ACRP Research Results Digest 2 Model for Improving Energy Use

Document Sample
ACRP Research Results Digest 2 Model for Improving Energy Use Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                         December 2007

Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration

Subject Areas: V Aviation, IB Energy and Environment                              Responsible Senior Program Officer: Michael R. Salamone

Research Results Digest 2
                                       MODEL FOR IMPROVING ENERGY USE
                                       IN U.S. AIRPORT FACILITIES
                                       This digest summarizes the findings of Airport Cooperative Research Program
                                       (ACRP) Project 11-02, “Model for Improving Energy Use in U.S. Airport
                                       Facilities.” The research was conducted by the Energy Systems Laboratory
                                       at Texas A & M University.

                                       SUMMARY                                          forecasts the number of boardings to grow
                                                                                        from 660 million in 1999 to 1,046 million
                                            Expert guidance on reducing airport         in 2011 (58.5% increase) (1). As airports
                                       facilities’ energy use and environmental         have grown larger and more complex, they
                                       impacts can help airport management op-          have also become more numerous, with over
                                       erate airport facilities more efficiently.       500 commercial and 2,800 general avia-
                                       This digest presents data on U.S. airports’      tion facilities. Airports have become some
                                       utilization of 11 major energy management        of the largest public users of energy. Energy
                                       practices, offers a set of best practices for    is often the second largest airport operating
                                       reducing energy use, and summarizes three        expense, exceeded only by personnel.
                                       case studies of recent recommissioning proj-         Airport facility managers strive con-
                                       ects that resulted in significant reductions      stantly to reduce operating expenses to help
                                       in energy use. Appendixes A through D of         control costs for their airline tenants (who
                                       this digest—“Study of Terminals B and D          have been on the verge of bankruptcy, with
                                       at Dallas/Fort Worth International Air-          rare exception, since the attacks of Sep-
                                       port”; “Airport Rental Car Facility Case         tember 11, 2001). Limiting or eliminating
C O N T E N T S                        Study”; “Continuous Commissioning® of            unnecessary energy use in airport facilities
Summary, 1
                                       the Matheson Courthouse in Salt Lake             can be an effective means of reducing air-
                                       City, Utah”; and “Airport Survey Ques-           port operating expenses while at the same
Introduction, 1
                                       tionnaire”; respectively—are available on        time minimizing environmental impacts.
Research Approach, 2
                                       the Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Findings, 3
                                       website at
                                                                                        Research Objective
Best Practices for Reducing Energy     asp?id=8265.
Use in Airport Facilities, 9
                                                                                            This research on improving energy use
Conclusions and Suggested
                                                                                        in airports was identified by a panel of air-
Research, 16                           INTRODUCTION
References, 17
                                                                                        port industry experts as important for air-
                                           Millions of domestic and international       port facility managers and executives, who
Bibliography, 17
                                       passengers pass through airport termi-           need guidance on reducing airport energy
Resources, 18
                                       nals annually and the number is increasing,      use and environmental impacts. The objec-
Glossary of Acronyms, 18               driven in part by a vibrant, global economy.     tive of this research is to provide airport
Author Acknowledgments, 19             The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)        facility managers with timely guidance on
significantly reducing energy use in U.S. airport fa-      proper commissioning are required to obtain pro-
cilities through the following:                            jected performance (2).
                                                                At the same time, little emphasis or research has
    • Improved energy-related operations and main-
                                                           been given to low- or no-cost techniques such as
      tenance (O&M) procedures,
                                                           O&M and building optimization techniques that can
    • Recommissioning/optimization of major
                                                           significantly reduce energy use. Also, few attempts
      energy-consuming systems, and
                                                           have been made to quantify or benchmark the sav-
    • Installation of the latest cost-effective energy
                                                           ings potential at airports other than through broad
      conservation measures.
                                                           general statements supported with little empirical
                                                           data and few case studies.
Energy and Environmental Issues                                 Rusty Hodapp, vice president of energy and trans-
                                                           portation management at Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW)
    The operating environment for airports, both
                                                           International Airport, stated at an airline industry fa-
large and small, has changed dramatically over the
                                                           cilities management conference in February 2004
last decade. National concern about the security of
                                                           that “the operations and maintenance budget for air-
energy resources has intensified since the attacks of
                                                           port facilities constitutes a significant portion of an
September 11, 2001. At the same time, worldwide
                                                           airport’s overall annual budget” and that “there are
demand for energy is growing dramatically, as il-          no industrywide benchmarks to enable facility man-
lustrated by the ever-increasing demand from de-           agers or airport executives to assess where budget
veloping countries like China and India. The cost of       improvements—or savings—can be made.” An air-
electricity for airports has escalated to record high      port industry list of generally accepted energy-saving
levels, driven by the price of natural gas, the fuel mix   best practices does not exist.
of generators, and utility deregulation in many states.
    Air pollutants from power generation and the
combustion of fossil fuels can have a major impact         RESEARCH APPROACH
on airports located in areas designated by the U.S.            This project is targeted at improving energy-
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as              saving practices in U.S. airports through a study of
non-attainment areas. Also, greenhouse gases from          energy-related O&M best practices, building recom-
the combustion of fossil fuels are now considered a        missioning, and energy conservation retrofit measures
contributing factor to global warming. This complex        (ECRMs) for immediate use by airport managers.
scenario of energy and environmental factors places            The ESL assembled a team of energy engineers,
significant economic and political pressure on air-         building recommissioning experts, and facility en-
port managers to accurately assess their airport’s         ergy managers who have all worked extensively in
performance, reduce energy use, and minimize the           the area of building energy performance. The re-
airport’s environmental footprint.                         search team decided that the most effective and ef-
                                                           ficient approach to determining best practices in
Airport Energy Management                                  airport facility energy use was to conduct a nation-
Research Needs                                             wide e-mail survey/questionnaire and to examine the
                                                           practices of a complex airport with a history of good
    Most airport facility managers have invested in        energy and environmental management practices.
energy-efficient improvements such as upgrading            The DFW Airport facilities management team vol-
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC)          unteered to provide comprehensive information on
systems; upgrading building controls; and installing       their award-winning energy and environmental prac-
high-efficiency lighting. However, investments in          tices. Thus, the project involved two main efforts: an
energy improvements can be costly and often com-           airport industry survey and an on-site assessment of
pete with other capital improvement projects. Fur-         DFW Airport.
ther, from research in hundreds of buildings in the
Texas LoanSTAR program in the 1990s, the Energy
                                                           Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
Systems Laboratory (ESL) at Texas A&M Univer-
sity found that retrofit savings are often less than            ESL designed an airport facilities survey to cre-
projected without close monitoring; verification and        ate an energy profile and to examine the utilization
of O&M, building recommissioning, and energy             Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport” (available
retrofit practices. Each airport surveyed was cate-      on the TRB website at
gorized as large, medium, or small—based on the          detail.asp?id=8265). Finally, a literature search of
number of annual enplanements. Enplanements are          O&M best practices and ECRMs was conducted to
defined by the FAA as the number of passengers            help develop the survey questionnaire and the model
boarding mainline or regional carriers. Large airports   best practices.
had greater than 1,000,000 enplanements, medium
airports had 250,000 to 1,000,000 enplanements, and
small airports had fewer than 250,000 enplanements.      FINDINGS
    The survey instrument (available on the TRB              The use of best practices is a proven technique
website at      for increasing effective management within an in-
8265) was sent to airport managers at 78 regionally      dustry. The ESL utilized information gained from
diverse airports, grouped by number of annual en-        the e-mail survey and on-site inspections at DFW
planements. The airports surveyed were selected on       Airport to identify energy management best prac-
the basis of size from an FAA list of more than 500      tices of general benefit to the airport industry. O&M
airports (3). O&M practices, recommissioning prac-       and recommissioning, as well as energy upgrades
tices, and ECRM practices were determined from the       are presented below.
survey responses. The ESL evaluated the utilization
of energy management best practices. Each practice
was evaluated for the three predetermined size group-    Airport O&M Best Practices Survey Results
ings as well as over the full range of airports. The     on Energy Management Best Practices
ESL team also evaluated energy utilization indices           The survey focused on energy-related O&M,
(EUIs) for benchmarking airport performance.             recommissioning, and energy use improvement top-
    The ESL limited the survey to two pages to in-       ics. The ESL analysis of selected survey questions
crease the probability that a busy facility manager      follows. Table 1 and Figure 1 summarize the survey
would take the time necessary to complete it. The re-    results on airport industry energy management best
sponse rate was approximately 25 percent (20 out         practices.
of 78). The sample size was approximately 16 per-
cent of the FAA list.                                    Use of a Computerized Maintenance Management
                                                         System (CMMS) and/or a Building Automation
On-Site Assessment of DFW Airport                        System (BAS)
     In addition to responding to the Airport O&M            Forty-five percent of respondents use a CMMS,
Best Practices Survey distributed for this research,     and 70 percent use a BAS. The data indicate that auto-
management at DFW Airport permitted the ESL to           mated CMMSs are used predominantly by larger
conduct a physical inspection of the airport facility.   airports. No smaller airports in the survey used them.
The ESL examined the lighting, elevators, escala-        One reason for this disparity could be the complex-
tors, moving walkways, passenger loading bridges,        ity of operating automated CMMSs, the personnel
and aircraft HVAC systems at DFW Airport’s Ter-          skill level required, and the high front-end cost con-
minals B and D. The ESL also conducted an in-depth       siderations. This wide disparity does not exist for
look at the energy-related O&M practices and ECRMs       use of a BAS: use of a BAS ranges from 87.5 per-
at the two terminals.                                    cent for busier airports to 50 percent for airports
     The ESL studied blueprints, control drawings,       with fewer enplanements. One reason could be that,
mechanical specifications, testing and balancing, and     in addition to handling energy management func-
previous commissioning reports. An ESL engineer-         tions, a BAS is also necessary for fire safety, secu-
ing team also conducted walk-through inspections         rity, and indoor air quality.
of the two DFW Airport terminals. The findings of
the on-site assessment are incorporated into the sec-    Detailed O&M Manual
tion of this digest entitled “Best Practices for Re-         Sixty percent of the respondents indicated that
ducing Energy Use in Airport Facilities” and are         they had a detailed O&M manual, ranging from a
fully described in “Study of Terminals B and D at        high of 83 percent (medium-sized airports) to a low
Table 1 Utilization of best practices—results of the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
        (December 2006 to January 2007)
                                                         Large                Medium                  Small
                                     Overall          (> 1,000,000       (250,000–1,000,000         (< 250,000
Survey question                    (20 airports)     enplanements)         enplanements)          enplanements)
 1. CMMS Use                          45%                 87.5%                33%                     0%
 2. BAS Use                           70%                 87.5%                67%                    50%
 3. Detailed O&M Manual               60%                 62.5%                83%                    33%
 4. Energy Use Tracked as             45%                 37.5%                67%                    33%
    a Performance Measure
 5. Use of Energy Baseline            35%                 25%                  33%                    50%
 6. Tenant Energy                     60%                 62.5%                67%                    58%
 7. Energy Assessment                 45%                 50%                  33%                    50%
    within Past 5 Years
 8. O&M Assessment                    30%                 37.5%                33%                    17%
    within Past 5 Years
 9. Periodic Recommissioning          50%                 50%                  67%                    33%
    or Optimization of HVAC
    Systems and Control
10. Implementation of Energy-         55%                 87.5%                50%                    16.6%
    Related O&M Measures
11. Implementation of ECRMs           50%                 75%                  50%                    33.3%
Average response rate                 49.5%               60.2%                53.0%                  34.0%
  for all measures

