Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Productivity

VIEWS: 48 PAGES: 40

									TECHNOLOGY


             1
              Productivity
A university President has observed that
  education is one
of the few areas that has not improved
  productivity in
decades. He indicated that since Harvard, one
  of the
oldest and most prestigious universities in
  America was
                                                2
established, the teaching model has been one
    The Beginning of Change
With the advent of distance learning and the
development of powerful new teaching and
  learning
technologies, rapid technological changes are
  now taking
place in continuing education operations. There
  are still
significant points of resistance such as
                                                3
  tradition,
Failure to Automate Effectively

One of the most significant factors that
  prevents effective
use of the new technologies is the tendency to
  merely
automate old systems, without considering how
  new
systems can maximize learning by using totally
                                               4
  new
Changing Administrative Systems
 Changes in program delivery systems are
   also
 creating significant changes in
   administrative
 systems including:

  1.   on-line capabilities
  2.   marketing
  3.   registration                        5

  4.   payment methods
    Administrative Technology
Many technologies contribute to the efficiency of
  CE
activities. These include:
  1. automated management systems
  2. voice mail
  3. facsimile (FAX)
  4. wireless telephones

Creative people find ways to use all of these tools
  in the
operation of the CE program. For example,             6
    Lifelong Learning Systems
Integrated software systems are making significant
contributions to CE operations. These systems are
   often
referred to as lifelong learning systems. Some of the
   essential
elements of the packages include:

* A registration module that handles all registration
  options
  such as on-line, mail, and telephone
                                                    7
* A marketing module
      Lifelong Learning Systems
Lifelong Learning (continued)

* A financial module that includes accounting,
  financial analysis reports, tracking and evaluation

* A mail module of mail lists and mail processes

* A participant module with participant information,
  including financial history and participation by
  course

* A course module providing data for marketing         8
  staff, registration staff, and/or the customer
      Lifelong Learning Systems
Lifelong Learning (continued)

* An instructor module including specific information
  such as
  personal, financial, evaluation, and course history

* A location and facilities module

* Other modules designed for a specific applications

Many of these modules have previously been used,
  but the new
                                                 9
systems now have the capacity to move data from
     Technology Impacts the
     Organizational Structure
Adoption of such a system now only leads to
  changes in
the way we typically do things but eventually, will
  lead
to changes in the organization structure. For
   example, as
more activities become technology based, more
 staff will
be needed to provide technical support. These
  positions                                           10
Program Delivery Technologies
The rapid changes in program delivery
  technologies are in the
process of restructuring higher education as a
  whole,
including continuing education. These technologies
  have
changed what were once local captive markets to
  open
markets for programmers worldwide. They have
  created a
buyer’s market for many types of programs.        11
  Institutional
        Changing Investment
            Strategies
Dynamic CE programs are frantically trying to
  determine the
required investment in hardware and programming
  software
to effectively compete in the future. For example, a
   typical
electronic classroom may cost over $100,000. This
  contrasts
significantly with a room with desks, a blackboard
   and chalk.
                                                     12
       Changing Competition
Another serious side effect of the new
  technologies is the
entry of new players in the traditional continuing
  education
arena. The new technologies have opened the door
  for profit
oriented organizations from the communication,
entertainment, and business fields to compete with
universities for continuing education customers.

Individuals with expertise in program development13
              Improved Learning
These new delivery systems allow us to more effectively serve existing
markets and reach new markets. They also present opportunities for the
improvement of instruction by incorporating advanced presentation
systems. Kozma and Johnston described eight ways in which instructional
technology can support and improve learning. These included:


1. Enabling active engagement in the construction of knowledge
2. Making real world situations available
3. Providing representations in multiple modalities (e.g. 3-D, auditory,
    graphic, and text)


                                                                           14
                 Improved Learning
Improved Learning (continued)



4. Drilling basic concepts for mastery
5. Facilitating collaborative activity among students.
6. Seeing interconnections among concepts through hypertext
7. Learning to use the tools of scholarship
8. Simulating laboratory work



                                                          15
      Web-Based Instruction

This mode of instruction will eventually
 fulfill the
promise of offering training any place and
  any time.
In its most complex form, it offers almost
  all of the
forms of effective presentation such as
  video, text,                               16
          The Necessity of
         Team Development

