What are Web Services - IJIS Institute by yaosaigeng


									                                        WEB SERVICES TO
                                        INTEGRATE THE
                                        JUSTICE ENTERPRISE


                       An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


The IJIS Institute would like to thank the following individuals and their sponsoring companies
for their dedication and input on this document:

Matthew A. D‘Alessandro, Motorola –
Committee Chair

John Crouse, ACS Government Solutions –
Committee Co-Chair

Fred A. Lengerich, SAIC

Sharad Rao, Tetris Consulting

Bob Slaski, Nlets

This project was supported by Grant No. 2003-LD-BX-0007 awarded by the Bureau of Justice
Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs,
which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office for Victims of Crime. Points of view or
opinions in this document are those of the author and do not represent the official position or policies
of the United States Department of Justice.

                                      Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                            Emerging Technologies Committee                           2
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


In the world of integration, there are a                 Web Services can be utilized when one
variety of technologies and methodologies                agency desires to share information
that provide the capability to exchange                  contained in at least one of their existing
information or data between systems.                     data applications or systems with at least
Determining the best solution is important,              one other agency system or application.
because choosing another can add risk, time,
cost, and complexity to an already
challenging endeavor. As integration
technology matures and implementation
becomes more widespread, trends are
becoming increasingly apparent within the
                                                           “Web Services can be
Justice and Homeland Security domains.
These trends indicate that as more users
                                                            utilized when one
implement integration technology and their
use grows, it benefits the entire user
                                                          agency desires to share
community. One of these new technologies
is called Web Services. Its use is becoming
the de facto standard based on its adoption
rate with other associated technologies and
data standards such as middleware and the                The use of Web Services varies by agency,
Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM).                   but an example might be a law enforcement
Web Services are a set of standards that                 agency sharing arrest information with a
define how information from each agency                  prosecutor, a jail, probation, or court.
application or system is packaged, in what               Another example may include the court
way it can connect to other agency systems,              providing disposition information to law
and how it finds a service enabling the                  enforcement, the prosecutor, probation, or
transfer to take place. This standardization             the jail. Regardless of the reason, the
permits existing agency applications and                 capability to share this information in a
technologies to be readily plugged in or                 structured manner, using agreed upon
removed from the agencies enterprise with                standards and practices is a key component
less effort than non-standardized, less                  to make an integration program successful.
efficient technologies and methodologies. In             Using Web Services reduces the risk,
short, using Web Services can significantly              complications, and costs of the integration
reduce the time, effort, and cost required to            process of an enterprise by avoiding one-off
provide integration capabilities throughout              application integration points between
the integrated justice enterprise.                       justice applications.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                              3
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper

The set of standards associated with Web                 This set of standards specifies the basic
Services include:                                        foundation technology for Web Services;
                                                         namely, how Web Services can be deployed
 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)—a
                                                         and made available to others. The
  transport level standard specifying how
                                                         interesting work is enabling Web Services to
  to package data in an XML message
                                                         be combined or interact with one another to
 Web Services Description Language                      perform useful business functions. Web
  (WSDL)—a XML format that specifies                     Service orchestration and choreography are
  how to describe interfaces for Web                     the operations that make this possible.
  Services, so that other applications or
                                                         This paper addresses the foundations of
  services may access it
                                                         Web Services for integrated justice, the
 Universal Description, Discovery, and                  current standards for this technology, case
  Integration (UDDI)—a protocol that                     studies of current applications of this
  specifies how services are registered and              technology, potential applications for
  discovered on the network                              Justice, Homeland Security, and Public
                                                         Safety agencies, and the various vendor
 Hyper Text Transfer Protocol/encrypted
                                                         products available today.
  (HTTP or HTTP/S)—a transport
  mechanism used to send information
  from one system to another.


