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					                                                  TIP SHEET

                                      he Buck Tobacco Sponsorship campaign, a project of the Public Health Trust, Public Health Institute, is
                                      a California statewide effort to restrict tobacco sponsorship of rodeos. This series of Tip Sheets reflects
                                      best practices in Buck Tobacco’s work, and was developed in response to requests for information
                           received from national, state and local advocates. The Tip Sheets are organized around action ideas based on
                           Buck Tobacco’s successes and lessons learned, and they were written in collaboration with local, state and
                           national-level tobacco control advocates knowledgeable about rodeo sponsorship. We hope the Tip Sheets will
                           be useful to advocates around the country who want to address tobacco sponsorship at their local rodeos.

                                                                 Table of Contents
                           Fact sheets and resource lists:
                           1. Spit Tobacco: Product Types, Marketing, and Health Effects
                           2. Introduction to Rodeo: Basic Information and Overview of Professional Rodeos
                           3. Introduction to College Rodeo
                           4. How and Why Tobacco Companies Sponsor Rodeos
                           5. Legal Fact Sheet on Limiting Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos
                           6. Legal Resources: Where to Find Technical Assistance
                           7. Resource List: Further Information About Rodeos and Developing a Project to Restrict Tobacco Sponsorship

                           Basic information and action ideas for planning and implementing
                           your project:
                           8. Creating a Project Structure to Address Tobacco Sponsorship of Professional and College Rodeos
                           9. Community Organizing to Address Tobacco Sponsorship of Professional and College Rodeos
                           10. How to Develop a Policy for Your Local Rodeo
                           11. Working with Rodeo Organizers to Get a No Tobacco Sponsorship Policy Signed
                           12. Media Advocacy
                           13. Social Marketing
                           14. Evaluating Your Rodeo Project
                                                 TIP SHEET

                           Daniel P. Perales and Denise Cintron Perales
                           Andrea Craig Dodge Buck Tobacco Sponsorship Project
                           Samantha Graff Technical Assistance Legal Center

                           REVIEW TEAM:
                           Susan Alexander Public Media Center
                           Victoria Almquist Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids
                           Bela Friedman American Lung Association of San Diego and Imperial Counties
                           Sarah Mikesell Growney Northern Plains Health Alliance
                           Nancy Guenther California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section
                           Tonia Hagaman California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section
                           Michelle House Monterey County Health Department
                           Mark Loeser Stanislaus County Health Services Agency
                           Janine Nuñez Robinette Monterey County Health Department

                           Public Media Center

                           EDITOR AND PROJECT COORDINATOR:
                           Andrea Craig Dodge Buck Tobacco Sponsorship Project

                           SPECIAL THANKS:
                           This project would not have been possible without the contributions of Marice Ashe, Director, Public Health
                           Trust; Tonia Hagaman and the Project SMART (Sponsorship Mission: Avoid Reliance on Tobacco) Money
                           Workgroup of the Tobacco Control Section, California Department of Health Services; Pamela Ling, Assistant
                           Professor, Department of Medicine, General Internal Medicine, University of California San Francisco; Dearell
                           Niemeyer, Executive Director, Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium; and Madeleine Solomon, Senior Policy
                           Consultant, Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium. We would also like to recognize the City and County of
                           San Francisco; the Environmental Law Foundation; and the California Office of the Attorney General, each of
                           whom negotiated litigation settlements for alleged violations by spit tobacco companies. These settlements
                           initially funded Buck Tobacco’s work in California, which provided the basis for the best practices information
                           conveyed in this Tip Sheet series.

                           This project was funded by the Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium (TTAC).
                           We thank them for their generous support.

                           Date of publication August 2004
                           Buck Tobacco Sponsorship is a project of the Public Health Trust, Public Health Institute
                                         TIP SHEET #1
                                                 Spit Tobacco:
                                  Product Types, Marketing, and Health Effects

                           1. Spit tobacco use: who, what and how
  Snuff is moist, finely   ■ Snuff is moist, finely chopped tobacco, and is the most popular type of spit tobacco. The user takes a small
 chopped tobacco, and        pinch of loose snuff between the thumb and finger, and puts it between the cheek and gum, keeping it in one
    is the most popular      spot without chewing it. Snuff is sometimes packaged in single-dose servings resembling small tea bags,
   type of spit tobacco.     which allow the user to chew without spitting.
                           ■ Chewing tobacco comes in three forms: loose leaf, plugs and twists. Loose leaf is shredded tobacco leaves
                             made into strips. Plugs are pressed into small, soft blocks flavored with licorice and sugar and dried.
                             Chewing tobacco can also be dried and twisted into hard spirals called twists.
                           ■ When spit tobacco is mixed with saliva, nicotine is released into the mouth and absorbed into the blood-
                           ■ In 1999, 8% of U.S. students in grades 9 through 12 had used spit tobacco during the 30 days before they
                             were surveyed.1
                           ■ Males are far more likely than females to use spit tobacco.2

                           2. Marketing of spit tobacco
 Smokeless tobacco is      ■ Smokeless tobacco is marketed as a “cool” product that is claimed to be a safe and polite alternative to
 marketed as a “cool”        smoking.
       product that is     ■ The US Smokeless Tobacco Company (USSTC) spent $80 million on advertising in 1985. That expenditure
  claimed to be a safe       increased to $237 million in 2001, including $17.9 million for distribution of free smokeless tobacco
 and polite alternative      samples. In addition, a separate expenditure of $17.8 million for sports and sporting events (including
                             rodeo) occurred in 2001.3
          to smoking.
                           ■ Sales of smokeless tobacco increased from $731 million in 1985 to $2.1 billion in 2001.4
                           ■ Smokeless tobacco is often not covered in smoke-free policies at public venues because it does not produce
                             secondhand smoke. This may be one enticement for smokers to switch to chewing tobacco. Indeed, in 2002,
                             in an effort to position its product as a safer alternative to cigarettes, USSTC asked the Federal Trade
                             Commission (FTC) for an advisory opinion regarding the acceptability of communicating in their advertising
                             to adult smokers that smokeless tobacco products offer a reduced risk alternative to cigarettes.5
                           ■ USSTC has used a “graduation” method to market its products to young people. Products with sweeter
                             flavors (such as cherry and mint) and lower nicotine content are designed to be used first, with “graduation”
                             to stronger blends.6

                           3. Health effects of spit tobacco
                           ■ Addiction: The Mayo Clinic states that “One average-size pinch or pouch held between your cheek and gum
                             for about 30 minutes delivers about the same amount of nicotine as three or four cigarettes.” Although
                             nicotine is absorbed more slowly from spit tobacco than from cigarettes, it stays in the body longer.7
                           ■ Cancer: According to the Mayo Clinic, spit tobacco users are at an increased risk of oral cancers, including
                             “cancers of the mouth, throat, cheek, gums, lips and tongue. Surgery to remove the cancer from any of these
                             areas can leave your jaw, chin, neck or face disfigured. Only 56 percent of people with mouth or throat cancer
                             live more than five years beyond the time of diagnosis.” Oral leukoplakia — small white patches that may
                             become cancerous — can appear in the mouths of spit tobacco users as early as one week after starting to
                             use spit tobacco.8
                                                               TIP SHEET #1: Spit Tobacco: Product Types, Marketing, and Health Effects | Page 2

 The American Cancer      ■ The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2004, there will be 28,260 new cases of oral cavity and
Society estimates that      oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) cancer in the United States, and that 7,230 people will die from these
 in 2004, there will be     diseases.9
                          ■ Heart disease: Spit tobacco use is associated with increased blood pressure or heart rate, a risk factor for
     28,260 new cases
                            cardiovascular disease.10
  of mouth and throat
         cancer in the
        United States,    1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd ed. With Understanding and
        and that 7,230      Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Chapter 27, Tobacco Use in Population Groups.
                            Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.
   people will die from
       these diseases.    2 Ibid.
                          3 FTC Report to Congress: Federal Trade Commission Smokeless Tobacco Report for the Years 2000 and 2001, available
                          4 Ibid.
                          5 USSTC. Why U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Is Asking the FTC for Advertising Guidance Regarding Cross-Category
                            Comparative Risk Statements, February 5, 2002.
                          6 Connolly, GN. “The marketing of nicotine addiction by one oral snuff manufacturer.” Tobacco Control. March 1995.
                          7 Mayo Clinic. “Smokeless Tobacco: Addictive and Harmful.” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
                            (MFMER), June 10, 2004.
                          8 Ibid.
                          9 American Cancer Society. “Detailed Guide: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer: What are the Key Statistics
                             About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer?” Revised 4-04.
                          10 Hatsukami, D.K. and Severson, H.H. (1999). Oral spit tobacco: addiction, prevention and treatment. Nicotine &
                              Tobacco Research 1(1):21-44.
                                           TIP SHEET #2
                                            Introduction to Rodeo:
                             Basic Information and Overview of Professional Rodeos

                             1. Rodeo Background
        The first rodeo      The word “rodeo” comes from the Spanish word “rodear” (to surround).1 According to the Professional Rodeo
      occurred in 1864       Cowboys Association (PRCA) website, the first rodeo occurred in 1864 “when two groups of cowboys from
    “when two groups         neighboring ranches met in Deer Trail, [Colorado], to settle an argument over who was the best at performing
      of cowboys from        everyday ranching tasks.” The PRCA originated from a strike organized by rodeo cowboys in the 1930s against
                             unfair practices by a rodeo promoter. The group called themselves the Cowboys’ Turtle Association, which later
  neighboring ranches
                             became what is now known as the PRCA.2
     met in Deer Trail,
 Colorado, to settle an      2. Rodeo Terminology
   argument over who         There is a terminology unique to the sport. For example, a stock contractor is a person or group that provides
       was the best at       the livestock used at rodeos. For a glossary of rodeo terms, see Words and Terms Common to the Sport of
  performing everyday        Rodeo on “Cowboy Ted” Hallisey’s website at
      ranching tasks.”
                             3. Rodeo events fall into one of two categories.3
                             ■ Rough stock events, or judged events, involve riding wild horses and bulls: bareback riding, saddle bronc
                               riding, and bull riding. The cowboy, while using only one hand, must stay aboard a bucking horse or bull for
                               eight seconds. The cowboy’s score is equally dependent upon the performances of the contestant and the
                             ■ Timed events include calf roping, steer wrestling, team roping, steer roping, and barrel racing (a women’s
                               timed event). A contestant’s goal is to post the fastest time in his/her event.

