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					  Age of Exploration
Commercial Revolution
   New Monarchies
           True of False?
• 50% of foods we eat today were of American

• FALSE. It’s actually closer to 30%.

• Name two important food items from the

• Corn and Potato
Why were Europeans resistant
 to eating American foods?
• There were rumors that these foods
  might cause the Plague.

• The Plague make recurring visits every
  couple of decades after the 1300s.
Before the Age of Exploration,
    what luxury goods were
    upper class Europeans
        accustomed to?
• Spices
• And Silk

• These came to Europe via the
  Silk Road
         What were the
        “Keys to Power?”
• Better ships, capable of carrying
  defensive weapons
• Better navigational tools
• Better maps
• Gunpowder and metalwork
• This created military advantage over
  other civilizations
• “Unprecedented ability to kill and
  intimidate from a distance.”
  What year was Columbus’
“discovery” of the Americas?
• 1492

• What did Vasco da Gama explore?
• India (1498)

• What did Magellan do?
• Sailed around the world, discovering Indonesia and
  the Philippines in 1521.

• Who are the Philippines named after?
• Phillip II of Spain (named in 1543)
 Why did the British, Dutch,
  and French “aim North”?

• Spain and Portugal already
  had claimed large parts of the
What is the Columbian Exchange?
 • Disease
   – Millions killed from smallpox and measles
   – 50-80% of native population
   – For Europeans, benefit is more land and
     resources, little resistance from natives
   – Where else did this happen?
      • Polynesia and the Pacific Coast
 • Exchange of Goods
   – Corn, potatoes to Old World
   – Horses and Cows to New World
 What is Mercantilism?
• Don’t import goods – EXPORT
• Take resources from colonial
• Produce finished goods at home
     What is a dependent
• Produces low-cost goods
  – Precious metals
  – Cash crops: sugar, spice, tobacco,
  – Uses slave labor
  – Receives finished/manufactured goods
    from Europe
      Which countries
specifically chose to be out
  of the World Economy?
• Japan and Korea
• China
   – Trade and contact with the West
     through Macao only
    Minor presence in world

•   India
•   Ottoman Empire
•   Russia
•   Africa
      What was the impact of
      Colonialism on Western
•   Colonial rivalries
•   More wealth = more capital
•   Emphasis on manufacturing
•   Reduced dependency on agriculture
•   Some items become widely available to
    more social classes
    – Sugar
New Monarchs
              Taking Notes
• Keep in mind the following causes while taking
   – “Great Man” theory
      • Who were the exceptional individuals?
   – Cultural Determinants
      • Role of the Church
      • Role of the Middle Class
   – Political Determinants
      • How does rivalry lead to expansion?
   – Technological Advances
      • How did Europe use new technology to
        benefit from exploration/settlement of the
        “New World”?
Characteristics of the New Monarchies
 • Hereditary = “Most legitimate” form of
 • Support of the urban middle class
   – Final decline of feudal nobles
 • Centralized government
   – Laws – guarantee life and property
   – Taxes
   – Church
           More Characteristics
•    Reduced power of clergy
•    Dissolved “hereditary” rights of nobles
•    Reduced emphasis on “common law”
    – Uniform application of laws
    – law from statutes and constitutions
       instead of courts
    – “What pleases the prince has the
       force of law”
    – Middle classes more powerful
      •   Their wealth helps stabilize the economy
Examples of New Monarchies

The Divine Right of Kings
  • Rule by the will of God, not the will of
    the people, a parliament, or other nobility.
  • Restricting powers of a monarch is
    contrary to the will of God
  • No removal due to “misrule”
  • St. Augustine: a monarch is appointed by
    God to protect the “City of Man”
  • Monarchs believed they were “God’s
    representatives on earth.”
   England – James I
• Ruled “Great Britain” 1603-1625
• The True Law of Free Monarchies
   – Divine right of kings
   – No sharing of power
• Dissolved parliament
• Debt. Sold titles to raise money.
   – “new” nobility = more loyal
   – Denied privilege to “old” nobility –
     tied to past and primarily
• Puritans want more reform
• Tolerant? Permitted Catholicism in
  England and Calvinism in Scotland
England – Court of the Star Chamber
 • TUDOR ERA: law court beginnings as
   meetings of the king’s royal council

 • Appeal cases from lower courts
   – Public disorder
   – Property rights (land)
   – Public corruption
   – Trade and government

