Gaps Strategic Plan FINAL by dandanhuanghuang

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									                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory



                ADMINISTRATIVE HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS
1. The title of this document is the Bay Area Super Urban Area Security Initiative Training and
   Exercise Report.

2. This publication is supported by Award No. 4123-06/07 awarded by the U.S. Department of
   Homeland Security (DHS), Office of Grants and Training (G&T). The opinions, findings,
   and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors
   and do not necessarily reflect the views of DHS.

3. The material provided in this report contains DHS information that is For Official Use Only
   or types of sensitive but unclassified information requiring protection against unauthorized
   disclosure. This document should be safeguarded, handled, transmitted, and stored in
   accordance with appropriate security directives governing protection and dissemination of
   such information. Reproduction of this document, in whole or in part, without prior approval
   from the Bay Area Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) is prohibited.

4. Project Points of Contact:

        Skip Shervington                                 Guy Bernardo
        Project Manager                                  Project Manager
        Bay Area SUASI Program                           Bay Area SUASI Program
        1300 Clay Street, Ste. 400                       1300 Clay Street, Ste. 400
        Oakland, CA 94612-1425                           Oakland, CA 94612-1425
        510-286-6743 (office)                            510-286-6741 (office)
        sshervington@BayAreaSUASI.org                    408-219-6679 (cell)
                                                         gbernardo@BayAreaSUASI.org

        Celeste Cook                                     Laura Phillips
        Regional Director, Homeland Security             General Manager
        EG&G Technical Services, Inc.                    Bay Area SUASI Program
        1333 Broadway, Suite 800                         1300 Clay Street
        Oakland, CA 94612                                Oakland, CA. 94612-1425
        510-874-3068 (office)                            415-850-4794
        408-230-3512 (cell)                              lphillips@BayAreaSUASI.org
        ccook@egginc.com




ADMINISTRATIVE HANDLING                             i                                  BAY AREA SUASI
INSTRUCTIONS                           FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                         FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                   Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis     Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan    Training Options Inventory



                                            CONTENTS
Administrative Handling Instructions .......................................................... i

Executive Summary ................................................................................... iv

Chapter 1: Project Overview ....................................................................... 1
   A. Purpose .............................................................................................. 1
   B. Scope and Applicability ......................................................................... 1
   C. Methodology and Contents .................................................................... 2
   D. Objectives .......................................................................................... 3
   E. Planning Assumptions and Considerations................................................ 3
   F. Authorities, Requirements, and Regulations ............................................. 4

Chapter 2: Gap Analysis ............................................................................ 11
   Background .......................................................................................... 11
  Section 1: NIMS/SEMS Evaluation ............................................................ 12
     A. Analysis Criteria............................................................................. 12
     B. Regional Analysis ........................................................................... 12
     C. Regional Survey Findings ................................................................ 15
  Section 2: Law Enforcement .................................................................... 18
     A. Analysis Criteria............................................................................. 18
     B. Regional Analysis ........................................................................... 18
     C. Regional Survey Findings ................................................................ 19
  Section 3: Fire/Hazmat ........................................................................... 23
     A. Analysis Criteria............................................................................. 23
     B. Regional Analysis ........................................................................... 23
     C. Regional Survey Findings ................................................................ 24
  Section 4: Emergency Medical Services ..................................................... 29
     A. Analysis Criteria............................................................................. 29
     B. Regional Analysis ........................................................................... 29
     C. Regional Survey Findings ................................................................ 30

Chapter 3: Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan ..................................... 36
  Foreword .............................................................................................. 36
  Section 1: Introduction ........................................................................... 37
     A. Background................................................................................... 37
     B. Purpose ........................................................................................ 37
  Section 2: Program Priorities ................................................................... 39
  Section 3: Overview ............................................................................... 42
     A. Project Methodology ....................................................................... 42
     B. Project Findings ............................................................................. 43
     C. Exercise Gaps By Scenario .............................................................. 48
     D. Hindrances ................................................................................... 54

CONTENTS                                              ii                                   BAY AREA SUASI
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                                                                                  Funded by DHS
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 Gap Analysis     Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


