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HEE469 Structure of Fashion Industries

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					             HEE469
  Structure of Fashion Industries


             Work Book




               Spring 2005
Department of Home Economics Education
            Korea University

    Professor: Yoon-Jung Lee, Ph.D.
Chapter 1.
From spinning machine to supply chain management


Objectives:
In this chapter students will learn:
 The technological developments in the textile and apparel industries.
 The history of the transition of the apparel industry from a craft industry to
    a factory-based industry.
 The historical basis for the emergence of the Quick Response philosophy.
 The forms of interindustry cooperation needed for the success of Quick
    Response strategies including supply chain management.


Chapter Summary:
        Since their beginning in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth
century, the textile and apparel industries have maintained an important place
in the American economy. Spurred by mechanization of spinning, weaving,
and sewing processes, the textile and apparel industries moved from craft
industries to factory-based industries. Immigrants provided the necessary
labor force for these growing industries.
        By the 1920s, ready-made apparel was available to most consumers.
Two types of apparel production were developed—modern, large factories
and small contractors who sewed piecework at home. The textile and apparel
industries emerged from the Great Depression of the 1930s with the need to
address growing and changing demands from consumers. Technological
advancements in synthetic fibers provided a new source of materials for
apparel. However, it was not until after World War II that these easy-care
fibers hit the American market.
        The 1950s saw growth and expansion of apparel companies, many
becoming large, publicly owned corporations. This growth continued through
the 1960s. However, as labor costs in the United States increased and
consumer demand for lower-cost clothing also increased, companies began
moving production outside the United States.
        As imports of textiles and apparel surged, the American industry
examined how it could increase productivity and global competitiveness. The
result of this analysis was the development of the Quick Response system,
an industrywide program made up of a number of strategies to shorten the
production time from raw fiber to the sale of a finished product to the ultimate
consumer. Quick Response strategies are seen in all segments of the textile,
apparel, and retailing industries. Interindustry cooperation through joint
research ventures, [TC2], interindustry linkage councils, the Crafted with Pride
in USA Council, and the American Textile Partnership have increased the
effectiveness of Quick Response strategies. Enhanced information
technology has allowed for increased partnerships throughout the soft goods
pipeline. Supply change management encompasses these information-
sharing processes to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the textile
and apparel industries.


                                                                               1
       18 세기 산업혁명으로 시작된 의류직물산업은 그 후 지속적으로 미국
경제에서 중요한 위치를 차지하여 왔다. 방적, 직조, 재봉 과정의 기계화로 인하여
발전이 가속화 되어, 의류직물산업은 수공산업으로부터 공장화된 산업으로
발전하였다. 외국으로부터의 이민자들은 이들 성장산업에서 필요로 했던 노동력을
공급하는 역할을 하였다.
       1920 년대에 와서는 대부분의 소비자들이 기성복을 살 수 있게 되었다. 의류
생산 형태는 (극단적인) 두가지 형태로 발전하였는데, 이는 현대적 대형 공장과
천조각을 이어 붙이는 단순한 형태의 가내수공업이었다. 의류직물산업은
1930 년대의 대공황을 통해 변화하는 소비자들의 증가된 수요에 대응하면서
발전하였다. 합성섬유의 기술적 진보로 새로운 의복재료가 제공되었으나, 제 2 차
세계대전 이후가 되어서야 관리가 용이한 이런 합성섬유들이 미국시장에 영향을
미치기 시작하였다.
       1950 년대에 의류회사들이 수적으로 증가하고 확대되었으나, 많은
의류회사들이 대형 공기업으로 발전하였다. 이런 성장은 1960 년대를 거쳐
계속되었다. 그러나, 미국내에서의 임금이 상승하고 동시에 저가 의복에 대한
소비자들의 수요가 증가하면서, 의류회사들은 미국 밖으로 생산공장을 이전하기
시작하였다.
       섬유류의 수입이 증가하자, 미국 의류산업은 생산성과 국제 경쟁력을
향상시킬 방법을 모색하게 되었다. 이 분석의 결과는 Quick Response system 의
개발이었다. Quick Response 전략은 원사로부터 최후 소비자에게 완성품이
판매되기까지의 생산시간을 최소화시키는 여러 전략들로 이루어진 산업전반에 걸친
프로그램으로, 섬유, 의류, 소매업의 모든 분야에서 이용되고 있다. Joint research
ventures, [TC2], interindustry linkage councils, the Crafted with Pride in USA
Council, and the American Textile Partnership 등을 통한 여러 산업연계활동은
Quick Response 전략의 효율성을 증가시켰다. 정보기술의 발전은 섬유의류제품
생산체계 전반에 걸친 파트너쉽을 가능하게 하였고, 의류직물산업의 효율성과
유효성을 증가시켜주기 위한 정보공유과정을 공급체인관리체계 (Supply Chain
Management)라고 한다.


Key Terms:
Cotton gin                              Spinning mills
Mass production                         Sundries
Power loom                              Apparel
Quick Response (QR)                     Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Ready-to-wear (RTW)                     Voluntary Interindustry Commerce
Sewing machine                              Standards Association (VICS)
Size standards




                                                                             2
Lecture Outline (session 1):

I. 1789-1890: Mechanization
Technology/Production
       Spinning
       Weaving
       Cotton picking
       Sewing machine
       Motorized cutting
       Paper patterns
       Size standards


Socialchange
      Demand for RTW
      Demand for simpler styles


Retailing
      Dept.   Stores

Sweatshops
Originally referred to the system of contractors and subcontractors whereby
work was ―sweated off.‖
Now, it is associated with the dismal conditions of home factories, where the
contract workers sew clothing, and with the long hours, unclean and unsafe
working conditions, and low pay of contract sewing factories

II. 1890-1950: RTW Industry
Product
       Synthetic fibers
       Zipper


Social   change
      Immigrants
      Labor   Unions
      Movies


Retailing
      Outdoor     Shopping Mall

          events
tastrophic
      World Wars
      Great Depression




Production/Technology
      Brand Names
      Specialized sewing




                                                                             3
       Sub-contracting
       TradeOrganizations
       Mass communication
            Fashion magazines, Trade publications, Radio, Fashion shows


III. 1950-1980: Diversification
Social change
        Sportswear
        Teen fashions
        Designer Brand RTW
        US Designer Brands


Product
       Easy   care Synthetic Fibers

Technology
       Printing   & dyeing
       Computers


Retailing
       Suburban     shopping
       Discount    retailing

Organization
       Publicownership
       VerticalIntegration
       Increased Imports


Discussion Questions:
   A. How has the US textile and apparel industry become the largest and
      most productive in the world?




   B. Menswear RTW developed faster than women RTW. Why?




   C. What was the negative consequence of mass manufacturing?




                                                                           4
Lecture Outline (session 2):

IV. 1980-Present
Production/Technology
       Efficiency
              Quick Response
              Personal computers


Retailing
       Catalogs
       TV shopping
       Internet shopping


Organization
      Partnerships
      Cooperation
      Vertical   integration

Marketing
      Image
      Mass   communication


Quick Response
Management systems & business strategies that reduce time between fiber
production and sale to ultimate consumer.
      Increase speed of design & production
      Increase efficiency of inter-firm communication
      Reduce time in inventory
      Decrease replenishment time
      Encourage partnership
      Promote responsiveness to consumer demand


Cooperation & Partnerships
Partnerships have emerged to foster trust & cooperation.
          2
      TC : Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation
             Originally focused on men’s tailored clothing industry
             Reduce labor costs by increasing computer automation
      Inter-Industry Linkage Councils
             VICS (the Voluntary Inter-Industry Communications Standards
             Committee):
                    Promote use of UPC system, EDI (electronic data
                    interchange), SCM (shipping container marking)
             TALC (Textile/Apparel Linkage Council), SAFLINC (Sundries
             and Apparel Findings Linkage Council):
             FASLINC (Fabric and Suppliers Linkage Council):




                                                                            5
      Craftedwith pride in U.S.A. Council
             Toconvince consumers, retailers, and apparel manufacturers
           of the value of purchasing and promoting US made products
           Communicate to consumers to buy American products
      Other Examples of Industry Partnerships
           AIM, Inc.
                  Represents the manufacturers, providers and users of
                  automatic identification and data collection (AIDC)
                  products
           AmTex
                  American Textile Partnership
                  Collaborative research and development program
                  among the industry, federal agencies and universities
           ApparelSearch.com
                  Comprehensive search site for topics related to the
                  textiles and apparel industry

Beyond QR: Supply Chain Management
Two forces:
      Recognized need for and importance of additional partnerships
     among companies throughout the soft goods pipeline
      advances in information technology


SCM comprises the ―collection of actions required to coordinate and
manage all activities necessary to bring a product to market, including
procuring raw materials, producing goods, transporting and distributing those
goods and managing the selling process.
        Goals to reduce inventory, shorten the time for raw material to
       become a finished product in the hands of a consumer, and provide
       better service to the consumer
        Collaboration, trust, and dependability are essential
        Sharing of forecasting, point-of-sale data, inventory information, and
       information about changes in supply/demand for material/products

Discussion Questions:
   A. In your own words, define what QR is.


   B. Why would a textile or apparel manufacturer want to adopt QR
      strategies?



   C. What technological developments have led to supply chain
      management?




                                                                                  6
Chapter 2.
Business and legal framework of textile and apparel companies


Objectives:
 To survey forms of business ownership
 To define terminology related to business organization
 To examine forms of competition among businesses within the textile and
  apparel complex
 To explore the concept of licensing and how textiles and apparel
  companies use licensing agreements
 To identify and describe the federal laws that can affect textile and apparel
  companies.


Lecture outline:
Depending on the objectives, needs, and size of textile and apparel
companies, they are owned as sole proprietorships, partnerships, or
corporations. The advantages and disadvantages of each form of business
ownership are related to the ease of formation and dissolution (advantage of
sole proprietorship and partnership and disadvantage of corporations), the
degree of liability owners have for business debts (advantage of corporations
and disadvantage for sole proprietorship and partnerships), and operational
strategies (some advantages or disadvantages for each form of ownership).
Each company, whether a sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation,
competes with other companies on the basis of price, quality, innovation,
service, or a combination of these factors. Within the textile and apparel
industries the competitive strategies include pure competition (e.g., textile
commodities), oligopolies (e.g., athletic shoe industry), and monopolistic
competition, the most common of the three. In monopolistic competition,
although companies compete in terms of product type (denim jeans), the
specific product attributes of any one company (Levi’s jeans) are perceived as
different from the product attributes of other companies (Guess? Jeans,
Calvin Klein jeans).
Companies create this perceived difference through product differentiation,
advertising, licensing programs, private label merchandise, or services offered.
In licensing programs, the owner (licensor) of a particular name, image, or
design (property) sells the right to use the name, image, or design to another
party, typically a manufacturer (licensee), for payment of royalties. For
example, Hartmarx pays Tommy Hilfiger royalties for the use of the Tommy
Hilfiger name on a line of men’s tailored clothing. Tommy Hilfiger controls the
design, distribution, and presentation of the products; Hartmarx controls the
production. A licensing contract outlines the terms of the licensing agreement.
Licensing programs can be advantageous to both licensors and licensees in
terms of expanding product lines and exposures. Possible disadvantages
include market saturation and problems in timing of the release of the product.
To get merchandise to the consumer, direct, limited, and extended marketing



                                                                              7
channels are used by businesses that perform manufacturing, wholesaling,
and retailing functions. In conventional marketing channels, separate
companies perform these functions; in vertical marketing channels, a single
company performs multiple functions.
A number of federal laws affect businesses in the textile and apparel
industries. Laws related to patents, trademarks, and copyrights protect the
identity, inventions, and designs of designers and companies. For example, a
textile designer’s fabric design is protected by the copyright law so that others
cannot legally copy it. Laws have also been established that relate to how
companies must run their businesses, including requirements regarding
competition, international trade, protecting consumers, protecting the
environment, and employment practices.

    의류직물산업은 그 목적과 필요와 크기에 따라 자영사업, 합자회사, 주식회사
등으로 나뉠 수 있다. 회사의 소유권의 각 형태의 장단점은 형성과 해체의 용이성
(자영사업과 합자회사의 장점이자 주식회사의 단점), 사업상 부채에 대한 소유주의
책임배당 (주식회사의 장점이자 자영사업과 합자회사의 단점), 그리고 운영전략 (각
소유권 형태에 대해 장단점이 조금씩 존재함)과 관련된다.
자영업이든, 합자회사든, 주식회사든, 각 회사는 가격, 품질, 혁신, 서비스, 또는 이
요인들의 조합을 가지고 다른 회사와 경쟁한다. 의류직물산업내에서의 경쟁형태는
완전경쟁 (예를 들어, 섬유류 1 차산품들), 과점 (예, 운동화), 그리고 독점적 경쟁이
있다. 이 중 가장 흔한 형태인 독점적 경쟁의 경우, 회사들은 같은 종류의 상품
(청바지)에 대하여 경쟁하지만, 각 회사의 제품 (예, 리바이스 진)의 특성은 다른
회사들의 제품 (게스 진, 캘빈클라인 진)의 특성과는 다르게 지각된다.
회사들은 상품차별화, 광고, 라이센싱, 점포상표개발, 또는 서비스의 차별화를
통하여 이런 지각된 차이를 만들어 낸다. 라이센싱의 경우, 특정한 이름, 이미지,
또는 디자인 (재산)의 소유주 (라이센서)는 그 이름, 이미지, 또는 디자인을 사용할
권리를 다른 회사, 보통은 제조업자 (라이센시)에게 로얄티를 받고 판다. 예를
들어서, 하트막스는 타미힐피거에게 로얄티를 지불하고 자신들의 남성 정장 라인에
타미힐피거의 이름을 이용한다. 타미힐피거는 디자인, 유통, 상품 전시를 총괄하고,
하트막스는 생산을 관리한다. 라이센싱 계약서는 라이센싱 협의 내용에 대한 개요를
제시한다. 라이센싱 프로그램은 라이센서나 라이센시 양자에게 상품라인을
확장시키고 노출을 증가시킬 수 있다는 점에서 이득이 된다. 단점으로는 시장
포화의 가능성과 상품출시의 시기와 관련되는 문제들이 있을 수 있다.
상품을 소비자들에게 전달하는 방법으로, 직접, 제한적, 또는 확장적 마케팅 경로가
제조업자, 도매상, 소매상의 역할을 하는 기업들에 의해 이용된다. 전통적인 마케팅
경로에서는, 이런 역할들을 개별 회사들이 담당했었으나, 수지적 마케팅 경로에서는
한 회사가 다양한 역할을 수행한다.
많은 종류의 (연합정부의) 법률들이 의류직물산업을 하는 기업들에 영향을 미친다.
특허권, 상표, 저작권 등과 관련되는 법률들은 디자이너들과 회사의 정체성, 발명,
디자인 등을 보호한다. 예를 들어, 직물 디자이너의 직물 디자인은 다른 사람들이
합법적으로 복사할 수 없도록 저작권법의 보호를 받는다. 경쟁, 국제 무역, 소비자
보호, 환경 보호, 고용 행위 등에 대한 필수조건들을 포함하여 회사들의 기업을
어떻게 운영을 해야 하는가를 설명하는 법률들 또한 확립되어 있다.




