features of construction and their implications by gegeshandong


									Lectures at Tsinghua Summer School
                                 June 2010
                          Session One

               Part 1: Some Features of
     Construction and their Implications

                Learning outcomes
At the end of the session, students should
• what the construction industry is
• nature of construction industry, construction
  projects, construction organisations
• implications of features of construction for studies
  and practice in the industry
   – root of problems, challenges, possible action
   – basis of strategisation
   – elements of good practice.
• Application of knowledge on industry in…
   – market analysis
   – bid or no-bid decisions.                        2
Nature and             Lessons for       strategies,
features of            other countries   action in key

Current                What is to be     in which much
position on            done in your      can be
various aspects        country           achieved

What                   How to develop    Why little
construction           construction      progress is
needs                  industry          made

What to look out for                                     5
construction industry

       Construction industry … definition
• Is there a construction industry?
  – continuing argument…
     • a distinct industry
     • a „sector‟ comprising „industries‟
     • none of these.
• Standard Industrial Classification of Economic
  Activities (United Nations publication) … considers
  only contractors and units making components
  only for construction.
• World Trade Organisation refers to…
  – Business services … includes consultancies and
    individual professionals
  – Construction services … includes (i) Construction and
    Engineering Services Enterprises; (ii) Construction
    Specialists (technicians; skilled, unskilled site workers).7
    Construction industry … definition ..2
• Legislation on construction … usually what it
  includes and does not include.
• Industry‟s own definition…eg. in South Africa:
  (i) „building‟; (ii) „construction‟ representing
  anything “not building”.
• Building and Construction Authority, Singapore
  … (i) „building‟ seems to be the process; (ii)
  „construction‟ is industry.
• Our definition…
“The part of the economy which plans, designs,
  constructs, alters, repairs, retrofits and
  demolishes buildings and items of infrastructure.”
  Construction industry … definition ..3
• We consider construction industry to include…
   – contractors … undertaking physical work on site
   – consultants … undertaking design, preparing
     documentation, supervising construction on site
   – clients … investing in projects.

• Other “definitions” take a “total value chain”
  approach, and may include:
   – materials manufacturers
   – materials suppliers
   – insurance firms dealing with construction.
• Thus, possibility of diversification by firms via…
   – vertical integration
   – strategic alliances.                              9
     Construction Industry … definition ..4
• Our intention in this definition is to…
   – indicate industry‟s boundaries to identify its true
     constituent parts to facilitate its development
   – show its true size and importance
   – ensure consistency in approach.

• Is construction a goods or service industry?
   – Demand expressed before supply
   – Customer may be involved in process of fulfilling
     demand; thus, customers with knowledge can influence
   – Inputs obtained from many other sectors and assembled
   – Expertise alone can be „exported‟, domestically,
Nature of construction industry
• Construction industry…
   – is a distinct sector of economy
   – has many products, with different features, created to
     fulfil particular clients‟ objectives
   – comprises companies which operate in project-based

• Construction is a significant sector of the
  economy of every nation (by size).
• Construction…
   – contributes significantly to GDP (5-10%; more if
     industry is defined widely)
   – stimulates activities in many other sectors
   – creates much of nation‟s savings (45-65% of GFCF)
   – employs significant part of labour force.        11
Measures of construction volume
1. Gross Output ... total value of work done in period (“Total
  Progress Payments”)
2. Value Added ... total value of work minus industry‟s inputs
  from other sectors (comparison of construction to national
  GDP must be via V.A., not gross output)
3. Capital Formation ... „useful‟ output (additions to nation‟s
4. Demand ... work put to industry in period.
5. Capacity … gross output industry can produce
  (considering medium-term) without straining resources,
  which would lead to inflation.
6. Growth Rate … comparison with same period in previous
               Measures of volume ..2
1. Gross Output ... Of interest to policy makers, client
   organisations and construction enterprises.
2. Value Added ... True indication industry‟s contribution to
  the economy. Of interest to policy makers, economists,
  researchers; not industry. (Comparison of construction to
  national GDP must be via V.A., not gross output.)
3. Capital Formation ... Indication of nation‟s real
  investments in construction work. Of interest to policy
  makers, economists, researchers; not industry.
4. Demand ... Indication of industry‟s forthcoming workload.
  Of interest to policy makers, industry, economists,
5. Capacity … may be compared with Gross output ; and
  Demand. Shows level of commitment of industry‟s current
  resources. With globalisation, capacity no longer a major
  constraint to industry‟s expansion.                     13
           Measures of volume ..3