 • Could order torture, prison and fines, but
   not the death sentence
Court of the Star Chamber
• STUART ERA: power grew
   – Tool of the king -- misuse and abuse
   – James I, Charles I used the court to:
      • suppress opposition to royal policies
      • try nobles too powerful to be brought to
        trial in the lower courts
• Secret sessions, no right of appeal, punishment
  was swift and severe to any enemy of the

• Abolished in 1641
  in the
• Becomes less feudal, more centralized
  – Strong, absolute monarchy
  – Divine Right of Kings

• Rise of the Valois monarchs
  – Louis XI (“Spider King”)
     • Ruled: 1461-1483
  – Francis I
     • Ruled: 1515-1547
  – Henry IV
     • Ruled: 1553-1610
Louis XI – the “Spider King”
        • Born 1423- Died 1483
        • Ruthless, especially with family
        • Removed power from nobles,
          clergy to enhance his power
        • Re-established power of King
        • Foundation for strong French
           – Large army to secure borders
           – Taxes
              • Revenue purchased
                political support
          Francis I
• 1494-1547 (Ruled 32 years)
   – Taxes
      • Taille: direct tax on people
        and property. Doubled.
      • Gabelle: salt tax. Tripled.
      • Why? Palaces and wars were
   – Raising revenue:
      • Sold royal jewels
      • Sold royal land
      • Sold political offices

   – Sent explorers to Canada
      Francis and Religion
• Early Reformation: tolerant of Protestants
  – Many German princes turned against his
    own enemy, Charles V
• Denouncement of Papal Mass -- 1534
  – Notices appeared around Paris, even within
    the King’s bedroom
  – Catholics blamed Protestants
  – Francis saw it as a plot against him
  – Began persecuting Protestants – over 20,000
  – Printing was censored
  – Led to decades of religious civil war
      French Wars of Religion
•   Things do not improve after Francis
•   1562-1598
•   Religious wars (Catholics vs. Huguenots)
•   Dynastic Struggle
St. Barthomew’s Day Massacre
• 1570
• Led by Queen
  Catherine D’Medici
   – Catholics attacked
   – 5 days of anarchy,
     massacre of
• 2,000 killed in the city
• 8,000 killed in the
Consequences of the Massacre

• No remaining protest by Huguenots
  against the crown
• 1573: tolerance for Huguenots
• Could celebrate marriage and
  baptism, but no more than 10 people
• Eventually 20 years pass and the need
  for a French heir arises . . .
                      Henry IV
                  ruled 1593-1610

             • Huguenot
             • Catholic League: “Ultra
               Catholics,” including the Pope
               and Phillip II of Spain
                – Elizabeth I supported him
             • Converted to Catholicism
               during Wars of Religion to
               ensure his claim
             • Edict of Nantes: offered
 “Paris is     religious toleration for French
well worth     Protestants -- 1598
 a mass”
 France: the Royal Council
• Appointed by the king from among the
  – Princes of the blood (the most senior
       French Parlement
• Ruled on king’s laws on a local level.

• Francis I sold right to be on a

• Hereditary position.
  France: Estates-General
• Estates-General was an assembly of
  the different classes of French society

• Only gathered when the king saw
England and France -- Differences
• England: stability

• France: long-lasting effects from the 100 Years
  War and religious wars left a sense of instability
     • Government
        – No unity of purpose
        – Local traditions, ancient privilege still
          important, even though kings reduced
          the roles of nobility and clergy
Charles V
            • 1500-1558
            • Ruled from 1519

            • Most powerful man in
Empire of Charles V
 Structure of the Holy Roman
• Voltaire: “Neither holy, nor Roman, nor
  an Empire”
• Cross between a state and a religious
• No unity after Reformation
Charles V: Religious Problems
• The largest problem is rift in the Church
   – Diet of Worms – 1521
   – Peasant’s War – 1524-26
   – Schmalkaldic League
   – Council of Trent – 1545
      • Beginnings of the Counter-Reformation
   – Peace of Augsburg – 1555
      • Each prince chooses his religion
        Charles and Spain
• Domestic problems
  – His Spanish subjects distrusted him
  – Money does not go to infrastructure
• Absentee ruler
  – nobles attempted to gain power
  – Appointed friends and relatives to powerful
    positions in Spain
• Demands more money from Spain to
  finance war against France and Ottomans
• Revolt is inevitable
   Charles V: Other Problems
• War with France
  – 1521 in Italy
  – 1527 captures Rome