of 33 percent (small airports). There is no obvious       utilization rate as well as the frequent lack of sub-
reason why medium-sized airports should have the          metered data at airport facilities.
highest utilization. The arbitrary survey categories
(large, medium, and small airports) could account for     Tenant Energy Sub-Metering
this result.
                                                              Sixty percent of respondents indicated that they
                                                          had some level of tenant sub-metering, with a range
Energy Use Tracked as a Performance Measure
                                                          of 67 percent (medium-sized airports) to 58 percent
     Forty-five percent of respondents indicated that      (small airports). This high utilization rate is not sur-
they tracked energy use as a performance measure          prising since airports often pass on energy prices.
for their airports, with a range of 67 percent (medium-   Sub-metering is an excellent energy conservation
sized airports) to 33 percent (small airports). Again,    tool since it sends the proper price signals, penaliz-
the medium-sized airports had the highest utiliza-        ing wasteful tenants.
tion. This result, again, could be due to the small
sample by size category.                                  Energy Assessment within the Past 5 Years
                                                              Forty-five percent of respondents indicated that
Use of an Energy Baseline
                                                          they had performed some type of energy assessment
    Thirty-five percent of respondents indicated that      for ECRMs within the past 5 years, with a range of
they utilize an energy baseline for monitoring en-        50 percent (large airports) to 33 percent (medium-
ergy performance, with a range of 50 percent (small       sized airports). This moderate utilization rate could
airports) to 25 percent (large airports). A lack of       be due to the widespread availability of new cost-
trained personnel could account for this smaller          effective technologies such as lighting and digital

                                                                                            Overall               Large               Medium                       Small


       Percent Penetration

















































































       Figure 1 Identification of best practices—Airport O&M Best Practices Survey (December 2006 to
       January 2007).

controls. In many regions, utility cash incentives                                                                           missioning (optimizing) existing building and util-
provide good economic incentives.                                                                                            ity plants may be explained by factors such as
                                                                                                                             record high energy prices, an increased number of
O&M Assessment within the Past 5 Years                                                                                       building recommissioning agents, and the in-
                                                                                                                             creased awareness of airport executives and the
    Only 30 percent of the respondents indicated
                                                                                                                             public of the direct link between energy and the
that they had conducted an O&M assessment within
the past 5 years, with a range of 37.5 percent (large
airports) to 17 percent (small airports). This low uti-
                                                                                                                             Implementation of Energy-Related O&M Measures
lization rate could be the result of a lack of metering,
which makes it difficult for airport facility managers                                                                           Fifty-five percent of the respondents indicated that
to know the financial impact of not doing energy-                                                                            they have implemented energy-related O&M mea-
related O&M assessments.                                                                                                     sures within the past 5 years, with a range of 87.5 per-
                                                                                                                             cent (large airports) to 16.6 percent (small airports).
Periodic Recommissioning or Optimization                                                                                     This high response rate indicates that respondents that
of HVAC Systems and Control Systems                                                                                          have an O&M plan (60 percent) are also implement-
                                                                                                                             ing O&M measures.
    Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that
they had recommissioned or optimized their
                                                                                                                             Implementation of ECRMs
HVAC systems and control systems, with a range
of 67 percent (medium-sized airports) to 33 per-                                                                                 Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that
cent (small airports). The increased use of recom-                                                                           they had implemented ECRMs.