1. Gross Output ... Compared to Value
  Added, shows proportion of industry‟s
  „domestic product‟. Per capita of population.
2. Value Added ... as proportion of GDP

3. Capital Formation ... per capita of
4. Demand ... per registered company (this
  indicates concentration of industry).
  Table 2 Top Eleven Nations in Construction Spending (US$ bn)

Country                     2003       2004     2005   2006   2007    2008
1. United States            1,040      1,159 1,210 1,218      1,244   1,289
2. Japan                       465        507    544    572    587     610
3. China                       242        269    300    338    388     440
4. Germany                     221        247    258    267    282     292
5. France                      173        197    208    218    234     245
6. Italy                       160        182    193    203    218     229
7. United Kingdom              151        178    183    190    201     211
8. Spain                       144        166    179    190    204     215
9. Canada                      106        123    132    141    151     160
11. India                       65         74     79     85     92     100
           Source: Global Insights Inc., 2005

  Future international construction market
• Share of market demand for large projects
  expected to increasingly move away from
  industrialised countries to Asia-Pacific, Africa,
  South America
   – economic development, industrialisation will lead to
     demands for…
      • infrastructure, energy generation and distribution
      • industrial, manufacturing, process development
      • transportation, communication links.

• China, India, Indo-China, Indonesia, Russia
  mentioned as countries, areas with fastest
  growing construction markets.
    Construction Spending p.c., ($) 1998
 1. Japan                  4975
 2. United Arab Emirates   4340
 3. Germany                3838
 4. Switzerland            3696
 5. Denmark                3618
 6. Singapore              3209
 7. Norway                 3079
 8. Sweden                 2711
 9. Hong Kong              2600
10. Netherlands            2565
12. United States          2411
17. UK                     1779
19. France                 1666                22
20. S. Korea               1586   … Bon & C.
Construction industry..2

• Thus, construction…
  – investment used by governments to introduce
    desired changes in economy
  – investment viewed an indicator of economy‟s
    performance, prospects
  – is the only sector which appears twice in
    national accounts
    • in gross domestic product (GDP) tables (economic
      activity/stimulus and growth feature)
    • in gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) tables
      (savings feature).
construction projects,

Construction project
• A construction project has a distinct start and end
  (but both are not always clear).
• Client expresses demand through procurement; many
  possible forms...
   – “traditional” procurement form differs from country to
   – other procurement forms…
      •   design and build
      •   project management
      •   management contracting
      •   turnkey contracting
   – differences in procurement paths mainly in…
      • persons/companies involved in project
      • roles of project participants (including team leader)
      • relationships among project participants.
Construction project ..2
• Design requires development planning and building
  plan approval
   – Possibility of using statute, administration to impose
     sanctions; provide incentives for good practice
• In Singapore, main contractor appointed,
  subcontracts parts (most) of the work
   – some work, eg. piling and earthworks;
     mechanical and electrical installations done by
     specialist subcontractors, who may be nominated
     by the client.
• Each project requires inputs of materials,
  components; suppliers important part of project
   – Possibility of using: (i) procurement; (ii) supply chain
     management, as operating strategy.                         26
Construction project ..3
• Standard contract forms … public and private sector…
   – rights, responsibilities of client and contractor
   – terms of agreement for completion of the work
   – dispute resolution mechanism.
• One „leader‟ (Architect under “traditional” procurement
  in Singapore) serves as client‟s representative
   …clients want “one-stop” service, hence evolution of
• Building control authorities may visit site…
   – to ensure compliance with approved plans
   – to check on safety and health aspects.
• Lead consultant…
   – certifies payments to contractor periodically
   – certifies completion of project.
Construction project ..4
• Defects liability period after completion…
  – defects found must be rectified by contractor
  – part of contract sum retained.
• Maintenance, management of building in operation
  by another team.
• Each project has many stakeholders.
• Persons involved, tasks undertaken, approach to
  management not the same in all countries…
  – possibility of mutual learning from good practice
  – construction is a local industry…
     • need to be familiar with local regulations, practices,
     • transaction costs, learning curves.                      28
 Construction project ..5
• Building has long physical life but may suffer
  from other forms of obsolescence („economic‟,
  „social‟, „community‟)
   … need for monitoring, facilities management.