                                                                                8
Key Terms:
Board of directors               Monopoly
Conglomerate                     Multichannel distribution
Consolidation                    Multinational corporation
Conventional marketing channel   Oligopoly
Copyright                        Partnership
Corporation                      Patent
Counterfeit goods                Private corporation
Direct marketing channel         Private label
Dividends                        Publicly held corporation
Dual distribution                Pure competition
Extended marketing channel       Sole proprietorship
General partner                  Stockholder
Leveraged buyout (LBO)           Store brand
Licensing                        Takeover
Limited liability                Title flow
Limited marketing channel        Trade dress
Limited partnership              Trademark
Marketing channel                Unlimited liability
Merger                           Vertical marketing channel
Monopolistic competition




                                                              9
Lecture outline:
I. Types of business organizations and company ownership:
     A. Sole proprietorship: most common
     Examples: _____________________________________________

          1. Advantages:
               a. Only a few business documents necessary
               b. Easy to dissolve
               c. Control and flexibility
          2. Disadvantages:
               a. Personally liable
               b. Need expertise in all areas
               c. Need to raise capital

     B. Partnership: Limited partnership

          1. Advantages
               a. Pool resources
               b. Advancement for employees
          2. Disadvantages:
               a. Liability exposure
               b. Potential for disagreement

     C. Corporations: the most complex form
         1. Types:
              a. Public: _________________________________________

               b. Private: ________________________________________

          2. Advantages:
               a. Easier to raise capital.
               b. Ownership easily transferred.
               c. Limited liability
          3. Disadvantages:
               a. Expensive legal work
               b. Corporate taxes

II. Terms associated with company expansion and diversification:
      A. Merger: blend one company into another (A+B = A or B)

     B. Consolidation: Two companies join together to make third (A+B = C)

     C. Take over: merger or consolidation

     D. Leveraged buyout: stock purchased by group

     E. Conglomerate: diversified companies


                                                                             13
III. Forms of Competition:
       A. Monopoly




     B. Oligopoly




     C. Monopolistic competition




     D. Pure competition




IV. Licensing: selling the right to use an image or design
      A. Types of licensed goods:
           1. Character licensing
           2. Corporate licensing
           3. Designer name
           4. Celebrity name
           5. Nostalgia licensing
           6. Sports and collegiate licensing
           7. Events and festivals
           8. Licensing of the arts

     B. Development of licensed products
         1. Creation or image or design
         2. Exposure by media
         3. Marketing of the product
         4. Production by manufacturers
         5. Distribution by retailers.
         6. Consumer’s identification/demand

     C. The licensing contract should include:
          1. Time limit
          2. Royalty payment
          3. Specifying graphics
          4. Marketing and distribution clause
          5. Quality level


                                                             14
           6. Agreements
           7. Guaranteed minimum amount of loyalty

     D. Advantages of licensing:
          1. Recognition(Brand identification)
          2. Have others produce goods
          3. Lucrative for both parties

    E. Disadvantages of licensing:
          1. Saturation of market
          2. Loss of control
V. Marketing channels
    A. Structural designs
          1. Direct Marketing Channel: M-C
          2. Limited Marketing Channel:M-R-C
          3. Extended Marketing Channel: M-W-R-C or M-W-J-R-C

     B. Marketing channel integration
         1. Conventional Marketing Channel:


           2. Vertical Marketing Channel:


           3. Dual( Multi-Channel) Distribution:


     C. Marketing Channel Flows




VI. Laws affecting the textiles and apparel industries
      A. Laws affecting personal property
           1. Patents


           2. Trademarks


           3. Copyrights




                                                                15
     B. Federal laws:                         Agency:
          1. Fair competition                 FTC


          2. International trade              US Customs


          3. Environmental practices          EPA


          4. Consumer protection              FTC


          5. Employment practices             Dept. of Labor


Discussion Question:
Currently, textile designs and prints are protected by copyrights from illegal
copying, but apparel designs of the garment itself are not protected in the
United States. Do you think that apparel designs should also be covered under
copyright law? Why or why not? Justify your response.




                                                                             16
Chapter 3.
Structure of the US textile industry

Objectives:
 To understand the importance of knowledge of textiles for successful design,
  production, and marketing of apparel and home fashions
 To define terms used in describing textiles and textiles manufacturing
 To understand the organization and operation of the domestic textile
  industry
 To examine the processing and marketing of natural and manufactured
  fibers, yarns and fabrics
 To explore current developments in the textile industry including textile trade,
  Quick response strategies, and environmental issues.

Chapter Summary:

The textile industry includes companies that contribute to the four basic stages
of textile production: fiber processing, yarn spinning, fabric production, and
fabric finishing. Some companies specialize in one or more of the production
processes; vertically integrated companies handle all four. Both natural and
manufactured fibers are processed in the United States. Natural fibers
produced in the United States include cotton, wool, and mohair and other
specialty fibers. Leather and fur, also produced in the United States, are
considered natural fiber products. Natural fibers are commodities bought and
sold on international markets and are generally promoted by trade associations
that focus on specific fibers. These trade associations encourage the use of the
various natural fibers through such activities as market research, advertising,
and consumer education programs.
Manufactured fibers are typically produced by large chemical companies. They
are marketed either as commodity fibers or brand name (trademarked) fibers,
such as Lycra spandex fiber or Dacron polyester fiber. Brand name fibers are
advertised by companies in order to create consumer awareness and
preference for the specific fibers. Trade associations are also involved in
promoting manufactured fibers.
Textile companies are often involved in determining the colors to be used in
end-use products. Through the process of color forecasting, color palettes are
selected and translated into fabrics produced by a company for a specific
fashion season. Color forecasts are available from nonprofit service
organizations, such as the Color Association of the United States, or from color-
forecasting services. Companies may also conduct their own color forecasting.
Textile mills focus on fabric production and sell greige goods; some textile mills
will finish the fabric as well. Textile design invokes the interrelationships among
color (e.g., dyeing, printing), fabric structure (e.g., woven, knitted), and finishes


                                                                                  17
(e.g., napping, embossing). Textile converters specialize in fabric finishing.
They buy greige goods and finish the fabric according to textile mills’, apparel
manufacturers’, or retailers, specifications. Other fabric resources include textile
jobbers, textile brokers, and fabric retail stores. Through quality assurance
programs, textile mills, apparel manufacturers, and retailers test textiles
according to standards for end-use products. Textile mills and conveners
market their textile fabrics as fall/winter and spring/summer seasonal lines in
showrooms and at textile trade shows held throughout the world.
In order to compete successfully in a global economy, the U.S. textile industry
has invested in new technology to increase the productivity of textile mills and
improve communication among textile mills, their suppliers, and their customers.
These investments in technology are part of the soft goods industry’s Quick
Response and supply chain management strategies, designed to shorten the
time from fiber to finished product.
The textile industry is addressing environmental concerns through
manufacturing and by making available to consumers products that include
organic or recycled materials, are produced with less-toxic materials such as
low-impact dyes, use less water in production, or have incorporated other
environmentally responsible processes.

직물산업은 1) 섬유 처리공정, 2) 방적, 3) 직물생산, 4) 직물 후처리의 기본 4 단계의
직물생산과정에 기여하는 회사들로 이루어져 있다. 어떤 회사들은 이 중 하나 이상의
생산과정을 전문적으로 취급하고, 수직적으로 통합된 회사들은 4 가지를 모두 다
다루기도 한다. 미국에서는 천연섬유와 인조섬유 가공을 모두 다룬다. 미국에서
생산되는 천연섬유에는 면, 모와 모헤어 등의 특수섬유가 있다. 가죽과 모피도
생산하는데, 이들도 천연섬유제품으로 분류된다. 천연섬유는 국제시장에서 사고파는
1 차 산품으로 주로 특정섬유를 위해 조직된 동업 조합들이 이들의 홍보를 담당한다.
이들 동업 조합들은 마케팅 조사, 광고, 소비자 교육 프로그램 등을 통하여 천연섬유의
다양한 사용을 장려한다.
인조섬유는 주로 큰 화학 회사들이 생산한다. 인조섬유는 미가공 섬유로서 또는
Lycra 스판덱스 섬유, Dacron 폴리에스테르 섬유 등의 상표명을 붙이고 판매된다.
제조업체들은 특정섬유에 대한 소비자들의 인지도와 선호를 창출하기 위해 상표
섬유를 광고한다. 인조섬유부문에서도 동업 조합들이 섬유의 홍보를 하기도 한다.
어떤 경우에는 직물회사들이 최종상품의 색상을 결정하는 데 관여하기도 한다. 색채
예측 과정을 통해서, 색상표 (color palette)가 결정되고, 이를 응용하여 각 회사에서
특정 패션시즌에 생산할 직물의 색상이 만들어진다. 색채예측정보는 미국 색채 협회
등과 같은 비영리단체로부터, 또는 색채예측 전문회사에 의해 제공된다. 어떤
회사들은 자체적인 색체예측을 실시하기도 한다.
방직공장은 직물 생산과 미가공직물의 판매를 주업무로 한다. 어떤 방직공장은
직물후처리공정도 취급한다. 텍스타일 디자인은 색채 (염색, 인쇄 등), 직물 구조
(직물, 편물 등), 그리고 후처리 (냅핑이나 엠보싱 등)와 밀접한 관련이 있다.
직물가공업자들은 직물 후처리를 전문적으로 다룬다. 그들은 미가공직물을 구매하여
방직공장, 의류 제조업자, 또는 소매업자들의 명세서에 따라 후처리를 한다. 다른 직물


                                                                                 18
공급업자들로는 직물 도매업자, 직물 중개인, 그리고 직물 소매상 등이 있다. 방직공장,
의류 제조업자, 그리고 소매업자들은 품질관리 프로그램을 통해 최종 상품의 용도에
따르는 기준에 근거하여 직물을 검사한다. 방직공장과 직물가공업자들은 가을/겨울,
봄/여름 시즌에 따라 직물을 쇼룸 또는 전세계의 상품전시회에 내 놓는다.
세계시장에서 성공적으로 경쟁하기 위하여, 텍스타일 산업은 방직공장에서의
생산성을 증대시키고 방직공장과 그들의 공급자나 소비자들과의 커뮤니케이션을
개선하기 위한 새로운 기술에 투자해 왔다. 이런 기술에 대한 투자는 연성제품 산업의
QR 과 SCM 의 일환으로 섬유로부터 가공이 끝난 상품에 이르기까지의 시간을
줄이도록 개발되었다.
텍스타일 산업은 제조과정 전반에 걸쳐 환경문제에 대하여 관심을 기울이고, 유기
재배되거나 재활용된 재료를 이용하거나, 인체에 대한 영향이 적은 염료로 만들어져
독성이 약하거나, 물을 적게 사용하여 생산되거나 환경친화적 공정을 이용하여
만들어진 상품을 소비자들에게 제공하고 있다.


Key Terms:
Color stories             Quality control
Converted goods           Spun yarn
Cotton                    Textile
Fabric construction       Textile converter
Fiber                     Textile jobber
Filament yarns            Textile mills
Finished goods            Textile testing
Finishing                 Throwsters
Generic family            Trade association
Greige goods              Trade name
Hide                      Trade show
Horizontally integrated   Vertically integrated
Mohair                    Wool
Pelt                      Yarns
Quality assurance




                                                  19
Lecture outline:

I. Terminology
   A. Textiles: Any product made from fibers

   <Textile Production Procedure>

                    Fiber processing



                      Yarn spinning



                   Fabric production



                     Fabric finishing


   B. Fibers: Basic unit used in making textile yarns and fabrics
      - Natural Fibers:
      - Manufactured Fibers:

   C. Yarns: Collection of fibers or filaments laid or twisted together to form
      continuous strand strong enough for use
      - spun yarns – made of shorter, staple fibers
      - filament yarns – made form long, continuous fibers

   D. Fabrics: Thin & flexible planar structure of sheet material by
      arrangement of yarns or fibers
      - Fabric construction process:
          i.  from solutions (film, foam)
         ii.  from fibers (felt, nonwovens)
        iii.  from yarns (knits, wovens, lace)

   E. Finishing:
      - Types of fabric by ―finish‖:
          i.  Greige goods: no finishing treatments applied
         ii.  Converted/finished goods: finishing treatments applied
      - Types of finishing:
        iii.  Finished: chemical, mechanical or other treatments
        iv.   Dyed: colorant uniformly distributed on yarns or fabric
         v.   Printed: design printed on fabric in localized areas




                                                                                  14
II. Textile Industry Procedure
    A. Fiber Processing
       1.     Throwsters
              - Modify (filament) yarns for specific end use
       2.     Fiber Processor
              - Preparing natural fibers for yarn spinning
                e.g. cotton, wool

    B.    Yarn Spinning (Yarn Mills)

    C.    Leather & Fur Processing
               - Usually luxury products
               - Related to issues of animal rights

         1.    Tanning (leather): the process of finishing leather, making the
               skins and hides pliable and water resistant. Use various agents
              1)    Pelts: the unshorn skins of an animal used in making
                    leather and fur
              2)    Skins: <= 15
              3)     Kips: 15 < pelts weighing <25 pounds
              4)     Hides: >= 25 pounds

         2.    Tawning (fur) : tanning process for fur

    D.    Marketing and Distribution of Fibers
         1.  Natural Fibers
              - Natural fibers are commodities – prices based on market
                  demand
              - Trade associations: initiated marketing efforts for natural
                  fibers to combat synthetic fibers. Promote use of natural
                  fibers with research, educational programs and advertising.
                  Supported by natural fiber producers.

         2.    Manufactured fibers
                - Manufactured fibers produced often by vertically integrated
                  companies. Prices set by cost of developing and producing
                  fiber – may be commodity or brand-name fibers.
                - Licensed/controlled brand-name programs set minimum
                  standards of performance for trademarked fibers.

    E.    Color Forecasting (Color Forecasting companies or textile mills)
         1.   Color
            1)     an integral part of (textile) product development
            2)     key consumer choice criteria
            3)     usually applied at textile production stage, so textile
                   companies often involved in determining colors for end-use
                   products




                                                                             15
     2.    Color Forecasts
          1)    Presented in color palettes or color stories (combined into
                prints, yarns, fabrics, and products)
          2)    By color forecasting companies or textile manufacturing
                companies

     3.    Color Associations
            - Determine general color palettes. Companies may conduct
               their own color forecasting, based on information from
               various forecasting services, previous color sales
               information, and general consumer and industry trends.
                  CAUS, ICA
                  Color Association of US, International color authorit

F.    Fabric Production & Sales of Greige Goods (Textile Mills)
     1.  Types of Fabric Construction
        1)     Knitting: yarns intermeshed
        2)     Weaving: yarns interlaced
        3)     Other
               i.    Twisting & knotting: yarns intertwined
               ii.   Non-woven: yarns are entangled & bonded

     2.    Sales of Greige Goods
            - greige goods – unfinished fabrics, sold as is to
               manufacturers, or to converters, who finish goods mills sell
               staple or specialty fabrics

     3.    Current Trend:
          1)    Increased capital expenditures for new technology
          2)    Usually vertically integrated

G.    Textile Designers
     1.  Designing yarns, fabrics
     2.  Designing: Combination of artistic, technical and business-
         minded
     3.  Color (dying, printing)
     4.  Structure design (knitting, weaving)
     5.  Finishing design
     6.  Use of CAD

H.    Textile Finishing (Textile Converters)
     1.  Source ―greige goods‖ and finish fabrics (only)
     2.  Mostly headquartered in NYC
     3.  Play key role of in analyzing and responding to consumer
         preferences




                                                                          16
    I.   Distribution of Textiles
               - Jobbers, Textile brokers, Retailers, online fabric retailers…
    J.   Textile Testers
               - American Society for testing Material
               - American Association and Textile Chemists and Colorists

    K.   Trade Associations
            - Represents Fibers, yarns, fabrics, products
            - Roles:
                i. Assist with research, marketing, licensing, government
                      relations & produce publications……
                ii. Advertising textiles using co-operative advertising (Hang
                      Tags: Cotton seal, Woolmark, etc.)
                iii. Customer service
                iv. Education, technical advice (Textile library)
                v. International trade policy
                vi. Environment, technical issues
                vii. Hangtags
                viii. Textile library
            - Examples: Cotton Incorporated, Wool Bureau, AFMA, etc.


III. Environmental & Social Issues
     • Environmentally friendly products
     • Socially responsible strategies
     • Green marketing
     • 3 R’s (reuse, recycle & reduce)

Check Your Understanding:
1. Trace the production steps of cotton and polyester blend men’s casual
   shirt. Begin with the fiber production and continue through production and
   marketing. What would the approximate time frame be for this process?