Web Services are software systems designed
to support interoperable machine-to-
machine interaction over the Internet as well
as private intranets. Web Services
communicate using messages to obtain                     “Web Services are a set
access to information appearing in an
eXtensible Markup Language (XML) form.                   of standards that define
Web Services are written to strict
specifications or standards, enabling them to             how information…is
easily work together with similar
components. And as a result, an increasing               packaged, in what way
number of Web applications communicate
with backend systems via Web Services. The                 it can connect…and
more established standards within Web
Services today are messaging, directories of              how it finds a service
business capabilities, and descriptions of
technical services. Others that are evolving             enabling the transfer to
through a world-wide standards
organization called the World Wide Web                          take place.”
Consortium (W3C) include: standards for
security, transactional consistency, and
message reliability.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                            Emerging Technologies Committee                            4
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper

Web Services represent an important                       existing legacy systems quickly and
evolutionary step to integrated justice                   efficiently is becoming more important. The
projects, because they enable applications in             movement towards widespread use of Web
different agencies and organizations to                   Services gives agencies the capability to
share information with each other without                 share real-time data with more agencies,
one-off programming efforts. As an                        while potentially reducing risks and costs.
example, imagine living in a typical U.S.
                                                          Web Services are written according to
house with different types of electrical wall-
                                                          standards, with all parties working from the
outlets, rather than the U.S. standard of two
                                                          same basic component interface design.
flat blade-prongs. If this were the case, every
                                                          Organizations then add value and domain
appliance manufacturer would need to
                                                          specific capabilities to the basic design to
provide a series of adapters to ensure the
                                                          meet the needs of their users. For example, a
appliance will work requiring additional
                                                          state department of motor vehicles (DMV)
expense and time for adapters, storage, and
                                                          can offer other systems the capability to
use. However, with U.S. electrical standards
                                                          query their driver‘s license and vehicle
for connections anyone can plug any lamp
                                                          registration data. Web Services provide the
into any room. Similarly, Web Services
                                                          basic data formatting and service-
would allow one Social Security Number
                                                          description operations for this kind of
(SSN) data format to be used for any
                                                          electronic relationship. The DMV could
application adhering to the Web Service
                                                          build on these basic features by providing
standards the agency employs, hopefully
                                                          specific data services to the users, such as a
                                                          notification service. In addition, agencies
Once an organization makes the investment                 can extend these capabilities to other
and commits time to implement Web                         stakeholders because they are built on
Services, the integration of applications                 standards.
becomes simplified. Then, when it‘s time to
                                                          Since Web Services provide standard
implement information, it flows in an
                                                          mechanisms for interfacing an application to
enterprise with little required effort. The
                                                          other applications (backend servers or Web
alternative approach involves a struggle to
                                                          applications), more systems developers can
incorporate each application or system‘s
                                                          enter the market, which increases
unique view of its data and communication
                                                          competition and can reduce prices. The
methodology. According to Gartner, 30-40%
                                                          competition among vendors also encourages
of an IT budget is spent on the integration of
                                                          more innovation in the products and
data between applications. This effort is
                                                          services offered to customers. Moreover,
spent on integrating, transforming, and
                                                          basing systems on standards helps prevent
maintaining the data. With a common
                                                          being locked-in to a specific vendor or type
interface architecture such as Web Services
                                                          of computer or software.
this cost will be significantly reduced,
because integration becomes standardized                  Web Services are still a work in progress.
and not custom one-off projects.                          Some of the standards are relatively new
                                                          and not fully tested and many of the
The justice community is moving steadily
                                                          potential business uses are still being
towards a spirit of closer cooperation and
                                                          identified. However, it is important for IT
increased data-sharing between agencies.
                                                          organizations to start planning for Web
Because of the increased demand, the
                                                          Services and to begin asking vendors for
capability to provide connectivity between
                                                          their plans to support them.

                                     Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                           Emerging Technologies Committee                              5
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