Airport O&M Best Practices Survey Results                 able, given that few airports are located in regions
on Utilization of Energy Supply and                       with adequate renewable resources, such as wind, to
Storage Systems and the Effect of                         make these technologies economically feasible.
Air Quality Issues on O&M Decisions
                                                          Thermal Storage
    The survey examined the utilization of selected
energy supply and storage systems (on-site cogener-           Thermal energy storage systems are an effective
ation, on-site renewable power, thermal storage, and      means of reducing peak electric loads. Airports using
purchased cooling and/or heating) as well as the ef-      thermal storage can benefit from reduction in billed
fect of air quality issues on O&M decisions. Survey       cost even if energy consumption increases by shift-
results on use of these energy supply and storage         ing the peak cooling load to off-peak periods. This
systems and the effect of air quality issues on O&M       technology works best at facilities with large summer
decisions are presented in Table 2 and discussed          cooling loads, and it requires a dedicated O&M staff
below.                                                    and a favorable utility electric rate structure to be eco-
                                                          nomically viable. The low utilization rate of 10 per-
On-Site Cogeneration                                      cent, with a range of 25 percent (large airports) to
                                                          0 percent (small airports), is therefore understandable.
    Cogeneration is the simultaneous production
of electricity and thermal energy. It can provide         Purchased Cooling and/or Heating
significant energy cost reduction in cases where
steam and electric loads coincide or where a sec-             None of the airports surveyed purchase thermal
ondary market for excess steam or electricity ex-         energy for heating and/or cooling. An airport would
ists. Absorption chillers are commonly coupled            have to be located very close to a district heating and
with cogeneration equipment to balance the load           cooling project to consider this technology as a viable
profiles. The use of cogeneration is not a simple         option.
decision because of fluctuating natural gas and elec-
tric prices and high capital costs. The 10-percent        Effect of Air Quality Issues on O&M Decisions
utilization rate indicates that it is not widely used          Forty-five percent of all the airports surveyed and
by the airports surveyed and then only by larger          75 percent of the large airports reported that air qual-
airports.                                                 ity issues are affecting their O&M decisions. These
                                                          relatively high percentages indicate the importance
On-Site Renewable Power
                                                          of environmental issues at the airports surveyed. Air
     Renewable energy is becoming a significant con-       quality tends to be a major concern in large urban
tributor to the mix of U.S. energy resources. Some        centers. This could account for the fact that the high-
airports reported having green energy in their elec-      est percentage of airports responding that air quality
tric purchases, but none reported having renewable        issues are affecting O&M decisions was in the large
power sources on-site. This response is understand-       airports category.

Table 2 Selected energy supply and storage systems and the effect of air quality issues on O&M decisions
                                                        Large                 Medium                   Small
                                   Overall           (> 1,000,000        (250,000–1,000,000          (< 250,000
Technology                       (20 airports)      enplanements)          enplanements)           enplanements)
On-Site Cogeneration                 10%                 25%                      0%                      0%
On-Site Renewable Power               0%                  0%                      0%                      0%
Thermal Storage                      10%                 25%                      0%                      0%
Purchased Cooling                     0%                  0%                      0%                      0%
  and/or Heating
Air Quality Issues Affecting         45%                 75%                     33%                     33%
  O&M Decisions

DFW Airport Responses to Airport O&M                         contain specific energy-related procedures, the
Best Practices Survey                                        contracts do specify the contractor’s obligation
                                                             to pursue potential rebate opportunities and to
    DFW Airport management responded to the same
                                                             work with any energy consultants brought in.
survey questions as the other 19 airports. DFW Air-
                                                           • Implementing the new CMMS at DFW Air-
port management’s responses were the following:              port has been a major endeavor. Incorporating
   • CMMS and BAS use. DFW Airport is im-                    energy and environmental parameters such as
     plementing a new CMMS.                                  energy monitoring and process review func-
   • Detailed O&M manual. DFW Airport does                   tions within the CMMS is ongoing.
     not have an O&M procedures manual.                    • DFW Airport is implementing an active recom-
   • Energy use tracked as a performance mea-                missioning and optimization program and an
     sure. DFW Airport tracks energy consump-                aggressive 5-year plan to recommission tar-
     tion, but does not use the data for benchmark-          geted airport facilities.
     ing performance.
   • Use of an energy baseline. At DFW Airport,
                                                       On-Site Assessment of Best Practices
     baselines are established on a project-by-
                                                       at DFW Airport’s Rental Car Center
     project basis, as required. DFW Airport does
     not have an overall energy baseline.                  In 2004, a recommissioning project at the off-
   • Tenant energy sub-metering. DFW Airport           site DFW Airport rental car facility revealed O&M
     does not sub-meter most tenant energy use. A      and recommissioning measures that are typical of
     few major clients purchase energy directly        aviation facilities that operate 24/7. The following
     from the utility for hangars and maintenance.     optimization strategies were identified:
   • Energy assessment within past 5 years. En-            • Improved operation of the attached parking
     ergy assessments of selected buildings have             garage lights,
     been carried out in the last 5 years.                 • Zone temperature control,
   • O&M assessment within past 5 years. An                • Supply temperature reset schedule,
     external O&M assessment has not been per-             • Static pressure setpoints and reset schedules,
     formed in the last 5 years.                           • Operation of the economizer cycle,
   • Periodic HVAC system and control systems              • Control for the return air fans to allow better
     recommissioning or optimization. DFW Air-               control of outside airflow,
     port management is currently recommission-            • Terminal box minimum airflow setpoints,
     ing targeted facilities.                              • Improved chiller operation,
   • Implementation of O&M measures. DFW                   • Reset schedule for the condenser water tem-
     Airport management is constantly implement-             perature, and
     ing measures to improve the airport’s overall         • Improved secondary pump control.
     O&M program.
   • Implementation of ECRMs. DFW Airport is
     implementing a variety of ECRMs.                  Energy Utilization Indices and Benchmarks
                                                           Airport facilities cannot be easily compared to
On-Site Assessment of Best Practices                   other facilities. Terminals, through which a large
at DFW Airport Terminals B and D                       number of travelers pass on a daily basis, house a va-
                                                       riety of commercial entities (e.g., retail and enter-
     The ESL conducted on-site visits at DFW Air-      tainment stores, hotels, and restaurants) as well as
port’s Terminals B and D to develop the questions      equipment that supports the airline industry (e.g., jet
in the e-mail survey and to develop model best prac-   bridges for passenger boarding and extensive bag-
tices. The following observations (from the on-site
                                                       gage handling systems). Given the significant dif-
visit to Terminal D) may be useful to airport man-
                                                       ferences between airports and other facilities, one
agers dealing with similar issues:
                                                       would expect that airport facility managers would
   • DFW Airport follows an ongoing, program-          use an airport-specific set of performance metrics to
     matic approach when contracting for O&M           measure the energy efficiency of airports. However,
     services. For example, while contracts do not     the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey confirmed
that airport facilities have no unique performance        Potential Energy Utilization Indices
metrics or indices for analyzing utility costs that
                                                              Using data drawn from the Airport O&M Best
often run into the millions annually.
                                                          Practices Survey (and the categories into which sur-
    The research team concluded that having a set
of industry-accepted airport energy/utility indices       veyed airports were grouped—large, medium, and
for benchmarking would allow airport managers to          small), the ESL put together potential EUIs for
compare the performance of an airport with the per-       benchmarking airports. The first two columns of
formance of other airports within the same size           Table 3 show two energy indices typically used for
range. An airport EUI also would provide an inter-        benchmarking (utility costs/ft2 and energy costs/ft2).
nal gauge of the effectiveness of various measures        The next two columns show two energy indices
implemented.                                              specifically tailored to airport facilities (utility
                                                          costs/enplanement and energy costs/enplanement),
Normalizing Factors                                       and the last column shows the intensity of passenger
                                                          boardings per square foot (enplanements/ft2). Fig-
    Energy/utility indices for benchmarking should        ure 2 presents a graphic display of the data presented
be adjusted for shifts in local conditions such as        in Table 3.
weather and use; in other words, indices should               From the airport-specific indices generated from
be “normalized.” Energy costs should always be            the survey sample (utility costs/enplanement, energy
normalized for variations in average annual outside       costs/enplanement, and enplanements/ft2), the re-
air temperature using historical weather data. The        search team drew the following conclusions:
amount of energy use per unit of conditioned space
(square foot) is the most commonly used factor for        Large airports. On average, large airports require
benchmarking building energy performance. Per-            the least utility expenditure per enplanement. Large
centage of conditioned space is not always accurate       airports enplane 2.58 times as many passengers per
for very large airport facilities because the number      square foot as medium-sized airports. From the per-
of enplanements varies widely, and airports often         spective of overall facility effectiveness, this is good
have a large percentage of mixed-use space. Some          news for large airports, but that does not mean they
airports also have large cargo areas that are not con-    do not have energy-saving opportunities.
ditioned or are only partially conditioned.
                                                          Medium-sized airports. Medium-sized airports
Enplanements as a Normalizing Factor                      have on average the least utility expenditure per
for Airports                                              square foot and therefore are the most efficient from
    A potential normalizing factor for airport facili-    a conditioned space perspective. Medium-sized air-
ties is the number of passenger boardings (enplane-       ports have the lowest number of enplanements per
ments), as these data are readily available from FAA.     square foot—even fewer than the small airports
Enplanements can provide a product-based normal-          surveyed. The reason for such a low number of en-
ization factor that is similar to normalization factors   planements is not clear.
in other industries, such as manufacturing. Enplane-
ments are a good indicator of airport activity, which     Small airports. The small airports that were sur-
has a direct impact on energy use.                        veyed are clearly less efficient from a utility cost