Programmers for this mode of instruction
  require all of
the traditional program planning skills and
  added skills
in operating systems such as e-mail, Web
   browsers, Web
search engines, Web site development and
  editing, and
                                              17
presentation systems. Few current
           Cost Effectiveness
The new management skill that is required is the
  ability to
build and coordinate the efforts of these teams.
  Another factor
is that teams are expensive. Therefore, the cost of
   new
program development is astronomical. One
  estimate is one
month of development time per hour of instruction.
 It can
                                                    18
only be justified if it is assumed that large numbers
                 Marketing
After the program has been developed, the next
   hurdle is to
market it to a very large regional or global market.
   Few
universities have an image that is recognized
   globally and can
attract the large numbers of participants needed to
   cover the
investment in the program. This has led to
   consortium
activities like the Western Governor’s University
   and the                                         19
Southern Regional Education Board’s “Electronic
    Consolidation of Providers
The large investments required and necessary
  global
marketing may eventually result in a few large
  operations
being the sole providers of this type of
  programming.
Individual CE operations may be reduced to
  purchasing
wholesale and marketing these programs and
  traditional
program development of custom programs to        20
  limited
          Student Support
The Web necessitates new systems of
 student support
and administrative services. In some ways,
  these
services may even be more accessible than
  on-campus
services. Some institutions have
  programmed
                                             21
outstanding virtual campuses with every
   Interactive Video Instruction
The technology is based upon compressed video,
  either two
way or one-way, with an audio return from the
  students.
It requires a significant up-front investment and
   generates
high operating costs. Program development costs
  are
relatively low because instructors can teach in much
  the same                                         22
     Re-Inventing Universities
This methodology may eventually reshape the
 nature of
universities. In most states, public universities
  are now
tied together through landlines. This makes it
   possible
for instructors to teach to multiple campuses
  and
                                                    23
multiple classrooms. If this practice continues,
         Economies of Scale
At the global level, this mode of instruction
  can be
relatively economical for short courses and
  seminars
that attract relatively large audiences.
  Similar to
Web-based instruction, effective global
  marketing
becomes a problem. This has led to
  partnerships                                24
       Presentation Systems
The impact of new and powerful presentation
 systems
are not limited to courses by distance. When
  used
effectively, they are having a major impact
  upon
individual instruction. CE programmers
  should
                                              25
encourage and support their use in CE
          Components of the
           New Investments
The investment includes the acquisition of
 video
projection systems, computers, screens, and
  support staff
training. With the emphasis on visual
  presentations,
facilities may need adjustments in lighting and
  removal
of sight line barriers. One of the early issues to
                                                 26
    Principles of Good Practice
The Southern Regional Education Board, through their
Electronic Common Market (ECM) has developed the
following, Principles of Good Practice:

Basic Assumptions
1. The program or course offered electronically is provided
   by or through an institution that is accredited by a
   nationally-recognized accrediting body and authorized to
   operate in the state where the program or course originates.

                                                             27
        Principles of Good Practice
Basic Assumptions (continued)



2. The institution’s programs holding specialized accreditation
   meet the same requirements when offered electronically.

3. The institution may be a single institution or a consortium of
   institution.

4. These principles are generally applicable to degree or
   certificate programs and to courses offered for academic
   credit.
                                                               28
        Principles of Good Practice
Basic Assumptions (continued)



5. It is the institution’s responsibility to review educational
   programs and courses it provides electronically and certify
   continued compliance with these principles.

6. Participation in the Electronic Common Market will be
   coordinated by the appropriate state agency or organizations
   in the state where it is offered.

7. Institutions offering programs or for-credit courses are
   responsible for satisfying all in-state approval and
   accreditation requirements before students are enrolled.       29
        Principles of Good Practice

Basic Assumptions (continued)



8. Participating states agree to accept, in addition to other state
   regulations or policies, certification of compliance with the
   Principles of Good Practice by the offering institution and
   the state where the offering institution is located.

9. Priority shall be given in enrolling students for ECM courses
   and programs who are otherwise qualified residents of the
   SREB region.
                                                                  30
  Curriculum and Instruction
Each program or course of study results in learning
  outcomes
appropriate to the rigor and breadth of the degree
  or
certificate awarded.

* A degree or certificate program offered
  electronically is coherent and complete.

* The course provides for appropriate interaction
  between faculty and students and among            31
  students.
      Curriculum and Instruction
Curriculum and Instruction (continued)



* Qualified faculty will provide appropriate
  supervision of the program/course that is offered
  electronically.

* Academic standards for all programs or courses
  offered electronically will be the same as those for
  other programs or courses offered at the
  institution where the programs originate.

* Student learning in programs delivered
  electronically should be comparable to student
  learning in programs offered at the campus where
                                                 32
  the programs originate.
         Institution Context
          and Commitment
Role and Mission

* The program is consistent with the
  institution’s role and mission.

* Review and approval processes insure the
  appropriateness of the technology being used
  to meet program or course objectives.

                                             33
 Students and Student Services
* The program or course profiles students
  with clear, complete, and timely information
  about the curriculum, course and degree
  requirements, nature of faculty/student
  interaction, assumptions about
  technological competence and skills,
  technical equipment requirements,
  availability of academic support services,
  and financial aid resources, and costs and 34
  Students and Student Services
Student Services (continued)

* Enrolled students have reasonable and
  adequate access to the range of student
  services and student rights to support their
  learning.


* The institution has admission/acceptance
  criteria in place to assess whether the
  student has the background, knowledge,
  and technical skills required to under-take 35
  the course/program.
  Students and Student Services
Student Services (continued)




* Advertising, recruiting. and admissions
  materials clearly and accurately present
  the program and the services available.




                                             36
            Faculty Support
* The program provides faculty support services
  specifically related to teaching via an
  electronic system.

* The institution assures appropriate training for
  faculty who teach using technology.

* The program provides adequate equipment,
  software, and communications to faculty for
  interaction with students, institution, and
                                                 37
  other faculty.
     Commitment to Support

* Policies for faculty evaluation include
  appropriate recognition of teaching and
  scholarly activities related to programs or
  courses offered electronically.

* The institution demonstrates a commitment to
  ongoing support, both financial and technical,
  and to continuation of the program or course
  for a period sufficient for students to
  complete a degree or certificate.            38
   Evaluation and Assessment

* The institution evaluates program and course
  effectiveness, including assessment of
  student learning outcomes, student retention,
  and student and faculty satisfaction.

* At the completion of the program or course,
  the institution provides for assessment and
  documentation of student achievement in
  each course.
                                                39
      Evaluation and Assessment
Eval. & Assmt. (continued)



* Program or course announcements and
  electronic catalog entries provide
  appropriate information.

* Common standards based on the Principles of
  Good Practice are used to evaluate courses
  and programs offered through ECM.

                                            40

								
To top