Culture by linxiaoqin


									Chapter 3
   What kinds of things come to mind, when
    we mention the word ―CULTURE?‖
   Can animals have culture?
   All that human beings learn to do, to use,
    to produce, to know, and to believe as
    they grow to maturity and live out their
    lives in the social groups to which they
Culture and Biology
   Human beings acquire the means to meet their
    needs through culture.
   Example:
      Although human infants cry when hungry, the
       responses to the cries vary.
      In some groups, infants are breast-fed; in
       others, they are fed prepared milk formulas
       from bottles; and in still others, they are fed
       according to the mother’s preference.
   Culture is shared, and
   Transmitted from one generation to the next
Culture Shock
   The difficulty people have adjusting to a
    new culture that differs markedly from
    their own.
   When one makes judgments about other
    cultures based on the customs and values
    of one's own.
      An Iranian female in a meeting with
       students at FIU…
Ethnocentrism and what we eat!
Ethnocentrism and what we value!
Cultural Relativism
   Recognizing cultures must be understood
    on their own terms before valid
    comparisons can be made.
With which cultural background do
you identify with the most? Choose
only one.
   A.   Anglo (white, non-Hispanic)
   B.   Hispanic
   C.   African American, black
   D.   Native American (American Indian)
   E.   Asian
   F.   Other
Components of Culture
   Material culture (objects)
   Nonmaterial culture (rules)
   Cognitive culture (shared beliefs)
   Language
Material Culture
   Everything human beings make and use.
   Material culture allows humans to cope
    with extreme environments and survive in
    all climates.
   Material culture has made human beings
    the dominant life form on earth.
Nonmaterial Culture
   Knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for
    appropriate behavior.
   Elements of nonmaterial culture:
       Norms
       Mores
       Folkways
       Values
   Do you favor or oppose an amendment
    to the U.S. Constitution that would make
    English the official language of the
    United States?
      A. Favor

      B. Oppose

      C. No opinion
   The rules of behavior that are agreed
    upon and shared within a culture and that
    prescribe limits of acceptable behavior.
   Norms define ―normal‖ expected behavior
    and help people achieve predictability in
    their lives.
   Strongly held norms that usually have a
    moral connotation and are based on the
    central values of the culture.
   Violations produce strong negative
    reactions, often supported by the law.
   Examples: sexual molestation of a child,
    rape, murder, incest, and child beating.
   Norms that permit a wide degree of
    individual interpretation as long as certain
    limits are not overstepped.
   People who violate folkways are seen as
    peculiar but they rarely elicit a strong
    public response.
       The way we dress, the music we listen to, or
        the ―good manners‖ can be considered
Ideal and Real Norms
   Ideal norms - expectations of what
    people should do under perfect
   Real norms - Norms that are expressed
    with qualifications and allowances for
    differences in individual behavior.
   A culture’s general orientations
    toward life—its notions of what is
    good and bad, what is desirable and
Language and Culture
   Language makes it possible for humans
    to share culture.
   Animals are controlled by their biology,
    but human behavior is determined by
    culture and language.
   Children learn culture through language,
    socialization, and role models.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
   The language a person uses determines their
    perception of reality.
   Different languages classify experiences
   Example: The Hopi Indians
      Two words for water—pahe (water in a
       natural state) and keyi (water in a container).
      One word to cover every thing or being that
       flies, except birds.
      Perceptions of time
   Anything representing something else,
    carrying a particular meaning recognized
    by members of a culture.
       Can you think of some common symbols we
        use in the United States?
       Symbols are entirely arbitrary and rely on
        cultural conventions for their meaning.
          Swastikas

          Mourning
Symbols in Cyberspace
:-) smile             |^o Snoring

:-( sad               :-@ Screaming
:-0 wow               %-) Dazed or silly

:-X my lips are sealed %*} Drunk
LOL laughing out loud %-( Confused
:-|| I am angry       :-C Astonished
Culture and Adaptation
   Culture is the primary means by which
    humans adapt to the challenges of their
   We are culture producing, culture
    transmitting, and culture dependent.
   Take away culture and the human
    species would perish.
Mechanisms of Cultural
Two mechanisms are responsible for
  cultural change:
 Innovation – new concepts, ideas, and
  material objects.
 Diffusion - the movement of cultural traits
  from one culture to another.
   Invention - recombining elements already
    available to a society.
   Discovering new concepts.
   Finding new solutions to old problems.
   Devising and making new material
   Results when people from one group or
    society come into contact with another.
   Diffusion is marked by reformulation, in
    which a trait is modified in some way so
    that it fits better in its new context.
Cultural Lag
   The phenomena through which new
    patterns of behavior emerge even though
    they conflict with traditional values.
   Distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and
    beliefs of certain segments of the
    population within a society.
   Types of subcultures include: ethnic,
    occupational, religious, political,
    geographic, social class and deviant.
Cultural Universals
Developed to solve common societal
   Division of labor

   Incest taboo

   Marriage

   Family organization

   Rites of passage
   Families differ between cultures depending on
    who is allowed to marry and how many spouses
    are allowed.
   The basic family unit of husband, wife, and
    children is recognized in almost every culture.
   Sexual relations among a family (other than
    between husband and wife) are almost
    universally taboo.
Functions of the Incest
   Helps keep sexual jealousy under control.
   Prevents the confusion of authority
    relationships in the family.
   Ensures family offspring will marry into
    other families, creating a network of social
Rites of Passage
   Standardized rituals marking life transitions.
   Examples of rites of passage:
       Baptisms
       Bar and bat mitzvahs
       Graduation
       Wedding ceremonies
       Funerals and wakes
Functions of Rites of
   Help the individual achieve a social
   Map out the individual’s life course.
   Aid the individual in making life plans.
   Provide people with a context to share
   Beliefs and values that help groups maintain
    identity as a social unit.
   Examples of deeds performed in the name of
    an ideology:
       Thirteenth-century crusaders
       Abolitionists, prohibitionists, trade
       Civil rights activists, feminists,
Culture and Individual Choice
   Culture tells humans what to do, how to
    do it, and when it should be done.
   Humans have more individual freedom of
    action than any other creature.
   Society and culture limit choices and
    make it difficult to act in ways that deviate
    from cultural norms.

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