• War with the Ottoman Empire
  – Trade routes
  – 1529 -- Vienna
  – French ally with Ottomans
  – German Protestants refused to fight
  – Alternative to Catholicism
Kingdoms of Spain: 1492
   Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain
• Reconquista –
• Two types of Conversos:
   – Moriscos: New Christians of Moorish origin.
      • Become Catholic or leave Spain for North
        Africa or Ottoman Empire
      • 11% of modern pop.
   – Marranos: Spanish Jews
      • Secretly maintained traditions
      • Middle Class
      • Many left Spain for Venice and Ottoman
      • Up to 20% of modern pop.
The “Most
• Inquisition -- Keeps Spain Catholic, not
   – Keeps out modern ideas, reform
   – Targets conversos, especially Jews
      • Begins anti-Semitism in Europe
      • About 15,000 murdered in Spain
      • 3000 Jews murdered in Portugal
      • 3000-5000 murdered in Germany
      • 1509: Germany begins persecuting Jews
 Phillip II of Spain and Portugal
1526-1598    Son of Charles V

   – Netherlands: Revolt
   – France: Joined the Pope in French Wars of
   – England (1588): Spanish Armada

  Ottoman Empire
    • Lepanto in 1571
Phillip II and Domestic Problems
 Spain not truly united
      • Regional Cortes
      • De-emphasized farming = reliance on
        food imports
   – Middle/Lower classes pay taxes, upper
     classes and clergy are exempt
   – Industry suffers, due to high taxes
   – Spain dependent on revenue from New

 By 1600, Spain as a nation begins to decline
   – As wealth from New World increases, less
     attention is paid to nation-building.
El Escorial 1563-1584
      • Baroque     • Art Museum
      • Monastery   • Royal
The Growth of the Ottoman Empire
          Ottoman Empire
• Peak of Power: Invaded Constantinople in 1453

• Dominant naval force in the Mediterranean until

• Helped evacuate Muslims and Jews from Spain
  – Various ethnic groups could exist side-by-side

• Economic alliance with France
   – Common enemy: Charles V
            The Decline
• Decline: Part 1
  – Naval superiority challenged by
    Europeans with modern technology
     • Lepanto 1571
  – Two long wars: Persia and Austria-
    Hungary (war on two fronts)
  – Inflation leads to severe domestic
    problems – especially rebellion

• Decline: Part 2
  – Long, slow decline
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571
             • Ottomans vs. Holy League
               (Venice, Portugal, the
               Hapsburgs, Spain, Papal

             • Significance: end of
               Ottoman superiority in

             • Ottoman Casualties
               – 30,000 killed
               – 137 ships captured
               – 50 ships sunk
    Commercial Revolution
• Roots in Middle Ages (Hanseatic
• Population of Europe increases 20
  million between 1500 and 1600. More
  consumers than ever.
• States wanted to increase their
  economic power – trade flourishes
• The middle class encourages capitalism
   Commercial Revolution
• Banking
   – Germany, Antwerp, Amsterdam become
     centers for economic activity (Loans)
• Chartered Companies
   – State-run monopolies in certain areas
      • British and Dutch East India
      • Very powerful: own navies, armies,
• Joint Stock Companies
   – Investors pool resources for a common
   Commercial Revolution
• Enclosure Movement (England)
  – Wealthy landowners enclose land
  – No longer can any man graze his livestock
    just anywhere
  – Forces poorer classes to seek jobs
• Cottage Industry
  – Small-scale production of textiles at home
  – Work with a middle-man
• New Industries
  – Cloth, lace, mining, printing, ship building
• New consumer goods
  – Sugar, rice, tea, tobacco
The Lacemaker,
 Jan Vermeer,
             The Fuggers
• Ambitious German
  banking family

• Jakob Fugger
   – Loaned money to
     Charles V to
     purchase his
     election as Holy
     Roman Emperor
     over Francis I of
• Economic system
  – Means of production are mostly privately

  – Capital (money) is invested in the
    production, distribution, and trade of
    goods and services for profit.

