eLearning an overview

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• No one universal definition - now.
• Basically learning through web-enabled
• Usually delivered with/over
   –   CD-ROM
   –   Internet
   –   Intranet
   –   LAN (Local Area Network)
   –   WAN (Wide Area Network)
•   An overview of eLearning (!)
•   Some tricks and tips of the trade.
•   What resources do you need?
•   How do you know when you have a good
         True or False?

A learning product that does not
teach has no value.
       M.David Merrill
A learning product that does not teach has
no value.
        M.David Merrill
• Used in ISD (Instructional Systems Design)
  and other design systems.
• Effective and efficient
• Versatile and flexible
• Stands the test of time
• * Criticized as too linear
ADDIE                   Analyze

 Evaluate                                       Design

            Implement                 Develop
ADDIE minus the A=D’DIE
             A=Analysis (Upfront Work)
• Project manager with Instructional Design Manager and
  Production Manager:
• Analyze:
   – Audience
   – Content (task analysis or content hierarchy – collaborate with
   – Resources ($$, human & tech)
   – Instructional needs
   – Processes (procedures)
• Deliver:
   – Budget (give high & low estimates based on media options &
   – Project proposal (and sometimes the look & feel samples)
• Do:
   – Present and get commitments (sign-off) from all
     concerned parties
   – Distribute criteria and samples of META-TAGS to all
     participating parties

• No sign off :
   – responsibility with no authority.
   – Costly changes (time, money, resources)
   – Look-feel (color & image) choices!
• Skipping tasks for sake of speed.
           D = Design

• Instructional Design
• Re-design
• Graphic Design
              Instructional DESIGN
•   Determine goals and objectives: include both terminal and enabling
•   Decide on:
     – Approach: easy tasks first, non-sequential, or problem solving.
     – Types of communications: Synchronous, asynchronous,
     – amount of online time: total, blended (hybrid), computer
        supported learning
     – Type of use: on the job training, on demand, home study, group
        study, etc..
     – Reusability (objects and modules) - to SCORM or not to SCORM
     – List the entry behaviors that the learner must demonstrate prior
        to training.
•   Design:
     – Objects > pages > modules > courses > series. (What goes
        where and how it goes together.)
     – Interactivity (Where, what for, how much.)
     – Assessments (Questions, answers, instant feedback & tracking)
     – Flow-chart for developers to use in design and development of
        User Interface & Architecture
• Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model
  includes three parts:
   – Overview - about the model, vision and
   – Content Aggregation Model - how to put
     learning content together so it can be
     moved and reused.
   – Run Time Environment: How content is
     launched and the learner's progress is
     tracked and reported back.
• Who uses SCORM?
(Information on SCORM in table at end of slide show.)
                              Flow-chart – top level
                               About Us
                                                                    Other Products

                                                Vertical Learning

Accounting   Marketing   Finance     Industry
           Flow-chart: lower level


                                   Research          Research           Research
                                   Strategies        Solutions          Data

           Standard Pages for                                                      Standard Pages
           Strategies:                          Standard Pages for                 for Data Sources:
           -Introduction                        Solutions:                         -About the
           -Defining the Problem                A. Problems                        Reviews
           -Sources & Research                  -Problem Statement                 -Overview:
           Strategies                           -Background                        Ratings, -Tables,
           1Resources                           -Strategy                          -Development,
                                                -Results                           -Data Sources
                                                B Case Study
                                                -Reference -Interview
                                                -Research Strategy
                                                -Research Results & -
                        Flow-chart: bottom level

                  h skills

#   #   #     #               #       #   #   #
1   2   3     4               5       6   7   8

            Standard Pages for each
            of the tutorial:
            - Goals
             & Objectives
            - Table Contents
            - Report
            - Tips
• Marketing jumps the gun & makes
• Unclear definitions to developers
• Meta- tags not universal
• Misinterpretations of the paths.
• SMEs!!! (Subject Matter Experts)
• Converting existing classroom or textbook
  courses to eLearning is a common task now.
• Deconstruct existing course (this is essential)
   – Determine the knowledge structure: Is there more
     than one organizational choice?
   – Determine the dominate function: Is it?
     Communication, concepts, procedures, affective…?
   – Do not recreate a classroom or textbook on line.
   – Use the strengths of the computer: nonlinearity, self-
     pacing, media, interactivity, tracking, etc.
• Redesign then reconstruct course
• Testing design docs (not programming)
• By SMEs (Subject Matter Experts)
   – Check accuracy of information including
   – Check activities, and assessments especially
     answers and explanations.
   – Validate the instruction
• Review the process
   – For effectiveness and efficiency
• Revise courseware and process