2. Define the following terms:
   a. Fiber

   b. Greige goods

   c. Textile Converters




                                                                             17
Chapter 4.
Ready-to-Wear: Company Organization

Objectives:
 To compare ready-to-wear with Haute Couture
 To describe various types of ready-to-wear companies
 To discuss organizational structures of apparel companies
 To examine merchandising philosophies of apparel companies
 To describe trade associations and trade publications in the apparel
  industry.

Chapter Summary:

         Most of the apparel produced and sold is considered ready-to-wear
(RTW); that is, it is completely made and ready to be worn at the time of
purchase. RTW apparel is possibly because of standardized sizing and mass
production techniques used in the apparel industry. Apparel companies
typically produce four to six lines or collections corresponding to the fashion
seasons: spring, summer, fall I, fall II, holiday, and resort. It is important to
note the distinctions between RTW and couture. In couture, garments are
made to the specific body measurements of an individual rather than to
standardized sizes found in RTW. In addition, couture garments are generally
made with some hand techniques and from more expensive materials than
RTW. Haute couture collections are shown twice per year (in July and
January) to the press, others in the fashion industry, and wealthy clients.
         Based on their organization and operations, RTW apparel companies
fall into the following categories: conventional manufacturers, jobbers,
contractors, and licensors. Apparel companies are also classified according to
the type of merchandise they produce, the wholesale price zones of their
products or brands, and by the North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) established by the government.
         A typical apparel company includes areas or divisions that focus on the
following activities: merchandising; design development; sales and marketing;
production; planning; control, and distribution; advertising and sales
promotion; and finance and information technology. Apparel merchandisers
set the overall direction for the merchandise assortment and work closely with
the other divisions of the company that carry out the design, production,
marketing, and distribution of the goods. Companies vary in their
merchandising philosophies from those of design-driven companies to those
of real-time merchandisers.
         A number of trade associations in the apparel industry promote,
conduct market research, sponsor trade shows, and develop and distribute
education materials related to various segments of the apparel industry.
Examples include the American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA),
Men’s Apparel Guild in California (MAGIC International), and the
Underfashion Club. A number of trade publications focus on the apparel
industry and are of use by professionals in the RTW industry. Examples



                                                                               18
include Women’s Wear Daily, DNR, and Bobbin Magazine.

     오늘날 생산되고 판매되는 대부분의 의류제품들은 기성복이라고 할 수 있다.
즉, 구매시점에 이 제품들은 완성되어 당장 입을 수 있는 형태라는 것이다. 기성복은
의류산업에서 이용되는 표준치수와 대량 생산 기술로 가능하게 되었다.
의류회사들은 보통 패션 시즌 (봄, 여름, 가을 1, 가을 2, 겨울, 휴가철)에 상응하는 4
- 6 개의 라인 또는 콜렉션을 제작한다. 기성복과 쿠튀르와의 차이를 이해하는 것은
중요한 일이다. 쿠튀르에서는 기성복처럼 표준치수에 맞춰서 옷을 제작하는 것이
아니라 개인의 특정한 신체 치수에 맞춰서 의복을 만든다. 게다가 쿠튀르 의복은
수작업으로 제작되고 기성복보다는 값비싼 재료로 만들어진다. 오뜨쿠튀르
콜렉션은 일년에 두번 (7 월과 1 월) 미디어와 패션 산업, 그리고 부유한 고객들에게
공개된다.
     기성복 회사들은 그 조직과 경영형태에 따라 전통적인 제조업체, 도매상인,
하청업체, 라이센서의 범주로 나뉜다. 의류회사는 또한 생산상품의 종류에 따라서,
그들이 생산하는 상품 또는 상표의 도매가격대, 그리고 정부가 지정한 북미 산업
분류 체계 (NAICS)에 의해서 분류된다.
     전형적인 의류회사는 머천다이징; 디자인 개발; 판매와 마케팅; 생산, 기획,
조정, 및 유통; 광고 및 홍보; 재무와 정보기술 등의 활동에 중점을 두는 분과들로
이루어진다. 의류 머천다이저들은 상품의 구색에 대한 전반적 방향을 결정하며,
디자인, 생산, 마케팅, 상품유통 등을 관장하는 회사내의 다른 분과들과 밀접하게
일한다. 각 회사의 머천다이징과 관련된 철학은 디자인 중심적인 회사에서부터
실시간 상품기획을 하는 회사에 이르기까지 다양하다.
     의류산업 내의 수많은 동업 조합들이 홍보, 마케팅 조사, 업계 시사회의
스폰서, 의류산업의 다양한 분야에 관련된 교육자료의 개발과 분배를 담당한다. 그
예로, AAFA, MAGIC, Underfashion Club 등이 있다. 또한 의류산업분야에 전문적인
많은 업계지들이 있어, 기성복 산업의 전문가들에 의해 많이 이용된다. 그 예로
WWD, DNR 과 Bobbin Magazine 등을 들 수 있다.


Key Words:

Atelier de couture                   Jobber
Brand tiers                          Licensor
Classification                       Line
Collection                           Merchandising
Contractor                           National/designer brand
Conventional manufacturer            North American Industry
Couture                                  Classification System (NAICS)
Conturier (iere)                     Ready-to-wear (RTW)
Design development                   Retail store/direct market brand
Diffusion line                       Salon de couture
Fashion season                       Wholesale price zone
Haute couture
Item house




                                                                         19
Lecture outline (session 1):

I. Terminology
     A. Ready-to-Wear (RTW)
         1. Also Known As:
               a. Ready to Wear
                  - Ready made
               b. Pret-a-porter
               c. Off the peg
                  - c.f. Off the rack
               d. Moda pronto
         2. RTWs are:
               a. Completely made, ready to be worn
               b. Made in large quantities using mass manufacturing
                  processes
               c. Require little or no hand sewing
               d. Less expensive

     B. Collection / Line
         1. Group(s) of styles/items designed for a season
         2. Consists of coordinated apparel items
         3. Usually 4-6 lines a year by fashion seasons

        Fashion Seasons
           - spring, summer, fall I, fall II, holiday, & resort
           - Coincide with the times consumers would most likely to wear the
              merchandise
           - Number of lines varies depending on the product category and
              the target market
                  - e. g. Men’s tailored suits: 2 lines per year (fall and spring)
                  - e.g. Men’s sportswear 5 lines per year (fall I, fall II, holiday,
                  spring and summer)

          4. Line vs.Collection
           - ―Collection‖ is for more expensive merchandise (―Name
               Designers‖)
     C. Standardized Sizes
          1. A building block of RTW industry
          2. Developed by grouping computed average circumference
             measurements of a large group of people of average height into
             specific size categories
             • American Society for Testing and Materials
          3. ―Company size‖: represent a company’s target consumers,
             creates the distinct style or ―look‖ of a company
          4. Athletic fit: large chest-to-waist (drop) ratio
          5. Ease is another factor that create the ―look‖ for the company



                                                                                   20
     D. Couture
         1. Haute Couture (high sewing): custom-made
         2. Apparel produced in
               a. Small quantities (non-mass produced)
               b. Uses considerable hand sewing
               c. Sized to fit a specific individual
               d. High fashion in US term
         3. H.C. Collection: shown twice a year
         4. Prestige/publicity/creativity
         5. Usually owns RTW line, too
         6. Terms related to Haute Couture
               a. House: each designers’ business
               b. House of Chanel, House of Dior, etc.
               c. Couturier(e): Head of the house
                  - Many couture houses are owned by corporations that
                  finance the house.
               d. Boutique: store (for licensed goods)
               e. Salon de couture: showroom of the couture designers
               f. Atelier de couture: workroom

II. Types of Apparel Producers
      A. Conventional manufacturers
           1. Performs all functions of creating, marketing and distributing an
              apparel line on a continual basis
           2. Make product in their own plant(s) or factories, but might also use
              outside companies (contractors) to make their products.
           3. Includes Multidivision companies (produce several lines) as well
              as companies that specialize in one or more product categories.

     B. Jobber
          1. Traditionally referred to companies that buy fabrics and acquire
             styles from independent designers or by copying or designing
             lines themselves, but use contractors to make their products.
          2. Popular in the early 1900s as intermediaries, usually located in
             New York; now lost its popularity
          3. These days, most apparel manufacturers use contractors

     C. Contractor
         1. Companies that specialize in the sewing and finishing of goods.
         2. Usually works for:
                   full-function manufacturers who lack capacity
                   retailers producing private label merchandise
         3. Item House: contractors that specialized in the production of one
             product (e.g. baseball caps)
         4. Some offer fabric procurement and apparel design services

     D. Licensor


                                                                               21
          1. companies that have developed a well-known designer name,
             brand name, or character and sell the use of these names or
             characters to companies to put on merchandise

III. Classification of Apparel Organizations
       A. Gender/Age, Size Range, Product Category
             1. Primary categorization (Gender/Age)
                   a. Men’s, Women’s, & Children’s
                   b. This categorization is rooted in the history of apparel
                      industry (different in terms of types of machinery used,
                      sizing standards development, number of seasonal lines,
                      etc.)
                   c. Organization structure of retail stores is related to these
                      categories (buyers are usually responsible for one of the
                      three categories)
             2. Subcategories by Classification (By type of garments)
                   a. Women’s wear: Outerwear, Dresses, Blouses, Career wear,
                      Sportswear and active sportswear, Evening wear, Bridal and
                      bridesmaid dresses, Maternity wear, Uniforms, Furs,
                      Accessories, Intimate apparel (foundations, lingerie,
                      loungewear)
                   b. Men’s wear: Tailored clothing, Sportswear, Furnishing,
                      Active sportswear, Uniforms and work wear
             3. Subcategories by size range
                   a. Missy, Women’s, Petite, Tall, Junior

     B. Wholesale Price Zones
         1. Designer: most expensive
         2. Bridge:
              a. Designers’ diffusion lines
              b. Brands priced between designer and better zones
         3. Better: generally nationally well-known brand names
         4. Moderate: moderately priced brand names
         5. Budget (or mass): Found primarily at mass merchandisers and
            discount stores

     C. Brand name classifications
          1. National/designer brands
               a. A label that is distributed nationally, to which consumers
                  attach a specific meaning
               b. Typically represents a certain image, quality level and price-
                  point range to consumer
          2. Private label brands
               a. A label that is owned and marketed by a specific retailer for
                  use in their stores
               b. Sold with products from other manufacturers
          3. Direct market/retail store brands


                                                                               22
               a. A name of a retail chain that is, in most cases, used as the
                   exclusive label on the items in the store.
          4. All other brands (includes licensed brands)
          5. Nonbrands
     D. By NAICS (North American Industry Classification System)
          1. Classification by the US Department of Commerce
          2. Categorization of companies by their chief industrial activity
          3. NAICS for NAFTA
          4. NAICS groups:
               313 Textile mills
               314 Textile Product mills (non apparel textile products)
               315 Apparel Manufacturing
                    - 31521: cut and sew apparel contractors
               316 Leather and Allied Product manufacturing

Check your understanding:
1. Name your three favorite apparel brands. How would you classify these
   brands in terms of product category, wholesale price zone, and type of
   brand name? Do you think this classification system is useful in classifying
   your favorite (Korean) apparel brands?




                                                                                  23
Lecture outline (session 2):

IV. Terminology
      A. Ready-to-Wear (RTW)
          1. Also Known As:
                a. Ready to Wear
                   - Ready made
                b. Pret-a-porter
                c. Off the peg
                   - c.f. Off the rack
                d. Moda pronto
          2. RTWs are:
                a. Completely made, ready to be worn
                b. Made in large quantities using mass manufacturing
                   processes
                c. Require little or no hand sewing
                d. Less expensive

     B. Collection / Line
         1. Group(s) of styles/items designed for a season
         2. Consists of coordinated apparel items
         3. Usually 4-6 lines a year by fashion seasons

        Fashion Seasons
           - spring, summer, fall I, fall II, holiday, & resort
           - Coincide with the times consumers would most likely to wear the
              merchandise
           - Number of lines varies depending on the product category and
              the target market
                  - e. g. Men’s tailored suits: 2 lines per year (fall and spring)
                  - e.g. Men’s sportswear 5 lines per year (fall I, fall II, holiday,
                  spring and summer)

          4. Line vs.Collection
           - ―Collection‖ is for more expensive merchandise (―Name
               Designers‖)
     C. Standardized Sizes
          1. A building block of RTW industry
          2. Developed by grouping computed average circumference
             measurements of a large group of people of average height into
             specific size categories
             • American Society for Testing and Materials
          3. ―Company size‖: represent a company’s target consumers,
             creates the distinct style or ―look‖ of a company
          4. Athletic fit: large chest-to-waist (drop) ratio
          5. Ease is another factor that create the ―look‖ for the company



                                                                                   24
     D. Couture
         1. Haute Couture (high sewing): custom-made
         2. Apparel produced in
               a. Small quantities (non-mass produced)
               b. Uses considerable hand sewing
               c. Sized to fit a specific individual
               d. High fashion in US term
         3. H.C. Collection: shown twice a year
         4. Prestige/publicity/creativity
         5. Usually owns RTW line, too
         6. Terms related to Haute Couture
               a. House: each designers’ business
               b. House of Chanel, House of Dior, etc.
               c. Couturier(e): Head of the house
                  - Many couture houses are owned by corporations that
                  finance the house.
               d. Boutique: store (for licensed goods)
               e. Salon de couture: showroom of the couture designers
               f. Atelier de couture: workroom

V. Types of Apparel Producers
     A. Conventional manufacturers
          1. Performs all functions of creating, marketing and distributing an
             apparel line on a continual basis
          2. Make product in their own plant(s) or factories, but might also use
             outside companies (contractors) to make their products.
          3. Includes Multidivision companies (produce several lines) as well
             as companies that specialize in one or more product categories.

     B. Jobber
          1. Traditionally referred to companies that buy fabrics and acquire
             styles from independent designers or by copying or designing
             lines themselves, but use contractors to make their products.
          2. Popular in the early 1900s as intermediaries, usually located in
             New York; now lost its popularity
          3. These days, most apparel manufacturers use contractors

     C. Contractor
         1. Companies that specialize in the sewing and finishing of goods.
         2. Usually works for:
                   full-function manufacturers who lack capacity
                   retailers producing private label merchandise
         3. Item House: contractors that specialized in the production of one
             product (e.g. baseball caps)
         4. Some offer fabric procurement and apparel design services

     D. Licensor


                                                                              25
          1. companies that have developed a well-known designer name,
             brand name, or character and sell the use of these names or
             characters to companies to put on merchandise

VI. Classification of Apparel Organizations
      A. Gender/Age, Size Range, Product Category
            1. Primary categorization (Gender/Age)
                  a. Men’s, Women’s, & Children’s
                  b. This categorization is rooted in the history of apparel
                     industry (different in terms of types of machinery used,
                     sizing standards development, number of seasonal lines,
                     etc.)
                  c. Organization structure of retail stores is related to these
                     categories (buyers are usually responsible for one of the
                     three categories)
            2. Subcategories by Classification (By type of garments)
                  a. Women’s wear: Outerwear, Dresses, Blouses, Career wear,
                     Sportswear and active sportswear, Evening wear, Bridal and
                     bridesmaid dresses, Maternity wear, Uniforms, Furs,
                     Accessories, Intimate apparel (foundations, lingerie,
                     loungewear)
                  b. Men’s wear: Tailored clothing, Sportswear, Furnishing,
                     Active sportswear, Uniforms and work wear
            3. Subcategories by size range
                  a. Missy, Women’s, Petite, Tall, Junior

     B. Wholesale Price Zones
         1. Designer: most expensive
         2. Bridge:
              a. Designers’ diffusion lines
              b. Brands priced between designer and better zones
         3. Better: generally nationally well-known brand names
         4. Moderate: moderately priced brand names
         5. Budget (or mass): Found primarily at mass merchandisers and
            discount stores

     C. Brand name classifications
          1. National/designer brands
               a. A label that is distributed nationally, to which consumers
                  attach a specific meaning
               b. Typically represents a certain image, quality level and price-
                  point range to consumer
          2. Private label brands
               a. A label that is owned and marketed by a specific retailer for
                  use in their stores
               b. Sold with products from other manufacturers
          3. Direct market/retail store brands


                                                                              26
          a. A name of a retail chain that is, in most cases, used as the
              exclusive label on the items in the store.
     4. All other brands (includes licensed brands)
     5. Nonbrands
D. By NAICS (North American Industry Classification System)
     1. Classification by the US Department of Commerce
     2. Categorization of companies by their chief industrial activity
     3. NAICS for NAFTA
     4. NAICS groups:
          313 Textile mills
          314 Textile Product mills (non apparel textile products)
          315 Apparel Manufacturing
               - 31521: cut and sew apparel contractors
          316 Leather and Allied Product manufacturing




                                                                       27
Chapter 5 through 7.
Creating an Apparel Line

Objectives:
 To understand the concept of an apparel line and the steps required to
  prepare a garment prototype for design team review.
 To examine the resources for fashion trend, color trend, and fabric trend
  forecasting and the various sources of design inspiration and the types of
  market research.
 To understand the scope of the job responsibilities of the apparel design
  and merchandising team and the interrelationship between design and
  merchandising in developing a new season’s line.
 To explore the ways computer-aided design systems are used in the design
  process and the advantages and disadvantages of using CAD system for
  pattern making.
 To understand the relationships among traditional design development and
  private label and store brand product development.