• During its lifetime of usage, building may be
  modified in minor or major way…
   – alterations and renovations
   – refurbishment
   – adaptive re-use.
• These activities (also construction projects)
  unlikely to involve original construction team.
   … should this be the case?

 Construction organisations
• Companies
  – Contractors, including…
     • main contractors
     • specialist contractors
     • labour-only subcontractors
    contractors may be required to register, categorised by
    size, indicating tendering capacity
  – Design consultants (with many specialisations)…
    design professionals may be required to be licensed
  – Clients
     • public-sector
     • private; large, small; commercial, individual
     • public-private partnerships.

 Construction organisations ..2
• Institutions
   – Public: clients, regulators, managers
   – Private: professional institutions and trade associations... lobbying,
     welfare of members, industry improvement.
• Research institutes
   – National research institutes
       • as part of national science and technology institute
       • as separate organisation
   – Company-level institutes, especially in Japan
• International organisations
   – United Nations Human Settlements Programme
       • improvement of living conditions
   – International Labour Office
       • employment creation, poverty alleviation
   – Research groupings, such as International Council for Research
     and Information in Building and Construction (CIB).
•   Davis Langdon and DEGW announce merger
    3 August 2009
    Leading global construction consultancy Davis Langdon and strategic design
    consultants DEGW have today announced a merger. The move comes as Davis
    Langdon continues to grow its global service offering and move further into strategic
    consultancy. With the construction world focusing on gaining maximum value from
    existing assets, the combined forces of both firms will provide strategic solutions that
    use space more productively and enhance organisational performance.
•   DEGW is a global market leader in its field and is best known for its work consulting
    on high-performance workplaces for Fortune 500 companies. The firm works on
    behalf of clients to help them align their physical space with their organisational
    objectives, allowing them and their people to thrive. Their impressive client list
    includes the likes of Microsoft, Google, GSK, Pfizer, Cisco, Nokia, RBS, Deutsche
    Bank, BP, BBC, Accenture, WPP, Unilever, Phillips, Shell and Vodafone. The firm
    employs 145 people globally in a network of 12 offices in the UK, mainland Europe,
    Asia, Australia and North America. The combined office network of the two
    organisations will provide a strong presence in mainland Europe. It will also further
    strengthen the Davis Langdon and Seah International office network worldwide.
•   On announcing the merger Rob Smith, Davis Langdon‟s Senior Partner, said “The
    merger will add a fourth dimension to our offer in that we will now be able to
    measure, value and manage „place‟ in addition to „cost‟, „quality‟ and „time‟. In the
    current market, our clients are focusing on their costs – the biggest of which is
    usually their people and places. The coming together of the two firms will mean we
    are the construction consultant best placed to advise.”
•   On the benefits of the merger, Despina Katsikakis, Chairman of DEGW commented:
    “For over 35 years we have focused on managing change through the effective
    integration of people, process and place. The coming together with Davis Langdon
    enables us to measure the value of place in delivering business performance for our
    clients worldwide.”
•   http://www.degw.com/press_release.aspx?id=31&name=Davis+Langdon+and+DEGW+announce+merger
  features of construction
and implications for firms

 Challenges or opportunities?
• Nature of construction activity poses challenges to
  construction firms, both contractors and consultants.
• Features of construction require special knowledge
  (of practitioners), corporate attributes (of firms) to
  address successfully, to enable companies to survive
  and grow.
• Features of construction often seen as obstacles,
  constraints, reasons for lack of good performance on
  projects, and progress in the industry. The
  innovative person should see them as…
   – factors to take advantage of
   – sources of strengths which can be tapped, and built
Location specificity
• Constructed items are fixed to their locations:
  – process of creation must take place in location
    owing to bulkiness of materials, equipment,
    systems installed
  – construction contractors must be mobile
    (operating a “moving assembly plant”)
     • on roads, railways, this movement is lateral, with
       implications of differing site conditions
     • on buildings, it is vertical, with implications for
       technology, logistics, safety
  – contractors must be able to procure, assemble
    required resources, fix them together where
    item is required
Location specificity ..2

  – limits to scale of inputs imposed by practical
    considerations in transportation and handling
  – limits to extension of “outsourcing” of parts of
    production by weight and bulkiness
  – production process affected by weather, with
    implications for productivity.