                             4. Animal Rights
     Tobacco companies       Animal rights activists have become vocal and visible at rodeos. Many of the rodeo associations mentioned
     sponsor rodeos not      below are concerned about the activities of animal rights groups and how they may affect rodeo events.
        only at the local    ■ Identify your group as being pro-rodeo and pro-family by issuing a position statement and including it in
           level, but also     all your program materials. For example, rodeo groups have sometimes misunderstood Buck Tobacco’s
                               message as anti-rodeo rather than anti-tobacco. In order to clarify that Buck Tobacco seeks to make rodeos
      nationally through
                               healthier and more family-friendly, NOT to shut them down, the project posted a statement in support of
      rodeo sanctioning
                               rodeo on the Buck Tobacco website at
                             5. Rodeo Sanctioning Groups
                             Tobacco companies sponsor rodeos not only at the local level, but also nationally through rodeo sanctioning
                             organizations. Sanctioning organizations provide local rodeos with access to prize purses, publicity, rodeo pro-
                             grams, top stock contractors, famous cowboys, and other services critical to running a successful rodeo event.
                             Major rodeo sanctioning organizations sponsored by the US Smokeless Tobacco Company (USSTC) include:
                             ■ The Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA), which is the largest and oldest rodeo organization in
                               the world. The PRCA holds hundreds of rodeos across the country every year and has annual audience num-
                               bers in the millions. Local rodeos are organized by local volunteer boards.
                             ■ Professional Bull Riders, Inc. (PBR), an invitation-only association for the world’s elite bull riders. According
                               to the PBR website, the group “was created in 1992 when a group of 20 bull riders broke away from the tradi-
                               tional rodeo scene and decided to start a circuit for bull riders only.” Riders must win at least $2,500 in prize
                  TIP SHEET #2: Introduction to Rodeo: Basic Information and Overview of Professional Rodeos | Page 2

money annually to join and maintain membership. The PBR sanctions over 100 events per year. There are no
local organizing committees for PBR rodeos; event locations vary from year to year.
■ The Women’s Professional Rodeo Association (WPRA), founded in the late 1940s to promote the sport of
   professional rodeo for the female competitor. The over 2,000 members compete primarily in barrel racing at
   PRCA-sanctioned rodeos.
■ The National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA), which sanctions college rodeos. It is divided into 11
   regions with over 3,500 student members participating annually and 137 member schools and universities.
■ Links to other rodeo associations are available on the Buck Tobacco website at

1 Diana Rowe Martinez, “The History of Rodeo.”
2 Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) website, history section at
3 Ralph Clark’s “Basics of rodeo in general” on the website.
                                           TIP SHEET #3
                                                    Introduction to College Rodeo

                                       oday’s college rodeo athlete may be tomorrow’s professional rodeo participant. The National
                                       Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA)website proudly announces the names of famous profession-
                                       al rodeo cowboys who were once college rodeo champions.
       Spit tobacco use,        Tobacco companies use sponsorship of college rodeos to market their products to young adults. Spit tobacco
    with its potential for   use, with its potential for lifetime addiction and deadly diseases, is a problem on college campuses. One
 lifetime addiction and      national survey found that 14% of male college students had used spit tobacco during the previous year.1
        deadly diseases,
         is a problem on     1. History
      college campuses.      ■ NIRA is the sanctioning body for most college rodeos. The group was founded in 1949 in Denver, Colorado.
                               NIRA currently holds about 100 rodeos per year, and is divided into 11 regions with over 3,500 student
                               members participating annually and 137 member schools and universities.2
                             ■ In 1975, the first national NIRA sponsorship was the Scholarship Awards Program of the US Tobacco Co.
                               (now known as the US Smokeless Tobacco Company, or USSTC). The program offered scholarships totaling
                               $70,000 to college rodeo champions. USSTC continues to provide scholarship funds to college rodeo
                               athletes through its sponsorship and affiliation with NIRA.3
                             ■ NIRA rodeos are not affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). According to its
                               website, the NCAA prohibits tobacco advertising at its events.4

                             2. How the tobacco industry infiltrates colleges and college rodeo
                             ■ USSTC has distributed nearly $5 million in scholarships to college rodeo participants over the last 30 years.5
                               The average purse of $200,000 per year is distributed among the universities attended by winning college
                             ■ Records are not available to determine the amount of tobacco scholarship funding each local university
                               receives annually for its students who win rodeo championships. However, one California university that
                               participates in NIRA receives $10,000 or less per year in scholarship funds from USSTC. Note that a local
                               alternative sponsor might consider replacing that amount of funding in support of deserving athletes. You
                               may be able to determine the average level of annual USSTC scholarship funding at your local university by
                               contacting the rodeo coach or the College of Agriculture.
                             ■ Tobacco companies also target college students through industry-sponsored events at college area bars and
                               fraternity parties. At these events, they often distribute spit tobacco samples.6

                             3. Examples of successful work to restrict tobacco sponsorship of
                             college rodeos
                             ■ In April 2004, South Dakota State University’s Jackrabbit Stampede rodeo, “one of the largest and oldest
                               collegiate rodeo clubs in the nation,” successfully ended its 30-year affiliation with the tobacco industry by
                               banning tobacco advertising and tobacco-funded scholarships.7
                             ■ Montana State University refused to allow the free distribution of tobacco samples at their 1998 rodeo, and
                               was promptly dropped as the site for the College National Finals Rodeo (CNFR).8 This was a courageous
                               decision by the university.
                                                                   TIP SHEET #3: Introduction to College Rodeo | Page 2

1 Rigotti, N.A., Lee, J.E., & Wechsler, H. (2000). US College students' use of tobacco products: results of a national
  survey. JAMA Aug 9;284(6): 699-705.
2 National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA) website at
3 Ibid.
4 NCAA Division I Manual, sections (advertising of tobacco products at its events), and (tobacco
  sponsorship of championships). Information obtained from, 1/12/04.
5 Egan, T. “Taking Aim at the Professional Rodeo Circuit’s Drug of Choice.” The New York Times, June 11, 2004.
6 Anderson, B. “Tobacco makers dip into frat gigs.” The Fresno Bee, May 22, 2004.
7 “One of largest, oldest college rodeos goes tobacco free.” South Dakota State University website, 5/3/04.,3658
8 Associated Press. “School Nixes Giveaway of Tobacco, So Rodeo Leaves—College in Montana Refused Sponsor
 Plan.” The Seattle Times, September 4, 1998.
                                            TIP SHEET #4
                               How and Why Tobacco Companies Sponsor Rodeos

                              Tobacco companies sponsor events like rodeos because they provide a friendly association “between [tobacco]
                              and exciting, glamorous, or fun activities.” 1

                              ■ Several spit tobacco companies use rodeos to promote their products, including Conwood Sales Co., L.P.,
                                makers of the Kodiak and Grizzly brands; Swedish Match, whose brands include Timberwolf and Red Man;
                                and the US Smokeless Tobacco Company (USSTC), which makes the Copenhagen and Skoal brands and has
                                the largest market share of the spit tobacco industry.
                              ■ The relationship between tobacco and rodeo began over 25 years ago. R.J. Reynolds used its Winston ciga-
                                rette brand to sponsor Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) rodeos from 1972 to 1986; RJR
                                dropped the sponsorship at least in part because the PRCA entered an exclusive agreement with USSTC
                                during the mid-1980s.2 USSTC’s website states that it is a national sponsor of several rodeo associations
                                including the PRCA, Professional Bull Riders, Inc. (PBR), and the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association

