-37
      B.      3.0 x 10-19
      C.      6.0 x 10-19
      D.      7.7 x 10-10

11.   What is the maximum [Pb2+] possible in a 0.10 M NaCl solution?
      A.       1.2 x 10-5 M
      B.       6.0 x 10-5 M
      C.       1.2 x 10-3 M
      D.       1.2 x 10-4 M




12.   What is the minimum [Ag+] required to start precipitation in a 0.10 M NaCl solution?
      A.       1.3 x 10-5 M
      B.       6.0 x 10-5 M
      C.       1.8 x 10-10 M
      D.       1.8 x 10-9 M

13.   What is the maximum [Pb2+] possible in a 0.10 M NaBr solution?
      A.       6.6 x 10-5 M
      B.       6.6 x 10-4 M
      C.       6.4 x 10-4 M
      D.       3.0 x 10-3 M

14.   What is the minimum [Ag+] required to start precipitation in a 0.10 M NaBr solution?
      A.       5.4 x 10-12 M
      B.       5.4 x 10-13 M
      C.       7.3 x 10-7 M
      D.       1.8 x 10-9 M

15.   Which of the ions below could be used in a precipitation reaction to determine the [SO42-] in a water
      sample?
      A.      Be2+
      B.      Mg2+
      C.      Zn2+
      D.      Pb2+
16.   Which of the following ions could be used in the lowest concentration to remove Ag + ions from a polluted
      water sample?
      A.      I-
      B.      Br-
      C.      BrO3-
      D.      IO3-

17.   Which of the following ions could in the highest concentration in a solution of Ag +?
      A.      I-
      B.      Br-
      C.      BrO3-
      D.      IO3-

18.   Which of the following ions would have the highest concentration in 0.10 M CO 32-?
      A.      Ba2+
      B.      Ca2+
      C.      Sr2+
      D.      Mg2+

19.   A saturated solution of SrSO4 has a [SO42-] of 1.0 x 10-4 M. What is the [Sr2+]?
      A.       3.4 x 10-3 M
      B.       6.8 x 10-4 M
      C.       1.0 x 10-4 M
      D.       3.4 x 10-7 M

20.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the anions SO 42- and Cl- from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       AgNO3(aq)
      C.       Pb(NO3)3(aq)
      D.       Ba(NO3)2(aq)

21.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Ba2+ and Mg2+ from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
      C.       K2SO4(aq)
      D.       KOH(aq)

22.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Ba 2+ and Mg2+ from each other by
      precipitation?
      A.       NaNO3(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
      C.       K2SO4(aq)
      D.       KOH(aq)

23.   Which of the following solutions could be used to separate the cations Be 2+ and Ag+ from each other
      by precipitation?
      A.       NaCl(aq)
      B.       Na2CO3(aq)
      C.       KNO3(aq)
      D.       KOH(aq)

24.   Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate Sr 2+, Ca2+, and Ag+?
      A.      NaCl(aq), Na2CO3(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
      B.      NaCl(aq), Na2SO4(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)
      C.      Na2CO3(aq), NaCl(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
      D.      NaCl(aq), NaOH(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)

24.   Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate Cu2+, Be2+, and Sr2+?
      A.      NaOH(aq), Na2CO3(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
      B.      Na2S(aq), NaOH(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)
      C.      Na2CO3(aq), NaCl(aq), and Na2SO4(aq)
      D.      NaCl(aq), Na2SO4(aq), and Na2CO3(aq)

25.   Which sequence of chemicals, in the order listed, would successfully separate OH - , Cl-, and S2-?
      A.      NaNO3(aq) , Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Pb(NO3)2(aq)
      B.      AgNO3(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Pb(NO3)2(aq)
      C.      Ba(NO3)3(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Pb(NO3)2(aq)
      D.      Sr(NO3)2(aq), Zn(NO3)2(aq), and Pb(NO3)2(aq)

Solubility Web Review

1.    Describe the relationship between the rate of dissolving solid and rate of crystallization:

      a)      A saturated solution and some solid

      b)      An unsaturated solution and some solid

      c)      A supersaturated solution and some solid is added



2.    Write the equilibrium expression and Ksp equation for Fe2O3.

3.    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between Al(NO3)3 and Na2CO3. Note the
      difference between this equation and the last one.