Table 3 Potential energy indices based on the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
        (December 2006 to January 2007)
                        Utility       Energy         Utility Costs/      Energy Costs/
Group                  Costs/ft2      Costs/ft2      Enplanement         Enplanement           Enplanements/ft2
Airports Overall         $2.71          $2.55             $1.05               $0.99                   2.57
Large Airports           $2.79          $2.63             $1.03               $0.97                   2.71
Medium Airports          $1.63          $1.53             $1.55               $1.46                   1.05
Small Airports           $3.11          $2.98             $1.88               $1.80                   1.65

                                                      OVERALL   LARGE   MEDIUM   SMALL








                                                              ENPLANEMENT           ENPLANEMENT             FT2

         Note. Utility costs often include water and wastewater, which may be hidden in electric costs at airports
         that do their own water treatment. Energy costs, which often do not include water pumping/treatment, are
         the most reliable data in this survey sample.
         Figure 2 Bar graph of potential energy indices based on the Airport O&M Best Practices

perspective, regardless of whether dollars per square              tive and occupant productivity and health are greatly
foot or dollars per enplanement are being considered.              improved.” After recommissioning 50 million square
Small airport utility costs per square foot are approxi-           feet of offices, hospitals, airports, laboratories, class-
mately 90 percent greater than costs per square foot for           rooms, central utility plants, and courthouses, the ESL
medium-sized airports.                                             recommends three major opportunities for reducing
                                                                   energy use that work interdependently:
BEST PRACTICES FOR REDUCING                                              • Energy-related O&M. This can provide sav-
ENERGY USE IN AIRPORT FACILITIES                                           ings of up to 15 percent of whole building en-
     This section will provide practical guidance for                      ergy cost,
improving airport energy use through proven tech-                        • Ongoing building recommissioning. This can
niques and technologies. The guidance is based on                          provide savings of 10 to 25 percent of whole
responses to the project surveys, a review of industry                     building energy cost, and
literature, interviews, and years of related research                    • ECRMs. These can provide savings of 10 to
by the research team.                                                      20 percent of the whole building energy cost.
     Art Rosenfeld, California Energy Commissioner,
remarked in a 2007 telephone interview that “building
recommissioning and enhanced operations and main-                  Energy-Related O&M
tenance of commercial buildings are two of the most                   O&M is defined by the Federal Energy Manage-
cost-effective, low-cost technologies to come along in             ment Program (FEMP) as “the decisions and actions
the past 15 years. The paybacks are extremely attrac-              regarding the control and upkeep of property and
equipment” (4). Preventing equipment failure is the         • CMMS. A CMMS is a relatively new tool for
traditional focus of O&M. Typically, little attention         O&M management. These systems utilize spe-
is given to how systematic operation and mainte-              cialized computer software to help streamline
nance of building systems also saves energy.                  virtually every aspect of defining and manag-
    Energy use is an excellent indicator of equipment         ing O&M programs. O&M strategies such as
performance, overall efficiency, and system degra-            reliability-centered maintenance (RCM), which
dation. Inadequate energy-related O&M can neutral-            increases reliability while reducing unneeded
ize or reduce the benefits of energy-efficient prod-           maintenance, would be impossible to imple-
ucts and systems and is often a cause of premature            ment without these advanced tools. A CMMS
HVAC equipment failure. Therefore, having a good              is not cheap, and considerable commitment is
O&M program in place is critical to both energy-              required to implement it properly. The cost of
efficient operation and equipment maintenance.                these systems puts them out of reach for many
    The following energy-related O&M best prac-               small airports and even some medium-sized
tices are key components of a successful airport en-          ones, as reflected in the survey responses.
ergy management program:                                    • BAS. A building automation system (BAS)
                                                              is also known as an energy management con-
     • Comprehensive energy-related O&M plan.                 trol system (EMCS). When combined with
       Develop a comprehensive energy-related O&M             well-trained personnel and comprehensive op-
       program with clearly defined goals and bene-            erating procedures, these systems allow the
       fits. Set aggressive goals and secure funding           building HVAC and lighting systems to react
       and senior management support. Implement               automatically to the operating environment, ad-
       and monitor benchmarked results.                       just to meet load conditions, and help schedule
     • Personnel resources. Identify an airport O&M           or identify equipment needing maintenance or
       manager or contractor to manage/coordinate             adjustment.
       the efforts of the entities involved in performing          The BAS can also detect changes in the op-
       O&M. For large airports, this position requires        eration of controlled equipment and signal op-
       significant technical and managerial skills.            erators that attention is needed, reducing down-
     • Quality control procedures. Develop inspec-            time and costly repairs as well as unnecessary
       tion procedures and identify an inspection team        energy consumption. It is important to note that
       to provide quality control oversight for the           an improperly configured or poorly operated
       staff and contractors performing O&M work.             BAS can also result in higher energy consump-
       Inspection oversight is a necessity in large           tion. One of the most important maintenance
       facilities.                                            considerations with a BAS is sensor calibration.
     • Measurement and verification plan. Develop              If sensor calibration is not performed on an on-
       a written measurement and verification plan             going basis, energy can be wasted, especially in
       for any O&M, recommissioning, or ECRMs                 air-handler operations.
       implemented. It is recommended that the              • Periodic HVAC system and control system
       International Performance Measurement and              optimization and recommissioning. Periodic
       Verification Protocols (IPMVP) developed by             HVAC system and BAS recommissioning/
       the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) be            optimization is necessary to offset the normal
       used for this purpose.                                 deterioration of mechanical equipment and re-
     • Detailed O&M manual. Develop detailed                  lated sensors. Often, stop-gap measures are
       energy-related O&M procedures. Document-               taken to keep systems operating that seem to
       ing the O&M procedures in a centralized man-           work fine, but these measures can ultimately
       ual reduces dependence on individual special-          compound a problem over time. Commission-
       ized knowledge or expertise regarding airport          ing experts can detect these issues and correct
       systems. Utilizing a comprehensive O&M man-            them, saving considerable resources.
       ual helps ensure that systems will not deterio-      • Development of an energy baseline. Devel-
       rate and that energy consumption will remain           oping an energy use baseline for a facility is
       relatively constant.                                   the first step in any energy conservation effort.