  – Developed in Europe between the 16th and
    19th centuries

  – The Western world's dominant economic
• Main Idea: There is only a fixed amount of
  wealth in the world. All nations are in
  competition for a share of it.
• Goal: nations want a self-sufficient economy
• Strategy: create balance of trade that favors
  exports over imports
  – Take resources from colonial areas
  – Produce finished goods, export
• Bullionism: acquire as much gold and silver as
   – Nations did not want all their valuable gold
     flowing to another nation
       Significance of the
     Commercial Revolution
• Gradual transition from rural to urban

• Peasants in western Europe can improve their
  economic and social condition by taking jobs

• Wealth can be taxed
  – This funds public works

• Taxes also help fund exploration

• The “Price Revolution” causes even more to be
          Price Revolution
• Increasing population > increasing need for
  goods > increasing prices

• Inflation stimulates production
   – producers can get more for their money due to
     increased demand
   – Increases wealth
   – Consumers must pay higher cost if they
     want/need the product

• Middle class increases status with increase in
• Farmers: sell excess crops for a higher profit
• Nobility: standard of living decreases (income from
  rent and taxes cannot change rapidly)
The Tulip: a status symbol
       • Dutch, 16th century (from
       • Wildly popular, very expensive –
         status symbol
       • 1623, a single bulb could =
         1,000 Dutch florins
          – Avg. yearly income at the
            time was 150 florins.
       • Tulips exchanged for land,
         livestock, and houses
       • Tulip market crashed in 1637
       Middle Classes – the
• First in Italian city-states
• Netherlands: Most powerful class (trade and
• France: power grows at expense of nobility
• England: members of parliament, political
  power grows
• “Richer” standard of living
   – More variety in food
   – Better housing, clothing, education
   Life in the 16th/17th Centuries
• Education or
  wealth = moving up
  the social ladder

• Rapid urban
  population growth

• Food and Diet:
   – Poor rely on
   – Upper classes
     have plenty of
     cheese, meat,
                       Vermeer: “The Milkmaid” -- 1660
       Life in the 16th/17th
• Family Structure:
   – Nuclear, patriarchal
   – Lifespan among poor
     • 27 for men, 25 for women
  – Others = 40-50s
  – Economy dictates marriage delayed until
    twenties (late 20s for men)
      The Working Poor
• Everywhere
• Unskilled laborers, unemployed,
  unemployable, and paupers
• Illiterate
• Unpleasant, physically demanding, or
  dangerous jobs
• English Poor Law of 1601
• Poor = public nuisance
  England: Poor Law 1601
• Relief through taxes
   – Families took in orphans or young
     children whose parents could not afford
     to keep them
• Food, clothing was provided to those unable
  to work (disabled, ill, old)
• Children > apprentices
• Able-bodied beggars to jail
• Able-bodied poor to workhouse
   – Housing, food in exchange for work
The Beggars, Pieter Brueghel, 1568
Peasant Wedding, Pieter Brueghel, 1568

Peasant Dance, 1568, Pieter Brueghel
    Education in the 16th/17th
• Elementary: reading, Latin, writing, arithmetic,
• Universal elementary schooling is the ideal, but
  wars, insufficient resources, make this difficult
• Schools seen as instruments of social reform
• Secondary schooling: emphasis on Christian works
• Schools mainly under church control
• Growth of Realism and Empiricism
   – observation of natural world
   – scientific method
   – control over nature
   – Francis Bacon, "Knowledge is power"
Eastern Europe in 1550
           Eastern Europe
• Limited success in commercialism

• Peasants gradually become serfs – tied to
  the land and landowner
   – No strong central government
     • local lord is all the serfs ever know
  – Cannot leave the manor, marry, or learn
    a trade without the lord’s permission
  – Owe 3-4 days of labor for the lord
Age of Exploration
A Map of the Known World -- pre- 1492
• Just read . . . Don’t write (yet)

• 1325: no regular sea traffic between northern
  and southern Europe by way of the Atlantic

• 1500: all this had changed

• 1350: same amount of time to sail from one
  end of the Mediterranean to the other as it had
  1000 years before

• 1400: Europeans knew little more of the
  world's surface than had the ancient Romans
Why did Europeans begin
 exploring at this time?
       Population Issues?
       Economic Issues?
• Not Overcrowding

• Europeans not motivated to leave . . .