The standard elements of a Web Service are:                    application needing a service (e.g., to
                                                               validate a SSN) uses its Web Services
 SOAP—Defines the ―envelope/payload.‖
                                                               interface, makes a call (request) to the UDDI
 WSDL—A special type of XML document                          to ask for a SSN validation service, and the
  describing how the payload is to be                          UDDI returns the contact information to the
  connected to other services (e.g.,                           calling application. Much like the phone
  describes how an electrical plug is to                       book gives you a phone number and not an
  mate with a wall socket).                                    actual person, the UDDI tells the
                                                               applications how to get in touch with the
 UDDI—A registry of services (e.g.,
                                                               requested service.
  telephone yellow pages. If a social
  security number (SSN) needs to be                            Once the application requiring the service
  validated, a UDDI can provide a link to                      has the contact information, the application
  that capability).                                            ―calls‖ the service, establishes a connection,
                                                               and transmits the application data in a
Current and future applications need to
                                                               SOAP package.
‗talk‘ to other applications using Web
Services to make the interoperability a                        If both applications (sending and the
―standard‖ function. Many of the vendors                       service) understand a SSN as an 11-
listed at the end of this document provide                     character string using numbers and hyphens
tools to support this building process.                        then everything is fine. If the requesting
                                                                                application is sending 11
                                                                                characters using hyphens
                                                                                and the service wants spaces
                            WSDL                                                not hyphens, then a
                                                                                translation operation is
                                                                                required between the
                                     Describes                                  requestor and the service.
                                                                                This translation is typically
                                                                                carried out by an integration
                                                                                or messaging broker. A
                                                                                messaging broker can also
                                                                                provide a variety of other
                                                                                capabilities and services.
                                                                             Once systems are Web
                                                                             Service-enabled and talking
                                                                             the same language (e.g.,
                                                                             SSN means 11 characters
     Departmental                                      Departmental          with hyphens), then
           or                                                or              applications and services
     Inter-agency                                      Inter-agency          can be inserted or deleted in
                                                                             a modular manner similar to
When two systems are Web Service-                           Lego® pieces by plugging them in or
enabled, the mechanics of using Web                         pulling them out. Getting to this point does
Services are analogous to using your                        take some time and commitment, but the
telephone yellow pages to get a service                     end results are nearly frictionless data-
completed (e.g., calling a plumber). The                    sharing.

                                          Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                                 Emerging Technologies Committee                                6
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


While Web Services have been readily adopted by the commercial IT community, they are not as
well established within the Justice and Homeland Security communities yet. Web Services are
now being adopted in increasing numbers in the greater public sector and have the potential to
simplify and standardize the process of justice systems integration in several areas. These

Lowering the cost of accessing data                      Alternative to “one off” or custom
from applications                                        interfaces
Justice Integration generally implies sharing            In the past, a mainstay in the integration of
information between agencies and, to a                   criminal justice systems has been the custom
lesser extent, between applications within a             development of system-to-system interfaces.
single agency or organization. Web Services              These interfaces required customized
can reduce the time, complexity, and cost of             designs and extensive implementation
establishing this type of data-sharing                   efforts. They also required the cooperation
relationship by utilizing standard interface             of system ―owners‖ which in many
technologies and methodologies, rather than              instances was not easy to obtain. Some were
more customized interfaces. Utilizing                    accomplished using proprietary application
standardized technologies, like Web                      programming interfaces (APIs) or by
Services, enables the reuse of a technology              accessing core systems directly bypassing
within a pre-defined construct that each                 application software. Changes to the
interface point shares. The cost savings of a            systems at either end of the interface usually
Web Services approach can be realized                    resulted in a breakdown of the exchange
anytime an application (e.g., law                        requiring the interface to be fixed manually.
enforcement records management,
                                                         Using the sharing examples provided above,
prosecutor and court case management, etc.)
                                                         Web Services allow for the creation of
needs to share data with one or more other
                                                         standard interfaces so that systems with the
applications (e.g., pre-trial services, jail,
                                                         appropriate permissions can share data with
probation, parole) or a user with an
                                                         others. This is particularly important in the
application (e.g., query from the division of
                                                         deployment of ―Best of Breed‖ integrated
motor vehicles, computerized criminal
                                                         systems where each system can be selected
history, wants and warrants, sex registry,
                                                         based on its merits and not on its designed
terrorist watch list, probation conditions,
                                                         capability to share data.
etc.). Web Services technology reduces costs
by standardizing the interfaces to                       Enforcement of data and security
applications, thus reducing the time to                  protocols
integrate new applications or satisfy
                                                         A byproduct benefit of the use of Web
requests for data reporting.
                                                         Services is enforcement of data management
                                                         and security protocols. Most Web Service
                                                         implementations involve a centralized
                                                         service to define and enforce data standards
                                                         (e.g., GJXDM), security, and privacy
                                                         protocols. This makes management more
                                                         efficient across the enterprise.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                            7
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper

Reuse                                                    Application agility
It is normally more cost effective, timely,              Process dynamics or statutory regulations
and involves less effort to have one service             periodically change the way applications
that passes data (e.g., Arrest, disposition,             need to interact with other applications
inmate status, etc.) or retrieves information            (integration). When each application is
for a given object or individual (e.g., SID),            unique in the way its data integration
than an IT organization or each agency to                mechanics operate, the effort required of
have their own technology providing that                 application vendors or in-house IT resources
capability. When Web Service standards are               in implementing these requirements can be
embraced, it eliminates or reduces the need              great. In comparison, Web Services can
to build multiple custom applications to                 make each application more agile to
perform the same function for each unique                changing business requirements. Since the
application-based technology or                          integration capabilities are now loosely
methodology.                                             coupled with the application, the
                                                         communication between applications is
                                                         standardized and the business rules are
                                                         centralized across the enterprise.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                          8
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


The following examples are active programs implemented in the field as well as others in a
planning or pre-production stage. These examples demonstrate how Web Services is becoming
the de facto standard among justice and public safety agencies and how their use is expected to
increase significantly in the next few years.

New York State Police DMV Project                        In another major program, the New York
                                                         State Integrated Justice Advisory Board is in
The New York State Police had a mandate
                                                         the process of implementing an integrated
from the Office of Information Technology
                                                         approach to providing access to criminal
to replace the long unsupported bisync
                                                         justice information. The Integrated Justice
interface between the State Police and
                                                         Portal project will replace, integrate, and
Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV
                                                         enhance many existing components of the
data is the most critical information that
                                                         State‘s IT infrastructure including the New
troopers require and it must be available
                                                         York Statewide Police Information Network
around the clock. The use of Web Services
                                                         (NYSPIN) and Division of Criminal Justice
became an obvious choice because it was a
                                                         Services (DCJS) eJusticeNY systems.
sustainable technology that was being
widely deployed.                                         Using open standards technology, users will
                                                         realize increased productivity and a
As implemented, the three existing bi-sync
                                                         reduction in costs including the time
connections were replaced with Web
                                                         currently spent in training to access existing
Services. The same information is
                                                         systems on proprietary client hardware and
exchanged, but now the information is
                                                         software. Using evolving technologies such
exchanged at a much higher speed because
                                                         as eXtensible Markup Language (XML),
the limitation of synchronous connectors is
                                                         Web Services, and portal technology,
no longer a constraint. In this case, Web
                                                         information will be presented in a more
Services are being used to replace legacy
                                                         timely, accurate, and readable manner
communications with standard supportable
                                                         resulting in improved efficiency. For
technology. The new exchange capability
                                                         example, software and applications will be
was up and running quickly. It has been
                                                         automatically updated and immediately
operational for a year without difficulty and
                                                         available to all users.
currently handles tens of thousands of
messages in peak hours.                                  Through the deployment of a standard
                                                         browser-based criminal justice portal (e.g.
In addition to developing the Web Services
                                                         the baseline access tool), users may take
exchange, New York State redefined all of
                                                         advantage of a continually evolving and
the transactions into XML using GJXDM.
                                                         enhanced suite of services. The portal will
The implemented standard was defined by
                                                         support the exchange of mug shots, images,
Nlets, the International Public Safety and
                                                         fingerprints, driver photos, standardized
Criminal Justice Information Sharing
                                                         DMV and criminal history data, file transfer
Network, which had developed GJXDM
                                                         data, and a variety of new integrated
compliant specifications for public safety
                                                         applications as well as the established
DMV information exchange under the
                                                         applications and services.
Collaboration between American
Association of Motor Vehicle
Administrators (AAMVA) and Nlets for
Driver License Exchange (CANDLE) project.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                             9
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper

Nlets Accelerated Information Sharing                    Wisconsin Integrated Justice
for Law Enforcement (AISLE) Project                      Information System (WIJIS)
Nlets, the International Public Safety and               Wisconsin‘s Justice Information Sharing
Criminal Justice Information Sharing                     Program received Federal Homeland
Network, was faced with the need to                      Security funds to assist local law
upgrade the national law enforcement                     enforcement agencies with participation in
network. The network was proprietary and                 the Justice Gateway pilot project. Under the
lacked support for newer, more efficient                 terms of the grants made by the Office of
standards including XML. Under the                       Justice Assistance, each pilot agency will
Accelerated Information Sharing for Law                  send a subset of local incident and arrest
Enforcement (AISLE) Project and with the                 data to the Enterprise Services Bus (ESB) at
support of the National Institute of Justice             the Wisconsin Department of
(NIJ), Nlets proceeded with the deployment               Administration. The ESB will route the data
of Web Services as an alternative to its                 to the WIJIS index using Web Services
exclusive, proprietary TCP/IP protocol.                  technology and the Global Justice XML Data
Nlets was able to readily establish a Web                Model (GJXDM). Indexed data from all
Services information exchange between the                participating agencies will be made
Microsoft .NET system used at Nlets and the              available to authorized persons using a Web
IBM WebSphere system used by the State of                browser.
Wisconsin. The AISLE Project has expanded
                                                         The pilots will serve as a test bed for WIJIS
to several states including Georgia and
                                                         to evaluate Web Services and the security
Tennessee who are using Web Services
                                                         architecture necessary to securely share
exclusively for all interstate law information
                                                         sensitive information over the World Wide
exchange with Nlets. Each hour thousands
                                                         Web. Based on the lessons learned through
of police requests are reliably exchanged
                                                         the pilots, WIJIS will develop specifications
using Web Services.
                                                         for a statewide system, identify and address
Nlets will be expanding Web Services to                  information-sharing policy issues, and
include the more recent Web Services                     publish technology standards. Later
standards from OASIS and to incorporate                  additional grant opportunities will be
planned advances in the profiles developed               announced for other law enforcement
by the Web Services Interoperability (WS-I)              agencies to participate in a limited rollout of
consortium. New Nlets partners are able to               the Gateway system using the
easily implement the Nlets Web Services                  methodologies developed during the pilot.
interface. In addition, Nlets is seeing the
advantages of Web Services standards as it
looks to deploy image exchange on a
national level. For more information, visit
the following Web site at http://www-

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                             10
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


A variety of companies are involved in the development of technology to support Web Services.
In general, integration companies have embedded the tools for orchestration and choreography
into their integration system, so there isn‘t a separate Web Service ―building application.‖ It is
either part of, or an add-on to the integration offering. The following vendors each offer
technologies and/or services related to the implementation of Web Services. Vendors listed in
bold are full members of the IJIS Institute and a ―*‖ indicates an affiliate membership.

 BEA Weblogic Workshop                                   Magic Software
  (www.bea.com)                                            (www.magicsoftware.com)
 Blue Titan                                              Microsoft Biz Talk Server
  (www.bluetitan.com)                                      (www.microsoft.com)
 Cape Clear                                              Quovadx QDX Platform V
  (www.capeclear.com)                                      (www.quovadx.com)*
 Fiorano Software                                        SAP
  (www.fiorano.com)                                        (www.sap.com)
 Fuego                                                   Sonic Software
  (www.fuego.com)                                          (www.sonicsoftware.com)
 IBM WebSphere                                           Sun WSCI Editor
  (www.ibm.com)                                            (www.sun.com)
 Iona                                                    TIBCO
  (www.iona.com)                                           (www.tibco.com)
 Intalio I n3                                            WebMethods
  (www.intalio.com)                                        (www.webmethods.com)
 KnowNow                                                 WRQ
  (www.knownow.com)                                        (www.attachmate.com)

Analyst firms such as Gartner (www.gartner.com) and Current Analysis
(www.currentanalysis.com) provide good coverage on this technology and vendors in this space.

                                    Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                          Emerging Technologies Committee                        11
An IJIS Institute Briefing Paper


 www.w3c.org or www.w3.org                              Boston Globe Article:
 www.webservices.org
 US Department of Justice, Office of                     from_the_wise_is_sufficient?mode=PF
  Justice Programs, Information
                                                         Washington Technology Article:
  Technology Initiatives
 Project 54:                                             1.html.

                                   Web Services to Integrate the Justice Enterprise

                                         Emerging Technologies Committee                      12

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