       Neither the potential for benefit nor the result-      • Include energy-related O&M as a cross-cutting
       ing savings can be reliably determined with-            activity.
       out developing an energy use baseline. A base-        • Document O&M activities.
       line is also an important part of a successful        • Utilize O&M diagnostic tools.
       recommissioning process.                              • Conduct O&M assessments.
   •   Energy use tracked as a performance mea-              • Perform O&M optimization activities.
       sure. Energy consumption as a performance             • Utilize automated building controls.
       indicator is fundamental to energy-related            • Schedule energy-using equipment.
       O&M. The effectiveness of any measures                • Track performance of major energy-using
       taken to reduce energy consumption cannot               equipment.
       be determined if energy consumption is not            • Include energy-related O&M in the preventa-
       tracked. By tracking energy performance,                tive maintenance plan.
       maintenance personnel can know when a build-
       ing needs to be recommissioned.                    Ongoing Building Recommissioning
   •   Tenant energy sub-metering. Sub-metering
       tenant energy consumption and billing tenants          Ideally, recommissioning of buildings and control
       on the basis of consumption provides them          systems is an ongoing process that resolves operat-
       with an incentive to conserve energy.              ing problems, improves comfort, optimizes energy
   •   O&M assessment every 5 years. O&M as-              use, and identifies retrofits for existing commercial
       sessments generally focus on O&M procedural        and institutional buildings and central plant facili-
       issues. Periodic review of O&M procedures          ties. Over time, a building’s HVAC systems will de-
       performed with the assistance of external ex-      grade and the function of the building or its occu-
       perts can result in substantial benefits.           pants may change the way the building runs. Ongoing
   •   Energy assessment every 5 years. External          recommissioning involves optimizing the HVAC
       energy assessments are another important           system and controls system in a building to improve
       tool for saving energy as they identify poten-     performance.
       tially beneficial equipment upgrades, needed            Ongoing recommissioning is a two-step process.
       equipment repairs, and beneficial changes in        Step 1 is the initial assessment phase where oppor-
       operating procedures. Also, external assess-       tunities are identified through on-site testing and
       ments provide critical support for convincing      analysis of energy data and HVAC systems. Step 2
       management of the benefits of needed mea-          is implementing the building optimization process
       sures. It is suggested that comprehensive en-      and verifying project performance. This second step
       ergy assessments be performed at least every       includes the following actions:
       5 years.                                              • Developing a recommissioning plan and form-
    Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI) has              ing a project team.
an excellent guide to O&M best practices entitled            • Developing performance baselines.
Fifteen O&M Best Practices for Energy-Efficient              • Testing the HVAC system and controls system
Buildings (5). Recommendations for best practices              and developing recommissioning measures.
include the following items:                                 • Implementing recommissioning measures.
                                                             • Documenting energy savings and comfort
   • Incorporate goals for energy-efficient building           improvements.
     operations into the strategic plan.                     • Recommissioning on a regular basis (4).
   • Include energy-efficient operations in energy
     management planning.
   • Implement an energy accounting system to
     track energy performance.                                Most energy conservation programs utilize major
   • Hire an energy manager.                              equipment upgrades and retrofits as primary means
   • Train operators in energy-related O&M.               to reduce energy use. ECRM payback periods of 2 to
   • Ensure that building service contracts support       20 years are common in airports and other large in-
     building-efficient operations.                       stitutions. ECRM payback periods are generally

much longer than the payback periods associated                  net present value of the retrofit at $540 per sign,
with instituting energy-related O&M and recommis-                with $0.08 per kWh electricity.
sioning measures, which are often under 2 years.               • Using any of the many approaches to, and
    A list of energy conservation measures employed              applications for, retrofitting lighting control,
by the airports surveyed for this study (including DFW           such as photocells and timers to control exte-
Airport) includes the following:                                 rior lighting. The ESL often observes control
                                                                 failure, which results in exterior lights remain-
     • Lighting and controls upgrades,                           ing on all day. Most airports are designed with
     • Installation of a BAS or upgrades to an exist-            large expanses of windows. This provides sub-
       ing system,                                               stantial opportunity for daylighting. Since there
     • HVAC system upgrades,                                     are many types of daylighting controls, profes-
     • High-efficiency motors and motor systems in-              sional assistance is recommended when consid-
       stallation,                                               ering the options.
     • High-efficiency pump installation,                      • Installing occupancy sensors, very effective
     • Variable speed drive installation,                        energy-saving devices. They can optimize the
     • Water and wastewater system improvements,                 operation of lighting systems by turning the
     • Central utility plant and distribution systems            lights off when space is unoccupied. Savings
       improvements,                                             normally vary from 20 to 75 percent of the
     • Installation of heat recovery systems,                    power that would be used without them. Pay-
     • Installation of electrical load management                back periods are normally very short, ranging
       devices,                                                  from 6 months to 2 years, depending on the ap-
     • Installation of building and roof insulation, and         plication and energy price. Additional consider-
     • Passenger and baggage-handling system im-                 ations include customer acceptance and limita-
       provements.                                               tions such as egress lighting.
    Not all ECRMs may be applicable. ECRM choice                HVAC equipment efficiency has advanced con-
depends on the size, location, age, application, and        siderably in recent years. Advancements in direct
energy costs of an airport facility.                        expansion (DX) systems include water-source heat
    Lighting system controls and HVAC system con-           pumps and air-source heat pumps as well as more
trols are two of most common ECRMs. Lighting sys-           efficient conventional cooling-only units. ECRMs
tem ECRMs include the following:                            for HVAC systems and control systems include the
     • Retrofitting existing T-12 magnetic ballast flu-       following:
       orescent fixtures with new T-8 or T-5 lamps              • Replacing older, inefficient DX systems with
       with electronic ballasts. This retrofit will re-           newer, more efficient, and properly sized heat
       duce the electric power needed for lighting by            pumps or DX systems. Specific evaluation is
       approximately 20 to 25 percent and will have              needed to determine savings, which can be sig-
       a simple payback period of 2 to 5 years, de-              nificant. DX units are often used with jetways,
       pending on electricity rates and utility rebates.         outbuildings, and isolated portions of an air-
     • Replacing incandescent bulbs with compact                 port facility.
       fluorescent (CF) bulbs. The cost of CF bulbs             • Using thermal storage systems can provide
       has dropped significantly, and there is a move             considerable cost savings if the utility rate
       to outlaw or place a “sin tax” on incandescent            schedule contains a cost penalty for high peak
       bulbs in a few states. CF bulbs use 25 percent            electrical demand.
       of the power of the incandescent bulbs they re-         • Replacing older chillers with newer, properly
       place and last many times longer than incan-              sized chillers. Because of the large initial cost
       descent lights. A CF bulb will typically pro-             involved and to provide a shorter payback pe-
       vide net savings of $50 to $100 during its life.          riod for the overall package, this upgrade is
     • Retrofitting or replacing inefficient exit signs           most often bundled with other retrofits, such
       with new exit signs that use light-emitting               as lighting and controls upgrades.
       diodes (LEDs). Retrofitting existing exit fix-            • Using a BAS (or an EMCS), standard equip-
       tures is generally highly cost-effective. In 1997,        ment for controlling HVAC systems, and, in
       the U.S. EPA Green Lights Program put the                 many cases, other building functions. An ef-

