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					Civilization                         Religious                             Cultural
                                     Beliefs                               Achievements

                                            The Shang worshipped                 The Shang were the first
                                             Shang Ti the supreme                  group in China to begin
                                             god and god of all gods.              writing
                                            Sacrifice was also a major           The earliest forms of
                                             part of the Shang religion.           writing were found on
                                            When a king died                      oracle bones.
                                             hundreds of slaves and               The Shang were fine
                                             prisoners would be                    stone and bronze workers.
                                             sacrificed and buried with           Masters of geometric,
                                             him.                                  anthromophorbic and
                                                                                   zoomorphic designs.

Political                            Basis for                             Economics
Structure                            Civilization

   The kings and an independent        The Shang Civilization like          Agriculture was the basis of
    bureaucracy were at the top of       many other ancient cultures           economics.
    Shang society.                       was based on systematic              The farmers were made up of
   Like Sumer and Egypt the             agriculture and the                   serfs and slaves who had a
    Shang were ruled by a priestly       domestication of animals.             Neolithic life style.
    caste.                                                                    They grew grains such as millet
                                                                               and grain.
Geographical                       Philosophical                        Reasons for
Boundaries                         basis                                success and
   The Yellow river.                 Not much is known about the         The Shang were very
   The North China Plain.             Shang's philosophical beliefs.       successful in they invented
   The Gobi desert.                  Much of it may have been             their writing techniques.
   The coast of the Yellow Sea        about their religion.               They were weekend by their
                                                                            war with the north.
                                                                           They fell to the more advanced
                                                                            Zhou over time.

Outstanding                        Social scale
   The Shang were very               The Shang society was
    advanced compared to their         divided into a ruling class of
    neighbors in India.                aristocrats, headed by a king
   They created some of the           and his nobles, the common
    oldest writings in China.          people, consisting of serfs,
   Founders of the worlds first       slaves, and artisans.
    pharmacists.                      The common people lived very
                                      Artisans manufactured
                                       weapons, ritual vessels, and
Civilization                      Religious                             Cultural
                                  beliefs                               achievements
                                     The Zhou adopted the                 The Zhou composed some
                                      Shang religious beliefs.              of the most memorable
                                     They banned human                     poetry and prose.
                                      sacrifices.                          They were the first to start
                                     They practiced the cult of            writing down laws.
                                      Heaven.                              Increase in market places.
                                     The worship of the sun and           An economy established on
                                      stars was very important.             coined money.
                                                                           The development of iron,
                                                                            and tools made of iron.

Political                         Basis for                             Economics
structure                         civilization
   Ruled by a king and his          The Zhou, like the Shang             The Zhou like the Shang
    nobles much like the Shang.       society was based on                  had farmers who preformed
   The Zhou feudal form of           systematic agriculture and            much of the economic
    government governed               the domestication of                  functions of society.
    enormous areas of land.           animals.                             They invented coined
   Communication was poor           Technology was an                     money.
    within the realm.                 important part of civilization.
   The capital was divided          The Zhou civilization was
    into tow parts: Zhou and          also based much on trade.
    the Shang.

Geographical Philosophical                                              Reasons for
boundaries                        basis                                 success and
   The Zhou empire extended         The Zhou civilization was            The Zhou were successful
    to the coast of the Yellow        an era of intellectual                as a result of their gaining
    and East China sea.               creativity.                           the allegiance of
   The Yangtze river.               It is called the One                  disaffected city-states.
   The yellow River.               Hundred Schools Period.            They also gained success
   The Gobi desert.               Confucianism, Taoism, and           when they established the
                                    Legalism were developed in          three schools of thought.
                                    this period.                       They fell into a period
                                                                        known as the warring states.
                                                                       Were conquered by the

Outstanding                     Social scale
   Bigger populations and         The Zhou like the Shang
    bigger cities.                  had a king and his nobles
   They established the            followed by commoners and
    Mandate of Heaven which         pheasants.
    would be followed for          Unlike the Shang, the
    centuries.                      aristocrats gravitated to the
   Created the beginnings of       border states.
    the Great Walls.
Civilization                      Religious                          Cultural
                                  beliefs                            achievements
                                     The Qin religion similar to       The Qin unified ancient
                                      the Shang and Zhou                 China.
                                      religions.                        Standardized the language
                                                                         and writing.
                                                                        Invented a circular copper
                                                                        Measurements and axle
                                                                         form were made uniform.