4.    Mg+2, Sr+2, Ca+2 and Be+2 are possibly in a solution. The solution reacts with Na2SO4 but
      not NaOH or Na2S. What cations are in the solution?
5.   A solution contains SO42- or OH- or both. It reacts with Zn(NO3)2and Sr(NO3)2, What
     anions are in the solution?




6.   Ag2CO3(s) ⇄ 2Ag+ + CO32- Describe the effect on the solubility of Ag2CO3 for each
     change below:

     a)     Add Ag2CO3

     b)     Add water

     c)     Add NaCl

     d)     Add Pb(NO3)2

     e)     Add Na2CO3

     f)     Add AgNO3.

7.   If the trial Ksp = 1.7x10-7 and the Ksp = 3.8x10-7 will a precipitate occur?



8.   For a saturated solution of Fe(OH)3 the [OH-] is found to be 1.3x10-4 M. Calculate the
     [Fe+3] and the solubility of the salt in moles/L.




9.   Consider the equilibrium that exists in a saturated solution of PbCl2. Write the
     equilibrium expression. If the equilibrium shifts to the right, what affect does this have on
     the solubility? Describe how the addition of each of the following will affect the
     solubility of PbCl2.

     a)     AgNO3
      b)       NaCl

      c)       Na2S

      d)       H2O

      e)       NaNO3

      f)       Pb(NO3)2

10.   If the reaction is endothermic, how do the Ksp and the solubility change if the
      temperature is increased? What is the only way to change the Ksp?



Calculations

1.    In a titration 250 mL of a .200 M AgNO3 solution was used to precipitate out all of the
      Cl- in a 500 mL sample. Calculate [Cl-].




2.    In a titration 26.5 mL of .100M Pb(NO3)2 was used to precipitate out all of the I- in a 3.00
      mL sample of water. Calculate [I-].




3.    Co(OH)2 Solubility = 3.0x10-3 g/L             Ksp=?




4.    Ag2C2O4 Solubility = 8.3x10-4 M               Ksp=?
5.   SrF2 Ksp = 2.8 x 10-9       Solubility in (M) = ?




6.   Cu(IO3)2      Ksp = 1.4 x 10-7      Solubility (g/L) = ?




7.   Calculate the maximum concentration of OH- that can exist in a 0.200M Ca(N03)2
     solution. Ksp (Ca(OH)2) = 2.8 x 10-8




8.   Calculate the maximum concentration of CO3-2 that can exist in a 0.500 M Fe(NO3)3
     solution. Ksp (Fe2(CO3)3) = 2.8 x 10-14




9.   Will a precipitate form if 200.0 mL .0020M Mg(NO3)2 is mixed 300.0 mL of 0.0030M
     NaOH?
10.     Will a precipitate form if 25.0mL of .0020M Pb(NO3)2 is mixed with 25.0mL of 0.040M
        NaBr.




11.     20.0 g of PbCl2 is placed in 2.0 L of water. Some but not all dissolves to form a saturated
        solution. How many grams do not dissolve?

Solubility Practice Test # 1

1.      Which combination of factors will affect the rate of the following reaction?
        Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
        A.      Temperature and surface area only
        B.      Temperature and concentration only
        C.      Concentration and surface area only
        D.      Temperature, concentration, and surface area

2.      Consider the following reaction:
        2MnO4-(aq) + 5C2O42- + 16H+(aq) → 2Mn2+(aq) + 10CO2(g) + 8H2O(l)
        The rate of decomposition of the oxalate ion is increased by
        A.       Adding NaOH
        B.       Removing CO2
        C.       Adding a catalyst
        D.       Decreasing the pressure

3.      An equilibrium system shifts left when the temperature is increased. The forward rate is
        A.       Exothermic and ∆H is positive.
        B.       Exothermic and ∆H is negative.
        C.       Endothermic and ∆H is positive.
        D.       Endothermic and ∆H is negative.