Chapters Summary:

        Creating an apparel line begins with research. Sales figures from the
current selling seasons are taken into consideration as the designer and
merchandiser plan the upcoming line. Market research is often conducted to
help predict what specific items or general trends will appeal to customers in
the upcoming season. The merchandiser’s and designer’s job responsibilities
include long-range forecasting of major social, economic, retail, apparel
manufacturing, and customer trends. Short-range forecasting is also tied to the
economy, political climate, availability of resources, and customer needs. The
target customer profile, describing the age, lifestyle, and price zone, requires
constant updating and careful consideration in the creation of an apparel line.
        The design process follows the research process. The design team
works with planning and production personnel to plan the calendar due dates in
order to provide garments to the retailer at the season’s outset. The sales
volume and sell through of a line at the retail level are important indicators used
to plan the next line. The balance between carryover styles, revisions of popular
styles from the previous season, and new styles is a critical decision to the
success of the line.
        The merchandiser may work with the designer to develop a theme for a
new line. Historical and ethnic clothing are sources of design inspiration, as are
new fabrics, textiles, trims, and fasteners. The design ideas are presented by
hand sketch, on a computer, as technical drawings, or three dimensionally in
fabric by draping. The designer usually creates far more design ideas than will
be selected for the line. The designer is also responsible for selecting fabrics,
trims, and lining for each design and specifying details such as buttons and top
stitching. The garment specification sheet includes all the pertinent information
required to complete a pattern and prototype of the design.
        The design development stage in the progress of a new line begins with


                                                                                 28
the delivery of the designer’s sketch. Development of the new style includes
making the first pattern using either traditional paper pattern making techniques
or computerized PDS. A prototype is cut from the pattern and sewn by a
sample sewer, using the intended fabric (or a substitute facsimile if the actual
fabric is not yet available). The new prototype is tried on a fit model for review
of the design and fit by a design team and is revised if necessary. Sometimes
several iterations of these initial design steps are made before the design is
finalized. The cost for the final design is estimated. The line is reviewed again,
at which time each style is scrutinized carefully by the design team. The final
line consists of styles that have been approved at this stage. Additional
samples of styles in the line are sewn for sales representatives, and a line
brochure and other types of materials are prepared for marketing purposes.
        Computer applications in design development continue to expand. Each
year, more apparel companies realize the need to utilize this technology in
order to survive in today’s marketplace. The computer integration of design,
pattern making, and production is another critical step for future survival.

     의류상품 라인을 만드는 과정은 연구과정부터 시작된다. 디자이너들과
머천다이저들이 다음 시즌의 라인을 준비하는 데에는 현재 판매되고 있는 시즌의
판매기록 이 고려된다. 간혹 시장조사를 함으로써 어떤 특정한 품목 또는 일반적인
경향이 다음 시즌에 소비자들에게 어필할 것인지에 대한 예측에 도움을 얻기도 한다.
주요 사회, 경제, 유통, 의류제조업, 소비자 경향에 대한 장기적 예측을 하는 것도
머천다이저와 디자이너의 업무중 하나이다. 단기적 예측도 경기, 정치적 분위기, 자원,
소비자 수요와 밀접한 관련이 있다. 의류상품 라인 제작하는 데 있어서 목표고객의
연령, 라이프스타일, 가격대 등의 프로필에 대한 기술도 지속적으로 업데이트 시키고
신중하게 고려해야 할 부분이다.
     연구과정에 이어 디자인 과정이 이루어진다. 디자인 팀은 기획팀과 생산팀과
협력하여 시즌이 시작될 때 소매업자들에게 의류를 공급하기 위한 공급마감일을
결정한다. 소매수준에서의 판매량과 라인의 판매비율 (sell through) 은 다음 라인을
계획하는 데 중요한 지표로 사용된다. 이월 스타일, 지난 시즌의 인기스타일을 수정한
스타일과 새로운 스타일의 적절한 균형에 대한 결정은 라인의 성패에 매우 중요하다.
     새로운 라인의 디자인 주제를 결정하는 데 머천다이저가 디자이너와 함께
일하기도 한다. 디자인 영감은 역사적이거나 민속적 의복, 또는 새로운 직물, 장식,
또는 여밈용 부자재등으로부터 오기도 한다. 디자인 아이디어는 손으로 스케치하여,
컴퓨터상에, 도식화로, 또는 입체재단을 통하여 3 차원적으로 표현된다. 디자이너는
일반적으로 라인에서 선정될 것보다 훨씬 많은 수의 디자인을 제작한다. 디자이너는
또한 각 디자인에 사용될 옷감과 장식, 그리고 안감을 선택하고 단추와 상침 등의
세부사항을 표시해야 할 책임이 있다. 의복의 세부 명세서는 각 디자인의 패턴과
원형을 완성하는 데 필요한 모든 관련된 정보를 포함해야 한다.
     새로운 라인의 제작 과정에서 디자인 개발 단계는 디자이너의 스케치가
전달되면서 시작된다. 새로운 스타일의 개발은 첫 패턴의 제작인데, 이는 전통적인
방식으로 종이패턴을 만들거나 컴퓨터화된 패턴개발 시스템을 이용하여 만들어진다.
지정된 옷감 (만일 실제 사용될 옷감이 아직 구해지지 않은 경우 그와 유사한 옷감)을
이용하여 패턴으로부터 첫 원형이 재단되고 샘플 제작자에 의해 봉제가 이루어진다.
새로운 원형은 피트모델에게 입혀져 디자인 팀에 의해 디자인이 검토되고 맞음새가
확인되며, 필요한 경우 수정이 이루어진다. 어떤 경우에는 이론 초기 디자인 단계의


                                                                                29
여러번의 반복을 거쳐서 최종 디자인이 결정된다. 최종 디자인의 비용이 추정되고,
라인은 다시 검토되며, 이 때 디자인팀은 각 스타일을 면밀히 검토한다. 최종 라인은
이 단계에서 승인된 스타일들로 이루어진다. 판매대리인들을 위하여 이 스타일들의
샘플이 추가적으로 제작되고, 마케팅을 위해서 라인 카탈로그와 다른 홍보물들이
제작된다.
    디자인 개발 과정에서의 컴퓨터의 사용은 점차 확대되어가고 있다. 해마다
점점 더 많은 의류업체들이 오늘날의 시장에서 살아남기 위해서는 이 기술을 이용하는
것이 필요함을 인식하고 있다. 컴퓨터를 디자인, 패턴 제작, 생산과정에서 이용하는
것은 미래의 생존을 위한 또 하나의 중요한 단계이다.


Key Words:
Carryover                     Swatch
Demographics                  Target costing
Psychographics                Tech drawing
Sample cut                    Toile
Staple color                  Virtual draping
Target customer               Zeitgeist
Colorway                      Base pattern
CAD                           Block
Croquis                       Duplicate
Draping                       Fit model
Empire                        Flat pattern
Findings                      Initial cost estimate
First adoption meeting        Line brochure
Flat or flat sketch           Marker
Garment specification sheet   Pattern design system (PDS)
Knockoff                      preline
Lay figure                    Preliminary line sheet
Line-for-line copy            prototype
Market niche                  sample
Muslin                        sample sewer
Price averaging               sloper
Retro                         specification buying
Sales volume                  tagboard
Sell through                  usage
Strike off                    wholesale price
Style number




                                                            30
Lecture outline:
Apparel Product Development and Production Process




                                                     31
Creating an Apparel Line
     * Line:
           1. Apparel items or styles with a theme linking them together (50-60
              items)
           2. contains coordinated items or styles that can be worn together
           3. developed for specific target customers
           4. generally a designer is assigned to a line
           5. Line consists of groups:
                 a. Small collection of fabrics in varying combination
                 b. Include small number of items all carefully coordinated
           6. Line evolves from previous lines:
                 a. Modification or repetition of successful styles from previous
                    lines
                 b. carryovers – styles repeated from one seasonal line to the
                    next
           7. Line Creation stage
                 a. overlaps with production stage of previous line and selling
                    stage of line before that
                 b. designer and merchandiser handles at least 3 lines at one
                    time, each in a different stage of cycle
                 c. cycle is becoming faster all the time, due to technology
                    improvements

     * Apparel Line Creation


                                       Research


                                        Design


                                 Design Development



I. Research
    A. Role of Research in Creation
            Designers & merchandisers
            - Use research info to Create innovative merchandise
            - Target a specific customer group at a specific time

     B. Types of Research
          1. Market research: Provides info about environment, consumers &
             products
          2. Fashion research: Provides info about garment silhouettes, color
             & textiles


                                                                               32
1. Market Research: Types
    a. Basic: Extends knowledge about the marketing system
    b. Applied: Helps managers make better decisions for a
       specific problem
          i.   Problem oriented
         ii.   A part of the planning process


2. Types of Applied Research
   * Consumer Research: about consumer characteristics and
   consumer behavior
   * Product Research: about preferred product design and
   characteristics
   * Market Analysis: about general market trends

    a. Consumer Research
         i. Collect info
            1. about consumer characteristics and consumer
                behavior;
            2. about buying preference
            3. about expected purchase
        ii. Critical in target market overseas

    b. Product Research
          i. Provides info about preferred product design and
             characteristics
         ii. To invent or revise products
        iii. Testing style preferences
        iv.  Must be:
             1. Fast
             2. easy to understand
             3. inexpensive and predictable

    c. Market Analysis
          i. Provides info about general market trends
         ii. Long-range forecasting
        iii. Trends in business climate
        iv.  Economic, sociological, psychological, political and
             global trends
         v.  Lifestyle forecast
        vi.  Short-range forecasting
       vii.  forecasts for the company & competition, % increase
             in sales growth

    d. Target Customer Profiling
         i.   Target customer: the group of people toward whom
              the firm decides to direct its marketing efforts


                                                               33
              ii.   Target Customer Profiling ―MUSTs‖
                    1. Demographics: Gender, age range, education,
                       marital status ….
                    2. Psychographics (Lifestyle) & Geographics
                    3. Lifestyle: stages in career, brand orientation,
                       price     consciousness       hobbies,    political
                       orientation….
                    4. Urban/rural, regional/national/global
                    5. Price zone: Bridge, better, moderate, designer….

B. Fashion Research
     1. Focus on general garment silhouettes, more specific lengths,
        widths, and design detail trends
     2. Types
          a. Trend research (Silhouette)
          b. Color research
          c. Fabric/trim research

         d. Trend Research (layout)
              i.  focus on general garment silhouettes, and lengths,
                  widths, and design detail trends
             ii.  Sources of information
                  1. company’s POS data
                  2. shopping the market: visiting retailers, talking with
                      retailers, talking with and watching consumers
                  3. viewing couture and RTW collections (shows)
                      and specialized trade shows
                  4. watch consumers ―on the street‖ or ―in
                      action‖……

         e. Color Research
               i.  Types of colors
                   1. Staple colors: Run continuously, from one
                      season to the next
                   2. Fashion colors: Reappear in different forms from
                      one season to the next
              ii.  Provide direction for color palette
                   1. by color forecasting services
                   2. by designer & fabric houses
                   3. by sales data
             iii.  Color: Strong cultural bias

         f. Fabric/Trim Research
              i.   Fabric trends
                   1. Specific fibers, Textures
                       - Try out a sample cut or custom order
                   2. Specialty trims & fasteners details


                                                                        34
*Fashion Services
resources for fashion reporting, forecasting, and consulting
  Collection/trade show reports: immediate in-depth source of information
  about the collections
  Trend reports: layout/color/fabrication tendencies,
  Consulting: personalized services to develop products
subscription or fee basis
can be found on web sites, or sales representatives in major cities



II. Design
                    The creation process

                  1. Design Inspiration



                   2. Planning a Line



                       3. Design



                    4. Design Review



                5. Garment Specification



     A. Planning Line Meeting
          1. Positions (Who)
               a. Merchandiser: overseeing, coordinating
               b. Designer: creating ideas
               c. Product developer: create products
          2. Planning meetings (How)
               a. review sales figures from previous season
               b. study sales forecasts for new season
               c. discuss overall plan for new season’s line
          3. What to plan
               a. # of pieces
               b. % (ratio) of item category
               c. ratio of the styles
               d. Repeated styles


                                                                             35
               e. New styles….
               f. Scheduling (master calendar)

*Copies & Knock-offs
 line-for-line copy:
   exact replica
   Legally OK
 knock-offs:
   copy at less expensive price
   By using less expensive fabric
   By eliminating/modifing some design detail



     B. Design inspirations
         1. HOW
               a. pictures/ideas from fashion trend sources
               b. swatches of interesting fabrics and or trims
               c. research on historic period or another culture
               d. experimenting in developing innovative design details
               e. searching marketplace
               f. visit historic costume and textile collections
         2. Sources
               a. Theme, Color, History, Ethnic, Fabric, texture & trim,
                  Zeitgeist……..
               b. Design inspiration examples

     C. Design
         1. Method (Sketches)
               a. Hand Sketches
                     i.  Draw garment by hand on body silhouette (croquis)
                    ii.  different from fashion illustration
               b. CAD
                     i.  Use software to draw garment either with or without
                         body silhouette (layfigure)
               c. Technical
                     i.  Draw garment without body silhouette
                    ii.  Includes a close-up sketch of a detail and back view
                   iii.  Useful for pattern making and production needs
                   iv.   Active sportswear industry
         2. Draping
               a. Create 3-D garment
               b. On a body form (or an actual body)
               c. Use actual fabric or muslin
               d. More expensive method of designing
               e. Advantages:
                     i.  sensing the drape and hand of the fabric
                    ii.  evolving the design during the process


                                                                            36
                f. Disadvantages:
                     i.  take more time than sketching
                    ii.  more fabric use (expensive)

     D. Line Review
          1. Who?
               a. Designer, Merchandiser, Production engineer, Head of
                  sample sewing
          2. How?
               a. Present (formal, oral) design sketches to the review team
               b. Several review processes occur, with some designs deleted
                  each time
          3. Evaluates & select
               a. based on quantity of each garment type
               b. total quantity previously selected
               c. balance in line (range of styles for various wants and needs)
                      i.  styles: classic versus fashion-forward
                     ii.  prices
                    iii.  other considerations (sizing, alterations, etc)
          4. Communicate Results: Spec Sheet
               a. Garment Specification Sheet
                      i.  Conveys specific design details to pattern maker &
                          sample sewer, such as:
                          1. Number of buttons
                          2. Stitching types
                          3. Width of pleats/tucks, spacing of pleats/tucks,
                              etc…….
                          4. Measurements
                          5. Any other info
               b. Style number
                      i.  Assigned to each new design in line to convey: Style,
                          Season/year, Category, Size category