    fective BAS requires well-trained personnel,                sumption and lengthening equipment life. Prob-
    ongoing maintenance, calibration, and well-                 lems with chemical balance can lead to the
    developed control schemes.                                  overconsumption of supplies and can prevent
•   Upgrading to direct digital controls (DDCs)                 systems from handling their design loads.
    for older air-handling units (AHUs) and air-
    distribution equipment (variable air volume
                                                         Prioritizing Energy Retrofit, O&M,
    [VAV] boxes) is often very cost-effective. Re-
                                                         and Recommissioning Measures
    placing old pneumatic control systems that re-
    quire compressed air with new DDCs can also              Most energy conservation programs have major
    allow the decommissioning of building con-           equipment upgrades and retrofits as primary com-
    trol compressed air systems, which consume           ponents. Tables 4 and 5 provide basic shopping lists
    considerable energy and often require consid-        of equipment upgrades ranked by simple payback
    erable maintenance. In cases where the com-          period. Duration of payback periods is based on ex-
    pressed air system can be decommissioned,            perience gathered over the past 20 years by the ESL
    this change helps offset part of the cost of con-    and its contractors, as well as the survey and assess-
    version to full DDC.                                 ments conducted as part of this research.
•   Retrofitting outside air intakes for “econo-             Often, projects with longer payback periods (such
    mizer” operation in certain climate zones can        as HVAC replacements) will be grouped with proj-
    result in significant savings. Full economizer        ects with short payback periods (like recommission-
    operation allows the AHU to provide up to            ing or lighting upgrades) to help offset initial costs
    100% outside air when the temperature and            and improve the return on investment. Ideally, en-
    humidity of outside air will provide adequate        hanced recommissioning would also be a part of any
    cooling. This practice can amount to thousands       ECRM project and prioritized like any other indi-
    of hours of free cooling and significantly re-        vidual retrofit measure when calculating the overall
    duced energy costs.                                  project payback period.
•   Variable frequency drives (VFDs) can be added            ECRM payback periods are dependent on several
    to many existing pumping and air-handling            factors: (1) utility rates, (2) hours of operation, (3) cli-
    systems to allow dynamic control that responds       mate conditions, (4) relative efficiency of equipment
    to the load or ventilation requirements. Motors      and/or controls being replaced, (5) design condition
    with more than 5.0 hp are good candidates for        requirements, and (6) interdependency of savings
    VFD retrofits, although some VFDs are in-             when more than one ECRM is installed. Therefore,
    stalled on smaller motors. System-specific op-        the payback period ranges listed in Tables 4 and 5
    erating requirements and appropriate control         are for general guidance. Table 4 shows payback pe-
    strategies must be implemented to benefit from        riods for lighting ECRMs (short payback period),
    these retrofits.                                      and Table 5 shows payback periods for HVAC and
•   Heat recovery units (HRUs) are used to recover       Mechanical Systems ECRMs (intermediate to long-
    energy from the exhaust air stream. They either      term payback periods).
    remove heat from the incoming air stream by
    transferring it to the relatively cool exhaust air
    during cooling operation or add heat to the in-      Table 4 Payback periods for lighting ECRMs
    coming air stream by transferring heat from the
    exhaust air stream during heating operation.         Lighting ECRMs                   Simple payback period
    There are several designs, and specific expertise     Replace exit lights              6 months to 2 years
    is needed to evaluate and apply these properly.      Replace incandescent bulbs       6 months to 2 years
•   Replacing older boilers, which are often over-         with compact fluorescent
    sized, with more efficient, properly sized boil-       bulbs
    ers and water heating systems can provide sig-       Install occupancy sensors        2 to 4 years
    nificant energy savings. Replacing oversized          Replace T-12 with magnetic       2 to 5 years
    boilers can also reduce maintenance costs.             ballasts with T-8 or T-5
•   Water treatment system upgrades can provide            with electronic ballasts
                                                         Install lighting controls        2 to 10 years
    significant savings by reducing chemical con-

                     Table 5 Payback periods for HVAC and mechanical system ECRMs
                     HVAC and Mechanical System ECRMs                 Simple Payback Period
                     Steam trap O&M and/or replacement                6 months to 10 years
                     Optimizing HVAC systems and controls             1 to 4 years
                     Water treatment systems upgrades                 1 to 4 years
                     Variable frequency drive (VFD) replacements      3 to 7 years
                     Cooling tower VFD and pump upgrades              3 to 7 years
                     Thermal storage system retrofits                  3 to 10 years
                     Economizer equipment upgrades                    4 to 8 years
                     Replacement of inefficient motors                5 to 6 years
                     Cooling tower replacement                        5 to 20 years
                     Oversized boiler replacement                     6 to 8 years
                     DX unit and heat pump replacement                4 to 13 years
                     BAS/EMCS upgrade                                 6 to 10 years
                     Heat recovery unit upgrade                       8 to 10 years
                     High-efficiency boiler replacement               8 to 12 years
                     Chiller replacement                              8 to 20 years