4.      The value of the Keq can be changed by
        A.      adding a catalyst.
        B.      changing the temperature.
        C.      changing the reactant concentration.
        D.      changing the volume of the container

5.      Consider the following equilibrium: 2NOCl(g) ⇄ 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)
        In a 1.0 L container at equilibrium there are 1.0 mol NOCl, 0.70 mol NO and 0.40 mol Cl 2. At constant
        temperature and volume, 0.10 mol NOCl is added. The concentrations in the “new” equilibrium in
        comparison to the concentrations in the “old” equilibrium are
                  [NOCl]            [NO]                       [Cl2]
        A         new = old                  new = old                 new = old
        B         new > old                  new > old                 new > old
        C         new < old                  new < old                 new > old
        D         new < old                  new > old                 new > old

6.      The equation that represents the equilibrium in a saturated solution of Fe 2(SO4)3 is
        A.       Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 3Fe2+(aq) + 2SO43-(aq)
      B.        Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Fe2+(aq) + 3SO43-(aq)
      C.        Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 3Fe3+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq)
      D.        Fe2(SO4)3(s) ⇄ 2Fe3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq)

7.    When equal volumes of 0.20 M K2CrO4 and 0.20 M AgNO3 are mixed, a red precipitate is formed. The net
      ionic equation for this reaction is
      A.       K+(aq) + NO3-(aq) → KNO3(s)
      B.       2Ag+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) → Ag2CrO4(s)
      C.       K2CrO4(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) → Ag2CrO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
      D.       2Ag+(aq) + CrO4-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) → Ag2CrO4(s) + 2KNO3(s)

8.    Which of the following compounds could be used to prepare a 0.20 M solution of hydroxide ion?
      A.      KOH
      B.      Fe(OH)3
      C.      Mg(OH)2
      D.      Zn(OH)2

9.    When 250 mL of 0.36 M Sr(OH)2 are added to 750 mL of water, the resulting ion concentrations are
      A.     [Sr2+] = 0.12 M and      [OH-] = 0.12 M
                2+
      B.     [Sr ] = 0.12 M and       [OH-] = 0.24 M
                2+                   -
      C.     [Sr ] = 0.090 M and [OH ] = 0.090 M
      D.     [Sr2+] = 0.090 M and [OH-] = 0.180 M

10.   When equal volumes of 2.0 M Pb(NO3)2 and 2.0 M KCl are mixed,
      A.     a precipitate forms because the trial ion product < Ksp
      B.     a precipitate forms because the trial ion product > K sp
      C.     a precipitate does not form because the trial ion product < K sp
      D.     a precipitate does not form because the trial ion product > K sp


11.   AgCl(s)   ⇄ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)       When Br-(aq) is added to a saturated solution of AgCl,
      A.        more AgCl dissolves and its solubility product increases.
      B.        more AgCl precipitates and its solubility product decreases.
      C.        more AgCl dissolves and its solubility product remains constant.
      D.        more AgCl precipitates and its solubility product remains constant.

12.   The molar solubility of iron II sulphide is
      A.      3.6 x 10-37 M
      B.      3.0 x 10-19 M
      C.      6.0 x 10-19 M
      D.      7.7 x 10-10 M

13.   A solution containing an unknown cation was added to three solutions and the following observations were
      recorded:
      Solution            NaI                        Na2SO4            NaOH
      Observation                no precipitate              precipitate                  no precipitate
      The unknown cation is
      A.        Pb2+
      B.        Sr2+
      C.        Ca2+
      D.        Ag+
14.   If the solubility of Pb(OH)2 is 0.155 g/L, then the concentration of each ion in a saturated solution is
      A.        [Pb2+] = 0.155 g/L and [OH-] = 0.155 g/L
      B.        [Pb2+] = 0.155 g/L and [OH-] = 0.103 g/L
      C.        [Pb2+] = 6.43 x 10-4 M and [OH-] = 1.29 x 10-3 M
      D.       [Pb2+] = 6.43 x 10-4 M and [OH-] = 6.43 x 10-3 M

15.   Which of the following could be used to separate Pb 2+ from Ba2+ by precipitation?
      A.      Na2S
      B.      NaOH
      C.      Na2CO3
      D.      Na2SO4

16.   When dissolved in water, which of the following form a molecular solution?
      A.     HCl(g)
      B.     NaNO3(s)
      C.     CH3OH(l)
      D.     K2SO4(s)

17.   Which of the following will be most soluble in water at 25 oC.
      A.      AgI
      B.      PbS
      C.      MgSO4
      D.      Ba(OH)2

18.   At 25 oC, the solubility of Mg(OH)2 is
      A.      1.1 x 10-32 M
      B.      1.1 x 10-12 M
      C.      1.1 x 10-6 M
      D.      1.1 x 10-4 M

19.   At 25 oC, the solubility of an unknown compound is 7.1 x 10-5 M. The compound is
      A.      CuI
      B.      AgI
      C.      CaCO3
      D.      CaSO4
20.   When solid AgBr is added to a saturated solution of AgBr, the reaction rates can be described as:
              Rate of Dissolving                  Rate of Crystalizing
      A.      increasing                          increasing
      B.      increasing                          decreasing
      C.      decreasing                          increasing
      D.      increasing                          no change

21.   The solubility of PbS is 2.9 x 10-14 M. What is the value of the Ksp.
      A.      8.4 x 10-28
      B.      2.9 x 10-14
      C.      5.8 x 10-14
      D.      1.7 x 10-7

22.   Which of the following causes a precipitate to form when Sr 2+(aq) is added but not when Zn2+(aq) is added?
      A.      S2-
      B.      Cl-
      C.      SO42-
      D.      CO32-

23.   A 3.0 L solution of NiCl2 is found to have a chloride concentration of 0.60 M. The concentration of nickel
      II ions is
      A.         0.30 M
      B.         0.60 M
      C.         0.90 M
      D.         1.2 M
24.   When equal volumes of 0.20 M K2CO3 and 0.2 M Na3PO4 are mixed,
      A.     no precipitate will form
      B.     a precipitate of K3PO4 will form
      C.     a precipitate of Na2CO3 will form
      D.     a precipitate of K3PO4 and Na2CO3 will form

25.   A solution of AgNO3 is slowly added to a mixture containing 0.10 M I -, Cl-, Br-, and IO3-. The precipitate
      which forms first is
      A.       AgI
      B.       AgCl
      C.       AgBr
      D.       AgIO3

26.   Which of the following units can be used to represent solubility?
      A.      g
      B.      mol
      C.      mol/L
      D.      mL/s

27.   Consider the following equilibrium: CaCO3(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
      Which of the following reagents when added to the equilibrium system, would cause more CaCO 3 to
      dissolve?
      A.       KNO3(s)
      B.       CaCO3(s)
      C.       H2C2O4(s)
      D.       Na2CO3(s)




28.   Which of the following could be used to precipitate both Mg2+ and Ca2+ from hard water?
      A.      lithium sulphate
      B.      sodium phosphate
      C.      potassium sulphide
      D.      ammonium chloride

29.   What is the maximum [Ag+] that can exist in 0.20 M NaBrO3?
      A.       1.1 x 10-5 M
      B.       5.3 x 10-5 M
      C.       2.6 x 10-4 M
      D.       7.3 x 10-3 M