                              What is sponsorship?
                              ■ Sponsorship is directly related to marketing, and is one of the four components of marketing (the other
                                three are advertising, sales promotion, and public relations). Payment for sponsorship can be provided
                                either in cash or as an in-kind benefit such as the free printing of a rodeo program in exchange for announc-
                                ing the printer’s name during the rodeo.
             USSTC reaps      ■ Clearly, sponsorship is not philanthropy. In the case of rodeo, it promotes a company in association with
            the benefits of     an event. USSTC reaps the benefits of sponsoring a rodeo by exposing event-goers to its products and
       sponsoring a rodeo       associating the tobacco company name with the good name of the rodeo.
        by exposing event-    ■ The tobacco industry’s ability to continue to use its former advertising methods has been affected by
                                restrictions such as the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) and Smokeless Tobacco Master Settlement
     goers to its products
                                Agreement (STMSA) and state sampling laws.4 Therefore, the tobacco industry has developed more creative
      and associating the
                                ways of marketing their products. Below are some of the sponsorship methods used by USSTC at rodeos.
         tobacco company        1. Signage including banners, billboards, flags, chute signs (on the gate that releases the cowboy and ani-
      name with the good           mal into the arena), and scoreboards.
       name of the rodeo.       2. 8-second counters which are separate from scoreboards that show the overall scores rating riders’ per-
                                   formance. The audience watches such counters during bull riding events because competitors must stay
                                   on their bulls for 8 seconds in order to score.
                                3. Sampling booths for “adults only” that offer games and free tobacco samples or discount coupons.
                                   Names and addresses are collected from booth visitors for direct mail marketing. The outsides of the
                                   booths usually display the brand name or tobacco product, which is visible to everyone who attends the
                                   event (not just adults). The booths are very attractive to youth under 18 who are curious about why they
                                   are not allowed inside.
                                4. Payments to stock contractors (owners of animals that compete in rodeos). USSTC has made these pay-
                                   ments in the form of sponsorships of animals named after spit tobacco, such as a bull named
                                   “Smokeless Unforgiven.”5 Animal names are announced each time they are ridden at a rodeo which
                                   repeatedly promotes the animals’ sponsors.
                                            TIP SHEET #4: How and Why Tobacco Companies Sponsor Rodeos | Page 2

   5. Rodeo program ads that feature the names of the event sponsors.
   6. “Shared promotions” in which tobacco companies partner with local businesses around the time of the
      rodeo. For example, a grocery store may hold a sale on spit tobacco in exchange for inclusion of the
      store’s name in a tobacco ad in a newspaper.
   7. “Added money” promotions: Rodeo contestants’ entry fees are used to supply rodeos’ total prize purses
      for event winners. In an “added money” promotion, sponsors add money to the entry fees to increase an
      event’s prize purse.
   8. Celebrity endorsements pay cowboys for wearing patches, shirts, vests, chaps, and other types of clothing
      that display a sponsor’s logo, and for acting as company spokespeople. The patches and clothing are
      clearly visible to rodeo audiences watching in the grandstands and on television.
   9. National sanctioning organizations provide local rodeos with access to prize purses, publicity, rodeo pro-
      grams, top stock contractors, well-known cowboys, and other services critical to running a successful
      rodeo event. Major rodeo sanctioning organizations sponsored by USSTC include the PRCA; Professional
      Bull Riders, Inc. (PBR); and the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA). The following types of
      promotions may accompany tobacco sponsorship of national sanctioning groups:
      ■ Title sponsorships, in which a company sponsors a series that follows a regional or national tour,
         such as PBR’s national “US Smokeless Tobacco Co. Challenger Tour.” Title sponsorships offer the
         opportunity to publicize the sponsor’s name every time an event is mentioned in the community and
         in the media.
      ■ Prizes and scholarship funds associated with the tobacco company. USSTC provides scholarship funds
         as prizes for top NIRA cowboys. In addition, although USSTC recently ended its title sponsorship of a
         major PRCA tour, it still sponsors the PRCA’s Wrangler ProRodeo Tour, Pace Picante ProRodeo Series,
         and National Finals Rodeo, and offers “bonuses” to top cowboys each year. That means USSTC is listed
         as a sponsor on the PRCA’s website and in its promotional materials, and the company receives addi-
         tional publicity when it presents prize money to champion cowboys at awards ceremonies.
      ■ Advertisements in national magazines for rodeo fans, such as NIRA’s Collegiate Arena, the PRCA’s
         Prorodeo Sports News (PSN), and PBR’s ProBullRider.

1 Rodeo Toolkit, available through the Tobacco Education Clearinghouse of California (TECC) at (800) 258-9090.
2 Powell, R., Untitled letter, “Richard Dilworth has passed along your package pertaining to the Pendleton Roundup
  to me for consideration...” August 17, 1988. Bates # 507404449/4449. Accessed: July 26, 2004.
3 US Smokeless Tobacco Company (USSTC) website, event sponsorship section at
4 See Legal Fact Sheet on Limiting Tobacco Sponsorship of Rodeos Tip Sheet for more information.
5 US Smokeless Tobacco Company (2002). Press packet obtained at the 56th Annual PRCA National Convention in
   Las Vegas, NV.
                                            TIP SHEET #5
                                                     Legal Fact Sheet on
                                           Limiting Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos

                              How do the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) and the Smokeless
                              Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (STMSA) affect tobacco
            Key provisions    ■ The MSA and STMSA are binding agreements that arose out of litigation between the major tobacco
                in the MSA      companies and over 40 states. Key provisions in these agreements restrict tobacco company activities
               and STMSA        relating to sponsorship, sampling, outdoor advertising, brand name merchandise, youth targeting, and the
           restrict tobacco     use of cartoon characters. Both agreements ban the tobacco companies from interfering with anti-tobacco
       company activities       advertising.
      relating to sponsor-    ■ To learn more about how the MSA and STMSA affect tobacco sponsorship, or to report a potential violation

           ship, sampling,      of the MSA or STMSA by a tobacco company, contact your state’s attorney general. The National Association
                                of Attorneys General (NAAG) website at has a link to each state attorney general’s website.
     outdoor advertising,
         brand name mer-
                              What tobacco sponsorship activities are still allowed by the MSA and
          chandise, youth     STMSA?
             targeting, and
                              ■ One brand name (such as Skoal) sponsorship per company per year. This sponsorship can be of a national
        the use of cartoon      series or tour.
                characters.   ■ Corporate (such as US Smokeless Tobacco Company) sponsorship of events if there is no reference to brand
                                names (such as Skoal or Copenhagen) or marketing to youth.
                              ■ Sponsorship of events inside adult-only facilities, such as bar nights near rodeos.
                              ■ Product sampling and ads that are located inside adult-only facilities and are not visible from the outside.
                              ■ Vehicles bearing a brand name in a brand-sponsored event.
                              ■ Outdoor ads for a brand-sponsored event at the event site for 90 days before and 10 days after the event.

                              What are the major legal obstacles to closing these loopholes in the
                              MSA and STMSA?
                              ■ The Supreme Court’s current interpretation of the free speech clause of the First Amendment of the U.S.
                                Constitution makes it very difficult for state and local governments to pass laws and ordinances that restrict
                                tobacco advertising and sponsorship.
                              ■ Federal law regulates advertising requirements and warning labels regarding tobacco and health and pre-
                                vents most state and local regulation of those activities. The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act
                                (FCLAA) preempts (bans) state law requirements based on smoking and health with respect to the advertis-
                                ing or promotion of cigarettes. The Federal Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act pre-
                                empts (bans) states and localities from requiring any statements relating to the use of smokeless tobacco
                                products and health to appear on any smokeless tobacco package or advertisement unless the advertisement
                                is an outdoor billboard.

                              How can sampling laws be used to address tobacco sponsorship of
                              ■ The distribution of free samples in “adult-only facilities,” or sampling booths, is often part of tobacco spon-
                                sorship at a rodeo. Unlike many types of tobacco sponsorship activities, sampling can sometimes be legally
                                prohibited or heavily regulated by states or localities.
                                                              TIP SHEET #5: Legal Fact Sheet on Limiting Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos | Page 2

                          ■ Sampling laws are different in every state, and the laws change frequently. See the “Legal Resources” tip
                            sheet for how to find your state’s sampling law and obtain legal assistance to help you understand it.

                          How can the loopholes in the MSA and STMSA be closed?
The loopholes can be      ■ The loopholes can be closed with voluntary policies adopted by private rodeo committees, private venues
closed with voluntary       which host rodeos, stock contractors, announcers, clowns, and other rodeo organizers and participants.
     policies adopted     ■ Voluntary policies can ban sponsorship, advertising, and/or tobacco-product use. See the Technical
      by private rodeo      Assistance Legal Center (TALC) model rodeo sponsorship policy at
  committees, private
        venues which
                          What is a voluntary policy?
          host rodeos,    ■ A voluntary policy is a written document prohibiting a set of activities, such as tobacco sponsorship- and
                            advertising-related activities at a rodeo.
    stock contractors,
                          ■ It is passed and enforced voluntarily by an individual or group of individuals (such as a rodeo committee)
 announcers, clowns,
                            who have authority over the activities it prohibits.
      and other rodeo     ■ It is not passed and enforced by a state or local government entity.
       organizers and
          participants.   What are the advantages of a voluntary policy?
                          ■ It is easier to get passed than a law or ordinance.
                          ■ It can say whatever the drafters want it to say.
                          ■ It is a way of creating change when passing a law or ordinance is barred by preemption or not yet politically

                          What are the disadvantages of a voluntary policy?
                          ■ It does not have the force and effect of law.
                          ■ The people who pass it get to determine how to apply and enforce it.