• SMEs!!!
• Electronic textbook approach.
   – Need for speed.
   – Lack of knowledge of instruction and
            Graphic Design

• Look & Feel – detailed out
• UI & Navigation (sometimes)
• Headers & Logos
• Graphics & Images
• Animations & slide shows
• Interactive practices, questions, quizzes, tests,
• Assessments (interactive)
• Icons
• Etc.

• Pick the right graphic
• Over-the-wall process
• Unclear directions from ID
• Improper meta-tagging
• Platform conformity
          D = Develop (produce)
• Develop a Rapid Prototype.*
   – remove bugs & provide marketing with sample
• Develop the courseware.
• Select the media and media events
   – text, animations, slide shows, etc.
• Produce the necessary materials
   – not already produced in graphic dept.
• Synthesize the materials into a viable learning

*A quickly assembled module that can be tested early in
  the production process.
            Graphic Design

• Belongs here as well as in Design phase.
  Usually look-feel is complete by this phase.
• UI & Navigation (sometimes)
• Animations & slide shows
• Interactive practices, questions, quizzes, tests,
• Assessments (interactive)
• Icons
• Etc.
     Help Authoring Tools (HAT)

• Some tools the
  same as design
  phase. Sometimes
  more hard
  programming here.
• Knopf Online
 is a leading provider of
 consulting, training, and
 development services for the
 high-tech industry.
 Macromedia Development Tools
Macromedia: http://www.macromedia.com/software/
• Contribute 3 lets everyone in an organization publish to websites
  and bring them alive with up-to-date content and information. There
  is no easier or more affordable way to keep web content current and
  relevant. Cheap.
• Captivate (formerly RoboDemo) automatically records all onscreen
  actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. Point and
  click to add text captions, narration, and e-learning interactions
  without any programming knowledge. Not too expensive.
• Dreamweaver: Build professional web sites and applications. Not
  difficult to learn on a basic level so is good tool for beginning
  developers. Knowing some HTML allows for more custimazation and
  control. Not expensive.
• Flash is almost essential to provide animation and interactivity. Not
  too expensive.
• Authorware is the leading visual authoring tool for creating rich-
  media e-learning applications for delivery on corporate networks,
  CD/DVD, and the Web. Develop accessible applications that comply
  with learning management system (LMS) standards. VERY expensive.
       Other Development Tools
• Programming knowledge of HTML, XML, JavaScript,
  Java, etc. for custom designs.
• A site that recommends tools: .
• This page provides links to software tools (None from
  Macromedia) that are useful for the production of formal
  e-learning solutions, listed in alphabetical order:
• An excellent article: Content builders- tools for e-
  learning authors
• Knopf Online: excellent resource page for tools:
• Validate the instruction to ensure it
  accomplishes all goals and objectives.
  – Have real people try the prototype.
  – Have real people try the course.
• Review courseware and process
  – Ensure that the training materials are clear,
    accurate, and effective.
  – Ensure process is effective and efficient.
• Revise courseware and process.

•   Marketing jumps the gun.
•   Skip testing altogether.
•   Skip testing by real people.
•   Development goes on during testing!
           I = Implement:
             Beta Version

• Make a plan for conducting course,
  testing program & tracking users.
• Implement (deploy/launch) course.
• Conduct course.
• Test course while in use.
• Track users behaviors and learning.
• Use information to revise course,
  programming and processes.