30.   Which of the following ions could be used to separate Cl-(aq) from SO42-(aq) by precipitation?
      A.      Ag+
      B.      Ca2+
      C.      NH4+
      D.      Pb2+

31.   The Ksp expression for a saturated solution Ca3(PO4)2 is
      A.      Ksp = [Ca2+][PO43-]
      B.      Ksp = [Ca2+]3[PO43-]2
      C.      Ksp = [3Ca2+][2PO43-]
      D.      Ksp = [3Ca2+][2PO43-]

32.   When Ca(OH)2 attains solubility equilibrium, the
      A.       solution will be saturated
      B.       pH will be less than 7
      C.       trial Ksp is less than the Ksp
      D.       concentrations of the ions are equal

33.   Which of the following describes the changes in ion concentrations when 1.0 g of solid ZnS is added to a
      saturated solution of ZnS?
               [Zn2+]                            [S2-]
      A.       increases                         decreases
      B.       decreases                         decreases
      C.       increases                         increases
      D.       remains constant          remains constant

34.   The net ionic equation for the reaction between Sr(OH) 2 and H2SO4 is
      A.       H+ + OH- → H2O
      B.       Sr2+ + SO42- → SrSO4
      C.       Sr(OH)2 + H2SO4 → SrSO4 + 2H2O
      D.       Sr2+ + 2OH- + 2H+ + SO42- → SrSO4 + 2H2O

35.   The relationship between the solubility and the size of the Ksp is
      A.       there is no relationship
      B.       the smaller the Ksp the greater the solubility
      C.       the greater the Ksp the greater the solubility
      D.       the solubility is always the square root of the Ksp
36.   Which of the following compounds will form a saturated solution with the greatest concentration of Ag +?
      A.       AgI
      B.       AgBr
      C.       AgIO3
      D.       AgBrO3


37.   When equal volumes of 0.20 M CuSO4 and 0.20 M Li2S are combined, the complete ionic equation is
      A.     Cu2+(aq) + S2-(aq) → CuS(s)
      B.     CuSO4(aq) + Li2S(aq) → CuS(s) + Li2SO4(aq)
      C.     Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2Li+(aq) + S2-(aq) → CuS(s) + Li2SO4(aq)
      D.     Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2Li+(aq) + S2-(aq) → CuS(s) + 2Li+(aq) + SO42-(aq)

38.   Which of the following would have the [Fe3+] = 0.020 M?
      A.      0.40 L of 0.050 M Fe(NO3)3
      B.      0.80 L of 0.020 M Fe2(SO4)3
      C.      0.50 L of 0.040 M FeC6H5O7
      D.      0.50 L of 0.010 M Fe2(C2O4)3

39.   A solution contains both Ag+ and Mg2+ ions. During selective precipitation, these ions are removed one at a
      time by adding
      A.       I- followed by OH-
      B.       OH- followed by S2-
      C.       SO42- followed by Cl-
      D.       NO3- followed by PO43-

40.   The solubility of an AB2 type salt is 2.3 x 10-6 M. The salt is
      A.      PbBr2
      B.      Fe(OH)2
      C.      Cu(IO3)2
      D.      Mg(OH)2
1.   A saturated solution of BaSO4 is given to patients needing digestive tract x-rays.

     a)       Write an equation that represents the solubility equilibrium




     b)       Calculate the [Ba2+] present in the saturated solution.




2.   Will a precipitate form when 90.0 mL of 1.00 x 10 -2 M Cu(NO3)2 and 10.0 mL of
     1.00 x 10-2 M NaIO3 are mixed? Explain using appropriate calculations.




3.   What is the maximum [CO32-] that can exist in a 1.3 x 10-4 M AgNO3 solution?




4.   The following data was collected when a 25.00 mL sample of water containing chloride ion was titrated
     using 0.100 M AgNO3 to completely precipitate the chloride ion.