III. Design Development & Style Selection (Chapter 7)
      Overview
            - Design development stage: turns designer’s sketch into a prototype
            garment
            - Style selection stage: adopts a group of styles,
                     - Forming a coordinated line
                     - Selling at reasonable & profitable price
            - Marketing: Sells line to retailers
                     - Obtains financial commitments for goods

     A. Design Development
         1. Pattern Making
               a. Terms


                                                                              37
          i.    Pattern:
                1. Flat ―map‖ of various components of a garment
                2. Used to cut fabric into correctly sized & shaped
                    pieces to construct a garment
          ii.   Block/sloper (or First Pattern)
                1. Basic pattern in company’s sample size

     b. Pattern Making - People
            i. Designer
               1. Sometimes makes patterns
               2. Coordinates with pattern maker to ensure
                   accurate translation of idea
           ii. Pattern maker
               1. Accurately translates designer’s idea into a
                   pattern
     c. Pattern Making – Methods
            i. Flat pattern
               1. Draw pattern by hand, or use existing patterns as
                   guide
           ii. Pattern design systems
                   A. Use computer to create pattern
          iii. Draped design
               1. Use carefully marked drape to create pattern
               2. The style lines and details are carefully marked
                   on the body form
               3. Fabric pieces are removed from the body form
               4. Laid flat over pattern paper
               5. Shapes traced onto paper
2. Prototype Making
     a. Terms
            i. Prototype: Sample garment
           ii. Preliminary line sheet:
               1. Technical drawing of a new style
               2. Includes note of special design details
               3. May include swatches of fabric
     b. People
            i. by apparel company or the contractor
           ii. Cutter
               1. Cuts fabric for prototype
               2. Includes cutting linings, interfacings, pocketing,
                   etc
          iii. Sample sewer
               1. Highly skilled on all types of sewing equipment
               2. Sews the prototype garment
         iv.   Fit model
               1. Represents body proportions of target customer
               2. Helps evaluate fit, style & overall look


                                                                      38
         c. Process
               i. Pattern, fabric & spec sheet delivered
              ii. Fabric cut
             iii. Sample sewn
             iv.  Prototype approved on fit model
              v.  Consult with production engineers for feasibility
             vi.  Launder garment to test fabric & trims
            vii.  Preliminary line sheet produced
            viii. Fitting

    3. Preliminary Costing
         a. Terms
               i.  Initial cost estimate
                   1. Estimate of cost prior to the adoption/rejection
                        decision
                   2. Based on estimates of material usage & labor
                        costs
              ii.  Marker
                   1. Layout plan of pattern pieces
             iii.  Costing marker
                   1. Layout plan to determine yardage (fabric usage)
                        for new style
             iv.   Target costing
                   1. Cost estimated based on designer’s sketch
                   2. Design revised to bring garment cost in line with
                        desired cost
         b. People
               i.  Cost engineer/product technician
                   1. Estimates cost to produce a style
                   2. Requires knowledge of
                        A. Design sketches & design details on sketches
                        B. Costing markers
                        C. Production processes
                        D. Labor costs
         c. Process
               i.  Marker created to determine most efficient layout of
                   pattern pieces
              ii.  Costing marker created to determine yardage
             iii.  Sundries cost estimated, based on quantity of
                   garment to be produced
             iv.   Labor costs estimated, based on estimate of sewing
                   processes necessary on garment
              v.   Yardage, sundries & labor added to determine
                   preliminary cost

B. Style Selection
     1. Line Review


                                                                      39
         a. People (the Team)
                i. Merchandiser
               ii. Designer & assistant designers
              iii. Production engineer
              iv.  Others (sales reps, upper management)
         b. Process
                i. Line presented to Team for overall review
               ii. Each style evaluated on:
                   1. Cost
                   2. Production
                   3. Styling
                   4. Fit in line
                   5. Fabrics/trims
                   6. Style Selection
              iii. Adoption
                   1. Eliminate styles not passing evaluation
                   2. Change some styles
                   3. Balance styles across Line
                       A. Additions
                       B. Deletions
                       C. Add trial styles
    2. Final Costing –
         a. Terms
                i. Cost
                   1. The manufacturer’s total cost to produce the
                       goods.
               ii. Wholesale price
                   1. Includes manufacturer’s profit
                   2. Price shown to buyers at market
                   3. The amount the retail store will pay for the goods
         b. People
                i. Production/cost engineer
                   1. Knowledge of production techniques
                   2. Knowledge of production facilities
                   3. Knowledge of material usage
                   4. Knowledge of labor costs
         c. Process
                i. Establish accurate materials usage cost
               ii. Select production facility
              iii. Establish accurate labor cost at selected facility
              iv.  Calculate total cost
               v.  Calculate wholesale price
                   1. Total cost
                   2. Manufacturer’s profit
                   3. Other factors

C. Marketing


                                                                       40
1. Terms
     a. Duplicates
            i. Samples for showrooms & sales reps
     b. Line brochure
            i. Catalog of entire line
           ii. Developed from line sheet
          iii. Includes color info, size info, fabric swatches, etc.
2. People
     a. Sales representatives
     b. Show line to retail buyers
     c. May work a territory or in market showroom
3. Process
     a. Showroom/sales reps receive samples & line brochures
     b. Showroom may present show/visual presentation of line
     c. Retailers visit showroom or sales reps visit retailers – show
        line
     d. Retailers place orders & negotiate terms of deal
            i. Delivery dates
           ii. Delivery method
          iii. Discounts
          iv.  Payment terms
     e. Apparel company determines styles to produce
4. Trends: Develop & Select
     a. Mass Customization
            i. Individual customer measured
           ii. Measurements submitted to computer & adjusted as
               necessary for style
          iii. Measurements submitted to computerized cutting
               machine
          iv.  Fabric cut
           v.  Garment sewn
          vi.  Result: individualized garment produced with efficient
               production methods
     b. Private label & Specification buying
            i. Goal: Reduce number of profit-making steps in
               channel
           ii. Private label: Retailer works directly with apparel
               manufacturer
          iii. Specification buying: Retailer creates product & has it
               produced
               1. Private label
                   A. Exclusive merchandise for a retail company
                   B. Includes:
                       i.   Putting label on slightly changed
                            manufacturer-developed product line
                      ii.   Working with manufacturer who produces
                            only private label lines


                                                                    41
    iii.   Selecting private label merchandise
    iv.    Developed by resident buying office
     v.    Specification buying
   C. Best products for private label:
      i.   Moderate & entry-level price points
     ii.   Basic apparel
    iii.   Easy-fit apparel
    iv.    Categories with weak or no major brand
           competition
     v.    Products with low presence by brand
           manufacturers
    vi.    Products adding price-point alternative to
           major brands (jeans, for example)
2. Specification buying
   A. Retailer assumes designing role
   B. Contractor assumes production role
   C. Needs expertise in phases of these roles
      i.   Designing
     ii.   Specification writing
    iii.   Costing
    iv.    Production




                                                    42
Chapter 8.
Marketing an Apparel Line

Objectives:
 To learn about the marketing process within apparel companies.
 To understand the functions, and activities of apparel market centers, marts,
  market weeks, and trade shows.
 To examine the nature of the selling function of apparel companies,
  specifically the roles of sales representatives and showrooms.
 The distribution and sales promotion strategies used by apparel companies.

Chapters Summary:

       The marketing of apparel products connects market research with the
appropriate strategies for getting the right product to the target consumers at
the right time, at the right price, and in the right place. Markets for apparel lines
can be any city where apparel marts and showrooms are located. Market
centers (New York City, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, and Atlanta) are large
markets with important manufacturing and retailing industries. All US market
centers, except New York City, have an apparel mart that houses showrooms
and exhibition halls used during market weeks. Marts can also be found in a
number of other cities throughout the United States. In New York City,
showrooms are located in buildings throughout the fashion center in midtown
Manhattan. During specific times of the year, known as market weeks, buyers
come to apparel markets to purchase merchandise for their stores. They may
also attend trade shows sponsored by apparel marts or trade associations.
       The selling function of apparel companies is handled either through
corporate selling or through sales representatives who work out of permanent
or temporary showrooms. Sales representatives serve as the liaison between
the manufacturer and retailer. Some sales representatives work from a
corporate showroom and focus on the line(s) of one company; others are
multilane sales reps, representing a number of related but noncompeting lines.
The job of sales representatives includes both selling and nonselling functions.
       Apparel marketers develop distribution and promotion strategies for their
company. In general, there are two basic distribution policies: open distribution
and selected distribution. These policies help determine which retail customers
will be the focus of selling efforts. Sales promotion strategies of apparel
companies are directed to both retail customers and consumers. Strategies
may include advertising, publicity, and other promotion tools.

      의류상품의 마케팅은 마케팅 조사와 적절한 상품을 목표소비자에게 적절한
시간에, 적절한 가격에, 적절한 장소에 제공하는 적절한 전략을 연관시키는 것이다.
Apparel mart 와 쇼룸이 있는 도시면 어디든지 apparel market 이 될 수 있다. 뉴욕,
LA, 시카고, 아틀란타처럼 주요 제조업자들과 소매업자들이 자리잡고 있는 큰 시장을
market center 라고 한다. 뉴욕시를 제외한 모든 미국의 market center 에는 apparel
mart 가 있고 이들 apparel mart 에는 쇼룸과 전시장이 있어 market week 동안
이용된다. Mart 는 또한 미국 전역의 다른 많은 도시에서도 찾아볼 수 있다.


                                                                                  43
뉴욕시에는 맨하탄 중심부의 패션센터 지역에 있는 빌딩안에 쇼룸이 있다. Market
weeks 라고 하는 연중 특정한 시기에 바이어들이 자신들의 매장에 필요한 상품을
구매하기 위해서 apparel market 으로 온다. 그들은 apparel mart 또는 동업 조합에서
주관하는 업계 시사회에 참석하기도 한다.
      의류회사의 판매업무는 회사내의 판매부서나 상설 또는 임시 쇼룸에서 일하는
외판원을 통해서 이루어진다. 외판원들은 제조업자와 소매업자를 연결하는 연락자의
역할을 한다. 어떤 외판원들은 회사 쇼룸에서 일하면서 한 회사의 라인에 집중하는
경우도 있고, 어떤 외판원들은 관련되지만 서로 경쟁하지는 않는 여러개의 라인을
다루기도 한다. 외판원의 업무는 판매업무와 비판매업무가 있다.
      의류 마케터들은 회사를 위해 유통과 판촉 전략을 개발한다. 일반적으로,
유통전략에는 개방적 유통과 선택적 유통의 두가지 종류가 있다. 이러한 전략들은
판매대상이 되는 소매 고객이 누구인가를 결정하는 데 도움을 준다. 판촉전략은 소매
고객과 소비자, 양자를 모두 목표로 하며, 광고, 홍보, 기타 판촉 방법 등이 전략을
이룬다.

Key Words:

advertising                                    multiline sales representative
corporate selling                              open-distribution policy
corporate showroom                             publicity
market                                         regional sales territory
market center                                  sales representative
market week                                    selected distribution policy
marketing                                      showroom
mart                                           trunkshow

Refer to glossary list on p. 565-582 of your textbook for the meanings of the terms you
are not familiar with.




                                                                                          44
Lecture outline:
Marketing an Apparel Line
I. Market centers, marts, market weeks, and trade shows
    A. ―Marketing‖
          1. developing sales
          2. promotion
          3. distribution strategies

     B. Market
         1. Consumer demand for the product
               a. Consumer?
               b. Retailers
               c. General public
         2. A location where the buying and selling of merchandise takes
            place
         3. Promotion through the media

     C. Mart
         1. A building/buildings that house showrooms in which sales
             representatives show apparel lines to retail buyers.
               - During market week
         2. Most major fashion cities
         3. Now became international

     D. Market week
         1. Certain times of the year
         2. During market weeks, apparel MFRs
               a. Present new lines
               b. Receive orders
               c. Increase publicity
         3. Buyers
               a. Review lines from many Mfrs
               b. Get informed about ____

     E. Market centers
         - City that houses marts, showrooms, manufacturing & retailing
         - NYC, LA, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, San Francisco, Seattle, Miami
         - Without a mart, the first center in the US, used to be a
           manufacturing center only

     F. Trade shows
          1. Sponsored by Trade association
          2. to promote specific lines
          3. In large hotels or convention centers
          E.g.) MAGIC (the men’s apparel guild in California)




                                                                              45
II. The Selling Function
      A. During market weeks & Trade shows Plus
          1. Corporate selling: Selling done through corporate headquarters
          2. Sales reps (in house or independent): In a showrooms
              (expensive), or Visit retail buyers & show line

     B. Line Selling Criteria
          1. Market to appropriate retailers using:
               a. Distribution strategies
                      i.   Open distribution: Any retailer who meets criteria
                     ii.   Selected distribution: Retailers who meet detailed
                           criteria (sales volume, geographic area, store image)

III. PROMOTION
      A. Objectives
           1. provide information to consumers and others
           2. increase demand
           3. differentiate a product
           4. accentuate a product value
           5. stabilize sales
      B. Types
           1. Advertising
                 a. Buy space/time in print/broadcast media
                 b. Image or Item
                 c. Cooperative advertising : share cost of advertising
                 d. Adv and Dis.
                           (+) Increase awareness
                           (-) effective? Expensive!
           2. Public Relation
                 a. Receive attention in media
                 b. by sponsoring special events…
                 c. Adv and Dis
                      (+) get TRUST
                      (-) less control over ____
           3. Press Kit / Videos
                 a. Photographs, press release, TV/radio spots, videos, other
                    information by manufactures for publicity purpose
           4. Fashion show
                 a. Runaway show
                           - Primarily for retail buyers but also for
                           - General public for publicity
           5. Others
                 a. Personal appearance
                 b. Catalogs/line brochures/direct mail pieces
                 c. Visual merchandising tools
                 d. Trunk shows
                        i.      A company representative visits a store and brings


                                                                                     46
                           the entire line to a store.
                      ii.  Customers may or may not buy items whether or not
                           it will be carried by the store
                     iii.  No editing by the retailer!
                e. In-store clinic
                f. Merchandise representatives

Chapter-Related Activity:
Locate the Web site of an apparel manufacturer. What type of information is
provided on the site? Would this information be useful to retailers, to the target
customer, or both? Evaluate the site as to its effectiveness.




                                                                                 47
Chapter 9.
Preproduction Processes

Objectives:
 To learn about the role of financial agencies called factors in the apparel
  industry.
 To be informed about the process and timing used by apparel companies to
  order production fabrics and trims.
 To understand the importance of color control in ordering production fabrics
  and trims.
 To examine the stages used to finalize a production pattern, grade the
  pattern, and create a production market and to cut, spread, and bundle the
  fabric pieces.

Chapters Summary:

        Retail buyers’ written orders in sufficient quantity to warrant production
signal the chain of events that begins the process of producing a new style. The
preproduction steps include ordering production fabrics, trims, and findings,
maintaining color control, including the use of lab dips and strike offs; and
finalizing the production pattern and written documents. To ensure quality
production, the documents that accompany the pattern are as important as the
pattern itself. These documents comprise the garment specification package.
They include a tech drawing of the garment style, a list of all fabrics (with fabric
swatches), trims, and findings in all colorways; construction specifications
(construction details and sewing steps in sequence); and measurement
specifications with stated tolerances. Accurate documentation is essential.
        In company-owned production facilities, the production pattern is graded
into the specified size range and a production marker is made by the apparel
company. For contracted production, either the apparel company or the
contractor is responsible for the grading and marking procedures. Fabric
inspection may be the responsibility of the textile producer or the apparel
company. Spreading can be handled by laying the fabric layers onto cutting
tables by hand or by using spreading machines. Cutting can be done by hand-
held cutting equipment, by computer knife blade, or by laser. After cutting, the
fabric pieces are bundled into units ready for production.