Political                         Basis for                          Economics
structure                         civilization
   First emperor of China.          The Qin civilization was          Increased agriculture
   The Qin implemented a             based on the unification of        production because of the
    Legalist form of                  ancient China.                     use of iron tools.
    government.                      The Legalist form a               The emperor furthered
   The Legalist form of              government played a crucial        irrigation projects and land
    government involved               role in the establishment of       reclamation to bring more
    rewards and punishments to        the civilization.                  soil under cultivation.
    keep order.                                                         Taxes and tax revenues
   The area was divided up                                              were a big part of the
    into 36 commanderies, which                                          economic life.
    were then subdivided into                                           The emperor also
    counties.                                                            promoted the weaving of
   These commanderies had a                                             textiles, especially silk.
    civil governor, military
    commander, and an imperial

Geographical Philosophical                                           Reasons for
boundaries                        basis                              success and
   The Qin dynasty spread           The philosophical basis of        The Qin was very
    itself out as far as the          the Qin dynasty was,               successful in taking over the
    coasts of the Yellow, East        Legalism, which played a           ruling of China because
    China, and South China            large role in the government       they were militarily the
    Seas.                             and culture.                       strongest.
   The Gobi desert.                 Legalism was more                 They fell to the Han
   The North China Plain.            pragmatic than                     because the people were
   The Yangtze and Yellow            Confucianism.                      dissatisfied with the tyranny
    rivers.                          All books and writings that        of the first emperor.
                                      advocated other forms of          The emperors death
                                      philosophy were burned.            opened the Qin to invasion.

Outstanding                       Social scale
   Further construction of the      The Qin kings were very
    Great Wall.                       powerful and cruel and
   Establishment of the terra        controlled most of society.
    cotta army.                      Like the other societies
   The utilized many new             there were Kings, warrior
    technologies in warfare,          nobles, commoners, and
    especially cavalry.               then the slaves and the
   The development of roads          serfs.
    and irrigation canals.
Civilization                       Religious                          Cultural
                                   beliefs                            achievements
                                      The Han believed in the           The Han discovered great
                                       Mandate of Heaven.                 iron technology.
                                      If an emperor failed to meet      Agriculture increased
                                       the necessary requirements         immensely.
                                       of the mandate he would           Invented the plow.
                                       lose his authority.               Invented paper.
                                      The emperor controlled            Irrigation systems
                                       and preformed all the              increased.
                                       sacred rites.

Political                          Basis for                          Economics
structure                          civilization
   The Han continued to              The Han, like many other          The farmers were the man
    follow the Qin style of a          civilizations were based on        basis for economics.
    legalist form of government.       the hard-working pheasants.       The Han produced iron
   Later on Confucianism             The farmers were the               and salt, which were the two
    replaced legalism.                 backbone of society.               biggest sectors of the
   Rewards and punishments           The unification of China.          economy.
    were still used for the                                              The farmers produced the
    common people.                                                        ever so popular silk.

Geographical Philosophical                                            Reasons for
boundaries                         basis                              success and
   The Han empire extended           The Philosophical basis of        The Han were successful
    along the coasts of the Sea        the Han was Confucianism           in taking over the Qin due
    of Japan, Yellow, East             and Legalism.                      to the rebellion after the
    China, and South China            Some scholars memorized            first emperors death.
    Seas.                              entire books.                     They were successful in
   The North China Plain.                                                producing silk and other
   The Manchurian Plain.                                                 items.
   The Gobi desert.                                                     They were very good
   The Tibetan Plateau.                                               traders.
   The Pamirs.                                                       The empire fell because of
                                                                       the turmoil within the cities
                                                                       and government.
                                                                      The cruel landlords.

Outstanding                        Social scale
   The Han expanded the              The Han was a very
    empire to its greatest.            wealthy society.
   They were the most                The wealthy families
    advanced.                          sometimes gained more
   They learned how to use            power than the emperor.
    the rivers as a trade route.      The poor were protected
   Created the silk road.             under powerful landlords.
   The Records of the                The poor and middle class
    Historian                          were mostly farmers and

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