The West

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					The West
 1848 -1893
   Which of the following statements is true
   about women in the western territories
              during the 1800s?
1. They were educated and had
   more leisure time to pursue their
   interests and hobbies                   0%
2. They often mined for gold and
   assisted cowboys in the cattle
3. They found a flexible society
   with more freedom and fewer
   traditional roles than in cities.
4. Their traditional roles and
   expectations were the same as
   they had always been.               1   2   3   4
The West
 1848 -1893
       The American Frontier
• Prior to the Civil War, thousands had gone
  west, seeking fame, fortune, and new

• After the end of the war, the pace of
  settlement increased dramatically.
     ―Go West, Young Man‖
• Why did people go West?

Why would people want to migrate West?
 Which of the following was NOT a pull factor for
 settlers who migrated West during the 1800s?

1.   freedom of religion
2.   discovery of gold                   0%
3.   large tracts of land
4.   the Civil War

                                     1   2   3   4
            Theme: Migration
• The movement of people within the United
  States has had a significant impact on the
  nation. These movements have been both
  voluntary and involuntary.
• Select a period of migration that had an impact
  on the United States and for each
  – Describe the historical circumstances that led to the
  – Discuss the impact of the migration on the United
 ―No man has a right to fix the boundary of the march of a
nation; no man has a right to say to his country: this far you
                should go and no further.‖
    The author of this statement would most likely have
           supported the United States policy of

1.   containment                                0%
2.   manifest destiny
3.   Sectionalism
4.   isolationism

                                            1   2   3   4
• Gold and silver discoveries send many west.
• First major Western Gold find was in California
  in 1848.
  – 80,000 Forty-niners came to California, few became
• Comstock Lode in Nevada
  – Gold and silver discovered in 1859.
• Pike’s Peak
  – Gold discovery brought 100,000 into Colorado.
• First pan-handlers sifted
  for gold in streams.
• Big strikes led to the
  formation of Boomtowns.
• Most boomtowns
  disappear when the gold
  ran out.
• A few towns survive to
  become large cities:
  – San Francisco, Denver,
          Who Made Money?
• Many miners arrived too late
  to find gold
• The people who made
  money were those who
  recognized how to supply
  goods and services to the
• Levi Strauss – Opened
  General Store in San
  – Rec’d patent for Jeans with
• People of all classes,
  races, and genders
  come West to mine.
• Most were single
  white men, but there
  were African-
  American miners.
• 1/3 of all Western
  miners were Chinese.
 ―The Most Rapid and Effective

• On the frontier, immigrants were
  refashioned into new people, no longer,
  English or German or Irish or Swedish but
           Cattle Ranching
• Beef was in high demand after the Civil
  War as cities grew.
• Easy to enter Cattle Ranching as
  range/feed was free.
• Growth of railroads made it possible to get
  western beef to eastern markets.
      Longhorns on the Range
• As with mining,
  cattletowns develop
  near railheads to
  handle cattle drives.
• Time of the cowboy
  and the open West.
  – The setting for much
    of the Hollywood
Cowboys from Texas herded the
 cattle to the stocking yards of
Abilene, Dodge City, Cheyenne

                               Large meat companies like the
                              Swifts and Armours needed the
                              cattle in the meat-packing plants
                               of Chicago before shipping the
                              meat to the East Coast markets
Men like Wild Bill Hickok and Wyatt Earp were hired to keep law and order in the rising
towns of the West.
          End of the Range
• Cattle drives end in the late 1880s.
• Overgrazing, a severe drought, and a
  harsh winter decimated cattle herds.

• Joseph Glidden’s invention, barbed-wire,
  enabled farmers to fence off their land and
  ended the open ranges needed to feed
What impact did the invention of barbed wire
      have on the Western territories?
1. Cowboys and their cattle often got
   hurt or stuck on the sharp wire
2. Ranchers could fence in their own
   livestock as well as keep roaming
   cattle and other animals from
   grazing their land, effectively
   ending the open range.
3. Native Americans were more likely
   to raid a ranch with barbed wire
   because they thought it went
   against nature.
4. It opened lands previously closed
   to cattle grazing.