     소매업자들의 주문량이 생산을 시작할 만큼 충분해 지면, 일련의 과정을 통해
새로운 스타일의 생산과정이 시작된다. 생산전 단계는 생산을 위한 직물, 장식 및
부속품을 주문하는 과정, lab dips 과 strike offs 등을 이용하여 색상을 컨트롤하는
과정, 그리고 생산에 이용될 패턴과 서류를 마무리하는 과정이 포함된다. 높은
생산품질을 보장하기 위해서는 패턴에 따라가는 서류도 패턴 자체만큼이나 중요하다.
이러한 서류들은 의복 명세서를 구성한다. 거기에는 의복 스타일의 도식화와 색상별로
생산에 사용될 모든 직물 (그리고 스와치), 장식품, 부속품들의 목록과, 구성 지시서
(세부 구성 방법과 봉제단계를 순서대로 열거한 것), 그리고 오차의 허용도를 명시한
측정 명세서가 포함된다. 정확한 서류작성은 매우 중요하다.



                                                                                  48
     만일 자회사의 공장에서 생산이 이루어진다면, 의류회사에서 특정 사이즈범위
내에서 생산패턴을 그레이딩하고, 마킹하는 작업을 수행한다. 하청업체를 이용하는
경우, 의류회사 또는 하청업체가 그레이딩과 마킹 작업을 한다. 직물의 검사는
직물생산자 또는 의류업체에서 시행한다. 연단은 재단테이블 위에 손으로 또는
연단기를 이용하여 직물을 펼치는 것이다. 재단은 손으로 조작하는 재단기를
이용하거나 컴퓨터 재단기, 또는 레이저를 이용한다. 재단 후, 직물조각들은 생산을
위해 묶음으로 번들링 된다.


Lecture outline:
Pre-Production Process
Pre-production: Steps needed before production can begin
I. Secure financing
     A. Need cash before production
          1. Own money
          2. Bank
          3. Factor
                a. Financial company specialized in Textiles and Apparel
                   industry
                b. Purchase & collect accounts receivable or advancing cash
                   on basis of accounts receivable.
                c. Prevent bad debt losses, manage account receivable, and
                   provide credit analysis in the apparel industry

II. Product Information Management
      A. the integration of data management such as
           1. Measurement spec
           2. Construction details
           3. Costing and bill
           4. Photos, video/audio
           5. Technical sketches
           i.e.: Gerber’s PDM software

III. Cut Orders
      A. Issued when
            1. targeted number of orders are received by the manufacturers or
            2. The apparel manufacturer decides to produce style prior to
               receiving orders
      B. Includes:
            1. Specifies # of items
            2. in each color & size for production run
            3. delivery date to each retailer

* Backward scheduling: Allows calculation of production schedule (calculated
backwards, from delivery date back to production date)
IV. Order components
     A. fabric order


                                                                               49
             1. Should be made well in advance to secure on time delivery of
                goods
                c.f. How to start the production early
                      early production of proven sellers in basic colors
                      use of pre-line selling (key retail accounts preview
                        prototype and place orders
                      use of early-season lines to predict sales (July- coats in
                        Michigan, January- swimsuits in Florida)
                      use of test markets (product tested in a region)
                      use of past sales figures

        B. Select sources (vendors) for fabrics, trims & sundries, based on:
             1. Time: lead time (to secure goods)
             2. Include printing time
             3. past history of on-time delivery
             4. quality of goods
             5. QR capability
             6. Order minimums
             7. Financial stability of vendor

V. Color control (color-matching)
    A. ensuring color matches exist between,
          1. line brochure, prototype and production garments, including
             components (linings, trims,etc)
          2. Commercial match: An acceptable match of materials provided by
             contractors
          3. Samples
                a. Lab dip: The vender supplied sample of the dyed-to-match
                    product (fabric, button….)
                b. Strike off: a fabric sample of the textile prints provided by
                    textile converters

VI. Production Pattern Finalization
      A. Incorporate any minor changes from the production engineer
      B. Ensure markings are correct

VII.     Final documentation: Specs
        A. Construction specs:
             1. the sequence of production steps
             2. Related to the cost
        B. Measurement specs
             1. measurements at specific locations of garment recorded on chart
             2. Include tolerance: narrow range of acceptable variance in
                dimension (QA Dept. checks, using sampling technique)

VIII.    Grading production pattern
        A. Pattern grading


                                                                               50
          1. Taking the production pattern pieces that have been made in the
             sample size for the new style and creating set of pattern pieces
             for each size & style
     B. Grade rules
          1. The amounts & locations of growth/reduction on pattern pieces
          2. No industry stadard
          3. Different rules for different styles
     C. Grading methods
          1. Hand grading
          2. Machine grading
          3. Computer grading

IX. Production marker
      A. Marker:
          1. Full size cutting layout
          2. Includes all pattern pieces for all sizes of a style TIGHTLY
              ARRANGED
          3. Goal of production marker = Efficiency:
                a. use high % of fabric (Very efficient markers can achieve 80-
                   90%)
                b. Reduce fallout (Fallout: wasted fabric = lost money)


X. Fabric Inspection
     A. Purposes
           - to ensure it meet specifications agreed to.
           - to ensure the fabric is defect free
     B. How?
           - Examine fabrics for color or construction problems
     C. By Whom?
           1. Apparel producer
                 a. Computerized scanning/Visual scanning
                 b. To prevent problems
                 c. Can reject the fabric
                 d. Maybe time consuming & costly
           2. Textile producer
                 a. In QR and SCM partnership
                 b. Same scanning methods used
                 c. Flaws marked: apparel producer to cuts around them
                 d. Based on TRUST

XI. Fabric Spreading
      A. Fabric Spreading
           1. Process of unwinding large rolls
           2. onto long, wide tables for cutting
           3. May insert papers in between
      B. Types


                                                                             51
             1. Face-to-face
                  a. Each layer laid in opposite direction from the one below it
                  b. For non-directional prints & solids
             2. Face-up
                  a. Each layer of fabric laid in same direction
                  b. For directional prints & napped fabrics

XII.     Fabric Cutting
        A. Cutting
             1. The production marker is sent to the cutting facility (electronically)
             2. Computerized or hand guided
        B. Types of Knife
             1. Knife-blade
             2. Die cutting (cookie cutter)
             3. Laser
             4. Water Jet
        C. Fallout Disposal
             1. In 1992, TC waste for new fibers and textiles were 1.5-1.9 billion
             2. More responsible recycling expected by the society

XIII.    Bundling
        A. Grouping process for cut pieces
        B. Assembled into groups by:
             1. Garment size
             2. Color dye lot (if needed)
             3. Quantity of units for production process
             4. (often) Done by hand




                                                                                    52
Chapter 10.
Sourcing Decisions and Production Centers

Chapter Summary:
        The term sourcing refers to the decision-making process companies use
to determine how and where the textile and apparel products or their
components will be produced. In making sourcing decisions, companies take
into consideration their general sourcing philosophy, labor requirements and
costs, fabric requirements, quality control standards, equipment and skill
requirements, plant capacities, trade barriers and government regulations,
expected turnaround time, availability of materials and supplies, and political
and economic conditions. Based on these criteria, a number of sourcing options
are available to apparel companies and retailers. Major sourcing decisions
focus on whether production will be domestic or offshore and whether
production will take place in a company-owned facility or will be contracted to
others. When contracting, companies also must decide whether cut, make, and
trim (CMT) or full-package (FP) services will be employed.
        Domestic apparel production is primarily found in New York, California,
and the southern states. Foreign production is concentrated in several areas,
although Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and China are primary contributors
to global production. With the implementation of NAFTA, increased offshore
production by US apparel companies in Mexico continues. Current issues
surrounding apparel production are sweatshops in the United States and
abroad and changes in international trade laws that will reduce trade barriers.

     “ 소싱” 이라는 용어는 어떻게 그리고 어디에서 의류직물 제품 또는 그 일부를
생산할 것인가를 결정하기 위해 회사에서 이용하는 의사결정 과정을 의미한다. 소싱
결정을 내리기 위해서 회사들은 자기 회사의 전반적 소싱 철학, 필요한 노동력과 비용,
필요한 직물, 품질관리 기준, 필요한 장비와 기술, 공장의 생산규모, 무역 장벽 및 정부
규제, 기대 회전률, 재료 및 원료의 입수 가능성, 정치경제적 조건 등을 고려해야 한다.
이러한 기준에 근거하여 의류회사들 또는 소매업자들이 선택할 수 있는 여러가지 소싱
방법들이 여러가지가 있다. 주요 소싱 결정은 국내에서 생산할 것인가 해외에서
생산할 것인가 하는 결정과 자기 회사의 공장에서 생산할 것인가 아니면 하청을 줄
것인가의 결정이다. 하청을 줄 때에는, CMT (하청업체가 재단, 봉제, 정리만 해주는
방식)와 FP 서비스(하청업체가 모든 것을 알아서 해 주는 방식) 중에서 선택을 해야
한다.
     미국 국내 생산공장은 주로 뉴욕주, 캘리포니아주, 그리고 남부의 주들에
자리잡고 있다. 외국 생산공장 여러 지역에 집중되어 있는데, 이 중 홍콩, 대만, 한국,
중국이 세계의 생산에 주로 기여하는 지역들이다. NAFTA (북미 자유무역협정)의
실행으로 멕시코에서의 미국 의류회사의 해외생산이 증가하고 있다. 미국내과 해외의
노동착취공장들 (sweatshop) 문제와 무역 장벽을 줄이는 방향으로의 국제 무역
협정의 변화는 의류 생산과 관련되는 시사적 문제들이라 할 수 있다.

Keywords:
Cut, make, and trim (CMT)                Offshore production
Full-package (FP)                        Sourcing
Quota                                    tariff


                                                                             53
Lecture Outline:
I. Sourcing Decisions
      A. Sourcing Decisions
           1. What is sourcing?
              - The decision about how & where goods will be manufactured.
           2. Where is sourcing decision made?
              - Headquarters/office;
              - May include site visits to manufacturing facilities
           3. Why is sourcing decision important?
              - Better serve company’s needs
              - Satisfy customers
           4. Who is involved in the sourcing decision?
              - Sourcing analyst/manager; Design team

     B. What to Decide?
         1. Fabric/trim sources
               a. Domestic or Foreign
         2. Production facilities (labor sources)
               a. Foreign or domestic
               b. If foreign where in overseas
               c. Trade regulations or advantages matter
         3. Owned or contractors
         4. Level of sourcing
               a. CMT (cut, make, & trim): contractor only provide labor and
                  supply
               b. FP (full package): Contractor provides preproduction,
                  materials

     C. How to Decide?
         Using the following decision criteria:
         1. Company’s sourcing philosophy
         2. Labor costs
         3. Origin of fabric
         4. Level of quality control
         5. Equipment/expertise in production
         6. Production capacities
         7. Trade Barriers, government restrictions
         8. Turnaround time
         9. Infrastructure of the country

     D. Options for Decisions
         1. Option 1: Domestic Fabric, Domestic Production, Own Facility
               a. Greatest control over quality & timing
               b. Must maintain continuous production
               c. Goods change little from year to year
               d. May serve as contractor for other companies
               e. Labor costs usually higher


                                                                               54
              f. Trade barriers not an issue
              g. Turn-around time & shipping costs lower
          2. Option 2: Domestic fabric, domestic contractor production
              a. Lose some control of quality & timing
              b. Increases flexibility in production
              c. Trade barriers not an issue
              d. Turn-around time & shipping costs may be lower
          3. Option 3: Foreign contractor production
              a. Domestic or Foreign fabric
              b. Lower labor cost
              c. Trade barriers may be issue (Tariffs and Quotas)
              d. Culture & language differences
              e. Turn-around time & shipping costs may be high

Trade Barriers
       * Tariffs:
       - Taxes assessed by governments on imports
       - Who pays the tariffs?
       - Tariffs are imposed based on the value of goods
       * Quotas:
       - limits on the amount of goods in specific categories that can be
          imported from specific countries in a specific time (a year)
       - Quotas are imposed based on the weight (or quantity) of goods



          4. Option 4: Foreign Production w/ Fabrics cut in the US
              a. 807 (9802) production: For garments whose pieces cut in
                  the US and shipped off-shore for assembly: tariffs added
                  only for the value added
              b. NAFTA provision (since 1994)
                    - tariff free & quota free for triple transformation products
                    - Maquiladora Operations
              c. TDA in 2000 (CBI & Sub-Saharan Africa) & 2002 (Andean
                  countries)
                   - Quota free, tariff free for goods produced in these
                       countries, using fabric (produced &) cut in the U.S.

          5. Option 5: Foreign fabric, foreign production, owned foreign facility
             (FDI: Foreign Direct Investment)
               a. Greater control over quality & timing
               b. High risk

     E. Issues in Production
          1. Changes in International Trade Laws
          2. Sweatshops
          3. Human right issues of off-shore production


                                                                               55
II. Major Centers
     A. North America
           1. United States
                a. California, New York, & Southern States
                b. Texas & California growing (closer to Mexico)
                c. Proximity to the market
           2. Due to NAFTA (1996), Mexico!
                a. became the largest supplier to the North
                b. Maquiladora (In-bond production): Assembly plants

     B. Central & South America
         1. Special Trade Agreements with the US
               a. 2000 US-Caribbean Basin Trade Agreement
               b. 2002 Andean Anti-Drug Trade Agreement
               c. Talk toward Free Trade Area of Americas
         2. Columbia as a leader of T/A export

     C. EU nations
         1. Declining production & Employment in T/A industry
         2. Products: High tech, high value-added
         3. Cottage shops, Haute Couture
         4. Production: small operations
         5. Retailing: massive retailers

     D. Eastern Europe, Baltic States
          1. Challenges in transition, privatization
          2. Trade advantages to EU
          3. Growing connections to EU

     E. Asia
          1. High-Quality, FPS
          2. Trade disadvantages (quota restriction) for exports to US & EU
          3. Locational disadvantage
               a. Not good for QR
          4. Big Fours: Structural problems
          5. ASEAN: Technology transfer but leapfrogging, lack of skilled
             labor

     F. Africa
          1. (Underdeveloped)
          2. Limited domestic growth opportunities
          3. Little is known or written
          4. EU, US trade advantages
          5. Asian Manufacturers to avoid quota limit
          6. Will be the last provider of low-cost labors



                                                                              56
Chapter 11.
Production Processes and Quality Assurance

Objectives:
 To learn about the manufacturing environments used for production.
 To examine the production processes used in manufacturing.
 To understand the components of quality assurance and the importance of
  quality assurance in delivering on-time, acceptable merchandise to the
  retailer.

Chapters Summary:

       This chapter examines some of the important aspects of production.
With the background of the previous chapters, the interrelationship among
research, design, pattern development, preproduction, and production should
be clear. All systems must work together for production to flow smoothly. Any
problem along a style’s path may slow production. delays to the contracted
delivery date may cost the manufacturer not only the style’s profits, but future
business from retailers.
       A significant portion of the cost to produce apparel is consumed by the
labor required to cut and sew the goods. Reducing labor costs can help retain
reasonable prices for finished goods. Specialized equipment has been
developed to speed production and improve accuracy. New technology in
equipment and manufacturing systems has dramatically changed apparel
production and provided a more efficient use of the labor team. Workers are
more actively involved in providing an efficient production system and in team
responsibility for the quality of the goods produced. Even with the high cost of
new, technologically advanced equipment, the increase in production efficiency
rapidly pays for the cash outlay to purchase new equipment.
        Changes in production sewing systems have required changes in the
manner in which employee compensation is determined. Pay based on the
team’s performance, group incentives for high performance and quality, and
straight hourly wages have replaced traditional piece rates at many facilities.
Workers are cross-trained on various equipments and in a variety of skills to
provide greater flexibility to the workforce.
       The number of different garment styles produced per season has
increased for many production facilities. This makes it more difficult for
production to flow smoothly. Flexibility in production systems will continue to be
an important cornerstone of increased efficiency and decreased labor costs.
Concern for workers’ ergonomic needs is another trend that has changed the
look of production facilities. We no longer see banks of seated sewers bent
over sewing machines. Workers stand, walk from point to point, and sit on
stools to provide better body positioning, circulation, and muscle relaxation.
       Finishing operations performed at the end of production include
laundering and applying garment finishes and garment dyeing, as well as
packaging products ready for distribution. Providing floor-ready merchandise for


                                                                                57
the retailer with bar coded hangtags improves the efficiency of the entire flow of
goods.
        Quality assurance is an integral part of the product, from its inception to
arrival in the customer’s hands. Quality assurance includes meeting quality
standards for all aspects of the product: the textile goods, component parts
such as buttons and zippers, sewing, measurement specifications, and finishing.