  … logistics are a key consideration
  … risks are evident, eg., owing to uncertainties
   in site conditions.

Construction versus manufacturing
• Contractors must choose markets carefully ... but
  all countries are potential candidates.
• Because of fixity of construction items, contractors
  must be mobile, willing, able to work..
  –   in "strange" places
  –   with unfamiliar companies
  –   using personnel of various nationalities
  –   following different procedures
  –   under various climatic conditions
  –   confronting various social values, etc.

 Size of projects
• Construction projects are large, indivisible,
   – high financial exposure of contractor, developer
   – both developer, contractor usually borrow funds
   – stage payments are a necessity
      • need for procedures of justification and verification
   – importance of financial management
   – huge corporate resources vital
   – owing to high costs
      • clients choose contractors carefully
      • contractors should choose clients with care, too.

   … projects are becoming even larger.                         38
Gestation period

Construction projects have long gestation periods,
  owing to large number, complexity, variety of
  tasks. Thus, they are vulnerable to:
   –   inflation
   –   exchange risk fluctuation
   –   political instability
   –   social agitation.

… planning, especially for contingencies, and financial
  management essential
… monitoring and timely control critical.
Health and safety implications

Construction projects have implications for safety
  and health…
  – governments everywhere enforce strict regulations
  – participants have high social responsibility.

Knowledge of building regulations essential: these
  may be different from home country‟s, may
  involve additional costs.

Project participants

Construction projects involve many corporate,
  individual participants, performing inter-related
  and interdependent tasks which must be

May involve companies, persons with different
 nationalities, cultures, traditions.

   … management of different companies, corporate and
    national cultures, essential on projects
   … need for alignment of motivations.
 Nature of the work
• Construction projects are relatively labour intensive, with
  many implications…
   – technology choice from project to project
   – small countries rely on foreign workers
       • social issues are important

• Construction industries have generally poor image…
   – difficulty in recruiting good calibre personnel

• Construction enterprises must choose their projects carefully
  in order to…
   – minimise adverse impacts of nature of construction activity and its
   – derive best use/advantage of firm‟s internal features and strengths
   – attain maximum competitive advantage.                           42
Summary of construction features
• Large size and expense of individual projects
    – Indivisibility
    – Long period of gestation
•   Importance of industry in economy
•   Location specificity
•   Involvement of several persons
•   Implications for health and safety
•   Government‟s role
    –   as   client
    –   as   regulator
    –   as   manager
    –   as   facilitator.
  Consequences of features
• These features influence many aspects of…
   – Construction market
       • each project has a peculiar demand matrix
   – Roles of participants
       • often defined to deal with risks and uncertainties on the project
   – Procedures and practices.
• Generally, …
   – construction is a local industry
   – firms must be mobile to undertake projects in various locations
   – each project may involved different firms, possibly from many
   – industry is highly regulated.

  These consequences of features of construction have major
  implications for all construction firms, practitioners.
Summary: Overseas market classification
• Overseas market may be classified by…
  –   economic grouping
  –   continent or region
  –   accessibility
  –   political or religious system
  –   language or ethnic compatibility
  –   stability/reliability factors
  –   availability of natural resources
  –   availability of construction resources
  –   monetary support arrangements
  –   availability of preferences
  –   bidding eligibility
  –   availability of useful contacts.         45
application of knowledge
              of industry

To bid or not to bid – a UK firm’s checklist
• Country
   –   Do we have work there already?
   –   Do we wish to work there?
   –   Is it friendly to the company and home-country?
   –   Does company have language capability?
• Type of work
   – High/low technology
   – Does company have expertise?
• Client
   – Has company worked for client before?
   – Does company wish to work for this client?
   – What is client‟s payment record?
• Value
   – Scale and value of work
   – Value against possible profit; and against possible risk   47
Bidding – a firm’s checklist … 3
• Finance
  – By contractor
  – By client or lender/aid agency
  – Home-country tied aid?
• Export Guarantee
  – Can company get insurance cover?
  – Can company get finance cover?
• Capital/Cash flow
  –   Advance payments
  –   How much initial capital required?
  –   How much working capital?
  –   How much retention?
  –   Can company get loan facility?