• Later, emigration to
  – Escape warfare
  – Improve economically
  Reason 1 – Strong National
• Explorations encouraged by strong monarchies
   – Wealthy and organized to finance ventures

• Italy and Germany lacked centralized governments,
       No Exploration

• Centuries of being held back by lack of technology,
  political disunity, and poorly developed economic
   – For example, the Portuguese had found the
     Azores in 1350 and these islands were one-third
     of the way to the new world
   Reason 2 – Scarce Items
• Europeans were looking for the things they
  could not produce themselves
   – Spices, silk, cotton cloth, and precious stones
   – Venetian monopoly in spices set high prices
      • Between 1495-99, the price of pepper doubled
      • Pepper costing 80 ducats in Venice could be
        had for only 3 in India

• John Cabot of England was looking for cod
   – Cod supplies were dwindling in the North Sea
   – North Banks Cod off Newfoundland is bigger
   – Oil is what makes the profit, not the meat
 Reason 3 – The Renaissance
• Middle Ages: Europeans had no desire to
  look beyond the boundaries of Christendom

• Renaissance and Humanism: curiosity as
  to what lay beyond their known world

• Rediscovery of Ptolomy's “Geography” in
     • Earth = sphere
     • Renewed interest in exploring “the
       other side of the world”
Reason 4 – New Inventions
• Improved magnetic compass

• Astrolabe used to plot latitude

• Better maps

• Better weaponry (protect men and property)

• Printing press:
  – Early accounts
     • Marco Polo, Cortez
Reason 5 -- Commercial Revolution
 Investments in overseas exploration

Reason 6 - -Religious Reasons
Convert “savages” in the New World

Reason 7: A Population on the Move
Reformation displaced people
          Other Reasons
• Reason 8: Christian Crusaders in 11th &
  14th centuries created European interest
  in Asia and Middle East

• Reason 9: Rivalry: Portugal and Spain
  wanted to break the Italian monopoly on
  trade with Asia.

• Reason 10: Fame and Fortune: Explorers
  had an innate desire to discover something
  only dreamed of. It’s human nature.
Shipbuilding Technology
– Galleys: Pre-Renaissance, narrow open boats
   • Rowed
   • one small mast
   • Only good for Mediterranean Sea

– Portuguese caravel -- 15th century
   • Three-masted ship – better use of wind power
   • Hold more cargo, sailed by as few as 12 men
Prince Henry, the Navigator
               School for Navigation,
               Financed voyages for
                Portugal’s glory and
              wealth, but also for God.

              Under his direction, the
             caravel, a better seafaring
                ship was developed
• Geography: Isolated
• Moved south along the African coast, looking for
  route to India

• Discovered West African gold and slave trade
  – First slaves in Europe: 1444

•   1488: Dias around the Cape of Good Hope
•   1490s: da Gama to Indian Ocean
•   Sea routes better than over land
•   No attempt to create permanent settlements
Portugal’s Colonial Empire
 Portugal and the New World
• Brazil in 1500
• Trading posts
• Labor intensive (sugarcane)
Map of
   “Christopher Columbus,” aka
Cristofo Colon, Cristofero Columbo
• Financed by Catholic monarchs

• “Found” and named all major Caribbean

• Results:
  – Converts
  – Gold
  – New Land to settle
    by hidalgos
         Spain: Columbus’ Voyages

Traveled about 90-100 miles per day

Voyage   1:   33 days at sea, Hispaniola
Voyage   2:   21 days (Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico)
Voyage   3:   Revolt, Columbus sent back as a prisoner
Voyage   4:   South to Panama
    Columbus and Gold

– Indian labor
– Disease and overwork:
  • population of Hispaniola fell from 1 million
    in 1493 to 100,000 by 1510
– Next, black slaves from Guinea
– Mining results small. Voyages not
  financially profitable.
         Treaty of Tordesillas
• 1493, 1494

• Divided the world
  outside of Europe

• East (Africa and India)
  to Portugal
• West to Spain

1529: Treaty of Zaragoza
  Line was extended through both poles and
  encompassed the entire world.
  Other Spanish Explorers
• 1513, Balboa first to see a new ocean after
  crossing isthmus of Panama

• Magellan: Seeking sea route to the “new” ocean
  – 38 days to pass through the straights
  – Calm waters = Pacific

• Philippines about 1516/1517
   – Results:
      • Earth IS round
      • Larger than thought
      • No great wealth – No El Dorado
Ferdinand Magellan & the First
Circumnavigation of the World
    Spanish Maritime Empire
•   Discovered Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
•   Great wealth
•   Three G’s: God, Glory, Gold
•   Conquest and Colonization – NOT
Spanish Colonial Empire

  England and Exploration
• 1497: First English claim to New World

• 1577-1580: Sir Francis Drake. First English
   – 3 years, 30,000 miles

• 1607: Jamestown

• 1609: Henry Hudson
   – Furs, Fish, and Forest
   France and Exploration
• 1534-35: Jacques Cartier
   – Northwest Passage – direct trade route
     from Atlantic to China