Sustainable Airport Facility Best Practices               ing areas identified by the ESL in a sustainability as-
                                                          sessment performed for Texas A&M University (8):
     This digest focuses on best practices for reducing
airport energy usage. Reducing energy usage not only         • Energy consumption. Important areas to
saves on utility costs, but also is a step toward more         consider are building lighting and plug
sustainable operation. Many different definitions of            loads, HVAC consumption, and transportation
sustainability exist, but one of the most widely ac-           energy.
cepted definitions is the Brundtland Commission’s:            • Energy sources. Alternative sources of energy
“meeting the needs of the present without compro-              may include green power that is purchased
mising the ability of future generations to meet their         from a utility company or on-site renewable
own needs” (6). Most airport managers see minimiz-             energy generated through photovoltaics and
ing their airport’s impact on the environment and con-         other sources.
serving natural resources as critical aspects of their       • Water conservation. Water is an essential
operations, as evidenced by the project survey.                but limited natural resource, so efficient use
     Sustainable or “green” practices are becoming             and pollution prevention are extremely im-
more common in commercial buildings since they                 portant. Using low-flow fixtures, waterless
not only reduce costs, but typically result in a more          urinals, and innovative irrigation technologies
productive and healthier work environment for oc-              are good ways to reduce water usage.
cupants. The U.S. Green Building Council created             • Waste and recycling. A good waste minimiza-
the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design              tion program coupled with a strong recycling
(LEED) system as a benchmarking tool for green                 program can significantly reduce the amount of
buildings. There are many areas to consider on the             waste in landfills. Proper handling of hazardous
road to sustainability, but effective O&M, retrofits,           waste is also important.
and recommissioning are important components.                • Built environment. Indoor air quality is ex-
     The Pennsylvania Green Buildings Operations               tremely important to the health and productiv-
and Maintenance Manual is a green O&M manuals                  ity of building occupants. Designs that require
(7 ). It describes sustainable O&M procedures for              sustainable and non-toxic renewable materials
landscaping, snow removal and de-icing, roofing                 in construction can help improve indoor air
materials, parking garages, HVAC, lighting, and                quality.
cleaning that can be applied to airports. In addition,       • Land use. Healthy, aesthetically pleasing,
airport managers interested in “greening” their fa-            and ecologically sustainable landscapes, where
cilities may want to assess procedures in the follow-          storm water is well managed and pest man-
     agement practices do not harm the health of                                                         study can produce excellent savings in large com-
     people or wildlife, are preferable for airports.                                                    plex facilities, including airports. The first case
   • Sustainable purchasing. Airports can help                                                           study describes the savings realized from recom-
     conserve natural resources by implementing                                                          missioning a centralized rental car facility at DFW
     sustainable purchasing programs. Examples                                                           Airport. The second case study describes a large,
     include purchasing recycled-content paper; re-                                                      ongoing recommissioning project at Texas A&M
     quiring recycled-content, reused, or regional                                                       University, and the third describes a recommis-
     building materials; and using ENERGY STAR                                                           sioning project at the Matheson Courthouse in Salt
     equipment.                                                                                          Lake City, Utah.
   • Food. Healthy eating is an important compo-
     nent of a healthy lifestyle. Airport vendors can                                                    DFW Airport Rental Car Center
     offer fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
     as alternatives to refined starches and sugars,                                                           ESL began recommissioning the DFW Airport
     artificial preservatives, and processed foods.                                                       Rental Car Center in September 2004. Metered sav-
     Airports that purchase food that is locally                                                         ings were $106,000 during the first year, with a 1-year
     grown and raised can promote the local econ-                                                        payback period and an 18-percent reduction in en-
     omy. Efforts can be made to minimize organic                                                        ergy use.
     and inorganic waste in dining facilities.                                                                Recommissioning measures included optimiz-
   • General health and well-being. This cate-                                                           ing the supply air reset, chiller operations, condenser
     gory includes using green custodial practices,                                                      water reset, economizer cycle, garage lighting sched-
     maintaining a healthy indoor environment, and                                                       ule, and the air distribution system, as well as elim-
     encouraging airport employees to use safe                                                           inating simultaneous heating and cooling.
     practices in all of their work.                                                                          Figure 3 shows the immediate and dramatic re-
                                                                                                         duction in electricity use in October 2004, one month
                                                                                                         after the recommissioning process began. (A detailed
Recommissioning Case Studies
                                                                                                         description of this project, “Airport Rental Car Fa-
    The following case studies are good examples                                                         cility Case Study,” is available on the TRB website
of how many of the best practices discussed in this                                                      at


                                     1,150               Sep 1st, 2004 [75.5 °F]
                                                                                                                                        Pre CC
                                                         Oct 20 th, 2004 [75.3 °F]

                                                                                                                                                      Post CC
             Electricity Use (kWh)









                                             0   1   2      3     4    5     6       7   8   9   10     11 12 13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23
                                                                                                      Time (hr)

             Note. CC = Continuous Commissioning®
             Figure 3 Electricity use at DFW Airport Rental Car Center before recommissioning
             and 1 month after recommissioning began.

Texas A&M Main Campus                                      that the airport serves. Several general conclusions
                                                           about controlling utility costs and reducing environ-
    The ESL is systematically recommissioning the
                                                           mental impacts can be drawn from this research:
main campus of Texas A&M University in College
Station, Texas. Since 1996, energy savings have been          • Awareness may not mean action. Energy
more than $35 million from in-depth recommission-               and environmental concerns are a major influ-
ing of 80 buildings (totaling 8 million square feet) and        ence on airport operations, according to inter-
5 central utility plants. Annual energy savings per             views conducted in this research. However,
building range from 10 to 15 percent, with some build-          increased awareness does not necessarily mean
ings achieving a reduction of more than 40 percent.             action, since only 30 percent of the respon-
The overall campus EUI has dropped 34 percent.                  dents had conducted an O&M assessment in
    The Texas A&M main campus is one of the most                the last 5 years.
successful, large-scale recommissioning projects in           • Performance monitoring is minimal. Air-
the United States and is an excellent case for large            ports are not routinely tracking energy use.
airports to examine because, like airports, large uni-          Only 35 percent, overall, reported having an
versity campuses have central utility plants, 24/7 op-          energy use baseline, and fewer than half the
erations, a wide range of building types, and a wide            respondents tracked energy performance. The
range in building age and function.                             ESL estimates that as much as 20 percent of
                                                                cooling and heating energy is wasted.
Matheson Courthouse, Salt Lake City, Utah                     • Low-cost operational improvements are
                                                                underutilized. Airports could regularly save
    The recommissioning of the Matheson Court-                  10 to 20 percent of their total energy use by
house is an informative case for airport operators to           implementing energy-related O&M and build-
study for two reasons: (1) the Matheson Courthouse              ing recommissioning. For example, the ESL’s
is an administrative building, a kind of building that          recommissioning of the rental car center
can be found at most airports, and (2) this recom-              at DFW Airport yielded annual savings of
missioning project illustrates the energy savings               $106,000, a 1-year payback period, and an
potential of recommissioning a new facility that is             18-percent overall reduction in energy use.
already relatively energy efficient.                            Yet, only half of the medium-sized airports
    The Matheson Courthouse, built in 1998, was                 and 16.6 percent of the smaller ones reported
designated a U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR building. It                  implementing O&M measures.
had a very low energy cost of $1.07 per square foot           • Energy technology investments are minimal.
prior to recommissioning. After continuous recom-               In the airport industry, there are significant
missioning was implemented in 2002 by the ESL,                  opportunities for energy reduction through in-
energy cost was reduced by 18 percent with a 1-year             creasing the use of new, high-performance,
payback period. At the same time, there was improved            HVAC equipment, controls, and lighting tech-
occupant comfort and a reduction in HVAC trouble                nologies. However, only 45 percent of the sur-
calls. (A detailed description of this project, “Con-           vey respondents had conducted a comprehen-
tinuous Commissioning® of the Matheson Court-                   sive energy assessment within the last 5 years.
house in Salt Lake City, Utah,” is available on the             Only half the survey respondents indicated
TRB website at            implementing ECRMs.
                                                               Energy-related O&M and recommissioning offer
                                                           many low-cost, no-cost, and quick-payback oppor-
CONCLUSIONS AND                                            tunities to airport facility managers to reduce
SUGGESTED RESEARCH                                         energy use up to 25 percent. The results of this re-
Conclusions                                                search suggest, however, that airports are not tak-
                                                           ing full advantage of these opportunities, despite
    Airport managers and facility operators realize        the significant cost savings involved and the need
how important controlling utility costs and reducing       to reduce environmental impacts.
environmental impacts are for cost-effective airport           To significantly lower energy costs, airport man-
facility management and to benefit the community            agers can do the following:
   • Implement the best practices reported in the sec-        data_statistics/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/2007-
     tion “Best Practices for Reducing Energy Use             2020/media/FORECAST%20BOOK%20SM.pdf.
     in Airport Facilities” (with emphasis on energy-    2.   Claridge, D. E., M. Liu, Y. Zhu, M. Abbas, A. Athar,
     related O&M, ongoing recommissioning/                    and J. Haberl. “Implementation of Continuous Com-
     optimization, and ECRM installation),                    missioning in the Texas LoanSTAR Program: ‘Can
                                                              You Achieve 150% of Estimated Retrofit Savings’
   • Develop and implement an energy-bench-                   Revisited.” Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study on En-
     marking and energy-tracking program, and                 ergy Efficiency In Buildings (Panel 4), American
   • Periodically investigate investments in cost-            Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washing-
     effective ECRMs.                                         ton, D.C., pp. 4.59–4.67, 1996.
                                                         3.   Air Carrier Activity Information System, CY 2005
                                                              (database). Federal Aviation Administration, October
Suggested Research                                            31, 2006.
    Based upon the research findings, future research          airports/planning_capacity/passenger_allcargo_stats/
areas with high potential to benefit to airport man-           passenger/.
agers and facility operators include the following (in   4.   Sullivan, G. P., R. Pugh, A. P. Melendez, and W. D.
order of priority):                                           Hunt. Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: A
                                                              Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency. Release
   1. Developing airport energy benchmarks. It                2.0. Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. De-
      would be helpful if traditional benchmarks,             partment of Energy, 2004.
      such as EUIs, were developed for large,            5.   Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Fifteen O&M
      medium, and small airports so that compar-              Best Practices for Energy-Efficient Buildings. O&M
      isons could be made of energy performance               Best Practices Series, 1999.
      within and among airports. Airport-specific              PECI_15BestOM_0302.pdf.
                                                         6.   World Energy Council. The Brundtland Commis-
      benchmarks, such as enplanements per unit of            sion’s Definition of Sustainable Development. http://
      space or cost, should be adequately researched,
      using a time-series analysis as an indicator of    7.   Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania
      energy effectiveness.                                   Green Buildings Operations and Maintenance Man-
   2. Documenting the benefits of sustainable                  ual, (no date).
      airport O&M. The link between energy and                bldg/greenbuildingbook.pdf.
      environment is well known, but few case stud-      8.   Texas A&M International University. Sustainability
      ies document the actual cost savings of sus-            Assessment and Roadmap for a Green Campus Ini-
      tainable O&M and the environmental benefits              tiative. Texas A&M/Texas Engineering Experiment
      to airport facilities and surrounding communi-          Station (TEES) Energy Systems Laboratory, 2007.
      ties. General guidance exists, but no document
      with sufficient detail to actually guide the im-   BIBLIOGRAPHY
      plementation of sustainable O&M measures
      was discovered in this research.                   Airports Council International. The Economic Impact of
   3. Developing simplified CMMS software.                   U.S. Airports, 2002.
                                                         Clean Airport Partnership, Inc. 10 Airport Survey: Energy
      Because of its price and complexity, CMMS
                                                             Use, Policies, and Programs for Terminal Build-
      software use is prevalent in the large airports        ings. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy
      surveyed (87.5 percent), but nonexistent in            Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2003. www.
      the small airports surveyed. Low-cost, sim-  
      plified CMMS software for smaller airports          Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Green
      would ease implementation and enhance the              Buildings Operations and Maintenance Manual, (no
      effectiveness of their O&M programs.                   date).
REFERENCES                                               Federal Aviation Administration. FAA Aerospace Fore-
                                                             casts, Fiscal Years 2007–2020. U.S. Department of
1. Federal Aviation Administration. FAA Aerospace            Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,
   Forecasts, Fiscal Years 2007–2020. U.S. Department        Aviation Policy and Plans, (no date.)
   of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,       data_statistics/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/2007-
   Aviation Policy and Plans. (no date).        2020/media/FORECAST%20BOOK%20SM.pdf.