Bidding – a company’s checklist … 4

• Partnership/Subcontract
  – Should company find a partner?
  – Has company been asked as a partner or subcontractor?
• Competition
  –   Number of competitors
  –   Any preference for local contractors?
  –   Any preference for home-country firms?
  –   What are company‟s advantages?
  –   What are competitors‟ advantages?
• Tendering
  – Company‟s capacity
  – Period for bidding and its implications

      Bidding – a company’s checklist … 5
• Conditions of Contract
  –   General conditions
  –   Specifications
  –   Bonds, insurances
  –   Arbitration
• Type of contract
  –   Remeasured
  –   Lump sum
  –   Target
  –   Cost plus
  –   Management
• Quantities
  –   Is the bill format reasonable?
  –   Are quantities taken off?
  –   Are quantities accurate?
  –   Can quantities be advantageous to company?
Bidding – a company’s checklist … 6

 • Plant
   –   What suitable plant does company have?
   –   How much capital required to buy necessary plant?
   –   Can it be written-off against the job?
   –   Does company have any in location?
   –   Does company have any worldwide?
   –   Can it be hired or subcontracted?
   –   Does company want it in its fleet?
   –   Will it have residual value?
   –   Will it have to be shipped from home-country?

Bidding – a company’s checklist … 7

• Risks
  –   Escalation
  –   Rise and fall
  –   Labour unrest
  –   War
• Design
  –   Will company have to design the project?
  –   Does it have design experience of similar building/works?
  –   Can company do design or must it engage consultant(s)?
  –   Can company design an alternative?

    Bidding – a company’s checklist … 8
• Staff
  – Number required
  – Any particular types required?
  – Are available staff experienced in specific field?
• Cost
  – How much will tender cost?
  – Any government support for tendering?
• Chances of success
  – An assessment
• Recommendation
  * Bid                        * Ask for more time
  * Seek partner               * Do not bid.

Steps for success in foreign market
Key steps for success in a foreign market (Darling and
  Taylor, 2003):
   –   Analyse market opportunity
   –   Assess product potential
   –   Establish market entry mode
   –   Make a sincere commitment
   –   Allocate necessary resources
   –   Identify technical issues
   –   Develop strategic marketing plan
   –   Organise operational team
   –   Implement marketing strategy
   –   Evaluate and control operations.

   – These…
        • are interrelated issues
        • must be carefully analysed by top management                54
        • must be continuously reevaluated, reassessed, integrated.
Steps for success in foreign market
- develop strategic marketing plan
• Develop strategic marketing plan
  – Executive summary: Overview of plans for foreign
  – Introduction: Why company should do business in the
    foreign market
  – Part I: A statement of foreign market commitment
  – Part II: Background/Situation analysis
     •   Overview of market opportunity
     •   Primary target market segments
     •   Analysis of competitive situation
     •   Assessment of potential of service
     •   Identified market entry mode
     •   Operational strengths, weaknesses
     •   Resources of firm to be allocated
     •   Organisational structure for market
Steps for success in foreign market
- develop strategic marketing plan..2
   – Part III: Strategic foreign marketing plan
      •   Identified marketing goals
      •   Product analysis and selection
      •   Warranties and other conditions of service
      •   Pricing, other terms of trade
      •   Host country partners or agents to be used
      •   Logistical issues
      •   Market information systems needed
      •   Methods of advertising, promotion
   – Part IV: Operational budget and pro forma financial
   – Part V: Implementation schedule and timetable
   – Part VI: Procedure for evaluation and control, including
     periodic operational/management audits.               56
Pre-project country study
• Economic indicators
   – GDP and its growth rates
   – rate of inflation (because construction projects have long
     gestation periods)
   – capital market
   – banking system
   – currency rate and its fluctuations
   – balance of trade
   – external debt
   – employment and unemployment
   – distribution of wealth

• Political stability
   –   internal strife
   –   relations with neighbouring countries
   –   national laws and attitudes to international trade
   –   federal-state relations
Pre-project country study..2

• Legal and fiscal framework
  –   legal liability of foreign companies
  –   environmental laws and approval procedures
  –   legal provisions on commercial contracts
  –   tax provisions including…
       • allowances and incentives
       • divestment provisions
       • taxation of expatriates
  – tariffs on imported equipment or materials
  – laws on winding up of a joint venture
  – legal provisions on exit of foreign business from the
    country, including…
       • sale or transfer of shares
       • liabilities
       • repatriation of funds)                             58
Pre-project country study..3

