SCH3U exam topics

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					                                               SCH3U – Exam Review

Chapter 1
    Review of grade 10 (Bohr/Bohr-Rutherford diagrams, info from Periodic table
       (eg: protons + neutrons = atomic mass)
    Bohr model
    Modern atomic theory
    Quantum theory
    Electron configuration
    Trends in the periodic table

Chapter 2
    intramolecular forces (within a molecule)
          - ionic
          - covalent
             a) polar covalent bonds                  use electronegativity table
             b) nonpolar covalent bonds
    Lewis dot diagrams (shows valence electrons)
          - for ionic compounds (square brackets and charges)
          - for nonpolar covalent bonds (use “have”, “want”, “bonds”)
          - for polar covalent bonds (use “have”, “want”, “bonds”) – include partial positives and negatives
          - for polyatomic ions (square brackets, charge affects your “have”)
          - does it include a coordinate covalent bond?
    Shapes of molecules
          - is it a polar or nonpolar molecule? (use type of bonds and symmetry)
    Intermolecular forces (between molecules)
          - London dispersion forces (all molecules)
          - dipole-dipole forces (only in polar molecules)
          - hydrogen bonding (only in polar molecules between H and O, F or N)
    Naming compounds
          - molecular (use prefixes)
          - ionic
             a) basic
             b) multivalent (only have to know IUPAC names)
             c) polyatomic ions (per-ate, -ate, -ite, hypo-ite)
          - acids
             a) binary (hydro-ic acid)
             b) oxyacids (per-ic acid, -ic acid, -ous acid, hypo-ous acid)

Chapter 3
    Types of reactions
          - synthesis
          - decomposition
          - single displacement (look at the activity series to see if reaction occurs)
          - double displacement (3 types to have a reaction)
             a) precipitate formed (use the solubility table)
             b) gas produced
             c) neutralization reactions
          - combustion
          - for each equation, be able to write the:
             a) balanced equation
             b) total ionic equation
             c) net ionic equation
             d) identify spectator ions

Chapter 4
    isotopic abundance
    mole concept and molar mass
       calculating number of molecules/atoms/formula units
       percent composition
       empirical and molecular formulas

Chapter 5
    balancing chemical reactions
    stoichiometry (using the mole ratio)
    limiting and excess reagent
    percent yield
    percent difference (percent error)

Chapter 6
    percent concentrations
          - percent weight by volume
          - percent volume by volume
          - percent weight by weight
    very low concentrations (ppm)
    molar concentration
    converting from % concentration to molar concentration and vice versa
    dilutions of solutions

Chapter 7
    qualitative analysis
          - flame test
          - line spectrum
          - sequential qualitative analysis (flow chart – based on solubility)
    total and net ionic equations for single displacement reactions

Chapter 8
    ionization versus dissociation
    weak versus strong acid or base
    Arrhenius theory
    Revised Arrhenius theory
    Bronsted-Lowry concept
          - identify the acid, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base, and the conjugate acid/base pairs
    What it means to be amphiprotic
    Calculating pH or hydrogen ion concentration (be careful with significant digits)
    titration experiments

Chapter 9
    converting (pressures, temperatures, etc)
    gas laws
    ideal gas law

Chapter 10
    Dalton’s law of partial pressures
    molar volume
    gas stoichiometry (can use the ratio for volume of gases only)

What to bring to your exam
*there will be no sharing of materials AT ALL – you must bring all of your own items
- scientific calculator (no cell phones/MP3 players, etc)
- pencils
- eraser
- textbook (to return)

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