     Initial volume of AgNO3              18.30 mL
     Final volume of AgNO3                27.22 mL

a)   Write the net ionic reaction for the precipitation reaction.




c)   Calculate the [Cl-].
5.   In an experiment to determine the solubility of BaF2, 500.0 mL of the saturated solution was heated in an
     evaporating dish to remove the water. The evaporating dish and the residue were then heated two more
     times to ensure all the water was removed.

     Volume of the saturated solution of BaF2                               500.0 mL
     Mass of the evaporating dish                                                    72.540 g
     Mass of the evaporating dish and BaF2 after the first heating 73.500 g
     Mass of the evaporating dish and BaF2 after the second heating         72.855 g
     Mass of the evaporating dish and BaF2 after the third heating 72.855 g

     Using the above data, calculate the Ksp for BaF2




                                           Chemistry 12 Solubility Test # 2

1.   Consider the following experiment:
     1.0 mL 0.20 M Ag+         +        an unknown solution          →        precipitate
     1.0 mL 020 M Sr2+         +        an unknown solution          →        no precipitate
     The unknown solution could contain
     A       0.20 M OH-
     B       0.20 M NO3-
     C       0.20 M PO43-
     D       0.20 M SO42-

2.   A compound has a solubility of 7.1 x 10 -5 M at 25 oC. The compound is
     A      CuS
     B      AgBr
     C      CaCO3
     D      CaSO4

3.   A saturated solution of NaCl contains 36.5 g of solute in 0.100 L of solution. The solubility of the
     compound is
     A        0.062 M
     B        1.60 M
     C        3.65 M
     D        6.24 M

4.   Calculate the [Li+] in 200.0 mL of 1.5 M Li2SO4.
      A        0.30 M
      B        0.60 M
      C        1.5 M
      D        3.0 M

5.    The Ksp expression for a saturated solution of Mg(OH) 2 is
      A       Ksp = [Mg2+][OH-]2
                        [Mg(OH)2]
      B       Ksp = [Mg2+][OH-]2
      C       Ksp = [Mg2+][OH-]
      D       Ksp = [Mg2+][2OH-]2

6.    Consider the following saturated solution solutions
              CuSO4             BaSO4              CaSO4
      The order of cation concentration, from highest to lowest, is
      A       [Ba2+]            >          [Ca2+]           >         [Cu2+]
                  2+
      B       [Ca ]             >          [Cu2+]           >         [Ba2+]
      C       [Cu2+]            >          [Ca2+]           >         [Ba2+]
      D       [Cu2+]            >          [Ba2+]           >         [Ca2+]

7.    When 1.0 x 10-3 moles of CuCl2(s) are added to 1.0 L of 1.0 x 10-3 M IO3-, the
      A      Trial Ksp > Ksp and a precipitate forms
      B      Trial Ksp < Ksp and a precipitate forms
      C      Trial Ksp > Ksp and no precipitate forms
      D      Trial Ksp < Ksp and no precipitate forms

8.    The solubility of CdS = 2.8 x 10-14. The value of the Ksp is
      A        7.8 x 10-28
      B        2.8 x 10-14
      C        5.6 x 10-14
      D        1.7 x 10-7
9.    The ion concentrations in 0.25 M Al2(SO4)3 are
               [Al3+]            [SO42-]
      A        0.25 M            0.25 M
      B        0.50 M            0.75 M
      C        0.75 M            0.50 M
      D        0.10 M            0.15 M

10.   Which of the following will not produce a precipitate when equal volumes of 0.20 M solutions are
      combined?
      A       KOH and CaCl2
      B       Zn(NO3)2 and K3PO4
      C       Sr(OH)2 and (NH4)2S
      D       Na2SO4 and Pb(NO3)2

11.   Consider the following equilibrium: Mg(OH)2(s) ⇄ Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
      A compound that can be added to cause a shift to the right is
      A       NaOH
      B       HCl
      C       Sr(OH)2
      D       Mg(OH)2