• 1603: Samuel de Champlain
  – Still looking for Northwest Passage
   Spain and the
Search for El Dorado
Rise of the Conquistadores
• Ambitious young men:
  – Poor economy
  – No success in Spain
  – Success in the New World
  – Hidalgo: honorary title from Spanish king
     • No taxes
     • No real purpose in life (Don Quixote)

• Spain: No industry, no middle class
   – Destroyed after 1492
   – Spain must import too many goods
   – Spanish monarchs encourage more
• Aristocrat during Reconquista
• Renaissance Man:
   – Impossible tasks, courage, tenacity
   – Code of honor
   – Respect = win riches by force, manual
• Becomes ideal of masculinity
   – Machismo
• Impact on conquest of the New World
   – The “Great” Men
 The Typical Conquistador
• Supplied own equipment in exchange for
  share in plunder.

• Few were members of army, unless they
  were the leader
   – No professional training or experience

• All social classes: Artisans, merchants,
  clergy, lesser nobility, urban and rural
Strategy of Conquistadores
• Military advantages

• Divide-and-conquer strategy
  – Exploited pre-existing rivalries

• Captured indigenous leaders, held
  him hostage until a ransom was paid.
  Famous Conquistadores
• Cortes
  – 1519, Aztec empire

• Pizarro
  – Peru (Incas) between 1531-1536
  – Richest silver mines in the new world
 The First Spanish Conquests:
      The Aztecs: 1519


Fernando Cortez         Moctezuma II
 Mexico Surrenders to Cortes
technology easily
defeats Aztecs

Results: Cortes
territory larger
than Spain

Native population
decreases from 25
million to 2
        Spanish Conquests:
         The Incas, 1537


Francisco Pizarro         Atahualpa
The Incas
  The Columbian Exchange:

The most significant result of
    Spanish colonization
• Transfer (both intentional and
  unintentional) of biological materials
  between Europe and the Americas
  – Wealth and food
  – Disease

• Devastating and beneficial
             The Columbian Exchange
   Squash      Avocado             Peppers      Sweet Potatoes
   Turkey      Pumpkin             Tobacco
   Cocoa       Pineapple           Cassava      POTATO
   Peanut      TOMATO              Vanilla      MAIZE
                Syphilis

                                                                                       Trinkets
                                                                                       Liquor
                                                                                       GUNS

                           Olive                  COFFEE BEAN         Banana               Rice
                           Onion                  Turnip              Honeybee             Barley
                           Grape                  Peach               SUGAR CANE           Oats
                           Citrus Fruits          Pear                Wheat                HORSE
                           Cattle                 Sheep               Pigs                 Smallpox
                           Flu                    Typhus              Measles              Malaria
                           Diptheria              Whooping Cough
       The Sugar Trade

• Sugar = high profits
• Brazil, Cuba, Hispaniola

• Sugar was so important the Dutch
  gave up Manhattan in exchange for
  the sugar lands of Surinam
   Chocolate, Tea, Coffee
• Non-alcoholic
• Approved drinks of Protestant middle
  class. Nobility drank alcohol
• Coffee is so popular, Germans need
  reminder: Beer is national drink!
Cycle of Conquest &


Treasures from the Americas
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
             The Slave Trade
Portuguese first
New World
      Sugar plantations

Between 16c and 19c, 10 million Africans
  shipped to the Americas
Blacks outnumber natives 2 to 1
“Middle Passage”
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
The Colonial Class System
        Spanish, born in Spain

         Mestizos                     Mulattos
Mestizos: mixed
white and Indian                          Mixed
    descent                               African

          Native Indians         Black Slaves
• In Spain, regional court
• Brought to Americas
  – Rule for the King in the Americas
  – Became too powerful
• Control over people in
  a nation, corporation,
  school, in a paternal
   – Take care of needs
   – Give no

Encomienda = Forced Labor on large land
  grants given by the King
  Spanish landowner must treat Natives
  fairly, instruct them in the Faith and
  Spanish language

Influence of the Catholic Church

         Guadalajara Cathedral
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
   New Laws  1542
  Natives seen as
inferior, childlike
  Required end of
  Natives must be
“Free” men and equal
 Impact of European Expansion
1. Native populations destroyed by disease
2. Gold and silver led to inflation in Europe
   (“Price Revolution”)
3. Columbian Exchange
4. New rivalries based on colonial
   1. France vs. England
   2. Spain vs. Everyone
   3. And then . . . There were the Dutch

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