Appendix B
     Ebert Text - Pages 306-320
 What is Information Technology?
• The various “devices” for creating, storing,
  exchanging & using information in diverse
  modes, including visual images, voice,
  multimedia & business data
  Impact of Information Technology (IT)
              on Businesses
• Changed the structure of business organizations
  – altered the work forces in many companies (e.g. Air
    Canada Kiosk)
  – contributed in greater flexibility in dealing with
    customers (e.g. 1-800 also directs to web page)
  – changed the way that employees interact with each
    other (e.g. Blackberry)
Impact of Information Technology (IT)
     on Businesses (continued)
• The impact of the Internet on Marketing
• Creating portable offices: providing remote
  access to instant information
• Enabling better service by coordinating
  remote deliveries
• Creating leaner, more efficient organizations
• Enabled increased collaboration
• Enabling global exchange
Impact of Information Technology (IT)
     on Businesses (continued)
•   Improving management processes
•   Providing flexibility for customization
•   Providing new business opportunities
•   Improving the world & our lives
•   Social networking: providing a service
IT Building Blocks: Business Resources
• In addition to the internet & email, businesses
  have a wide variety of IT resources at their
  disposal including communication
  technologies, networks, hardware devices &
IT Building Blocks: Business Resources (continued)

• Communication Resources
   – The internet is a gigantic system of interconnected
     computers; these computers are connected by
     numerous applications utilizing different
     communications protocols
   – One of the most familiar internet protocols is
     hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) which is used for
     the World Wide Web (WWW)
   – WWW is a branch of the internet consisting of
     webpages & simple message transfer protocol (SMTP)
     & post office protocol (POP) which are used to send &
     receive email
       Communication Resources
• Internet2 is a response by scientists to the
  slowness of the internet speed & heavy traffic.
  The new internet is faster than the regular
  internet & is generally only available to
  universities, corporations & government
         Communication Resources
• Intranets – private internal networks that extend
  internet technology. These networks are accessible
  only to employees. Example an intranet may contain
  confidential information on benefits programs
• Extranets allow outsiders limited access to the
  companies intranet/internal network. Example buyers
  enter a system to see which products are available for
  sale & delivery (e.g. Walmart)
• Electronic conferencing allows groups of people the
  ability to communicate simultaneously from various
  locations via email, phone or video
 IT Building Blocks Business Resources
• Network System Architecture
  – A Computer Network – a group of two or more
    computers linked together to share data or resources
    such as a printer
  – Wide Area Network (WAN) – a group of computers
    that are linked over long distances – province wide or
    even nationwide through telephone lines, microwave
    signals or satellite communications
  – Local Area Network (LAN)– a group of computers that
    are linked in a smaller area such as an office or a
     IT Building Blocks Business Resources
   (Network System Architecture (continued)
• Wireless networks use airborne signals to link
  computers and devices. For example the Blackberry
• Hardware is the physical components such as
  keyboards, monitors, system units & printers
• Software is the programs that tells the computer
  how to function. Software includes system software
  such as the operating system & application software
  such as Microsoft Office
    Information Systems: Harnessing the
 Competitive Power of Information Technology

• An information system (IS) uses IT resources &
  enables managers to take data (raw facts) &
  turn data into information (meaningful, useful
  interpretation of data). The IS also collects,
  processes & transmits that information to be
  used by managers to make decisions
    Information Systems: Harnessing the
 Competitive Power of Information Technology
• Information systems managers operate the
  systems used for collecting, processing &
  transmitting information
• Chief information officers are responsible for
  managing all aspects of information resources
  & processes
• “Cloud” computing means placing some
  infrastructure online & having someone else
  run it rather than doing it in-house
    Information Systems: Harnessing the
 Competitive Power of Information Technology
• Data warehousing is the collection, storage &
  retrieval of data in electronic files
• Data mining – after collecting the information
  managers use data mining which is the
  application of electronic technologies to
  search, sift & reorganize pools of data to
  uncover useful information
    Information Systems: Harnessing the
 Competitive Power of Information Technology

Types of information systems
  – Transaction Processing System (TPS)
  – Management Information Systems (MIS)
  – Knowledge Information Systems
  – Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  – Artificial Intelligence Systems (AI)
  – Expert Systems
         IT Risks & Threats

IT has attracted abusers who are
intent on doing mischief with severity
ranging from mere nuisance to
outright destruction
     IT Risks & Threats (continued)
•   Hackers
•   Identity theft
•   Intellectual property theft
•   Computer viruses, worms & trojan horses
•   Spyware
•   Spam
        IT Protection Measures
• Security measures against intrusion & viruses
  are a constant challenge.
• Businesses guard themselves against
  intrusion, identity theft & viruses by using
  firewalls, special software & encryption.
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• Firewalls are security systems with special
  software or hardware devices designed to
  keep computers safe from hackers
• A firewall is located where two networks meet
  – for example, the internet & a company’s
  internal network
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• Preventing Identity Theft – a completely new
  identify verification system is needed to stop
  the rising tide of internet identify theft
    one possibility is an ‘Infocard’ which acts like a
    credit card & would allow websites to verify a
    customer’s identity without keeping personal
    information on the customer
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• Preventing viruses: anti-virus software
  – anti-virus software protect systems by searching
    incoming email & data files for “signatures” of
    known viruses & virus-like characteristics.
    Contaminated files are discarded or placed in
    quarantine for safekeeping
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• Protecting Electronic Communications:
  Encryption Software
  – works by scrambling an email message so that it
    looks like garbled nonsense to anyone who
    doesn’t possess the key
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• Avoiding Spam & Spyware
  – Anti-spyware
     • Webroot’s Spy Sweeper
     • Microsoft Windows Defender
  – Spam filtering software
     • internet service providers (ISPs) ban the spamming of
       ISP subscribers
IT Protection Measures (continued)
• While it is possible to catch a vast number of
  intrusions many threats remain
  – Schemes
     • fake websites, cell-phones & internet based phones

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