12.   If the trial ion product for AgBrO3 is calculated to be 1.0 x 10-7, then
      A          a precipitate forms because the trial ion product > Ksp
      B          a precipitate forms because the trial ion product < Ksp
      C          no a precipitate forms because the trial ion product > Ksp
      D        no a precipitate forms because the trial ion product < Ksp

13.   Which of the following will dissolve in water to produce a molecular solution?
      A       CaCl2
      B       NaOH
      C       CH3OH
      D       Sr(OH)2

14.   In a solubility equilibrium, the
      A        rate of dissolving equals the rate of crystallization
      B        neither dissolving or crystallization occurs
      C        concentration of solute and solvent are equal
      D        mass of dissolved solute is greater than the mass of the solution

15.   The maximum [SO42-] that can exist in 1.0 x 10-3 M Ca(NO3)2 without a precipitate         forming is
      A      7.1 x 10-5 M
      B      1.0 x 10-3 M
      C      8.4 x 10-3 M
      D      7.1 x 10-2 M

16.   When equal volumes of 0.20 M CuSO4(aq) and 020 M Li2S(aq) are combined, the complete ionic equation is
      A      Cu2+(aq) +         S2-(aq)           →         CuS(s)
      B      CuSO4(aq)          +        Li2S(aq) →         CuS(s)       +         Li2SO4(s)
      C      Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2Li+(aq)      + S2-(aq) → Li2SO4(aq)           +         CuS(s)
      D      Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2Li(aq) + S2-(aq) → CuS(s) + 2Li+(aq)          + SO42-(aq)




17.   Consider the solubility equilibrium:        CaCO3(aq) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
      An additional piece of solid CaCO3 is added to the equilibrium above. The rate of dissolving and the rate of
      crystallization have
                         Rate of Dissolving                Rate of crystallization
      A                  increases                         increases
      B                  increases                         not changed
      C                  not changed                       increased
      D                  not changed                       not changed

18.   At 25 oC, which of the following compounds would dissolve to form a saturated solution with the greatest
      [Pb2+]?
      A       PbI2
      B       PbCl2
      C       PbBr2
      D       Pb(IO3)2

19.   Consider the following anions:
      I       10.0 mL of 0.20 M Cl-
      II      10.0 mL of 0.20 M OH-
      III     10.0 mL of 0.20 M SO32-
      When 10.0 mL of 0.20 M Pb(NO3)2 are added to each of the above, precipitates form in

      A        I and II only
      B        I and III only
      C        II and III only
      D        I, II, and III
20.   Which of the following units could be used to describe solubility?
      A       g/s
      B       g/L
      C       M/L
      D       mol/s

21.   The solubility of SnS is 3.2 x 10-3 M. The value of the Ksp is
      A       1.0 x 10-5
      B       3.2 x 10-3
      C       6.4 x 10-3
      D       5.7 x 10-2

22.   Silver chloride, AgCl, would be least soluble in
      A        1.0 M HCl
      B        1.0 M NaNO3
      C        1.0 M ZnCl2
      D        1.0 M AgNO3

23.   The solubility of SrF2 is
      A       4.3 x 10-9
      B       6.6 x 10-5
      C       1.0 x 10-3
      D       1.6 x 10-

24.   The Ksp expression for a saturated solution of Ag2CO3 is
      A       Ksp = [Ag2+][CO32-]
      B       Ksp = [Ag+]2[CO32-]
      C       Ksp = [2Ag+][CO32-]
      D       Ksp = [2Ag+]2[CO32-]
25.   How many moles of solute are dissolved in 200.0 mL of a saturated solution of FeS?
      A       1.2 x 10-19
      B       6.0 x 10-19
      C       1.5 x 10-10
      D       7.7 x 10-10

26.   A solution contains both Ag+ and Mg2+ ions. During selective precipitation, these ions are removed one at a
      time by adding
      A        I- followed by OH-
      B        OH- followed by S2-
      C        SO42- followed by Cl-
      D        NO3- followed by PO43-

27.   Which of the following does not define solubility?
      A       the concentration of solute in a saturated solution
      B       the moles of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
      C       the maximum mass of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solution
      D       the minimum amount of solute required to produce one litre of saturated solution

28.   The ion concentrations in 0.25 M Al2(SO4)3 are
                       [Al3+]           [SO42-]
      A                0.25 M           0.25 M
      B                0.50 M           0.75 M
      C                0.75 M           0.50 M
      D                0.10 M           0.15 M
29.   Which of the following will not produce a precipitate when equal volumes of 0.20 M solutions are
      combined?
      A       KOH and SrCl2
      B       Zn(OH)2 and K3PO4
      C       Zn(OH)2 and (NH4)2S
      D       Na2SO4 and Pb(NO3)2

30.   What is observed when H2SO4 is added to a saturated solution of CaSO4?
      A        CaSO4(s) dissolves
      B        the [Ca2+] increases
      C        bubbles of H2 are given off
      D        additional CaSO4 precipitates

31.   The solubility of CdS is 2.8 x 10-14 M. The value of the Ksp is
      A       7.8 x 10-28
      B       2.8 x 10-14
      C       5.6 x 10-14
      D       1.7 x 10-7

32.   Consider the following solutions:   0.10 M Cl-         0.10 M Br-    0.10 M IO3-     0.10 M BrO3-

      Equal moles of AgNO3 are added to each solution. It is observed that a precipitate forms in all but one
      solution. Which solution does not form a precipitate?
      A         Cl-
      B         Br-
      C         IO3-
      D         BrO3-




33.   Consider the following equilibrium: 2O3(g) ⇄ 3O2(g) Keq = 65
      Initially, 0.10 mole O3 and 0.10 mole of O2 are placed in a 1.0 L container. Which of the following
      describes the changes in concentrations as the reaction proceeds to equilibrium?
                 [O3]                     [O2]
      A          decreases                decreases
      B          decreases                increases
      C          increases                decreases
      D          increases                increases

34.   Consider the following potential energy diagram for the reversible reaction.



          PE         140
          (KJ)
                     130



                    110



                                  Progress of the reaction

                                 Ea reverse (kJ)                     ΔH (kJ)
                A                 10                                             -20
                B                 10                                             -30
                C                 30                                             +10
                D                 20                                             +30

        35.     Increasing the temperature of a reaction increases the rate by
                I        increasing frequency of collision
                II       increasing the kinetic energy of collision
                III      decreasing the potential energy of collision
                A        I only
                B        I and II only
                C        II and III only
                D        I, II, and III

        36.     What is the Keq expression for the following equilibrium?
                Fe (s) + 4H2O(g) ⇄ Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)
                A        Keq = [H2]4
                B        Keq = [H2]
                                 [H2O]
                C        Keq = [H2]4
                                 [H2O]4
                D        Keq = [Fe3O4][H2]4
                                   [Fe]3[H2O]4
Subjective

1.      Write the net ionic equation representing the reaction that occurs when 50.0 mL of
        0.20 M ZnSO4 and 50.0 mL 0.20 M BaS are combined.


2.      A 100.0 mL sample of 0.600M Ca(NO3)2 is diluted by adding 400.0 mL of water. Calculate the
        concentrations of all of the ions.




3.      When 1.00 L of CaF2 was evaporated to dryness, 2.66 x 10-2 g of residue was formed. Calculate the Ksp.




4.      A maximum of 0.60 g Pb(NO3)2 can be added to 1.5 L of 0.100 M NaBr(aq) without forming a precipitate.
        Calculate the ksp of PbBr2.




5.      Consider the following solutions at 25 oC
Saturated AgCl(aq)                                                Saturated Ag2CO3(aq)
Using calculations, identify the solution with the greater [Ag +].

				
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