Liu, M., D. Claridge, and W. D. Turner. Continuous Com-      Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI)
    missioning Guidebook: Maximizing Building Energy   
    Efficiency and Comfort. Federal Energy Management        Texas A&M Energy Systems Laboratory
    Program, U.S. Department of Energy, 2002.          
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Fifteen O&M Best          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ENERGY STAR
    Practices for Energy-Efficient Buildings. O&M Best           Program
    Practices Series, 1999. 
    15BestOM_0302.pdf.                                       U.S. Green Building Council
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Operation and Main- 
    tenance Assessments: A Best Practice for Energy-         U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Efficiency and Re-
    Efficient Building Operations. O&M Best Prac-                newable Energy
    tices Series, 1999.
    assessment.pdf.                                          U.S. Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Operation and Main-           Program
    tenance Service Contracts: Guidelines for Obtaining
    Best-Practice Contracts for Commercial Buildings.
    O&M Best Practices Series, 1997. www.energystar.
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Putting the “O” Back      GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
    in O&M: Best Practices in Preventive Operation,          ACRP—Airport Cooperative Research Program
    Tracking, and Scheduling. O&M Best Practices Se-         AHU—air-handling unit
    ries, 1999.
Sullivan, G. P., R. Pugh, A. P. Melendez, and W. D. Hunt.    BAS—Building automation system
    Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide       CC®—Continuous Commissioning®
    to Achieving Operational Efficiency. Release 2.0. Fed-   CF—Compact fluorescent
    eral Energy Management Program, U.S. Department          CMMS—Computerized maintenance management
    of Energy, 2004.                                           system
U.S. Department of Energy. Building Commissioning:           DDC—Direct digital control
    The Key to Quality Assurance. Rebuild America            DFW—Dallas/Fort Worth
    Series, (no date).        DX—Direct expansion
                                                             ECRM—Energy conservation retrofit measure
Wei, G., T. Giebler, G. Zeig, B. Yazdani, D. Turner, J.
    Baltazar, and J. Dennis. “Continuous Commissioning       EMCS—Energy management control system
    of an Airport Rental Car Facility.” Paper presented at   ESL—Energy Systems Laboratory
    World Energy Engineering Congress, Austin, TX,           EUI—Energy utilization index
    September 14–16, 2005.                                   FAA—Federal Aviation Administration
                                                             FEMP—Federal Energy Management Program
                                                             HRU—Heat recovery unit
RESOURCES                                                    HVAC—Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-         IPMVP—International performance measurement
    Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE).                     and verification protocols                                           LED—Light-emitting diode
Building Commissioning Association (BCA)                     LEED—Leadership in Energy and Environmental                                               Design
Diagnostics for Building Commissioning & Operation           O&M—Operations and maintenance                                     PECI—Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.
National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS)               RCM—Reliability-centered maintenance                                     TEES—Texas Engineering Experiment Station
Oregon Office of Energy       U.S. DOE—Department of Energy
    allore&qt=buildings+and+commissioning                    U.S. EPA—Environmental Protection Agency
ORNL Buildings Technology Center                             VAV—Variable air volume                                    VFD—Variable frequency drive

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                    Dr. W. Dan Turner, ESL Director, was the over-
                                                      all project director, and Malcolm Verdict and Bah-
    This research was performed under ACRP Proj-      man Yazdani were co-principal investigators. The
ect 11-02 by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL)      other authors of this report are Harold Huff, project
within the Texas Engineering Experiment Station       engineer, and Kathryn Clingenpeel, graduate research
(TEES), located at Texas A&M University, College      assistant.
Station, Texas. The ESL was the research contractor
for this study, with TEES serving as the fiscal and
contract administrator. TEES is the engineering re-
search agency for the state of Texas.

 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons
 wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500
 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001.

                                                                     COPYRIGHT PERMISSION

 Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright
 to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein.
 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is
 given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation
 endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit
 uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.

Transportation Research Board
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001

Shared By: