AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration
Subject Areas: V Aviation, IB Energy and Environment Responsible Senior Program Officer: Michael R. Salamone
Research Results Digest 2
MODEL FOR IMPROVING ENERGY USE
IN U.S. AIRPORT FACILITIES
This digest summarizes the ﬁndings of Airport Cooperative Research Program
(ACRP) Project 11-02, “Model for Improving Energy Use in U.S. Airport
Facilities.” The research was conducted by the Energy Systems Laboratory
at Texas A & M University.
SUMMARY forecasts the number of boardings to grow
from 660 million in 1999 to 1,046 million
Expert guidance on reducing airport in 2011 (58.5% increase) (1). As airports
facilities’ energy use and environmental have grown larger and more complex, they
impacts can help airport management op- have also become more numerous, with over
erate airport facilities more efficiently. 500 commercial and 2,800 general avia-
This digest presents data on U.S. airports’ tion facilities. Airports have become some
utilization of 11 major energy management of the largest public users of energy. Energy
practices, offers a set of best practices for is often the second largest airport operating
reducing energy use, and summarizes three expense, exceeded only by personnel.
case studies of recent recommissioning proj- Airport facility managers strive con-
ects that resulted in signiﬁcant reductions stantly to reduce operating expenses to help
in energy use. Appendixes A through D of control costs for their airline tenants (who
this digest—“Study of Terminals B and D have been on the verge of bankruptcy, with
at Dallas/Fort Worth International Air- rare exception, since the attacks of Sep-
port”; “Airport Rental Car Facility Case tember 11, 2001). Limiting or eliminating
C O N T E N T S Study”; “Continuous Commissioning® of unnecessary energy use in airport facilities
the Matheson Courthouse in Salt Lake can be an effective means of reducing air-
City, Utah”; and “Airport Survey Ques- port operating expenses while at the same
tionnaire”; respectively—are available on time minimizing environmental impacts.
Research Approach, 2
the Transportation Research Board (TRB)
website at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.
Best Practices for Reducing Energy asp?id=8265.
Use in Airport Facilities, 9
This research on improving energy use
Conclusions and Suggested
in airports was identiﬁed by a panel of air-
Research, 16 INTRODUCTION
port industry experts as important for air-
Millions of domestic and international port facility managers and executives, who
passengers pass through airport termi- need guidance on reducing airport energy
nals annually and the number is increasing, use and environmental impacts. The objec-
Glossary of Acronyms, 18 driven in part by a vibrant, global economy. tive of this research is to provide airport
Author Acknowledgments, 19 The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility managers with timely guidance on
significantly reducing energy use in U.S. airport fa- proper commissioning are required to obtain pro-
cilities through the following: jected performance (2).
At the same time, little emphasis or research has
• Improved energy-related operations and main-
been given to low- or no-cost techniques such as
tenance (O&M) procedures,
O&M and building optimization techniques that can
• Recommissioning/optimization of major
signiﬁcantly reduce energy use. Also, few attempts
energy-consuming systems, and
have been made to quantify or benchmark the sav-
• Installation of the latest cost-effective energy
ings potential at airports other than through broad
general statements supported with little empirical
data and few case studies.
Energy and Environmental Issues Rusty Hodapp, vice president of energy and trans-
portation management at Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW)
The operating environment for airports, both
International Airport, stated at an airline industry fa-
large and small, has changed dramatically over the
cilities management conference in February 2004
last decade. National concern about the security of
that “the operations and maintenance budget for air-
energy resources has intensiﬁed since the attacks of
port facilities constitutes a signiﬁcant portion of an
September 11, 2001. At the same time, worldwide
airport’s overall annual budget” and that “there are
demand for energy is growing dramatically, as il- no industrywide benchmarks to enable facility man-
lustrated by the ever-increasing demand from de- agers or airport executives to assess where budget
veloping countries like China and India. The cost of improvements—or savings—can be made.” An air-
electricity for airports has escalated to record high port industry list of generally accepted energy-saving
levels, driven by the price of natural gas, the fuel mix best practices does not exist.
of generators, and utility deregulation in many states.
Air pollutants from power generation and the
combustion of fossil fuels can have a major impact RESEARCH APPROACH
on airports located in areas designated by the U.S. This project is targeted at improving energy-
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as saving practices in U.S. airports through a study of
non-attainment areas. Also, greenhouse gases from energy-related O&M best practices, building recom-
the combustion of fossil fuels are now considered a missioning, and energy conservation retroﬁt measures
contributing factor to global warming. This complex (ECRMs) for immediate use by airport managers.
scenario of energy and environmental factors places The ESL assembled a team of energy engineers,
signiﬁcant economic and political pressure on air- building recommissioning experts, and facility en-
port managers to accurately assess their airport’s ergy managers who have all worked extensively in
performance, reduce energy use, and minimize the the area of building energy performance. The re-
airport’s environmental footprint. search team decided that the most effective and ef-
ﬁcient approach to determining best practices in
Airport Energy Management airport facility energy use was to conduct a nation-
Research Needs wide e-mail survey/questionnaire and to examine the
practices of a complex airport with a history of good
Most airport facility managers have invested in energy and environmental management practices.
energy-efficient improvements such as upgrading The DFW Airport facilities management team vol-
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unteered to provide comprehensive information on
systems; upgrading building controls; and installing their award-winning energy and environmental prac-
high-efficiency lighting. However, investments in tices. Thus, the project involved two main efforts: an
energy improvements can be costly and often com- airport industry survey and an on-site assessment of
pete with other capital improvement projects. Fur- DFW Airport.
ther, from research in hundreds of buildings in the
Texas LoanSTAR program in the 1990s, the Energy
Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
Systems Laboratory (ESL) at Texas A&M Univer-
sity found that retroﬁt savings are often less than ESL designed an airport facilities survey to cre-
projected without close monitoring; veriﬁcation and ate an energy proﬁle and to examine the utilization
of O&M, building recommissioning, and energy Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport” (available
retrofit practices. Each airport surveyed was cate- on the TRB website at http://trb.org/news/blurb_
gorized as large, medium, or small—based on the detail.asp?id=8265). Finally, a literature search of
number of annual enplanements. Enplanements are O&M best practices and ECRMs was conducted to
deﬁned by the FAA as the number of passengers help develop the survey questionnaire and the model
boarding mainline or regional carriers. Large airports best practices.
had greater than 1,000,000 enplanements, medium
airports had 250,000 to 1,000,000 enplanements, and
small airports had fewer than 250,000 enplanements. FINDINGS
The survey instrument (available on the TRB The use of best practices is a proven technique
website at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id= for increasing effective management within an in-
8265) was sent to airport managers at 78 regionally dustry. The ESL utilized information gained from
diverse airports, grouped by number of annual en- the e-mail survey and on-site inspections at DFW
planements. The airports surveyed were selected on Airport to identify energy management best prac-
the basis of size from an FAA list of more than 500 tices of general beneﬁt to the airport industry. O&M
airports (3). O&M practices, recommissioning prac- and recommissioning, as well as energy upgrades
tices, and ECRM practices were determined from the are presented below.
survey responses. The ESL evaluated the utilization
of energy management best practices. Each practice
was evaluated for the three predetermined size group- Airport O&M Best Practices Survey Results
ings as well as over the full range of airports. The on Energy Management Best Practices
ESL team also evaluated energy utilization indices The survey focused on energy-related O&M,
(EUIs) for benchmarking airport performance. recommissioning, and energy use improvement top-
The ESL limited the survey to two pages to in- ics. The ESL analysis of selected survey questions
crease the probability that a busy facility manager follows. Table 1 and Figure 1 summarize the survey
would take the time necessary to complete it. The re- results on airport industry energy management best
sponse rate was approximately 25 percent (20 out practices.
of 78). The sample size was approximately 16 per-
cent of the FAA list. Use of a Computerized Maintenance Management
System (CMMS) and/or a Building Automation
On-Site Assessment of DFW Airport System (BAS)
In addition to responding to the Airport O&M Forty-ﬁve percent of respondents use a CMMS,
Best Practices Survey distributed for this research, and 70 percent use a BAS. The data indicate that auto-
management at DFW Airport permitted the ESL to mated CMMSs are used predominantly by larger
conduct a physical inspection of the airport facility. airports. No smaller airports in the survey used them.
The ESL examined the lighting, elevators, escala- One reason for this disparity could be the complex-
tors, moving walkways, passenger loading bridges, ity of operating automated CMMSs, the personnel
and aircraft HVAC systems at DFW Airport’s Ter- skill level required, and the high front-end cost con-
minals B and D. The ESL also conducted an in-depth siderations. This wide disparity does not exist for
look at the energy-related O&M practices and ECRMs use of a BAS: use of a BAS ranges from 87.5 per-
at the two terminals. cent for busier airports to 50 percent for airports
The ESL studied blueprints, control drawings, with fewer enplanements. One reason could be that,
mechanical speciﬁcations, testing and balancing, and in addition to handling energy management func-
previous commissioning reports. An ESL engineer- tions, a BAS is also necessary for ﬁre safety, secu-
ing team also conducted walk-through inspections rity, and indoor air quality.
of the two DFW Airport terminals. The ﬁndings of
the on-site assessment are incorporated into the sec- Detailed O&M Manual
tion of this digest entitled “Best Practices for Re- Sixty percent of the respondents indicated that
ducing Energy Use in Airport Facilities” and are they had a detailed O&M manual, ranging from a
fully described in “Study of Terminals B and D at high of 83 percent (medium-sized airports) to a low
Table 1 Utilization of best practices—results of the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
(December 2006 to January 2007)
Large Medium Small
Overall (> 1,000,000 (250,000–1,000,000 (< 250,000
Survey question (20 airports) enplanements) enplanements) enplanements)
1. CMMS Use 45% 87.5% 33% 0%
2. BAS Use 70% 87.5% 67% 50%
3. Detailed O&M Manual 60% 62.5% 83% 33%
4. Energy Use Tracked as 45% 37.5% 67% 33%
a Performance Measure
5. Use of Energy Baseline 35% 25% 33% 50%
6. Tenant Energy 60% 62.5% 67% 58%
7. Energy Assessment 45% 50% 33% 50%
within Past 5 Years
8. O&M Assessment 30% 37.5% 33% 17%
within Past 5 Years
9. Periodic Recommissioning 50% 50% 67% 33%
or Optimization of HVAC
Systems and Control
10. Implementation of Energy- 55% 87.5% 50% 16.6%
Related O&M Measures
11. Implementation of ECRMs 50% 75% 50% 33.3%
Average response rate 49.5% 60.2% 53.0% 34.0%
for all measures
of 33 percent (small airports). There is no obvious utilization rate as well as the frequent lack of sub-
reason why medium-sized airports should have the metered data at airport facilities.
highest utilization. The arbitrary survey categories
(large, medium, and small airports) could account for Tenant Energy Sub-Metering
Sixty percent of respondents indicated that they
had some level of tenant sub-metering, with a range
Energy Use Tracked as a Performance Measure
of 67 percent (medium-sized airports) to 58 percent
Forty-ﬁve percent of respondents indicated that (small airports). This high utilization rate is not sur-
they tracked energy use as a performance measure prising since airports often pass on energy prices.
for their airports, with a range of 67 percent (medium- Sub-metering is an excellent energy conservation
sized airports) to 33 percent (small airports). Again, tool since it sends the proper price signals, penaliz-
the medium-sized airports had the highest utiliza- ing wasteful tenants.
tion. This result, again, could be due to the small
sample by size category. Energy Assessment within the Past 5 Years
Forty-ﬁve percent of respondents indicated that
Use of an Energy Baseline
they had performed some type of energy assessment
Thirty-ﬁve percent of respondents indicated that for ECRMs within the past 5 years, with a range of
they utilize an energy baseline for monitoring en- 50 percent (large airports) to 33 percent (medium-
ergy performance, with a range of 50 percent (small sized airports). This moderate utilization rate could
airports) to 25 percent (large airports). A lack of be due to the widespread availability of new cost-
trained personnel could account for this smaller effective technologies such as lighting and digital
Overall Large Medium Small
Figure 1 Identiﬁcation of best practices—Airport O&M Best Practices Survey (December 2006 to
controls. In many regions, utility cash incentives missioning (optimizing) existing building and util-
provide good economic incentives. ity plants may be explained by factors such as
record high energy prices, an increased number of
O&M Assessment within the Past 5 Years building recommissioning agents, and the in-
creased awareness of airport executives and the
Only 30 percent of the respondents indicated
public of the direct link between energy and the
that they had conducted an O&M assessment within
the past 5 years, with a range of 37.5 percent (large
airports) to 17 percent (small airports). This low uti-
Implementation of Energy-Related O&M Measures
lization rate could be the result of a lack of metering,
which makes it difficult for airport facility managers Fifty-ﬁve percent of the respondents indicated that
to know the financial impact of not doing energy- they have implemented energy-related O&M mea-
related O&M assessments. sures within the past 5 years, with a range of 87.5 per-
cent (large airports) to 16.6 percent (small airports).
Periodic Recommissioning or Optimization This high response rate indicates that respondents that
of HVAC Systems and Control Systems have an O&M plan (60 percent) are also implement-
ing O&M measures.
Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that
they had recommissioned or optimized their
Implementation of ECRMs
HVAC systems and control systems, with a range
of 67 percent (medium-sized airports) to 33 per- Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that
cent (small airports). The increased use of recom- they had implemented ECRMs.
Airport O&M Best Practices Survey Results able, given that few airports are located in regions
on Utilization of Energy Supply and with adequate renewable resources, such as wind, to
Storage Systems and the Effect of make these technologies economically feasible.
Air Quality Issues on O&M Decisions
The survey examined the utilization of selected
energy supply and storage systems (on-site cogener- Thermal energy storage systems are an effective
ation, on-site renewable power, thermal storage, and means of reducing peak electric loads. Airports using
purchased cooling and/or heating) as well as the ef- thermal storage can beneﬁt from reduction in billed
fect of air quality issues on O&M decisions. Survey cost even if energy consumption increases by shift-
results on use of these energy supply and storage ing the peak cooling load to off-peak periods. This
systems and the effect of air quality issues on O&M technology works best at facilities with large summer
decisions are presented in Table 2 and discussed cooling loads, and it requires a dedicated O&M staff
below. and a favorable utility electric rate structure to be eco-
nomically viable. The low utilization rate of 10 per-
On-Site Cogeneration cent, with a range of 25 percent (large airports) to
0 percent (small airports), is therefore understandable.
Cogeneration is the simultaneous production
of electricity and thermal energy. It can provide Purchased Cooling and/or Heating
significant energy cost reduction in cases where
steam and electric loads coincide or where a sec- None of the airports surveyed purchase thermal
ondary market for excess steam or electricity ex- energy for heating and/or cooling. An airport would
ists. Absorption chillers are commonly coupled have to be located very close to a district heating and
with cogeneration equipment to balance the load cooling project to consider this technology as a viable
profiles. The use of cogeneration is not a simple option.
decision because of ﬂuctuating natural gas and elec-
tric prices and high capital costs. The 10-percent Effect of Air Quality Issues on O&M Decisions
utilization rate indicates that it is not widely used Forty-ﬁve percent of all the airports surveyed and
by the airports surveyed and then only by larger 75 percent of the large airports reported that air qual-
airports. ity issues are affecting their O&M decisions. These
relatively high percentages indicate the importance
On-Site Renewable Power
of environmental issues at the airports surveyed. Air
Renewable energy is becoming a signiﬁcant con- quality tends to be a major concern in large urban
tributor to the mix of U.S. energy resources. Some centers. This could account for the fact that the high-
airports reported having green energy in their elec- est percentage of airports responding that air quality
tric purchases, but none reported having renewable issues are affecting O&M decisions was in the large
power sources on-site. This response is understand- airports category.
Table 2 Selected energy supply and storage systems and the effect of air quality issues on O&M decisions
Large Medium Small
Overall (> 1,000,000 (250,000–1,000,000 (< 250,000
Technology (20 airports) enplanements) enplanements) enplanements)
On-Site Cogeneration 10% 25% 0% 0%
On-Site Renewable Power 0% 0% 0% 0%
Thermal Storage 10% 25% 0% 0%
Purchased Cooling 0% 0% 0% 0%
Air Quality Issues Affecting 45% 75% 33% 33%
DFW Airport Responses to Airport O&M contain speciﬁc energy-related procedures, the
Best Practices Survey contracts do specify the contractor’s obligation
to pursue potential rebate opportunities and to
DFW Airport management responded to the same
work with any energy consultants brought in.
survey questions as the other 19 airports. DFW Air-
• Implementing the new CMMS at DFW Air-
port management’s responses were the following: port has been a major endeavor. Incorporating
• CMMS and BAS use. DFW Airport is im- energy and environmental parameters such as
plementing a new CMMS. energy monitoring and process review func-
• Detailed O&M manual. DFW Airport does tions within the CMMS is ongoing.
not have an O&M procedures manual. • DFW Airport is implementing an active recom-
• Energy use tracked as a performance mea- missioning and optimization program and an
sure. DFW Airport tracks energy consump- aggressive 5-year plan to recommission tar-
tion, but does not use the data for benchmark- geted airport facilities.
• Use of an energy baseline. At DFW Airport,
On-Site Assessment of Best Practices
baselines are established on a project-by-
at DFW Airport’s Rental Car Center
project basis, as required. DFW Airport does
not have an overall energy baseline. In 2004, a recommissioning project at the off-
• Tenant energy sub-metering. DFW Airport site DFW Airport rental car facility revealed O&M
does not sub-meter most tenant energy use. A and recommissioning measures that are typical of
few major clients purchase energy directly aviation facilities that operate 24/7. The following
from the utility for hangars and maintenance. optimization strategies were identiﬁed:
• Energy assessment within past 5 years. En- • Improved operation of the attached parking
ergy assessments of selected buildings have garage lights,
been carried out in the last 5 years. • Zone temperature control,
• O&M assessment within past 5 years. An • Supply temperature reset schedule,
external O&M assessment has not been per- • Static pressure setpoints and reset schedules,
formed in the last 5 years. • Operation of the economizer cycle,
• Periodic HVAC system and control systems • Control for the return air fans to allow better
recommissioning or optimization. DFW Air- control of outside airﬂow,
port management is currently recommission- • Terminal box minimum airﬂow setpoints,
ing targeted facilities. • Improved chiller operation,
• Implementation of O&M measures. DFW • Reset schedule for the condenser water tem-
Airport management is constantly implement- perature, and
ing measures to improve the airport’s overall • Improved secondary pump control.
• Implementation of ECRMs. DFW Airport is
implementing a variety of ECRMs. Energy Utilization Indices and Benchmarks
Airport facilities cannot be easily compared to
On-Site Assessment of Best Practices other facilities. Terminals, through which a large
at DFW Airport Terminals B and D number of travelers pass on a daily basis, house a va-
riety of commercial entities (e.g., retail and enter-
The ESL conducted on-site visits at DFW Air- tainment stores, hotels, and restaurants) as well as
port’s Terminals B and D to develop the questions equipment that supports the airline industry (e.g., jet
in the e-mail survey and to develop model best prac- bridges for passenger boarding and extensive bag-
tices. The following observations (from the on-site
gage handling systems). Given the signiﬁcant dif-
visit to Terminal D) may be useful to airport man-
ferences between airports and other facilities, one
agers dealing with similar issues:
would expect that airport facility managers would
• DFW Airport follows an ongoing, program- use an airport-speciﬁc set of performance metrics to
matic approach when contracting for O&M measure the energy efficiency of airports. However,
services. For example, while contracts do not the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey conﬁrmed
that airport facilities have no unique performance Potential Energy Utilization Indices
metrics or indices for analyzing utility costs that
Using data drawn from the Airport O&M Best
often run into the millions annually.
Practices Survey (and the categories into which sur-
The research team concluded that having a set
of industry-accepted airport energy/utility indices veyed airports were grouped—large, medium, and
for benchmarking would allow airport managers to small), the ESL put together potential EUIs for
compare the performance of an airport with the per- benchmarking airports. The ﬁrst two columns of
formance of other airports within the same size Table 3 show two energy indices typically used for
range. An airport EUI also would provide an inter- benchmarking (utility costs/ft2 and energy costs/ft2).
nal gauge of the effectiveness of various measures The next two columns show two energy indices
implemented. speciﬁcally tailored to airport facilities (utility
costs/enplanement and energy costs/enplanement),
Normalizing Factors and the last column shows the intensity of passenger
boardings per square foot (enplanements/ft2). Fig-
Energy/utility indices for benchmarking should ure 2 presents a graphic display of the data presented
be adjusted for shifts in local conditions such as in Table 3.
weather and use; in other words, indices should From the airport-speciﬁc indices generated from
be “normalized.” Energy costs should always be the survey sample (utility costs/enplanement, energy
normalized for variations in average annual outside costs/enplanement, and enplanements/ft2), the re-
air temperature using historical weather data. The search team drew the following conclusions:
amount of energy use per unit of conditioned space
(square foot) is the most commonly used factor for Large airports. On average, large airports require
benchmarking building energy performance. Per- the least utility expenditure per enplanement. Large
centage of conditioned space is not always accurate airports enplane 2.58 times as many passengers per
for very large airport facilities because the number square foot as medium-sized airports. From the per-
of enplanements varies widely, and airports often spective of overall facility effectiveness, this is good
have a large percentage of mixed-use space. Some news for large airports, but that does not mean they
airports also have large cargo areas that are not con- do not have energy-saving opportunities.
ditioned or are only partially conditioned.
Medium-sized airports. Medium-sized airports
Enplanements as a Normalizing Factor have on average the least utility expenditure per
for Airports square foot and therefore are the most efficient from
A potential normalizing factor for airport facili- a conditioned space perspective. Medium-sized air-
ties is the number of passenger boardings (enplane- ports have the lowest number of enplanements per
ments), as these data are readily available from FAA. square foot—even fewer than the small airports
Enplanements can provide a product-based normal- surveyed. The reason for such a low number of en-
ization factor that is similar to normalization factors planements is not clear.
in other industries, such as manufacturing. Enplane-
ments are a good indicator of airport activity, which Small airports. The small airports that were sur-
has a direct impact on energy use. veyed are clearly less efficient from a utility cost
Table 3 Potential energy indices based on the Airport O&M Best Practices Survey
(December 2006 to January 2007)
Utility Energy Utility Costs/ Energy Costs/
Group Costs/ft2 Costs/ft2 Enplanement Enplanement Enplanements/ft2
Airports Overall $2.71 $2.55 $1.05 $0.99 2.57
Large Airports $2.79 $2.63 $1.03 $0.97 2.71
Medium Airports $1.63 $1.53 $1.55 $1.46 1.05
Small Airports $3.11 $2.98 $1.88 $1.80 1.65
OVERALL LARGE MEDIUM SMALL
UTILITY COSTS/ FT2 ENERGY COSTS/ FT2 UTILITY COSTS PER ENERGY COSTS PER ENPLANEMENTS PER
ENPLANEMENT ENPLANEMENT FT2
Note. Utility costs often include water and wastewater, which may be hidden in electric costs at airports
that do their own water treatment. Energy costs, which often do not include water pumping/treatment, are
the most reliable data in this survey sample.
Figure 2 Bar graph of potential energy indices based on the Airport O&M Best Practices
perspective, regardless of whether dollars per square tive and occupant productivity and health are greatly
foot or dollars per enplanement are being considered. improved.” After recommissioning 50 million square
Small airport utility costs per square foot are approxi- feet of offices, hospitals, airports, laboratories, class-
mately 90 percent greater than costs per square foot for rooms, central utility plants, and courthouses, the ESL
medium-sized airports. recommends three major opportunities for reducing
energy use that work interdependently:
BEST PRACTICES FOR REDUCING • Energy-related O&M. This can provide sav-
ENERGY USE IN AIRPORT FACILITIES ings of up to 15 percent of whole building en-
This section will provide practical guidance for ergy cost,
improving airport energy use through proven tech- • Ongoing building recommissioning. This can
niques and technologies. The guidance is based on provide savings of 10 to 25 percent of whole
responses to the project surveys, a review of industry building energy cost, and
literature, interviews, and years of related research • ECRMs. These can provide savings of 10 to
by the research team. 20 percent of the whole building energy cost.
Art Rosenfeld, California Energy Commissioner,
remarked in a 2007 telephone interview that “building
recommissioning and enhanced operations and main- Energy-Related O&M
tenance of commercial buildings are two of the most O&M is deﬁned by the Federal Energy Manage-
cost-effective, low-cost technologies to come along in ment Program (FEMP) as “the decisions and actions
the past 15 years. The paybacks are extremely attrac- regarding the control and upkeep of property and
equipment” (4). Preventing equipment failure is the • CMMS. A CMMS is a relatively new tool for
traditional focus of O&M. Typically, little attention O&M management. These systems utilize spe-
is given to how systematic operation and mainte- cialized computer software to help streamline
nance of building systems also saves energy. virtually every aspect of deﬁning and manag-
Energy use is an excellent indicator of equipment ing O&M programs. O&M strategies such as
performance, overall efficiency, and system degra- reliability-centered maintenance (RCM), which
dation. Inadequate energy-related O&M can neutral- increases reliability while reducing unneeded
ize or reduce the beneﬁts of energy-efficient prod- maintenance, would be impossible to imple-
ucts and systems and is often a cause of premature ment without these advanced tools. A CMMS
HVAC equipment failure. Therefore, having a good is not cheap, and considerable commitment is
O&M program in place is critical to both energy- required to implement it properly. The cost of
efficient operation and equipment maintenance. these systems puts them out of reach for many
The following energy-related O&M best prac- small airports and even some medium-sized
tices are key components of a successful airport en- ones, as reﬂected in the survey responses.
ergy management program: • BAS. A building automation system (BAS)
is also known as an energy management con-
• Comprehensive energy-related O&M plan. trol system (EMCS). When combined with
Develop a comprehensive energy-related O&M well-trained personnel and comprehensive op-
program with clearly deﬁned goals and bene- erating procedures, these systems allow the
ﬁts. Set aggressive goals and secure funding building HVAC and lighting systems to react
and senior management support. Implement automatically to the operating environment, ad-
and monitor benchmarked results. just to meet load conditions, and help schedule
• Personnel resources. Identify an airport O&M or identify equipment needing maintenance or
manager or contractor to manage/coordinate adjustment.
the efforts of the entities involved in performing The BAS can also detect changes in the op-
O&M. For large airports, this position requires eration of controlled equipment and signal op-
signiﬁcant technical and managerial skills. erators that attention is needed, reducing down-
• Quality control procedures. Develop inspec- time and costly repairs as well as unnecessary
tion procedures and identify an inspection team energy consumption. It is important to note that
to provide quality control oversight for the an improperly conﬁgured or poorly operated
staff and contractors performing O&M work. BAS can also result in higher energy consump-
Inspection oversight is a necessity in large tion. One of the most important maintenance
facilities. considerations with a BAS is sensor calibration.
• Measurement and veriﬁcation plan. Develop If sensor calibration is not performed on an on-
a written measurement and veriﬁcation plan going basis, energy can be wasted, especially in
for any O&M, recommissioning, or ECRMs air-handler operations.
implemented. It is recommended that the • Periodic HVAC system and control system
International Performance Measurement and optimization and recommissioning. Periodic
Veriﬁcation Protocols (IPMVP) developed by HVAC system and BAS recommissioning/
the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) be optimization is necessary to offset the normal
used for this purpose. deterioration of mechanical equipment and re-
• Detailed O&M manual. Develop detailed lated sensors. Often, stop-gap measures are
energy-related O&M procedures. Document- taken to keep systems operating that seem to
ing the O&M procedures in a centralized man- work ﬁne, but these measures can ultimately
ual reduces dependence on individual special- compound a problem over time. Commission-
ized knowledge or expertise regarding airport ing experts can detect these issues and correct
systems. Utilizing a comprehensive O&M man- them, saving considerable resources.
ual helps ensure that systems will not deterio- • Development of an energy baseline. Devel-
rate and that energy consumption will remain oping an energy use baseline for a facility is
relatively constant. the ﬁrst step in any energy conservation effort.
Neither the potential for beneﬁt nor the result- • Include energy-related O&M as a cross-cutting
ing savings can be reliably determined with- activity.
out developing an energy use baseline. A base- • Document O&M activities.
line is also an important part of a successful • Utilize O&M diagnostic tools.
recommissioning process. • Conduct O&M assessments.
• Energy use tracked as a performance mea- • Perform O&M optimization activities.
sure. Energy consumption as a performance • Utilize automated building controls.
indicator is fundamental to energy-related • Schedule energy-using equipment.
O&M. The effectiveness of any measures • Track performance of major energy-using
taken to reduce energy consumption cannot equipment.
be determined if energy consumption is not • Include energy-related O&M in the preventa-
tracked. By tracking energy performance, tive maintenance plan.
maintenance personnel can know when a build-
ing needs to be recommissioned. Ongoing Building Recommissioning
• Tenant energy sub-metering. Sub-metering
tenant energy consumption and billing tenants Ideally, recommissioning of buildings and control
on the basis of consumption provides them systems is an ongoing process that resolves operat-
with an incentive to conserve energy. ing problems, improves comfort, optimizes energy
• O&M assessment every 5 years. O&M as- use, and identiﬁes retroﬁts for existing commercial
sessments generally focus on O&M procedural and institutional buildings and central plant facili-
issues. Periodic review of O&M procedures ties. Over time, a building’s HVAC systems will de-
performed with the assistance of external ex- grade and the function of the building or its occu-
perts can result in substantial beneﬁts. pants may change the way the building runs. Ongoing
• Energy assessment every 5 years. External recommissioning involves optimizing the HVAC
energy assessments are another important system and controls system in a building to improve
tool for saving energy as they identify poten- performance.
tially beneﬁcial equipment upgrades, needed Ongoing recommissioning is a two-step process.
equipment repairs, and beneﬁcial changes in Step 1 is the initial assessment phase where oppor-
operating procedures. Also, external assess- tunities are identified through on-site testing and
ments provide critical support for convincing analysis of energy data and HVAC systems. Step 2
management of the benefits of needed mea- is implementing the building optimization process
sures. It is suggested that comprehensive en- and verifying project performance. This second step
ergy assessments be performed at least every includes the following actions:
5 years. • Developing a recommissioning plan and form-
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI) has ing a project team.
an excellent guide to O&M best practices entitled • Developing performance baselines.
Fifteen O&M Best Practices for Energy-Efficient • Testing the HVAC system and controls system
Buildings (5). Recommendations for best practices and developing recommissioning measures.
include the following items: • Implementing recommissioning measures.
• Documenting energy savings and comfort
• Incorporate goals for energy-efficient building improvements.
operations into the strategic plan. • Recommissioning on a regular basis (4).
• Include energy-efficient operations in energy
• Implement an energy accounting system to
track energy performance. Most energy conservation programs utilize major
• Hire an energy manager. equipment upgrades and retroﬁts as primary means
• Train operators in energy-related O&M. to reduce energy use. ECRM payback periods of 2 to
• Ensure that building service contracts support 20 years are common in airports and other large in-
building-efficient operations. stitutions. ECRM payback periods are generally
much longer than the payback periods associated net present value of the retroﬁt at $540 per sign,
with instituting energy-related O&M and recommis- with $0.08 per kWh electricity.
sioning measures, which are often under 2 years. • Using any of the many approaches to, and
A list of energy conservation measures employed applications for, retroﬁtting lighting control,
by the airports surveyed for this study (including DFW such as photocells and timers to control exte-
Airport) includes the following: rior lighting. The ESL often observes control
failure, which results in exterior lights remain-
• Lighting and controls upgrades, ing on all day. Most airports are designed with
• Installation of a BAS or upgrades to an exist- large expanses of windows. This provides sub-
ing system, stantial opportunity for daylighting. Since there
• HVAC system upgrades, are many types of daylighting controls, profes-
• High-efficiency motors and motor systems in- sional assistance is recommended when consid-
stallation, ering the options.
• High-efficiency pump installation, • Installing occupancy sensors, very effective
• Variable speed drive installation, energy-saving devices. They can optimize the
• Water and wastewater system improvements, operation of lighting systems by turning the
• Central utility plant and distribution systems lights off when space is unoccupied. Savings
improvements, normally vary from 20 to 75 percent of the
• Installation of heat recovery systems, power that would be used without them. Pay-
• Installation of electrical load management back periods are normally very short, ranging
devices, from 6 months to 2 years, depending on the ap-
• Installation of building and roof insulation, and plication and energy price. Additional consider-
• Passenger and baggage-handling system im- ations include customer acceptance and limita-
provements. tions such as egress lighting.
Not all ECRMs may be applicable. ECRM choice HVAC equipment efficiency has advanced con-
depends on the size, location, age, application, and siderably in recent years. Advancements in direct
energy costs of an airport facility. expansion (DX) systems include water-source heat
Lighting system controls and HVAC system con- pumps and air-source heat pumps as well as more
trols are two of most common ECRMs. Lighting sys- efficient conventional cooling-only units. ECRMs
tem ECRMs include the following: for HVAC systems and control systems include the
• Retroﬁtting existing T-12 magnetic ballast ﬂu- following:
orescent ﬁxtures with new T-8 or T-5 lamps • Replacing older, inefficient DX systems with
with electronic ballasts. This retroﬁt will re- newer, more efficient, and properly sized heat
duce the electric power needed for lighting by pumps or DX systems. Speciﬁc evaluation is
approximately 20 to 25 percent and will have needed to determine savings, which can be sig-
a simple payback period of 2 to 5 years, de- niﬁcant. DX units are often used with jetways,
pending on electricity rates and utility rebates. outbuildings, and isolated portions of an air-
• Replacing incandescent bulbs with compact port facility.
ﬂuorescent (CF) bulbs. The cost of CF bulbs • Using thermal storage systems can provide
has dropped signiﬁcantly, and there is a move considerable cost savings if the utility rate
to outlaw or place a “sin tax” on incandescent schedule contains a cost penalty for high peak
bulbs in a few states. CF bulbs use 25 percent electrical demand.
of the power of the incandescent bulbs they re- • Replacing older chillers with newer, properly
place and last many times longer than incan- sized chillers. Because of the large initial cost
descent lights. A CF bulb will typically pro- involved and to provide a shorter payback pe-
vide net savings of $50 to $100 during its life. riod for the overall package, this upgrade is
• Retroﬁtting or replacing inefficient exit signs most often bundled with other retroﬁts, such
with new exit signs that use light-emitting as lighting and controls upgrades.
diodes (LEDs). Retroﬁtting existing exit ﬁx- • Using a BAS (or an EMCS), standard equip-
tures is generally highly cost-effective. In 1997, ment for controlling HVAC systems, and, in
the U.S. EPA Green Lights Program put the many cases, other building functions. An ef-
fective BAS requires well-trained personnel, sumption and lengthening equipment life. Prob-
ongoing maintenance, calibration, and well- lems with chemical balance can lead to the
developed control schemes. overconsumption of supplies and can prevent
• Upgrading to direct digital controls (DDCs) systems from handling their design loads.
for older air-handling units (AHUs) and air-
distribution equipment (variable air volume
Prioritizing Energy Retroﬁt, O&M,
[VAV] boxes) is often very cost-effective. Re-
and Recommissioning Measures
placing old pneumatic control systems that re-
quire compressed air with new DDCs can also Most energy conservation programs have major
allow the decommissioning of building con- equipment upgrades and retroﬁts as primary com-
trol compressed air systems, which consume ponents. Tables 4 and 5 provide basic shopping lists
considerable energy and often require consid- of equipment upgrades ranked by simple payback
erable maintenance. In cases where the com- period. Duration of payback periods is based on ex-
pressed air system can be decommissioned, perience gathered over the past 20 years by the ESL
this change helps offset part of the cost of con- and its contractors, as well as the survey and assess-
version to full DDC. ments conducted as part of this research.
• Retrofitting outside air intakes for “econo- Often, projects with longer payback periods (such
mizer” operation in certain climate zones can as HVAC replacements) will be grouped with proj-
result in signiﬁcant savings. Full economizer ects with short payback periods (like recommission-
operation allows the AHU to provide up to ing or lighting upgrades) to help offset initial costs
100% outside air when the temperature and and improve the return on investment. Ideally, en-
humidity of outside air will provide adequate hanced recommissioning would also be a part of any
cooling. This practice can amount to thousands ECRM project and prioritized like any other indi-
of hours of free cooling and signiﬁcantly re- vidual retroﬁt measure when calculating the overall
duced energy costs. project payback period.
• Variable frequency drives (VFDs) can be added ECRM payback periods are dependent on several
to many existing pumping and air-handling factors: (1) utility rates, (2) hours of operation, (3) cli-
systems to allow dynamic control that responds mate conditions, (4) relative efficiency of equipment
to the load or ventilation requirements. Motors and/or controls being replaced, (5) design condition
with more than 5.0 hp are good candidates for requirements, and (6) interdependency of savings
VFD retroﬁts, although some VFDs are in- when more than one ECRM is installed. Therefore,
stalled on smaller motors. System-speciﬁc op- the payback period ranges listed in Tables 4 and 5
erating requirements and appropriate control are for general guidance. Table 4 shows payback pe-
strategies must be implemented to beneﬁt from riods for lighting ECRMs (short payback period),
these retroﬁts. and Table 5 shows payback periods for HVAC and
• Heat recovery units (HRUs) are used to recover Mechanical Systems ECRMs (intermediate to long-
energy from the exhaust air stream. They either term payback periods).
remove heat from the incoming air stream by
transferring it to the relatively cool exhaust air
during cooling operation or add heat to the in- Table 4 Payback periods for lighting ECRMs
coming air stream by transferring heat from the
exhaust air stream during heating operation. Lighting ECRMs Simple payback period
There are several designs, and speciﬁc expertise Replace exit lights 6 months to 2 years
is needed to evaluate and apply these properly. Replace incandescent bulbs 6 months to 2 years
• Replacing older boilers, which are often over- with compact ﬂuorescent
sized, with more efficient, properly sized boil- bulbs
ers and water heating systems can provide sig- Install occupancy sensors 2 to 4 years
niﬁcant energy savings. Replacing oversized Replace T-12 with magnetic 2 to 5 years
boilers can also reduce maintenance costs. ballasts with T-8 or T-5
• Water treatment system upgrades can provide with electronic ballasts
Install lighting controls 2 to 10 years
signiﬁcant savings by reducing chemical con-
Table 5 Payback periods for HVAC and mechanical system ECRMs
HVAC and Mechanical System ECRMs Simple Payback Period
Steam trap O&M and/or replacement 6 months to 10 years
Optimizing HVAC systems and controls 1 to 4 years
Water treatment systems upgrades 1 to 4 years
Variable frequency drive (VFD) replacements 3 to 7 years
Cooling tower VFD and pump upgrades 3 to 7 years
Thermal storage system retroﬁts 3 to 10 years
Economizer equipment upgrades 4 to 8 years
Replacement of inefficient motors 5 to 6 years
Cooling tower replacement 5 to 20 years
Oversized boiler replacement 6 to 8 years
DX unit and heat pump replacement 4 to 13 years
BAS/EMCS upgrade 6 to 10 years
Heat recovery unit upgrade 8 to 10 years
High-efficiency boiler replacement 8 to 12 years
Chiller replacement 8 to 20 years
Sustainable Airport Facility Best Practices ing areas identiﬁed by the ESL in a sustainability as-
sessment performed for Texas A&M University (8):
This digest focuses on best practices for reducing
airport energy usage. Reducing energy usage not only • Energy consumption. Important areas to
saves on utility costs, but also is a step toward more consider are building lighting and plug
sustainable operation. Many different deﬁnitions of loads, HVAC consumption, and transportation
sustainability exist, but one of the most widely ac- energy.
cepted deﬁnitions is the Brundtland Commission’s: • Energy sources. Alternative sources of energy
“meeting the needs of the present without compro- may include green power that is purchased
mising the ability of future generations to meet their from a utility company or on-site renewable
own needs” (6). Most airport managers see minimiz- energy generated through photovoltaics and
ing their airport’s impact on the environment and con- other sources.
serving natural resources as critical aspects of their • Water conservation. Water is an essential
operations, as evidenced by the project survey. but limited natural resource, so efficient use
Sustainable or “green” practices are becoming and pollution prevention are extremely im-
more common in commercial buildings since they portant. Using low-ﬂow ﬁxtures, waterless
not only reduce costs, but typically result in a more urinals, and innovative irrigation technologies
productive and healthier work environment for oc- are good ways to reduce water usage.
cupants. The U.S. Green Building Council created • Waste and recycling. A good waste minimiza-
the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design tion program coupled with a strong recycling
(LEED) system as a benchmarking tool for green program can signiﬁcantly reduce the amount of
buildings. There are many areas to consider on the waste in landﬁlls. Proper handling of hazardous
road to sustainability, but effective O&M, retroﬁts, waste is also important.
and recommissioning are important components. • Built environment. Indoor air quality is ex-
The Pennsylvania Green Buildings Operations tremely important to the health and productiv-
and Maintenance Manual is a green O&M manuals ity of building occupants. Designs that require
(7 ). It describes sustainable O&M procedures for sustainable and non-toxic renewable materials
landscaping, snow removal and de-icing, rooﬁng in construction can help improve indoor air
materials, parking garages, HVAC, lighting, and quality.
cleaning that can be applied to airports. In addition, • Land use. Healthy, aesthetically pleasing,
airport managers interested in “greening” their fa- and ecologically sustainable landscapes, where
cilities may want to assess procedures in the follow- storm water is well managed and pest man-
agement practices do not harm the health of study can produce excellent savings in large com-
people or wildlife, are preferable for airports. plex facilities, including airports. The first case
• Sustainable purchasing. Airports can help study describes the savings realized from recom-
conserve natural resources by implementing missioning a centralized rental car facility at DFW
sustainable purchasing programs. Examples Airport. The second case study describes a large,
include purchasing recycled-content paper; re- ongoing recommissioning project at Texas A&M
quiring recycled-content, reused, or regional University, and the third describes a recommis-
building materials; and using ENERGY STAR sioning project at the Matheson Courthouse in Salt
equipment. Lake City, Utah.
• Food. Healthy eating is an important compo-
nent of a healthy lifestyle. Airport vendors can DFW Airport Rental Car Center
offer fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
as alternatives to reﬁned starches and sugars, ESL began recommissioning the DFW Airport
artiﬁcial preservatives, and processed foods. Rental Car Center in September 2004. Metered sav-
Airports that purchase food that is locally ings were $106,000 during the ﬁrst year, with a 1-year
grown and raised can promote the local econ- payback period and an 18-percent reduction in en-
omy. Efforts can be made to minimize organic ergy use.
and inorganic waste in dining facilities. Recommissioning measures included optimiz-
• General health and well-being. This cate- ing the supply air reset, chiller operations, condenser
gory includes using green custodial practices, water reset, economizer cycle, garage lighting sched-
maintaining a healthy indoor environment, and ule, and the air distribution system, as well as elim-
encouraging airport employees to use safe inating simultaneous heating and cooling.
practices in all of their work. Figure 3 shows the immediate and dramatic re-
duction in electricity use in October 2004, one month
after the recommissioning process began. (A detailed
Recommissioning Case Studies
description of this project, “Airport Rental Car Fa-
The following case studies are good examples cility Case Study,” is available on the TRB website
of how many of the best practices discussed in this at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=8265.)
1,150 Sep 1st, 2004 [75.5 °F]
Oct 20 th, 2004 [75.3 °F]
Electricity Use (kWh)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Note. CC = Continuous Commissioning®
Figure 3 Electricity use at DFW Airport Rental Car Center before recommissioning
and 1 month after recommissioning began.
Texas A&M Main Campus that the airport serves. Several general conclusions
about controlling utility costs and reducing environ-
The ESL is systematically recommissioning the
mental impacts can be drawn from this research:
main campus of Texas A&M University in College
Station, Texas. Since 1996, energy savings have been • Awareness may not mean action. Energy
more than $35 million from in-depth recommission- and environmental concerns are a major inﬂu-
ing of 80 buildings (totaling 8 million square feet) and ence on airport operations, according to inter-
5 central utility plants. Annual energy savings per views conducted in this research. However,
building range from 10 to 15 percent, with some build- increased awareness does not necessarily mean
ings achieving a reduction of more than 40 percent. action, since only 30 percent of the respon-
The overall campus EUI has dropped 34 percent. dents had conducted an O&M assessment in
The Texas A&M main campus is one of the most the last 5 years.
successful, large-scale recommissioning projects in • Performance monitoring is minimal. Air-
the United States and is an excellent case for large ports are not routinely tracking energy use.
airports to examine because, like airports, large uni- Only 35 percent, overall, reported having an
versity campuses have central utility plants, 24/7 op- energy use baseline, and fewer than half the
erations, a wide range of building types, and a wide respondents tracked energy performance. The
range in building age and function. ESL estimates that as much as 20 percent of
cooling and heating energy is wasted.
Matheson Courthouse, Salt Lake City, Utah • Low-cost operational improvements are
underutilized. Airports could regularly save
The recommissioning of the Matheson Court- 10 to 20 percent of their total energy use by
house is an informative case for airport operators to implementing energy-related O&M and build-
study for two reasons: (1) the Matheson Courthouse ing recommissioning. For example, the ESL’s
is an administrative building, a kind of building that recommissioning of the rental car center
can be found at most airports, and (2) this recom- at DFW Airport yielded annual savings of
missioning project illustrates the energy savings $106,000, a 1-year payback period, and an
potential of recommissioning a new facility that is 18-percent overall reduction in energy use.
already relatively energy efficient. Yet, only half of the medium-sized airports
The Matheson Courthouse, built in 1998, was and 16.6 percent of the smaller ones reported
designated a U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR building. It implementing O&M measures.
had a very low energy cost of $1.07 per square foot • Energy technology investments are minimal.
prior to recommissioning. After continuous recom- In the airport industry, there are significant
missioning was implemented in 2002 by the ESL, opportunities for energy reduction through in-
energy cost was reduced by 18 percent with a 1-year creasing the use of new, high-performance,
payback period. At the same time, there was improved HVAC equipment, controls, and lighting tech-
occupant comfort and a reduction in HVAC trouble nologies. However, only 45 percent of the sur-
calls. (A detailed description of this project, “Con- vey respondents had conducted a comprehen-
tinuous Commissioning® of the Matheson Court- sive energy assessment within the last 5 years.
house in Salt Lake City, Utah,” is available on the Only half the survey respondents indicated
TRB website at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp? implementing ECRMs.
Energy-related O&M and recommissioning offer
many low-cost, no-cost, and quick-payback oppor-
CONCLUSIONS AND tunities to airport facility managers to reduce
SUGGESTED RESEARCH energy use up to 25 percent. The results of this re-
Conclusions search suggest, however, that airports are not tak-
ing full advantage of these opportunities, despite
Airport managers and facility operators realize the significant cost savings involved and the need
how important controlling utility costs and reducing to reduce environmental impacts.
environmental impacts are for cost-effective airport To signiﬁcantly lower energy costs, airport man-
facility management and to beneﬁt the community agers can do the following:
• Implement the best practices reported in the sec- data_statistics/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/2007-
tion “Best Practices for Reducing Energy Use 2020/media/FORECAST%20BOOK%20SM.pdf.
in Airport Facilities” (with emphasis on energy- 2. Claridge, D. E., M. Liu, Y. Zhu, M. Abbas, A. Athar,
related O&M, ongoing recommissioning/ and J. Haberl. “Implementation of Continuous Com-
optimization, and ECRM installation), missioning in the Texas LoanSTAR Program: ‘Can
You Achieve 150% of Estimated Retroﬁt Savings’
• Develop and implement an energy-bench- Revisited.” Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study on En-
marking and energy-tracking program, and ergy Efficiency In Buildings (Panel 4), American
• Periodically investigate investments in cost- Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washing-
effective ECRMs. ton, D.C., pp. 4.59–4.67, 1996.
3. Air Carrier Activity Information System, CY 2005
(database). Federal Aviation Administration, October
Suggested Research 31, 2006. http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/
Based upon the research ﬁndings, future research airports/planning_capacity/passenger_allcargo_stats/
areas with high potential to beneﬁt to airport man- passenger/.
agers and facility operators include the following (in 4. Sullivan, G. P., R. Pugh, A. P. Melendez, and W. D.
order of priority): Hunt. Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: A
Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency. Release
1. Developing airport energy benchmarks. It 2.0. Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. De-
would be helpful if traditional benchmarks, partment of Energy, 2004.
such as EUIs, were developed for large, 5. Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Fifteen O&M
medium, and small airports so that compar- Best Practices for Energy-Efficient Buildings. O&M
isons could be made of energy performance Best Practices Series, 1999. www.peci.org/library/
within and among airports. Airport-speciﬁc PECI_15BestOM_0302.pdf.
6. World Energy Council. The Brundtland Commis-
benchmarks, such as enplanements per unit of sion’s Deﬁnition of Sustainable Development. http://
space or cost, should be adequately researched, en.wikisource.org/wiki/Brundtland_Report.
using a time-series analysis as an indicator of 7. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania
energy effectiveness. Green Buildings Operations and Maintenance Man-
2. Documenting the beneﬁts of sustainable ual, (no date). www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/lib/dgs/green_
airport O&M. The link between energy and bldg/greenbuildingbook.pdf.
environment is well known, but few case stud- 8. Texas A&M International University. Sustainability
ies document the actual cost savings of sus- Assessment and Roadmap for a Green Campus Ini-
tainable O&M and the environmental beneﬁts tiative. Texas A&M/Texas Engineering Experiment
to airport facilities and surrounding communi- Station (TEES) Energy Systems Laboratory, 2007.
ties. General guidance exists, but no document
with sufficient detail to actually guide the im- BIBLIOGRAPHY
plementation of sustainable O&M measures
was discovered in this research. Airports Council International. The Economic Impact of
3. Developing simplified CMMS software. U.S. Airports, 2002.
Clean Airport Partnership, Inc. 10 Airport Survey: Energy
Because of its price and complexity, CMMS
Use, Policies, and Programs for Terminal Build-
software use is prevalent in the large airports ings. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy
surveyed (87.5 percent), but nonexistent in Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2003. www.
the small airports surveyed. Low-cost, sim- cleanairports.com/reports/cap10airportsurvey.pdf
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REFERENCES Federal Aviation Administration. FAA Aerospace Fore-
casts, Fiscal Years 2007–2020. U.S. Department of
1. Federal Aviation Administration. FAA Aerospace Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,
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15BestOM_0302.pdf. U.S. Green Building Council
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Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Putting the “O” Back GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
in O&M: Best Practices in Preventive Operation, ACRP—Airport Cooperative Research Program
Tracking, and Scheduling. O&M Best Practices Se- AHU—air-handling unit
Sullivan, G. P., R. Pugh, A. P. Melendez, and W. D. Hunt. BAS—Building automation system
Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide CC®—Continuous Commissioning®
to Achieving Operational Efficiency. Release 2.0. Fed- CF—Compact ﬂuorescent
eral Energy Management Program, U.S. Department CMMS—Computerized maintenance management
of Energy, 2004. system
U.S. Department of Energy. Building Commissioning: DDC—Direct digital control
The Key to Quality Assurance. Rebuild America DFW—Dallas/Fort Worth
Series, (no date). www.peci.org/library/PECI_Bldg DX—Direct expansion
ECRM—Energy conservation retroﬁt measure
Wei, G., T. Giebler, G. Zeig, B. Yazdani, D. Turner, J.
Baltazar, and J. Dennis. “Continuous Commissioning EMCS—Energy management control system
of an Airport Rental Car Facility.” Paper presented at ESL—Energy Systems Laboratory
World Energy Engineering Congress, Austin, TX, EUI—Energy utilization index
September 14–16, 2005. FAA—Federal Aviation Administration
FEMP—Federal Energy Management Program
HRU—Heat recovery unit
RESOURCES HVAC—Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- IPMVP—International performance measurement
Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE). and veriﬁcation protocols
www.ashrae.org LED—Light-emitting diode
Building Commissioning Association (BCA) LEED—Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Diagnostics for Building Commissioning & Operation O&M—Operations and maintenance
http://imds.lbl.gov/ PECI—Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.
National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) RCM—Reliability-centered maintenance
http://www.nibs.org/ TEES—Texas Engineering Experiment Station
Oregon Office of Energy
http://search.oregon.gov/query.html?col=allore&qc= U.S. DOE—Department of Energy
allore&qt=buildings+and+commissioning U.S. EPA—Environmental Protection Agency
ORNL Buildings Technology Center VAV—Variable air volume
www.ornl.gov/sci/btc/ VFD—Variable frequency drive
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Dr. W. Dan Turner, ESL Director, was the over-
all project director, and Malcolm Verdict and Bah-
This research was performed under ACRP Proj- man Yazdani were co-principal investigators. The
ect 11-02 by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) other authors of this report are Harold Huff, project
within the Texas Engineering Experiment Station engineer, and Kathryn Clingenpeel, graduate research
(TEES), located at Texas A&M University, College assistant.
Station, Texas. The ESL was the research contractor
for this study, with TEES serving as the ﬁscal and
contract administrator. TEES is the engineering re-
search agency for the state of Texas.
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