• General business and industrial environment
  – human resource situation including…
     •   local availability of skills
     •   productivity levels
     •   attitudes to work
     •   language or cultural restrictions
  – time frame for, and possible delays from, formal
    approval procedures
  – shortages of resources
  – import restrictions
  – tariffs
  – price regulation
  – business ethics, integrity
  – Corruption.                                        59
Pre-project country study..4
•       Infrastructure and logistics
    –     Utilities
    –     Communications
    –     road network
    –     social infrastructure for expatriates, such as…
          •   schools
          •    leisure
          •   shopping facilities

•       Industry study
    –     level of demand over time and influencing factors
    –     projections of demand
    –     project types and sizes
    –     market shares
    –     prices, variations, taxes
    –     availability of materials, etc
    –     marketing and business development opportunities and efforts
    –     statutory approvals required for projects.                 60
Pre-project country study..5
• Sources of information
   – embassies and consulates
   – international financial institutions, eg
       • World Bank
       • regional banks
   – credit rating agencies
   – government publications, eg. economic reviews and surveys,
     statistical reports, investment promotion centre publications
   – home country export promotion agency publications
   – commercial banks
   – consultancy organisations
   – trade fairs, exhibitions
   – local or international trade associations
   – relevant books, trade magazines, newsletters
   – annual reports of major international companies
Project Feasibility Study
•   Project feasibility study – if country and market studies are
    positive, a detailed study on the project is necessary. Key
    areas are…
      •   technical arrangements for…
          –   technology
          –   construction
          –   project management
          –   operation concerning capabilities of local or foreign firms selected
      •   adequacy of contractual arrangements
      •   safeguards
      •   sources of supply of materials and equipment, their…
          –   past record
          –   capability
          –   reliability
          –   quality assurance procedures
      •   local client or promoters, their…
          –   resources
          –   reputation in industry
          –   management experience
          –   past achievements                                                      62
Project Feasibility Study..2
   • schedule of implementation…
       – important milestones
       – degree of realism of assumptions made
   • availability of materials, equipment, personnel, their quality,
     prices and wages
   • need for external inputs and expatriate personnel and facilities
     required for the latter
   • logistics
   • standards, codes, specifications to be followed
   • environmental and safety standards to be complied with
   • project costs, broken down into key components…
       – degree of accuracy
       – impact of inflation
       – contingencies
   • financial plans, including…
       – extent of project finance to be committed
       – terms of loan agreements
       – cost of capital                                            63
Project Feasibility Study..3
   – profitability projections under local conditions and
   – statutory approvals required, their…
       •   status
       •   major conditions
       •   sequence
       •   time frame
       •   difficulties they pose

• equipment supplies
   – letters of credit and their relevant conditions
   – delivery period
   – shipping procedures including…
       •   packaging
       •   containerization
       •   insurance
       •   export documentation.

Concluding points

•   Interdependence and uncertainty on projects
•   Professionalism and individual excellence
•   Alignment of stakeholder motivations
•   Innovation (from many basic sources, eg. R&D)
•   Leadership, not just management
•   Entrepreneurship
•   Corporate strategies for competitiveness:
    – niche-finding and niche-making
    – innovation.

Considerations of Theory
Elements which can be considered in developing
  theory of construction industry…
• Design process
  – Applying best existing (technologies, materials, …);
    limited innovation
  – Interdependence and uncertainty among design team
    … effective communication, co-ordination, management
  – Compliance with statutes and codes
  – Critical need for professionalism.
• Procurement process
  – Effective communication of requirements
  – Price determination by bidders – evaluation; bidding
  – Risk allocation … to stimulate bidding by the best; to 66
    protect the vulnerable(?)
Considerations of Theory ..2
• Construction
  –   Scheduling, monitoring, control
  –   Managing production process
  –   Supply chain management
  –   Compliance with statutes and codes
  –   Dispute management
  –   Feedforward and feedback
  –   Importance of professionalism.
• Commissioning
  – Compliance with regulations
  – Close out process … lessons learned … benchmarking
    on project, corporate, industry basis.
• Operation
  – Discontinuity in involvement of design and construction
• Ofori, G. (1990) Aspects of the Economics and
  Management of the Construction Industry.
  Singapore University Press, Singapore.

End of Lecture


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