                          What are some tips for writing a good voluntary policy?
                          ■ Include definitions of important terms.
                          ■ Be as specific as possible about what the policy covers.
                          ■ Be clear about who is responsible for implementing and enforcing the policy.
                          ■ Include persuasive findings, especially when introducing the policy to a potentially resistant individual or
                            organization. For example, see the TALC model policies at
                                         TIP SHEET #6
                           Legal Resources: Where to Find Technical Assistance

                           The Technical Assistance Legal Center (TALC) in California has several helpful publications available on its web-
                           site: Samples of the publications available on the TALC website include:
                           ■ Directory of State Legal Resources for Tobacco Control. This guide was developed through contributions
                              from tobacco control attorneys from throughout the United States. Its main focus is legal tools to change
                              the social norms regarding smoking and tobacco use.
                           ■ Legal Technical Assistance on Tobacco Control Policy: A Guide for Other States. This publication provides an
                              overview of TALC’s model, structure, and philosophy, and can serve as a guide for new technical assistance
                              legal centers.
                           ■ Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between the Attorneys General and the Tobacco Industry: Overview of
                              Key Public Health Restrictions (11/98). This document lays out key provisions of the MSA: What is prohibited,
                              what is allowed and the effective date of each featured provision.
                           ■ Sample policies prohibiting tobacco sponsorship of rodeos and other events.
                           ■ A list of tobacco control legal centers in other parts of the U.S. can be found on the TALC website under “Links.”

                           Smokeless Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (STMSA) Language Pertaining to Sponsorship and
                           Sampling: The full text of the STMSA is available on the California Attorney General website at
                  See especially Sections II and III. For help interpreting the STMSA,
                           see the resources listed above.

                           State Legislated Actions on Tobacco Issues (SLATI) website at The American Lung
                           Association maintains this guide to tobacco control laws in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. You can
                           search their website for legislative issues affecting your state, and search their information database on specific
                           legislation. (Note: the most recent laws may not be on the website yet.)

                           Letters from the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) and the US Smokeless Tobacco Company
                           (USSTC) showing that local PRCA rodeos can choose whether to take tobacco sponsorship. The letters show
                           that local PRCA rodeos can decline tobacco sponsorship, ban the use of tobacco products, and accept public
                           service messages regarding tobacco use, without being penalized by the PRCA. Copies of the letters are
                           available on the Buck Tobacco website at

                           Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between USSTC and the STMSA Settling States concerning Adult-Only
                           Facilities: This MOU describes the agreement between USSTC and some of the STMSA settling states regard-
                           ing “adult-only facilities” (tobacco sampling booths). The memorandum is available in the tobacco litigation
                           section of the California Attorney General’s website at

                           National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG): The members are the Attorneys General of the 50 states
                           and the chief legal officers of the U.S. commonwealths and territories. The attorneys general enforce the ciga-
                           rette MSA and STMSA. At the website, you can find the name of your state’s attorney general or chief legal
                           officer, and contact information for the NAAG staff coordinating tobacco enforcement.

                           Rodeo Toolkit: Additional information and resources are available in the “Legal Restrictions on Rodeo
                           Sponsorship: Know the Law and Know What’s Bull” section of the Rodeo Toolkit, published by the California
                           Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section. The toolkit can be ordered
                           by calling the Tobacco Education Clearinghouse of California (TECC) at (800) 258-9090.
                                           TIP SHEET #7
                             Resource List: Further Information About Rodeos and
                             Developing a Project to Restrict Tobacco Sponsorship

         Information and     ■ The Rodeo Toolkit was produced by the California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section.
             materials for     It contains valuable information regarding tobacco sponsorship at rodeos, including an overview of rodeo
      activists who want       events; information on smokeless tobacco risks; sample tobacco-free policies for public events and venues;
      to address tobacco       and contact information for many California rodeos. It comes with the Tack and Tools booklet, a leave-
             sponsorship       behind educational piece for rodeo organizers. Copies of the Rodeo Toolkit may be obtained by contacting
                of rodeos      the Tobacco Education Clearinghouse of California (TECC) at (800) 258-9090.
                             ■ The Project SMART (Sponsorship Mission: Avoid Reliance on Tobacco) Money Workgroup acts as an advisory
                               body to the California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section to support TCS-funded
                               projects that are addressing the area of tobacco sponsorship, to support the Attorney General’s efforts in
                               monitoring and enforcing the Master Settlement Agreement and state law with regard to sponsorship, and
                               to identify emerging sponsorship issues for TCS and local tobacco control programs. For access to materials,
                               resources and technical assistance regarding tobacco sponsorship, contact the Project SMART Money
                               Workgroup at (916) 449-5500.
                             ■ Spit Tobacco Sponsorship of Rodeos: A Literature Review, produced by Public Media Center for the Buck
                               Tobacco Sponsorship Project.

       Spit Tobacco Use      ■ MEDLINE list of links to information about the health effects of spit tobacco from the Mayo Clinic, the
             and Health        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health, and more.
                             ■ Face Reality: Spit Tobacco & You (spit tobacco education program).
                             ■ CDC information about chew/spit tobacco.
                             ■ CDC Office on Smoking and Health Information and Resources.
                             ■ CDC article “Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2002.” MMWR,
                               November 14, 2003, 52(45):1096-1098.
                             ■ The California Tobacco Control Program: A Decade of Progress, Results from the California Tobacco Survey,
                               1990-1999. Information about spit tobacco is included in Chapter 11, “Other Tobacco Use,” pp. 273-291.

               Rodeo 101     ■ “Cowboy Ted” Hallisey’s website provides an insider’s view of the sport of rodeo.
                             ■ The website’s rodeo section features topics such as “How to be a Rodeo Cowboy or Cowgirl,”
                               “Rodeo 101,” rodeo history, a listing of rodeos by state, and much more.
                             ■ “The History of Rodeo” by Diana Rowe Martinez, published April 8, 2000, is available at
                             ■ The Buck Tobacco website includes a “Rodeo 101” page with links to helpful publications.

          College Rodeo      ■ Information about the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA) structure and its relationship with
              Resources        the US Smokeless Tobacco Company: Conference presentation by Lloyd Henning, San Luis Obispo County
                               Public Health Department Tobacco Control Program. Presented at “Smoking out the Snake: Exposing &
                               Countering Sponsorship by the Tobacco Industry,” hosted by Project SMART Money, 5/29/03.
                                                                                                     TIP SHEET #7: Resource List | Page 2

                      ■ College Tobacco Prevention Resource, developed by the Center for College Health and Safety’s College
                        Tobacco Prevention Initiative, contains a comprehensive prevention model and links to other college tobacco
                        websites. Available on the Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium (TTAC) website at

       Community      ■ The Midwest Academy: According to its website, this organization “offers on site training and consulting as
       Organizing       well as five-day training sessions for leaders and staff of citizen and community groups. The Academy is one
                        of the nation’s oldest and best known schools for community organizations, citizen organizations and
                        individuals committed to progressive social change.” Resources include ordering information for the
                        excellent training manual Organizing for Social Change.

Policy Development    ■ The Technical Assistance Legal Center (TALC) website includes model policies to restrict tobacco sponsor-
                        ship of rodeos and other events, as well as model policies to establish tobacco-free grounds and designated
                        tobacco-free areas.
                      ■ Examples of rodeo, bar night and other written policies in place are available on the Buck Tobacco website at

   Media Advocacy     ■ Bucking Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos: Strategies for Media Advocacy and Public Engagement, written by
                        the Berkeley Media Studies Group and Public Media Center for the Buck Tobacco Sponsorship Project.
                      ■ The Berkeley Media Studies Group web site includes helpful publications such as Media Advocacy and
                        Public Health: Power for prevention, by Wallack, L., Dorfman, L., Jernigan, D., & Themba, M. Sage
                        Publications, 1993.

  Social Marketing    ■ Public Media Center has considerable expertise in advocacy advertising.
                      ■ The CDC has communication resources at and a counter-marketing
                        website at
                      ■ Better World Advertising has several interesting campaigns.
                      ■ Social Marketing: Improving Quality of Life. Kotler, P, Roberto, N., & Lee, N. (2002). 2nd Edition. Sage
                        Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

        Evaluation    ■ The California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section website has tobacco evaluation
                        resources including information on case studies, writing objectives, evaluation report writing, and an evalua-
                        tion planning guide.
                      ■ Sample intercept surveys conducted at rodeos are available on the Local Projects pages on the Buck Tobacco

Additional National   ■ Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO): Links to state health departments; list of
         Resources      tobacco control resources.
                      ■ Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids: a national policy advocacy group; website includes fact sheets, policy alerts,
                        links to youth advocacy information, and more.
                      ■ Oral Health America's National Spit Tobacco Education Program (NSTEP): a nationally recognized program
                        working not only in baseball and other sports, but with the health care community in oral cancer prevention
                        and early detection, legislative and policy efforts. Website includes links to community coordinators in states
                        where NSTEP is currently active.
                      ■ Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium (TTAC): an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to
                        assisting organizations in building and growing highly effective tobacco control programs. Written resources
                        and technical assistance are available on the website.
                                           TIP SHEET #8
                                 Creating a Project Structure to Address Tobacco
                                 Sponsorship of Professional and College Rodeos

                             The following steps toward establishing a rodeo project structure can help
                             establish a base from which to build community awareness and support for your work to pressure rodeo organ-
                             izers to adopt a no-tobacco sponsorship policy.

                             1. Assign a project coordinator to manage the project and to recruit community members to
                             support it.

                             2. Research your local rodeo. Find out when it is held, who organizes the event, tobacco spon-
                             sorship history, etc. Attend all rodeo events, take photographs of any tobacco sponsorship, and obtain a rodeo
                             program. If possible, conduct a survey of rodeo attendees to see what they think about tobacco sponsorship. 1

                             3. Survey your community, including local businesses and people attending events, regarding
                             their knowledge and attitudes about tobacco sponsorship of rodeos.

                             4. Find out if there are other rodeos or fairs nearby that have policies restricting
                             smoking, tobacco use, or tobacco sponsorship. To start this process, contact your local health department or
                             tobacco control coalition.2 3
      Rodeo insiders can     5. Enlist the support of a rodeo insider such as a professional or college cowboy,
           assist you with   barrel racer, rodeo queen, rodeo clown, stock contractor, someone who has kids who compete in rodeo, or a
       learning the ropes    longtime rodeo fan who has frequently attended your local rodeo and knows the local rodeo organizers and
      of your local rodeo    competitors. Rodeo insiders can assist you with learning the ropes of your local rodeo and can help get your
                             message to the community and to the event decision makers.
         and can help get
                                 ■ Start by contacting local organizations who may participate in rodeo or have an interest in it, such as
     your message to the
                                    local horse breeders or state quarter horse associations4 (make sure any group you want to work with
          community and             does not have any existing tobacco sponsorship). It is likely that a significant amount of education
              to the event          regarding the problem of tobacco sponsorship will be needed. In addition, “Cowboy Ted” Hallisey’s web-
         decision makers.           site at provides an insider’s view of rodeo and includes contact information for
                                    Cowboy Ted, who is involved in tobacco education for kids and works around the country to support
                                    tobacco awareness and healthy lifestyles.

                             6. Organize a Rodeo Steering Committee. The heart of a successful tobacco-free rodeo
                             movement is the steering committee. The committee’s purpose is to assist the project coordinator in planning,
                             coordinating, and implementing the advocacy activities. Its members can also serve as links to individuals and
                             groups who can promote and/or participate in accomplishing the project’s objectives. Below are some tips for
                             organizing a strong steering committee.

                             Recruit a diverse membership base. Consider the following potential candidates for your
                             steering committee:5
                                 ■ Rodeo insiders.
                                 ■ Public sector state and local tobacco control advocates including experts dealing with tobacco sponsor-
                                    ship issues, people with health and demographic data, and members of local tobacco control coalitions
                                    that can support your grassroots advocacy activities. Start by contacting your state health department.
                                 ■ People from health/family focused community-based organizations, public agencies (e.g., social services,
                        TIP SHEET #8: Creating a Project Structure to Address Tobacco Sponsorship of Professional and College Rodeos | Page 2

Youth are often the      public health nursing), health-related volunteer agencies (e.g. American Lung Association, American Cancer
    best leaders in   Society, etc.), and local service clubs (e.g., Rotary, Soroptimist, etc.). They may have members who are rodeo
  advocacy efforts    event organizers who may be opposed to your efforts, so be sure to research these groups before approaching
around issues that    them.
       affect them.       ■ Ministers and members of faith-based organizations.
                          ■ Private sector health professionals who can serve as medical experts on the effects of tobacco use.
                          ■ Consider incorporating young people into your steering committee. Youth are often the best leaders in
                             advocacy efforts around issues that affect them. With good training, they can also be extremely effective
                             spokespeople on health issues, because decision makers often enjoy hearing from young people. Some
                             successful anti-tobacco youth advocates have organized their own groups that run in tandem with an
                             adult coalition. Look for youth advocates among youth components of the adult organizations listed
                             above. Other sources include the local chapter of the high school rodeo association,6 existing anti-tobac-
                             co youth organizations, the local 4-H Club7 or Future Farmers of America (FFA) chapter,8 and children of
                             adult steering committee participants. Consider creating a website to showcase youth activities.9
                          ■ If you are targeting a college rodeo, college students should participate in the steering committee and
                             should lead the planning and implementation of your activities.

                      Example of a useful project structure:
                          ■ It can be very effective to have local projects participate in a coordinated effort. For example, in
                            California, the Buck Tobacco Sponsorship Project funded five local grantees to conduct campaigns to
                            restrict sponsorship of local rodeos. The statewide office provides project coordination, advocacy train-
                            ing, media materials, media advocacy technical assistance, and monthly networking conference calls
                            among the grantees.
                          ■ Even if funding is not available to establish a statewide office, local projects can benefit greatly from net-
                            working with other groups to share information, keep abreast of current developments, and find other
                            ways to support each other. Your state health department may be able to help you find others working on
                            the issue of tobacco sponsorship.

                      1 See the Evaluating Your Rodeo Project and Resources Tip Sheets for more information.
                      2 See the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) website at for a list of
                        state health departments.
                      3 See the How to Develop a Policy for your Local Rodeo Tip Sheet for more information about researching existing
                      4 See the Quarter Horse Directory website at for a list of national, state and local horse
                      5 See sample Recruitment Flyer at
                      6 See National High School Rodeo Association (NHSRA) website at for listing of state associa-
                      7 See for links to local 4-H chapters.
                      8 See for more information.
                      9 For example, see Fusion, a youth created, youth focused website for young anti-tobacco advocates. This group is a
                       project of the California Youth Advocacy Network (CYAN).
                                              TIP SHEET #9
                                       Community Organizing to Address Tobacco
                                     Sponsorship of Professional and College Rodeos

         Once a basic rodeo     1. Educate the rodeo steering committee members on the issues,
      project structure has     including:1
        been developed, the     ■ The harmful effects of smokeless tobacco.
         project coordinator    ■ Rodeo events, culture, and terminology.
           can begin to work    ■ The tobacco industry’s history with and interest in rodeo.
            with the steering   ■ Sponsorship as a marketing tool.

         committee to build
                                2. Provide training in grassroots community organizing2 and media
     community awareness
                                advocacy3 for your steering committee members. Develop some of them to be spokespersons for the
             and support for    committee. Create talking points and media messages for spokespeople to utilize. Include sample letters to the
         restricting tobacco    editor and opinion editorials for the committee or community members to send. Training curricula specific to
         sponsorship of the     college campuses are available.4
     local rodeo. The steps
      listed at the right are   3. Participate in community events, such as health fairs, county fairs, community days,
         an example of how      college campus activities, and events related to the local rodeo (such as parades) to “get the word out” about your
          some groups have      cause. Circulate petitions or postcards that call upon rodeo organizers to drop tobacco sponsorship; you can use
                                the signatures to show evidence of community support for your cause to rodeo organizers and/or the media. Ask
              organized their
                                everyone you talk with to provide their name and contact information, so that you can keep them informed about
      communities around
                                your work and contact them to request their attendance at future meetings and community events.
       tobacco sponsorship
      of rodeos. As always,     4. Solicit letters of endorsement from community and faith-based organizations, community
               your ultimate    leaders, and public officials. Don’t overlook seeking letters from rodeo insiders. For example, the Buck Tobacco
          strategy should be    project in San Diego County secured letters of support from the National High School Rodeo Queen and
           developed locally.   “Cowboy Ted” Hallisey.5

                                5. When your focus is a college rodeo: Schedule one-on-one meetings with the key
                                college administrators, including the Dean of the College of Agriculture (if that is the school governing your
                                college rodeo); the college rodeo coach; members of the governing student board, such as the Student Senate;
                                and university administrators, such as the Vice President of Student Affairs, the vice president that oversees
                                the College of Agriculture, and the university president. Find key advocates in those offices that may champion
                                your cause. Ask to be placed on the agenda to speak before key decision-making bodies, such as the Student
                                Senate and faculty Academic Senate.

                                1 See the following Tip Sheets: Spit Tobacco: Product Types, Marketing and Health Effects; Introduction to Rodeo:
                                  Basic Information and an Overview of Professional Rodeos; How and Why Tobacco Companies Sponsor Rodeos;
                                  Resource List.
                                2 The Midwest Academy provides excellent community organizing resources, including a curriculum, consulting
                                  and training.
                                3 See the Media Advocacy Tip Sheet for more information.
                                4 See The College Advocacy Guide, developed by the California Youth Advocacy Network (CYAN).
                                5 See Buck Tobacco website at for sample letters of support.
                                      TIP SHEET #10
                                How to Develop a Policy for Your Local Rodeo

                           Lasting change may be achieved through the enactment and enforcement of written policies.

                           1. Policy Options1
                           A no-tobacco sponsorship policy may prohibit:
                           ■ Accepting money for a purse, point fund, or scholarship program.
                           ■ Distributing or selling tobacco products in an “Adult-only Facility” or sampling booth.
                           ■ Posting signage that promotes a tobacco company, including a scoreboard, 8-second counter, banners, bill-
                              boards, or chute signs (on the gate that releases the cowboy and animal into the arena).
                           ■ Allowing tobacco company flags to be carried during the rodeo.
                           ■ Sale or distribution of rodeo programs that include tobacco advertising (note that if the program is
                              provided by another party, this component of tobacco sponsorship might be beyond the control of local
                              rodeo organizers, especially if they cannot afford to print their own programs).
                           ■ Announcing over the PA system a tobacco name to describe livestock, such as “Smokeless Unforgiven” (note
                              that although local organizers cannot control the names of stock animals, they can demand that their stock
                              contractors not send animals with tobacco names to their event).
                           Some rodeos may not be ready to drop their tobacco sponsorship, but may be amenable to other, more
                           incremental changes. Once these changes are in place, the rodeo organizers can be approached again later
                           regarding tobacco sponsorship.
                           ■ Smoke-Free Grounds or Tobacco-Free Grounds Policy – prohibits smoking or tobacco use anywhere on the
                              rodeo grounds.
                           ■ Designated Smoking/Tobacco Use Areas Policy – permits smoking/tobacco use only in specified areas of the
                              rodeo grounds.

                           2. Develop a list of existing local tobacco-free policies.
              The Poway    Identify rodeos that have a written policy that prohibits tobacco sponsorship. To start this process, contact
         Rodeo signed a    your local health department or tobacco control coalition.2 Examples include the Poway Rodeo, which signed a
         no-sponsorship    no-sponsorship agreement with the American Lung Association of San Diego and Imperial Counties in 2004,3
         agreement with    and South Dakota State University’s rodeo club that became tobacco-free starting with its 50th Annual
                           Jackrabbit Stampede rodeo in April 2004.4
           the American
       Lung Association    Identify rodeos that have not signed a written policy but that do not accept tobacco sponsorship. Talking with
            of San Diego   the advocates or even the rodeo organizers in these communities can give you insight into why some rodeos
            and Imperial   will not sign policies. This can help you anticipate similar arguments in your own community and develop
                           strategies for overcoming this barrier. One example is the California Rodeo Salinas, one of the largest PRCA
       Counties in 2004.
                           rodeos in the country. They have not accepted tobacco sponsorship funding since 1996, but they do not have a
                           written policy to that effect.5

                           3. Don’t overlook your local non-rodeo County fair as a policy
                           advocacy information resource.
                           Many non-rodeo events have signed policies prohibiting tobacco-industry sponsorship at their venues. For
                           example, the California State Fair board prohibits the annual state fair/CalExpo, a highly attended event, from
                                                                          TIP SHEET #10: How to Develop a Policy for Your Local Rodeo | Page 2

                         displaying tobacco product advertisements and accepting sponsorship money from any tobacco-related
                         company. They also created a plan for a smoke-free event, with a few designated smoking areas throughout the
                         fairgrounds.6 Many other California fair boards have signed similar written policies.7

 Rodeo insiders such     4. Develop relationships and work with key allies.
as cowboys/cowgirls,     Work with rodeo insiders. Rodeo insiders such as cowboys/cowgirls, rodeo queens, and rodeo officials can help
   rodeo queens, and     you garner advocacy support and influence policy makers. For example, in May 2004, the Families Against
   rodeo officials can   Chewing Tobacco Sampling (FACTS) project in Santa Maria, California obtained support from the Hart Bar
      help you garner    Bucking Stock Company, a supplier of rodeo stock animals. They signed a policy stating they would not accept
                         tobacco company sponsorship, and would not name their livestock after a tobacco brand.8 It is hoped that
    advocacy support
                         their actions will influence other rodeo stock companies.
        and influence
       policy makers.    5. Work with cowboy-oriented bars and local businesses.
                         Many rodeo events and businesses promote annual rodeos with posters, banners, and special events. Cowboy-
                         oriented bars often accept tobacco sponsorship for bar-night events. The FACTS Project convinced the owners
                         of the Maverick II cowboy bar—which is located near a large tobacco-sponsored annual rodeo event in Santa
                         Maria, California—to sign a policy prohibiting tobacco sponsorship of events on its premises.9 Publicizing this
                         kind of support can put pressure on other businesses and policy makers.

                         6. Get the policy in writing.
                         Rodeo organizers may say that they have a verbal policy to prohibit tobacco sponsorship and don’t need a
                         written policy. This may be a good step, but a verbal policy may not be as likely to withstand the change in
                         membership and staff across time, and the organizers may be more likely to feel bound by something they
                         signed. In addition, a written policy can be used as a model for other rodeos.

                         1 For more information, see Model Policies for Rodeos: Requiring Smoke-Free/Tobacco-Free Grounds or Areas on the
                           Technical Assistance Legal Center (TALC) website.
                         2 See the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) website at for a list of
                           state health departments.
                         3 See the San Diego County project page on the Buck Tobacco website at
                  for detailed information about Poway’s policy.
                         4 For more information, see the South Dakota State University website at
                         5 See the Monterey County page on the Buck Tobacco website at
                 for more information.
                         6 Perales, D.P. and Perales, D.C. California State Fair Case Study prepared for the Gold Country Region, and
                           submitted to the California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section, December 2001.
                         7 See "Toolbox 2: Organizations that have joined the tobacco-free herd" section in the Rodeo Toolkit. Copies of
                           the Rodeo Toolkit may be obtained by contacting the Tobacco Education Clearinghouse of California (TECC) at
                           (800) 258-9090.
                         8 See the Santa Barbara County page on the Buck Tobacco website at
                  for more information.
                         9 Ibid.
                                         TIP SHEET #11
                                           Working with Rodeo Organizers to Get
                                          a No Tobacco Sponsorship Policy Signed

                                        fter creating a rodeo project structure and beginning to build community awareness and support,
                                        the next step is to try to meet with rodeo organizers to start a discussion about a tobacco sponsor-
                                        ship policy. Your local strategy should be developed in consultation with your steering committee.

                              1. Research the rodeo organizers. They are likely to be members of your community. Find
                              out whether anyone you know is acquainted with one of the organizers and can give you insight into how to
                              influence them.

     Ideally, try to set up   2. Contact rodeo organizers by letter and/or phone to initiate a meeting. Ideally, try to set up
       an informal initial    an informal initial meeting with rodeo organizers to determine their general attitudes about tobacco sponsor-
     meeting with rodeo       ship; whether there are any major obstacles to passing a no-sponsorship policy; and what it would take to over-
                              come any obstacles that exist. Ask for the email addresses and phone numbers of key organizers so that you
            organizers to
                              can follow up with them for further discussion.
          determine their
        general attitudes     3. After the initial contact or meeting with the organizers, ask to make a formal presentation.
           about tobacco      Bring community members from your steering committee with you and have them present if possible.
        sponsorship and       Distribute materials to leave with the organizers. The presentation should include the following items, as
       whether there are      available. (Information about how to develop each of the items listed below is available throughout this Tip
     any major obstacles      Sheet series.)
                              ■ Facts about the harm caused by spit tobacco.
         to passing a no-
                              ■ Results of surveys conducted at the rodeo and elsewhere in the community.
      sponsorship policy.
                              ■ Letters of support from community members and rodeo insiders.
                              ■ A list of other rodeos and other organizations inside and outside your state that have policies restricting
                                 tobacco sponsorship.
                              ■ A position statement on the animal welfare issue. 1
                              ■ Examples of concrete reasons why adopting a no-tobacco sponsorship policy benefits the event and the com-
                                 munity. For example, it makes the event more attractive to families and children.
                              ■ A video that shows community members who support the rodeo's decision to adopt a policy.
                              ■ An offer of “positive media” exposure to publicize the policy and the rodeo event itself, as an incentive to
                                 sign. (Note that not all of the positive media suggestions listed below require additional funding.) One
                                 project was able to get a policy passed by telling the rodeo board that if they signed, they would get very
                                 positive media exposure. (Do not provide positive exposure without asking for permission, because some-
                                 times publicity about signing a policy is unwanted.) If appropriate, you can also let the organizers know you
                                 have the ability to run ads publicizing tobacco company sponsorship of the rodeo and the negative effects of
                                 that on the community. Positive media exposure can include:
                                  ■ Running local radio, TV or print ads
                                  ■ Buying a “thank you” ad in the rodeo program
                                  ■ Putting a “thank you” ad on your website
                                  ■ Issuing press releases and/or holding a press conference
                                  ■ Publicly presenting the rodeo organizers with a congratulatory letter and/or plaque
                                  ■ Sending a letter to the editor of your local newspaper
                                  ■ Presenting a resolution from the City Council or Board of Supervisors
                                  ■ Soliciting “thank you” letters from other organizations and individuals
                                          TIP SHEET #11: Working with Rodeo Organizers to Get a No Tobacco Sponsorship Policy Signed | Page 2