     본 장에서는 생산의 중요한 몇몇 측면들이 검토된다. 앞의 장들에서 배운
내용을 바탕으로 한다면, 리서치, 디자인, 패턴 개발, 생산전 단계, 그리고 생산단계의
상호관계를 명확히 이해할 수 있을 것이다. 생산과정이 원만하게 진행되기 위해서는
이 모든 시스템의 협력이 필요하다. 한 스타일이 생산을 거치는 동안 어느 한
단계에서라도 문제가 생긴다면 생산과정은 늦춰질 것이다. 계약에서 정해진 배송일을
맞추지 못하면 의류제조업자는 그 스타일에 대한 이익만큼의 손해를 볼 뿐만 아니라,
소매업자들과의 앞으로의 사업자체를 잃게 될 수도 있다.
     의류생산 비용의 많은 부분이 상품을 재단하고 재봉하는 노동력 비용이다.
노동력 비용을 절감할 수 있다면 최종 상품의 가격을 합리적으로 유지하는 데 도움이
된다. 생산을 가속화하고 정확성을 높이기 위한 많은 특수한 설비들이 개발되었다.
설비와 제조시스템면에서의 새로운 기술은 의류 생산을 완전히 변화시켰고 노동력의
보다 효율적인 이용을 가능하게 하였다. 노동자들은 효율적인 생산 시스템을 제공하는
데 보다 적극적으로 관여하게 되었고 생산된 상품의 품질에 대하여 공동책임을 진다.
새로운 기술적으로 진보된 설비에는 높은 비용이 요구되지만, 그에 따르는 생산
효율성의 증가는 새로운 설비를 구입하는 데 쓰이는 비용을 빠른 시일내에 되갚아준다.
     생산에 이용되는 재봉틀의 변화로 인하여 노동자들의 보수를 결정하는
방식에도 변화가 필요하게 되었다. 많은 공장에서 팀의 성과에 따른 보수 지급, 높은
성과와 품질에 대한 그룹 인센티브, 그리고 시간당 수당 지급 등의 방법이 예전의 한
조각당 보수를 지급하던 방식을 대체하게 되었다. 보다 융통성있는 생산환경을 위해
노동자들은 여러 종류의 기계를 이용하여 여러가지 기술을 익히는 훈련을 받게 되었다.
     많은 생산공장에서 한 시즌에 생산하는 의복 스타일의 수가 증가하였다. 이런
변화로 생산 공정이 원만하게 이루어지는 것은 더 어려워 졌다. 효율성 증대와 노동력
비용의 절감을 위한 요소로서 생산 시스템의 융통성은 점점 더 그 중요성이 커질
것이다. 노동자들의 인간 환경공학적인 필요에 대한 관심은 생산공장들의 모습을 바꿔
놓은 또다른 하나의 경향이다. 이제는 수 많은 노동자들이 재봉틀 앞에서 쭈그리고
있는 모습은 더이상 볼 수 없다. 노동자들은 보다 나은 자세와 혈액순환과 근육이완을
위하여 서서 일하거나, 자리를 옮겨가며 일하거나, 등받이가 없는 높은 의자에 앉아
일한다.
     생산과정의 마지막에 이루어지는 후처리 작업은 세척과정과 의복에 마감제
또는 염료를 입히는 과정과 상품이 유통될 수 있도록 포장하는 단계를 포함한다.
소매업자들이 배달된 상품을 그대로 매장에 진열할 수 있도록 바코드가 찍힌 꼬리표를
달아줌으로써 전체적인 상품유통의 효율성이 증대되었다.
     상품이 처음 만들어지는 단계에서부터 소비자의 손에 이르기까지, 품질 보증은
상품의 필수적인 요소이다. 품질보증은 텍스타일 제품, 단추나 지퍼와 같은 부속품,
봉제, 제품계측값, 후처리 등 상품의 모든 측면에 대한 품질 기준을 만족시키는 것이다.




                                                                                58
Lecture outline:
I. Production
     A. Definition
         - The construction process by which pattern pieces, materials, and
           trims are merged into a finished apparel product.
     B. The cost of production is affected by:
          1. Product design and pattern
          2. The production process
          (Designers and pattern makers need production knowledge)

II. Manufacturing Environment
     A. Mass production
          1. High volume
          2. Economy of scale
          3. Based on in-store replenishment
          4. Basic/staple products
          5. Allows for longer lead times
          6. Can source off-shore and save on labor

     B. Short-Cycle Production
          1. Products produced closer to time of market demand
          2. High fashion product
          3. short selling seasons (6-8 weeks)
          4. No or little intention of in-store replenishment
          5. Asia as a sourcing place
               a. Fabric availability
               b. Skill levels

     C. Mass customization
         1. Short cycle manufacturing to an individual consumer
         2. Use of all the newest technologies (IT, SCM, CIM)
         3. Cost efficiency of mass production; Customization of fit, design,
            and personalization
         4. Domestic production desirable
         5. What to Customize?
              a. Fit: Made-to-Measure by (body scanning) saved on a Smart
                 Card
                 i.e. Brooks Brothers eMeasure, digital tailoring
              b. Design: Interactive selection on a computer scrInteractive
                 selection on a computer screen, virtual model presents the
                 look
                 i.e. Levi’s
              c. Personalization: Personalized details can be added to just-
                 purchased items
                 i.e. Levi’s




                                                                              59
III. Construction Types
      A. Single-hand system (Whole garment system)
               - One individual sews the entire garment
      B. Progressive bundle system (section work)
               - Each individual completes 1-2 operations on all items in bundle
      C. Flexible manufacturing systems (FM)
            1. A generic term
            2. Unit production system (UPS)
                  a. Computerized overhead transport system
            3. Modular Manufacturing
                  a. Members are usually cross-trained in all functions.
                  b. Emphasis on group effort

IV. Finishing
      A. Steps to make product ready for shipment.
            1. pressing
            2. turning garments right side out
            3. labels and hangtags
            4. buttons, buttonholes, snap-setting
            5. fabric treatments:
                 a. laundering (stone washing, etc),
                 b. wrinkle-resistant,
                 c. dye (garment dyed: colorless garment dyed after production)
            6. folding/hanging

V. Quality Assurance
    - Assuring product meets standards of acceptance agreed to by
    contracting parties
    - Goods adhere to spec sheet
    - Has to have standards, manual, & criteria

VI. Industrial Knit Production
      - Fully cut
      - Garments length/width knitted
      - Fully fashioned knitted fabric
      - Integral garment knitting
      - Seamless knitted garment/whole garment




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Chapter 12.
Distribution and Retailing


Objectives:
In this chapter students will learn:
 The strategies and processes for distributing apparel products to the
    ultimate consumer.
 The nature of the alliances between apparel companies and retailers in
    carrying out Quick Response and supply chain management activities
    related to distribution.
 The definition and characteristics of the various categories of retailers.
 The primary trade publications and trade associations associated with
    distribution of apparel products.


Chapter Summary:
         Apparel companies have a number of options with regard to the
distribution of their merchandise to the ultimate consumer. Companies must
decide how widely their merchandise will be distributed; some will choose mass
distribution, whereas others will decide on a selective or exclusive distribution
strategy. Apparel companies will distribute their goods either directly to their
retail accounts or through distribution centers. Retailers with many stores may
also use distribution centers as a central location for merchandise, from which it
is then shipped to the various stores.
         Quick Response and supply chain management strategies are
important in the distribution process, and alliances between apparel companies
and retailers contribute to use Universal Product Code bar coding on product
labels and shipping cartons; to have vendors (manufacturers) assuming
responsibility for affixing labels and price information on products; and to use
electronic data interchange for the electronic transmission of invoices, advance
shipping notices, and other information operations. In some cases, programs
have been established whereby the vendor (manufacturer) manages retail
inventory and automatically replenishes the retailer’s stock when needed. Data-
mining technology makes possible even more sophisticated systems for making
sure the retailer has the right stock at the right time.
         The retailing level of the marketing involves the selling of merchandise
to the final consumer. Retailers are often classified according to merchandising
and operating strategies into the following categories, which are not mutually
exclusive: department stores, specialty stores, chain stores, discount retailers,
off-price retailers, supermarkets, convenience stores, contractual retailers,
warehouse retailers, and nonstore retailing. Apparel manufacturers use a
variety of retailers in the final distribution of their products to the ultimate
consumer, although they use some (e.g. department stores, specialty stores,
discount stores) more than others. Nonstore retailing including mail
order/catalog and electronic/Internet retailing has experienced greater growth
than traditional forms of retailing in recent years.


                                                                                61
    의류회사가 최종 소비자에게 상품을 유통시키는 방식에는 많은 방법이 있다.
회사들은 얼마나 널리 상품을 유통시킬 것인가를 결정해야 한다. 어떤 회사들은 대량
유통을 선택하는 반면, 어떤 회사들은 선택적 또는 배타적 유통전략을 이용한다.
의류회사들은 상품을 직접 또는 유통센터를 통하여 소매거래처에 유통시킨다.
점포수가 많은 소매업자들도 유통센터를 상품의 집결지로 이용하여 여기에서
점포들로 상품이 배달되도록 한다.
    QR 과 SCM 전략은 유통과정에서 중요하며, 의류회사와 소매업체간에
동맹관계를 통해 상품 라벨 또는 선적용 박스에 UPC bar coding 를 이용하고, 상품에
라벨과 가격 정보를 붙이는 것을 제조업자가 책임지며, 필요에 따라 송장, 사전 선적
통지서 등의 정보를 컴퓨터로 전달하도록 EDI 를 사용할 수 있게 되었다. 어떤
경우에는 제조업자가 소매 재고를 관리하고 소매업자의 재고를 필요에 따라
자동적으로 보급할 수 있는 프로그램이 이용되기도 한다. 데이터 마이닝 기술은
소매업자가 적절한 시기에 적당한 재고를 보유하고 있는지 확인할 수 있는 보다
정교한 시스템을 가능하게 한다.
    소매수준에서의 마케팅은 상품을 최종 소비자에게 판매하는 과정을 포함한다.
소매업자들은 머천다이징 전략과 운영 전략에 따라 다음의 범주들로 나뉠 수 있는데,
이 범주들은 상호배타적이지는 않다: 백화점, 전문점, 체인점, 할인점, 저가점,
슈퍼마켓, 편의점, 특약점, 창고형 소매업체, 무점포 소매업체. 의류 제조업자들은
상품의 최종 유통을 위해 백화점, 전문점, 할인점 등의 소매방식을 주로 이용하기는
하지만, 다른 다양한 소매업체들도 이용한다. 무점포 소매업은 우편주문/카탈로그와
컴퓨터/인터넷 소매업은 최근 전통적 방식의 소매업에 비해 훨씬 많은 성장을 보였다.


Key Words:
boutique                            mail-order/catalog retailer
Chain store                         mass distribution
Contractual retailer                nonstore retailing
Convenience store                   off-price retailer
Data-mining technology              relationship marketing
Department store                    retailer
Discount store                      retailing
Distribution center                 selective distribution
e-commerce                          specialty store
electronic data interchange (EDI)   supermarket
electronic/Internet retailer        superstore
eMarkets                            Universal Product Code
exclusive distribution              Vendor-managed inventory
franchise                           Vendor marking
in-store shops                      Warehouse retailer




                                                                  62
Lecture outline:
I. Distribution Strategies
     A. Distribution Strategies
           1. Getting the merchandise moved from one channel member to
              another
           2. In order to make products available to the ultimate consumer
           3. Based on how many consumers you would like to reach
                 a. Target market
                 b. Brand image
     B. Distribution Strategy Types
           1. Mass: As many consumers as possible
           2. Selective: Only in selected stores
           3. Exclusive: Selected stores to create exclusive image

     C. *Distribution Centers (DCs)
          1. when products come from various facilities
          2. picking, packing, and distributing
          3. Flow-thru facilities rather than storage
                a. Manufacturer’s DC
                b. Retailer’s DC

     D. QR (Quick Response)
         1. Anything that makes the chain flexible, speedy
         2. A generic term for any strategy or technology that makes……
         3. =SCM
         4. UPC & EDI makes QR possible
         5. Vendor-Managed Retail Inventory

II. Retailers
     - Any business establishment that directs its marketing efforts toward the
     final consumer for the purpose of selling goods and services.
     * Retail Classification:
            - Not mutually exclusive.
            - Cultural differences may exist.
            - Image of the retail store projects the image of the brand or the retail
            store
     A. Department stores
            1. Large retailers that departmentalize functions & merchandise
            2. Target consumers: broad range of consumers
            3. Products: variety of merchandise lines
            4. Relationship merchandising: emphasis on                presentation,
                customer service, product differentiation.
            5. E.g., Macy’s, Dayton Hudson, May Co., Nordstrom, Saks Fifth
                Avenue, Neiman Marcus
            6. Characterized by:
                  a. Fashion orientation
                  b. Full markup policy


                                                                                   63
          c. Serving as mall anchor stores
          d. Mix of national & private label merchandise

B. Specialty stores
     1. Focus on a specific type of merchandise
     2. Product Strategies
          a. Carry only one or a few closely related categories or brands
              of merchandise
          b. Limited, deep assortment
          c. May carry national and/or private label
          d. Merchandise for well-defined target market
     3. Boutique: Specialty store concentrating on designer price zone

C. Chain store
    1. Owns & operates several retail store units
    2. Stores sell similar lines of merchandise using standardized
        methods
    3. Functions under centralized organizational structure (centralized
        buying, management, distribution)
    4. Stores maintain standardized décor & layout
    5. Target market: local consumers
    6. Products: private label merchandise, general products for local
        target market
    7. E.g., JC Penny, Sears, Wal-Mart, and the Limited

D. Discount stores
     1. Sell brand name merchandise at below traditional retail price
     2. Products: private label and brand name
     3. Pricing strategy: low price
     4. Product strategy: limit brands and styles
     5. Huge quantities  smaller profit margins than department stores
        a. Upscale discounters: carry carious products, similar to
            department stores
        b. E.g., Wal-Mart, Kmart, Target, Meijer, Ames, etc.

E. Off-price retailers
     1. Sell national brands, designer apparel lines or promotional goods
        at discount prices.
     2. Carry well-established brands
     3. special buys, closeouts, overruns, irregulars, last season’s goods,
        off-colors, manufacturer’s returns
     4. Merchandise assortments are often inconsistent
     5. Types
           a. Factory outlets: Sell own seconds, irregulars, or overruns
           b. Independents: T.J. Maxx,
           c. Retailer-owned: Filene’s Basement
           d. Closeout stores: Big Lots, Odd Lots: Specialize in buying a


                                                                         64
              variety of merchandise         through    retail   liquidations,
              bankruptcies, and closeouts

F. Supermarkets, Superstores
     1. Supermarkets
                       i.        Large, self-service stores
                       ii.       Sell full line of foods & related products
     2. Superstores
                       i.        Upgraded supermarkets
                       ii.       Larger sales volumes
                       iii.      Larger selling area
                       iv.       Include some basic apparel items in
                                 merchandise mix

G. Convenience stores
    1. Small stores
    2. Convenient location
    3. Offer fast service
    4. Limited assortment of food & related items
    5. Usually carry basic merchandise items

H. Contractual retailers
    1. Contractual agreement with manufacturers, wholesalers, or other
        retailers
    2. Types
          a. Franchise: well-known brand, method of operation
                  i.  The mother company provides exclusive distribution
                      of a well-organized brand name
                 ii.  Assisted by the organization
                iii.  Franchise payment
               iv.    Agreement to specific standards
          b. Leased department: provides expertise & extra service,
              receives recognition from host name
                  i.  Retailers lease space within a larger retail store
                 ii.  The larger retail store provides space, utilities, and
                      basic in-store services
                iii.  Specialty departments
          c. In-store designer boutiques
                  i.  Designer brands
                 ii.  Furnish permanent location within a large store

I. Warehouse stores
    1. Reduce operating expenses
    2. Offer discount prices
    3. By combining showroom, warehouse & retail operations into
       single facility
    4. Product: Basic apparel items


                                                                              65
     5. Use extended distribution channel

J. Non-store Retailers
    1. Distribute products without using traditional retail store

     2. Types
          a. Print/mail: Catalog/Direct mail
          b. Man-to-man: Direct selling retailer
          c. TV/Telephone: TV home shopping
          d. Interactive E-system: Electronic retailer
          e. Vending machines: coin-operated machines,               instant
             gratification

     3. Tremendous growth due to:
          a. Consumer demands for convenience
          b. Continued growth in the number of women in the workforce
          c. Use of credit cards
          d. Delivery methods available
          e. Technological advance

     4. Nonstore vs. Store-based Retailing
         a. Offer consumers the convenience of selecting and
            purchasing merchandise at a time and location of their
            choosing
         b. But, nonstore does not offer some services: touch and feel
            the merchandise; trials; alterations

     5. *Television Home Shopping
          a. Cable channels dedicated to home shopping
          b. Infomercials, typically 30 minutes long
          c. Direct response advertising includes ads on TV and radio
             that describe products and provide an opportunity for
             consumers to order them.
          d. Customers can see the merchandise demonstrated on TV
          e. Appeals primarily to lower income customers

     6. Electronic Retailing
          a. As the bandwidth of the Internet increases, so will the
             quantity and quality of information consumers will get from
             electronic retailers
          b. Electronic retailing is less than 1% of US retail sales (1999),
             but is growing at over 100% annually. Growth is affected by
                 i.  The ease with which customers can try the
                     innovation
                ii.  The perceived risks in adopting the innovation
               iii.  The benefits offered by the innovation compared to
                     the present alternatives.


                                                                          66
7. Who’s trying out electronic shopping?
    a. Women comprise slightly less than half of Internet users, but
       do most of the shopping
    b. Generation Y are substantial users, meaning the future is
       bright
    c. In the US, adults over age 50 are the fastest growing user
       group
    d. Usage in Europe is much less than in the US.
    e. Insecure credit card transactions is the major perceived risk
       in electronic retailing




                                                                  67
Chapter 13 & 14.
Accessories and Home Fashions Industries

Objectives:
In this chapter students will learn:
 The relationship between fashion apparel and accessories and home
    fashions industries.
 The similarities and differences between the design and manufacturing of
    accessories and home fashions and that of fashion apparel products.
 The marketing and distribution strategies for fashion accessories and home
    fashions.

Chapter Summary:

         Accessories comprise vital and important segments of the fashion
industry. Changes in accessories complement changes found in the ready-to-
wear apparel industry. Therefore, the apparel and accessories markets work
together in creating total fashion looks. Accessories are grouped into the
following categories: footwear; hosiery and legwear; hats and head wear; belts,
handbags, and small leather goods; gloves; and jewelry. Although production
processes vary, most accessory lines are created according to the following
steps: research, designer’s sketches, pattern making, development of
prototypes, costing, marketing, production, distribution, and retailing.
         The footwear industry produces men’s, women’s, and children’s dress
shoes and boots, athletic shoes, casual shoes, and other footwear. The main
raw materials used for footwear include leather, fabrics, and plastics. To reduce
labor costs, shoe production has shifted from domestic to primarily offshore
venues.
         The hosiery/legwear industry produces men’s, women’s and children’s
socks, stockings, and hosiery. Production of hosiery is very automated. Hosiery
companies are very involved with Quick Response and supply chain
management strategies, including vendor-managed retail inventory.
         Although hats and head wear companies currently comprise a much
smaller segment of the accessories industries than they did decades ago, they
are still important. Item houses that produce specialty merchandise such as
baseball caps have grown as the popularity of this type of accessory has
increased.
         The belt industry includes the rack trade (manufacturers that design,
produce, and market belts to retailers) and the cut-up trade (manufacturers that
produce belts for apparel manufacturers). The handbag industry produces
small leather goods as well as handbags. Leather gloves and fabric gloves are
the two primary categories in the glove industry.
         Jewelry is divided into three categories: fine jewelry, bridge jewelry, and
costume jewelry. New York City serves as the market center for virtually all
accessories. Trade shows and trade associations play an important role in
promoting all components of the accessories industries.
         The home fashions industry includes four end-use categories:


                                                                                  68
upholstered furniture coverings and fillings; windows and wall coverings; soft
floor coverings; and bed, bath, tabletop, and other textile accessories and
accents. The design and performance of the textiles used for home fashions
play a very important role in the success of the end use. That being the case,
the textile industry is the base for the home fashions industry, which is
dominated by vertically integrated textile companies that produce both fabrics
and home fashion products. Production of home fashions is often highly
automated and can be accomplished very efficiently within a vertical operation.
Some home fashions, such as towels and rugs, come off the production line as
finished goods, not needing further cutting and sewing to complete the product.
          In recent years, the apparel and home fashions industries have
become more interrelated. Well-known apparel companies have entered the
home fashions market. Some apparel designers have moved into home
fashions through licensing agreements with textile mills and home fashions
manufacturers. Consumer demand for home fashions has been strong and
keeps increasing.
          Market research and color forecasting are conducted prior to
developing the seasonal collections. The textile and trim designers create
innovative materials and the product designers determine the form of the final
end-use product. Products must meet important functional needs, performance
criteria, and safety standards set by law. Converters that print or finish fabrics to
improve their performance play an important role in the production of textiles for
home fashions. Often converter contracts for specific finishing work with a
variety of finishing plants. The marketing process for home fashions is similar to
the process used in the apparel industry, but the home fashion industry relies
on converters and jobbers to perform marketing and distribution functions more
frequently than does the apparel industry.

       악세서리는 패션 산업의 중요한 한 분야를 구성한다. 악세서리의 변화는
기성복 의류 산업의 변화를 보완해 준다. 따라서 의류와 악세서리 시장은 함께
전반적인 패션 룩을 창조한다. 악세서리는 다음의 카테고리로 분류된다: 신발류;
양말류; 모자류; 벨트, 핸드백 등 작은 가죽제품; 장갑, 그리고 장신구. 생산과정은
비록 다양하나, 대부분의 액세서리 라인은 연구, 디자이너의 스케치, 패턴 제작, 원형
개발, 원가계산, 마케팅, 생산, 유통, 판매의 순서를 따른다.
       신발산업은 남성용, 여성용, 아동용 정장구두와 부츠, 운동화, 캐쥬얼 구두,
기타 신발을 생산한다. 신발에 이용되는 주요 재료로는 가죽, 직물, 그리고 플라스틱이
있다. 노동력을 절감하기 위해서 신발생산은 주로 (미국) 국내로부터 외국생산으로
옮겨졌다.
       양말산업은 남성용, 여성용, 아동용 양말, 스타킹 등을 생산한다. 양말의
생산은 상당히 자동화 되었다. 양말업체들은 QE 과 SCM 에 크게 관여하고 있으며,
제조업자가 유통재고를 관리하는 시스템도 채택하고 있다.
       모자산업은 과거에 비해서 그 규모가 많이 축소되었지만, 아직도 중요한
분야이다. 야구모자와 같은 특정한 상품을 생산하는 아이템하우스가 이런 상품에 대한
인기가 증가하면서 많이 성장하였다,
       벨트산업은 소비자들에게 판매하기 위해 모자를 디자인, 생산, 판매하는 rack
trade 와 의류제조업자들에게 벨트를 공급하는 cut-up trade 의 두 시장으로 나뉜다.



                                                                                   69
핸드백업체들은 핸드백뿐 아니라 작은 가죽제품들도 생산한다. 장갑류에는 가죽
장갑과 천장갑이 주된 카테고리이다.
    홈패션 산업은, 최종 용도에 따라 가구덮개 및 충전물; 커튼류; 카페트류;
침구류, 식탁보, 또는 기타 직물 장식품 등의 4 개의 카테고리로 나뉜다. 홈패션에
이용되는 직물의 디자인과 성능은 최종상품의 성패에 아주 중요한 영향을 미친다.
그렇다 보니, 직물산업은 홈패션 산업의 기초가 되고, 홈패션 산업 내에서는 직물과
홈패션을 함께 생산하는 수직통합적 업체들이 우위를 차지하고 있다. 홈패션의 생산은
상당히 자동화된 경우가 많다. 예를들어 타월이나 러그 같은 상품은 생산과정에서
완성되어 더 이상 재단이나 재봉이 필요없는 상태로 만들어진다.
    최근에는, 의류산업과 홈패션산업간의 상호관계가 더 강해졌다. 잘 알려진
의류 회사들이 홈패션 시장에 뛰어들었고, 어떤 의류 디자이너들은 직물업체 또는
홈패션업체와의 라이센싱을 통해서 홈패션 시장에 진입하였다. 홈패션에 대한
소비자들의 수요는 매우 강하며, 계속 증가하고 있다.
    시즌의 콜렉션을 개발하기 전에 시장 조사와 색채 예측이 이루어진다. 직물 및
장식 디자이너는 혁신적인 직물을 만들어내고, 상품디자이너는 최종 상품이 어떤
형태를 가질 것인지 결정한다. 상품은 반드시 기능적인 요구와 성능과 관련한 기준,
그리고 법으로 지정된 안전 기준에 맞아야 한다. 직물의 성능을 개선하기 위해서
인쇄를 하거나 후처리를 하는 Converter 들 (직물가공업자들)은 홈패션 상품을 위한
직물의 생산에서 중요한 역할을 한다. 간혹 converter 들은 특정한 후처리 작업을
후처리 공장에 맡기기도 한다. 홈패션의 마케팅 과정은 의류산업과 비슷하나,
홈패션에서는 converter 나 jobber 들이 마케팅과 유통 기능을 담당하는 경향이
의류산업에서보다 큰 편이다.

Key Words
Bridge jewelry              Linen
Costume jewelry             Napery
Cut-up trade                Soft floor coverings
Fine jewelry                Table linens
Item house                  Textile accessories and accents
Millinery                   Thread count
Rack trade                  Top of the bed
Décor                       Wall coverings
Decorative fabric jobbers   Window treatments
Home fashions




                                                              70
Lecture Outline:

I. Accessories
   - Are a vital component of the fashion industry
   - Accessories and apparel producers must work closely together
   - Reflect dominant fashion trends

     A. Accessory Categories
          1. Footwear
          2. Hosiery and legwear
          3. Hats and headwear
          4. Scarfs and neckwear
          5. Belts, handbags, & small leather goods
          6. Gloves
          7. Jewelry
          8. Other: including sunglasses, hair accessories, and umbrellas

     B. Accessories Manufacturers in General
          1. Producers:
               a. Most specialize in only one type of product
               b. Apparel companies produce their own accessories to
                  coordinate with apparel lines
               c. Form agreements with other companies to produce
                  matching accessories
               d. Many designers use licensing
          2. Promotion: Item ad more popular than image ad

     C. Footwear
          1. Athletic shoes or fashion footwear
          2. Design by CAD
          3. Italy as a trend leader
          4. Production
                a. Large, vertically integrated producers
                b. Labor intensive
                c. Chemical plus sewing procedures
                d. Requires Large inventory

     D. Hosiery/ Legwear
         1. Strong price appeal
         2. Variety of fibers
         3. Production
               a. Whole product production possible (knit)
               b. Automation possible & IT keeps cost down
               c. Strong US production
               d. QR desirable
               e. Private label & Licensing
         4. Sara Lee corp. 47% of US market


                                                                            71
E. Hats and Headwear
    1. Small % of accessories market
    2. Specialize in product & material
    3. Different production methods for materials
          a. Cotton, wool, straw, leather…….
    4. Trends affect sakes
    5. Millinery losing demands
    6. Item Houses (Baseball caps) are popular
    7. good for promotion

F. Scarves and Neckwear
     1. Trends
           a. Ties: width
           b. Scarfs, mufflers: material
     2. Printing tech. important (More of 2D, or surface design than
         construction)
     3. CAD reduces labor costs
G. Belts
     1. Styles follow fashion cycles
     2. Specialization by type & material
     3. Wide range of quality
     4. US- Centered in NYC
     5. Cut-up trade: Sold with garments by dependent manufacturer
     6. Rack trade: Sold alone by independent manufacturer

H. Handbags
    1. Designer handbags popular
    2. Some of them owns stores
    3. Design=Symbol of Brands
    4. Not many SKU needed

I. Gloves
     1. For western culture, traditional item for formality
     2. Functional gloves (for cold weather) are staple of industry
     3. Labor costs and materials are important factors
     4. Labor intensive
     5. Fabric (knit or woven) or leader
     6. Measurement/sizes should be local specific

J. Jewelry
     1. Types
          a. Fine: Gold, silver, platinum, precious & semi-precious gems
          b. Bridge: Silver, gold, other stones
          c. Costume: plastic,wood, glass etc
     2. Materials are important factors in costing
     3. For fine Jewelry, brand is important
     4. Distribution depends on type


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II. Home Fashion:
     A. End Uses
          1. Upholstered furniture coverings and fillings
               a. SIC 2512: Upholstered household furniture
          2. Soft floor coverings
               a. carpeting, area rugs, runners
               b. SIC 2273 Carpets and Rugs
          3. Bed, bath, table, and other and accents
               a. SIC: 2392 House Furnishing, Except Curtains And Draperies
          4. Window and wall coverings
               a. draperies, curtains, fabric shades
               b. SIC:2391, Curtains And Draperies

    B. Trends
         1. Crossover bt Apparel and home fashion
         2. Brand extension very common
         3. Licensing common
         4. Consumer demand increasing
         5. Seasonal purchasing habits.
         6. Textile is vital part
         7. Production (assembly) is very simple
         8. Less imports
         9. Trends do not change quickly

    * Licensing
          - important component of home fashions industry.
          - Based on well-recognized brand name with a distinct image
          - Well-known designers in the home fashions industry
          - For children: Disney, Warner Brothers, Dallas Cowboys, Barbie

    C. Design
        1. Key points: self-expression and individuality
        2. Research: Inspiration from
              a. New fiber/fabric,
              b. Functional/performance needs,
              c. Safety standards,
              d. Social, political, economic, & consumer trends
        3. Accurate color forecasting
              a. Ten-year color cycle
              b. Use of home textile sample books
              c. On-target color forecasting
              d. Color Marketing Group (CMG)
        4. Textile Processes
              a. Textile design
                    i.   the design for the fabric structure and surface design;
                   ii.   use of CAD
              b. Printing and finishes:


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                i. Converters,
               ii. Cost economics
              iii. Digital printing
          c. Weaving:
                i. controlled by sophisticated computer manufacturing
                   programs
               ii. use of CAD

D. Marketing
    1. Trade show/association/publication
    2. Converters and Jobbers
    3. Manufacturer showrooms and company sales representatives
    4. Others: sample books, catalogs, print advertisement, TV ads,
       Internet site

E. Production
     1. Off-shore production to reduce the cost
     2. Key point: fast and accurate delivery of raw goods from suppliers
     3. Developing area
          a. QR
          b. Customization




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