                                        1   2   3   4
          The Range Wars

 Sheep                      Cattle
Herders                    Ranchers
• Lincoln County Wars   • Billy would be hunted
• Billy the Kid joins     down by bounty
  ―The Regulators‖ to     hunters, the military
  bring murderers to      and law men
    Colt .45 Revolver

God didn’t make men equal.
      Colonel Colt did!
• Hundred of thousands move West to
  become farmers.
• The 1862 Homestead Act gave 160 acres
  of land to anyone who would work the land
  for 5 years – for free!
• The 1862 Morrill Act gave states western
  land to sell to fund new colleges—
  increased educational opportunities and
  provided cheap land for settlers.
   “The Rain will Follow the Plow”
• Farming on the Great
  Plains was not easy.
• Sod was thick and
  hard to plow the first
• Few trees, little wood
  for buildings, so many
  built their houses from
What foreign policy action granted the
United States the land within the Great
         Great Plains Farming
• Environmental factors made it difficult to farm
  the Great Plains:
  – Little rainfall
  – Many crops not suited to the conditions

• Not until farmers adopted dry farming or
  irrigation did Great Plains farmers really
  The Farmer is the Man When the farmer comes to town
              With his wagon broken down,
                Oh, the farmer is the man
                 Who feeds them all. . . .
                  The farmer is the man,
                  The farmer is the man,
                Lives on credit till the fall;
            Then they take him by the hand
            And they lead him from the land,
              And the middleman’s the man
                     Who gets it all. . . .
                   -- American folk song

    The problem identified by this folk song was a result of       0%
1. farm productivity declining for several
2. too many Americans entering the
   occupation of farming
3. poor farming practices destroying
4. low profits forcing many people out of

                                                               1   2   3   4
Farming Becomes Mechanized
• McCormick invents   • John Deere invents
  the mechanical        the steel plow
Early farmers who settled in the West found their existing farming
  equipment would not cut through the tough prairie soil. John
 Deere invented a new tool to solve this problem. What was the
                   innovation he developed?

  1.   mechanical reaper                          0%
  2.   steel plow
  3.   barbed wire
  4.   windmill

                                              1   2   3   4
    Russian Immigrants Save the
           Great Plains!
• Russian Mennonite immigrants from the Steppe
  region of Russia bring wheat seeds with them
• This particular wheat grows well in the plains
• Region becomes the ―Bread Basket‖
      Frederick Jackson Turner
• A historian whose 1893 Frontier Thesis claimed
  that the West had been completely settled.

• Used US Census data to back his the argument in
  his essay.

• While many continued to move West, the frontier
  was considered closed. Americans would have to
  look for new frontiers to conquer.
“Up to our own day American history is the history of the colonization of
   the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, ...and the
     advance of American settlement westward explain American
   This quotation of the 1890's suggests that the American frontier
1. should be preserved for
   free use by all the people
2. has mirrored European
   values and social
3. will continue indefinitely
   as a region to be
4. has had a positive effect
   on the growth of the
   United States
                                                    1   2   3   4
• What 3 options did settlers in
  the West have to choose from?
  – Mining
  – Farming
  – Ranching
   Thinking beyond the Notes
• Explain how the following characteristics
  central to being American were prevalent
  in the West.
  – Individualism
  – Self-Reliance
  – Practicality
  – Energy
  – Inventiveness
  – Confidence that the future would be better
    than the present
            Theme: Migration
• The movement of people within the United
  States has had a significant impact on the
  nation. These movements have been both
  voluntary and involuntary.
• Select a period of migration that had an impact
  on the United States and for each
  – Describe the historical circumstances that led to the
  – Discuss the impact of the migration on the United
    In the second half of the 19th century,
     agriculture in the United States was
           transformed most by the
1. increase in prices paid
   for farm products
2. decline in the population          0%
   growth rate of the United
3. decline in demand for
   agricultural products
4. increase in the use of
   farm machinery

                                  1   2   3   4
The main reason for the passage of
the Homestead Act in 1862 was to
           provide for
1. irrigation of desert
   lands                      0%
2. national parks
3. farms on the Great
4. reservations for
   Native American
   Indians                1   2   3   4
 During the period from 1865 to 1900,
the rapid growth of cities in the western
   part of the United States resulted
               mainly from
1. better roads
2. a greater number of
3. the invention of the
   telegraph and
4. the growth of railroads

                             1   2   3   4
 “The Most Rapid and Effective Americanization”
Which statement about the westward movement in
the United States during the 19th century is most
 1. The frontier discouraged
    interest in the expansion
    of voting rights.                 0%
 2. The frontier experience
    tended to decrease
    social class differences.
 3. Western expansion
    slowed the rate of
 4. The West was settled
    mostly by immigrants          1   2   3   4

    from Asian nations.
Which was a major result of the
  Homestead Act of 1862?
1. increased public
   awareness of the need for
   conservation of natural
   resources                        0%
2. increased development of
   Western lands
3. decreased conflicts
   between Native American
   Indians and white settlers
4. decreased economic
   opportunities for
   easterners                   1   2   3   4

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