 One project was able     ■ An offer of assistance in finding alternative sponsors. It is not uncommon for rodeo boards to request help
to get a policy passed      with finding alternative sponsorships. For example, in 1996 the California Rodeo Salinas had a rodeo score-
  by telling the rodeo      board that was sponsored by the U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company (USSTC). After advocacy efforts by the
                            Coalition for a Tobacco-Free Monterey County, the Dole Food Company became the sponsor of the score-
             board that
        if they signed,      ■ Try contacting local vendors, such as grocery stores, banks, restaurants, utility companies, a local
  they would get very           western apparel store, a tack and feed store, and car dealerships, and look at the lists of non-tobacco
        positive media          sponsors on rodeo websites for more ideas. Be sure to evaluate any replacements you suggest to make
              exposure.         sure they do not replace one health issue with another (for example, it is not recommended that you sug-
                                gest approaching an alcohol company to replace tobacco sponsorship).
                             ■ If you decide to pursue this strategy, be clear about what is expected. The rodeo organizers should take
                                the main responsibility for finding alternative sponsorship, with your assistance. Signing a policy should
                                not be contingent on your finding alternative sponsorship.
                          ■ An offer of one-time replacement sponsorship. Although not a permanent solution, a one-time replacement
                            of some sponsorship monies by your organization can buy time for the rodeo organizers to secure long-term
                            support. If you pursue this strategy, be clear that it is a one-time only offer. Signing a policy should not be
                            contingent on your replacing the sponsorship every year.

                          4. After the presentation, send a thank you letter to the rodeo organizers, reiterating your main points.

                          5. If the rodeo organizers seem ready to sign a policy, follow up regularly with them to help the process along
                          and answer any questions that arise. Don’t give up if the policy doesn’t get signed immediately.

                          6. If the rodeo organizers are adamant about not signing a policy, increase your community advocacy
                          activities. For example, conduct a media advocacy and advertising campaign, work with local opinion leaders
                          to increase pressure on the organizers, and otherwise increase your efforts to get your message out to the pub-
                          lic. In addition to these approaches, have someone working the “carrot” (incentive) approach by continuing to
                          try to develop a friendly relationship with key rodeo organizers and repeating offers of positive support and
                          publicity for signing a policy.

                          1 For more information about the animal welfare issue in rodeo, see the Introduction to Rodeo Tip Sheet and the
                          “Statement in Support of Rodeo” on the Buck Tobacco website at
                                           TIP SHEET #12
                                                                     Media Advocacy

              The difference               edia advocacy can be broadly defined as “the strategic use of mass media to support community
             between media                 organizing and advance healthy public policy.” It can be further defined as a tactic for community
      advocacy and social                  groups and others to shape public debate by communicating their own story in their own words to
          marketing is that    those with influence, and to apply pressure on decision makers to promote social change.1 The difference
            media advocacy     between media advocacy and social marketing is that media advocacy involves building relationships with
                               reporters, writing letters to the editor, and promoting news stories that attempt to reframe policy issues, while
          involves building
                               social marketing uses advertising to relay its messages. Below are the basic concepts of media advocacy to
         relationships with    consider as you develop your campaign.2
          reporters, writing
      letters to the editor,   1. Place the problem in context.
     and promoting news        ■ Tobacco use is a social issue and not just an individual problem.
      stories that attempt     ■ The relationship between tobacco and rodeos has a long history.3 The tobacco industry has been successful
           to reframe policy     in promoting spit tobacco as a social norm of rodeo events, and community members may or may not share
       issues, while social      your views at first.
             marketing uses
                               2. Develop an overall strategy.
       advertising to relay    ■ Define the problem you want to address so that you can focus your media strategies.
               its messages.   ■ Develop clear short-term and long-term policy goals that will shape your organizing activities and media
                                  advocacy strategies.
                               ■ Identify those with the power to create change, such as rodeo organizers.
                               ■ Identify community members such as civic leaders, the clergy, and youth leaders who can act as spokes-
                                  people to help you apply pressure on the rodeo organizers (or others who make policy decisions).
                               ■ Develop messages tailored to a target audience that can create change. This may be the rodeo organizers
                                  and/or people who are in a position to put pressure on the rodeo organizers.
                               ■ Identify people who might oppose your efforts. Try to determine what they may do or say, and how to
                                  counter their arguments.

                               3. Identify media resources. Build relationships with print and electronic media outlets by, for
     Tobacco sponsorship       example, contacting reporters to let them know you’re available to provide information about rodeos and
         is harmful to the     tobacco sponsorship; sending out press releases about newsworthy activities (see item # 5 below); and sending
          community, not       letters to the editor whenever it seems appropriate.
        helpful; addiction
            affects adults’
                               4. Reframe the issue of tobacco sponsorship of rodeos. Through their years
                               of mass product promotion and sponsorship efforts, the spit tobacco industry has tried to link the marketing
         ability to choose
                               of their products to American values important to rodeo culture, such as “freedom of choice” and “loyalty”
                freely; and    (to companies that have supported rodeos). You can reframe the issue by discussing those values in terms
       sponsorship sends       of being loyal to the community and the families who attend rodeos by keeping rodeos safe and healthy.
     unhealthy messages        Tobacco sponsorship is harmful to the community, not helpful; addiction affects adults’ ability to choose freely;
               to children.    and sponsorship sends unhealthy messages to children. Following are three examples of specific framing
                               ■ Rodeo as a sporting event, not a spitting event: “Tobacco sponsorship doesn’t belong at rodeos, where
                                   athletes have to be in excellent shape in order to compete.”
                                                                                                      TIP SHEET #12: Media Advocacy | Page 2

                         ■ Roots of rodeo as a community event: “The tobacco company is not from around here; they only come to
                            the rodeo to advertise their deadly products. Our rodeo should have healthy sponsors.”
                         ■ Industry Manipulation: “The tobacco industry doesn’t really care about our rodeo; they’re using it to sell
                            their deadly products.”

                         5. Decide how your message will be delivered.
                         ■ Find experts to talk to the media. Examples include a former tobacco user and oral cancer survivor; a rodeo
                           cowboy/cowgirl and ex-tobacco user who has seen the effect of spit tobacco on his/her rodeo friends; a
                           parent who is outraged at the promotion of tobacco at a rodeo event.
      A photograph in    ■ Match your messenger to the media. Some spokespeople do better on television, some on the radio, and
     a newspaper of a      others in print. For example, a photograph in a newspaper of a cowboy ex-tobacco user who has been
   cowboy ex-tobacco       disfigured by cancer of the mouth may be worth a thousand words about the harms of spit tobacco.
   user who has been     ■ Make your issue newsworthy by, for example, publicizing violations of the Smokeless Tobacco Master
                           Settlement Agreement (STMSA)5; pointing out how extensively tobacco companies advertise during rodeo
  disfigured by cancer
                           events; placing oppositional advertising that will get media attention; or holding events or protests.
    of the mouth may
 be worth a thousand
       words about the   1 Wallack, L. and Dorfman, L., Issue I: What is Media Advocacy? Berkeley Media Studies Group, January 1997.

harms of spit tobacco.
                         2 Much of the information in this Tip Sheet is drawn from Bucking Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos: Strategies for
                           Media Advocacy and Public Engagement by the Berkeley Media Studies Group and Public Media Center. The full
                           text is available
                         3 See the Tip Sheet How and Why Tobacco Companies Sponsor Rodeos for more information.
                         4 Op. Cit, Bucking Tobacco Sponsorship at Rodeos.
                         5 For more information about the STMSA, see the Tip Sheet Legal Fact Sheet on Limiting Tobacco Sponsorship at
                                          TIP SHEET #13
                                                                     Social Marketing

         Social marketing                  edia plays an important role in social and behavioral change efforts. Social marketing is an
         can support and                   application of business marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to
            complement a                   voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a behavior for the benefit of individuals, groups, or
          media advocacy      society as a whole. Social marketing can support and complement a media advocacy effort, and social market-
         effort, and social   ing strategies can help an advocate develop advertising materials and messages that can build the support of
                              the affected community and help get the attention of decision makers. Below are planning steps for use in
     marketing strategies
                              developing a social marketing campaign.1
     can help an advocate
      develop advertising     1. Define the problem in your community and how it is manifested. For example:
             materials and    ■ Spit tobacco can lead to disease and death. But the tobacco industry sponsors community rodeo events
       messages that can         with sampling booths, scoreboard sponsoring, banner displays, and other activities.
        build the support
            of the affected   2. Decide on the purpose of your overall advocacy campaign. Depending on how long your local
          community and       project has been working on the issue and what kind of support is available from your steering committee, this
               help get the   could be to eliminate all tobacco sponsorship, or perhaps just to eliminate tobacco sampling. A clear purpose
                              is essential for developing a media strategy.
               attention of
        decision makers.      3. Identify the priority audience for your marketing message. Since you probably do not have
                              the resources to address all audiences or the “general public,” it is critical to focus on the audience that can
                              make a difference. This may include decision makers such as rodeo organizers and business owners who
                              accept tobacco sponsorship. You may also want to consider targeting people who can influence the decision
                              makers, such as families who attend professional rodeos, students who attend college rodeos, and public
                              health advocates. Your priority audience in a policy campaign is usually the decision makers.