• No plan or poor plan.
• Manipulation of or ignoring data.
• Development starts for v.1 and goes on
  during data collection.
                   E = Evaluation
• Content
    – Does the program include the appropriate amount of information?
    – Is the information up-to-date and correct?
• Instructional Design
    – Is the course designed to maximize learning? Are the objectives
• Interactivity
    – Is the user engaged actively and meaningfully?
• Navigation
    – Can users determine their own path?
    – Is there an exit option? Is a course map accessible?
    – Is there an appropriate use of icons and clear labels to maximize
      user friendliness?
•   Use of Media
    –Does the program appropriately and effectively employ graphics,
    animation, music, sound, video, etc.?
    –Is the gratuitous use of these media avoided?
    –Is the soundtrack really annoying?
      Evaluation (cont.)
• Evaluation (Assessment)
   – Is there some type of evaluation, such as:
       completion of a module?
• Aesthetics
   – Is the program attractive and appealing to the eye and
   – Does the structure of the screen add to the program?
• Record Keeping
   – Are student performance data recorded, such as time to
     complete, question analyses, and final scores? Is the data
     forwarded to the course manager automatically?
• Tone
   – Is the program designed for the audience? Does it avoid
     being condescending, trite, pedantic, etc.?
• ROI (Return On Investment)
   Adapted from Brandon Hall

• Report gets “filed”.
• ROI is good.
• ROI is poor.
    Next: A.D.D.I.E. Add-ons
•   Human Resources
•   Schedule
•   Course Management Technology
•   Sampling courses
•   Links
              Human Resources
• Needs vary: type of organization, money, talent
  (multi-talented people), technology available.
• Managers:
   – Project
   – Instructional design
   – development (production)
• Writers/editors
• Graphic designers
• Programmers, web-masters, etc.
1. Analyze:
                             Work-flow Schedule
                        2. Design:            3. Develop:                                     6. Track:
                                                             4. Implement:     5. Evaluate:

 Upfront work            .

 Informative text        Instruction

 Instructional events    Implementation                                        ID Revisions    ID Revisions

 Instructional           Evaluation Process

 Design & develop        User Interface        UI            Programming       Develop V1
 samples: look-feel                                          Revisions

                         Begin: Graphics       Graphics      Graphic

                         Begin: Develop        Courseware

                                                             Beta Version                      Implement V1

                                                             Formative         Summative:
                                                             evaluation        data
                                                             of learning       collection
                                                             elements & user   & Analysis
                                                             reaction                          Track use,
                                                                                               success &
 Interaction             Interaction           Interaction   Interaction       Interaction     Interaction
 &                       &                     &             &                 &               &
 Feedback                Feedback              Feedback      Feedback          Feedback        Feedback
 Course Management Technology

• LMS: Learning Management System
• CMS: Content Management System
• LCMS: Learning / Content Management
              What do you think?
• Good or Poor? From Instructional Technology: Global
  Resources Network: WBT Module: Motivation:

• Good or Poor? Rotary International Club and District
  Administration Software (RI-CAS and RI-DAS) Tutorials

• Rip off or Service? Site for Free and low cost
  online training: Free Skills             http://www.freeskills.com/

• Good or Poor? Implementing and Managing Microsoft
  Exchange 2000. Module 1: Introduction to Microsoft
  Exchange 2000
  (Scroll down to: download module 1, click on download, unzip file and
  open.) (or open PDF).
    Instructional Design & info Sites
• Instructional Systems Design, from Colorado University,
  Denver (more than you ever wanted to know):
• Big Dog’s ISD Page: lots of info and links to information
  about Instructional Systems Design:
• The HPC SPIDER provides a wide range of information on
  eLearning : .https://www.spider.hpc.navy.mil/
• The Learned Man (eLearning & Training BLOG):
• Gagne’s 9 Learning Events (how to design the lessons):
• SCORM, An overview: http://www.rhassociates.com/scorm.htm
• From Carnegie Mellon: links to info on SCORM:
• What is, and is not, eLearning?
                  Organizations & Journals
•   eLearning Guild: http://www.elearningguild.com/
•   Brandon Hall: expensive, but has free resources at
•   eLearning Trends, Elliott Maisie: http://www.masie.com/
•   ISPI: International Society for Performance Improvement:
•   eLearners.com: http://www.elearners.com/resources/index.asp
•   Tech . Learning site for Education Technology Leaders:
•   Sloan Consortium: http://www.sloan-c.org/index.asp
•   Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education:
•   Educause: http://www.educause.edu/apps/eq/index.asp
•   Training Magazine: http://www.trainingmag.com/training/index.jsp
•   Online Learning Magazine:
•   T.H.E Journal: http://www.thejournal.com/
•   Electronic Journal of eLearning: http://www.ejel.org/index.htm
•   Grants for ed tech: http://www.castletechnology.com/resources/funding.html

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