                              4. Analyze your priority audience. Depending on your resources, explore via surveys, focus
                              groups, observations, public records, media sources, and other sources what your audience knows and
                              believes, and the costs and benefits of what they presently do related to the change you want to make. For
                              example, if your priority audience is the rodeo organizers:
                              ■ Do they believe that the community supports tobacco sponsorship of their community rodeo event?
                              ■ Do they know that there may be alternative sponsors to the tobacco industry?
                              ■ Do the rodeo organizers believe that their acceptance of tobacco industry sponsorship money is an
                                  important benefit to the community and the rodeo? Do they think that the cost of losing tobacco industry
                                  sponsorship money will doom the rodeo? Are their assumptions accurate?

                              5. Set a long-term goal and short-term objectives for your marketing campaign.
                              These are based on the analysis of your priority audience.
                              ■ Decide when you want to accomplish your goal.
                              ■ Decide what you want your priority audience to know (knowledge objective) such as “the tobacco industry
                                 has been sponsoring rodeos and promoting its deadly spit tobacco product to our community for years.”
                              ■ Decide what you want your priority audience to believe (belief objective) such as “the rodeo organizers have
                                 a responsibility to the community to prohibit tobacco industry sponsorship of our community rodeo event.”
                                                                                                      TIP SHEET #13: Social Marketing | Page 2

                           ■ Decide what you want your priority audience to do (behavior objective) such as “pass a written policy to
                              reject tobacco sponsorship.” To pressure the rodeo organizers, your ad’s message to the community could
                              be to “call or write the rodeo organizers and tell them you want a tobacco-free rodeo policy.”

    One Buck Tobacco       6. Develop a marketing strategy. Design advertisements around the knowledge, belief, and
 ad, which was placed      behavior objectives you have identified for your priority audience.2 For example, one Buck Tobacco ad, which
  in a local newspaper     was placed in a local newspaper during the week before the local rodeo, includes a large photograph of a rodeo
       during the week     queen waving a flag and the headline “Don’t let spit tobacco giveaways stain our American family tradition.”
                           The ad explains why spit tobacco sponsorship of rodeos is problematic for the community and provides the
before the local rodeo,
                           name and contact information of a local group working to address the problem. It helps send a message to the
        includes a large   priority audience (rodeo organizers and local community members who might be able to pressure them) that
photograph of a rodeo      spit tobacco sponsorship is harmful (knowledge objective); that the cost of sponsorship to the community is
   queen waving a flag     greater than the benefit (belief objective); and that organizers should reject tobacco sponsorship (behavior
      and the headline     objective).
“Don’t let spit tobacco
        giveaways stain    7. Hire media professionals to help you develop and implement your communication strategy, if
          our American     resources are available. For example, social marketing professionals:
                           ■ Know the radio and television stations and print publications that attract different demographic groups.
      family tradition.”
                           ■ Can help you develop logos and tag lines to promote your project.
                           ■ May have relationships with media people who can provide you with pro bono (free) media coverage.
                           ■ Can help you create a budget for strategic use of media.

                           1 See Resources Tip Sheet for social marketing resources.
                           2 Visit to see Buck Tobacco’s media materials, including sample print and radio
                                          TIP SHEET #14
                                                    Evaluating Your Rodeo Project

                             Program evaluation is an important part of any project.1 Good evaluations can:
                             ■ assist you with needs and assets assessments that can help you identify community concerns about tobacco
                                 sponsorship and resources to address the issues;
                             ■   provide stakeholders, such as anti-tobacco advocates and local merchants, with information about your
                                 project activities;
                             ■   identify specific project activities that are working or not working;
                             ■   help you systematically gather information on project activities and outcomes that you can use for seeking
                                 future funding;
                             ■   provide your funding agency with documented evidence of your progress and accomplishments; and
                             ■   above all, a good evaluation tells a story that can help others learn from your experience.

        Good evaluations     Below are some tips for incorporating evaluation into your rodeo project.
           can assist you
          with needs and     1. The evaluation of your rodeo project should begin with an evaluation plan that
      assets assessments     includes:
                             ■ reviewing your goals and objectives, in order to focus the evaluation activities;
        that can help you
                             ■ identifying resources needed for evaluation (e.g., staff time, survey design expertise, computer software,
      identify community
          concerns about     ■ developing evaluation questions, such as “What are the attitudes of rodeo attendees in our community
     tobacco sponsorship         towards spit tobacco sponsorship?” that will help you focus your evaluation time and resources; and
         and resources to    ■ creating a timeline for conducting evaluation activities.
       address the issues.
                             2. Your evaluation should include both process and outcome evaluation
                             ■ Process evaluation assesses your program activities and describes how effectively you implemented your
                               strategies. For example, you could document the methods you used to get people to sign a petition during a
                               rodeo event to eliminate tobacco sponsorship of the rodeo, or how you overcame barriers to meeting with
                               the rodeo officials.
                             ■ Outcome evaluation assesses whether or not you achieved your desired outcome/change (e.g., got the local
                               rodeo to sign a no-tobacco sponsorship policy) and the key actions and decisions that helped you achieve
                               your outcome.

                             3. Good evaluation can help you produce a case study of your rodeo project that can be
                             shared with your funding agency, stakeholders, and other communities who wish to eliminate tobacco
                             sponsorship. A good case study has the following characteristics:
                             ■ Answers questions such as: “What happened?” “Who was involved?” “What did they do?” and “Why did
                                they do it?”
                             ■ Utilizes qualitative information (e.g., interviews) that is often supported by quantitative data (e.g., scaled
                                surveys). For example, a 1 to 5 scaled-response survey of 100 rodeo attendees about their attitudes towards
                                spit tobacco may find that 75% rated spit tobacco as “very harmful.” This rate can support interview
                                comments made by people such as “My cousin chewed tobacco and died of mouth cancer, and I don’t want
                                                                                         TIP SHEET #14: Evaluating Your Rodeo Project | Page 2

  Good evaluation can    to see it harm other people.” In effect, qualitative information helps you tell your story in the real words of the
   help you produce a    people involved.
case study that can be
shared with your fund-   4. Good evaluation requires the development of relevant data collection instruments to help you
 ing agency and other    collect and clearly document your process and outcome evaluation information and answer your evaluation
    communities who      questions.2 The instruments may include:
     wish to eliminate   ■ Intercept survey interviews of rodeo attendees and participants to gather information on attitudes towards
 tobacco sponsorship.        tobacco sponsorship.
                         ■ Bar observation survey to note tobacco industry sponsored bar events taking place before or after a rodeo
                         ■ Rodeo event observation survey to note the presence of tobacco industry activity such as a spit tobacco
                             sampling tent, banners, program ads, PA announcements, and sponsor flags, as well as to assess Master
                             Settlement Agreement (MSA) and Smokeless Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (STMSA) compliance.
                         ■ Key informant interviews to assess attitudes towards tobacco sponsorship of the rodeo. Key informants
                             could be local elected officials, influential business people, rodeo competitors, members of the religious
                             community, and youth-oriented organizations.

                         5. Analyzing your data:
                         ■ Analyzing interviews and written documents in particular (e.g., meeting minutes) requires an eye for
                           dentifying themes that explain what transpired between the beginning of your project and the end. For
                           example, you may find from reviewing board meeting minutes that from the beginning of your project, the
                           rodeo organizers were willing to drop tobacco sponsorship if they could find alternative sponsors.
                           Additional review of your project’s minutes may also show that assisting in the search for alternative
                           sponsorship was one of your top three strategies for getting policy adoption.
                         ■ Try to find the connection between your project’s activities (e.g., media advocacy) and the outcome. For
                           example, you may find from interviews that a major media event that you conducted to attract public
                           attention to tobacco sponsorship was an important reason why the rodeo board finally adopted a
                           no-tobacco sponsorship policy.

                         6. If you have funds to hire an outside evaluator, keep the following in mind:
                         ■ Seek out an evaluator who understands and has experience with tobacco control issues. Ask your local
                             tobacco project for names of evaluators.
                         ■   The evaluator should be a part of your program early on, ideally when you are developing your grant
                             proposal and no later than when funding begins.
                         ■   Clearly define the evaluator’s role. Will they attend staff meetings? Will they not only design the data
                             collection instruments but also collect the data? Will they do the data entry and analysis or will project staff
                             do this? Will they write progress reports to the funding agency or will the project manager do this?
                         ■   Meet with your evaluator at least once a month to keep abreast of evaluation activities. This helps the
                             project manager ensure that the project activities are in sync with the evaluation activities.
                         ■   Keep good records of your program activities including minutes of meetings, email communications, media
                             activities, etc., and share them with your evaluator. These records and documents serve as the bases for
                             high-quality process evaluation.
                         ■   Work collaboratively with your evaluator to produce a final evaluation report.

                         1 See Resources Tip Sheet for additional evaluation resource information.
                         2 Sample survey instruments regarding tobacco sponsorship are available by contacting the Project SMART
                         (Sponsorship Mission: Avoid Reliance on Tobacco) Money Workgroup at the California Department of Health
                         Services, Tobacco Control Section, at (916) 449-5500.

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