       E. Exercise Planning ...........................................................................   55
       F. Exercise Scheduling........................................................................     56
    Section 4: Planning Process .....................................................................     57
       A. Building-Block Approach .................................................................       57
       B. Exercise Planning Team ..................................................................       58
       C. Exercise Evaluation and Improvement ..............................................              58
       D. Sharing Lessons Learned ................................................................        60
    Section 5: Types of Exercises...................................................................      62
       A. Discussion Based Exercises .............................................................        62
       B. Operations Based Exercises .............................................................        65

Chapter 4: Training Options Inventory...................................................... 68
  Introduction .......................................................................................... 68
  Section 1: NIMS/SEMS Training................................................................ 70
  Section 2: Law Enforcement Team Training................................................ 76
     A. Mobile Field Force / Crowd Control ................................................... 76
     B. Bomb Squad / Explosives Team ....................................................... 77
     C. Public Safety Dive Teams (Including Underwater Explosives Teams)...... 78
     D. SWAT Team (Basic) ....................................................................... 78
     E. Law Enforcement Observation Aircraft (Fixed-Wing) / Aviation Helicopters
     – Patrol and Surveillance .................................................................... 79
  Section 3: Fire/Hazmat Training ............................................................... 85
  Section 4: EMS Resources Training ........................................................... 89
     A. Ambulance Strike Team Leader Training............................................ 89
     B. Ambulance Strike Team Provider Course ........................................... 89
     C. Hazmat/WMD Instructor Certification ................................................ 89
     D. Air Ambulance (Fixed Wing) / Air Ambulance (Rotary Wing)................. 90
  Section 5: Additional Training Resources ................................................... 95
     A. Local and State Jurisdictions............................................................ 95
     B. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) ................................... 95
     C. WMD-Related Federal Agencies ........................................................ 98
     D. Additional WMD Agent References .................................................... 99




CONTENTS                                            iii                                   BAY AREA SUASI
                                        FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                      FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                               Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory



                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Bay Area Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) program is comprised of three
major cities (Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose), ten counties (Alameda, Contra Costa,
Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma) and
more than 100 cities with a combined population of nearly 7 million people. Some of the
nation’s most notable landmarks are located in the Bay Area, as well as major components of the
U.S. economy, vital air, sea and ground transportation links, major universities and hospitals, and
prominent professional sports and entertainment venues. The region has multiple vulnerabilities
based on these and other potential terrorist targets as well as its geologic makeup.

Given this elevated risk, the Bay Area SUASI provided funding to address the need for public
safety first responders and their supporting agencies to participate in a strategic regional training
and exercise program focused on the development of regional disaster response capabilities. The
current nationwide effort to improve preparedness at all levels of government emphasizes the
criticality of regional training and exercise programs designed to enhance regional response
capabilities.

The Bay Area SUASI program goals include improving the regional capacity to prevent, protect
against, respond to, and recover from terrorist incidents or other catastrophic events by providing
strategic planning, training and exercises. Compilation and analysis of current training and
exercise benchmarks, conduct of a regional training status assessment, and development of a
regional multi-year program plan are important steps in reaching these goals.

This document provides a report on the results of a comprehensive research and analysis effort
conducted in 2007-2008 involving first responder agencies throughout the Bay Area SUASI
region. This study endeavored to determine what Federal and State mandates exist for disaster
response training and exercises as they apply to Law Enforcement, Fire and Emergency Medical
Services (EMS), assess how successful the region has been in achieving these mandates and
what the hindrances have been to complying with these mandates.

The overall report consists of the following:

   •   Executive Summary - synopsis of project and resultant findings
   •   Gap Analysis - regional assessment of what training/exercises are needed in the region
   •   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan - Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation
       Program (HSEEP)-compliant plan to address identified regional gaps
   •   Training Options Inventory - specific course recommendations available to address gaps

The initial examination of mandatory training involved extensive research as well as outreach to
numerous subject matter experts and authorities. The results of this research were utilized to
establish benchmarks for each of the subject disciplines and then to create data collection


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                 iv                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                                                               Funded by DHS
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


surveys. These surveys were distributed throughout the ten Bay Area Counties using multiple
outreach methods. An aggressive outreach campaign was implemented in an effort to collect as
much relevant data as possible. This data was entered into a relational database, analyzed, and a
gap analysis was generated. Also factored into this analysis were the findings of a concurrent
SUASI project which identified and prioritized gaps in Bay Area regional response capabilities
to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or Explosive (CBRNE) event.

The regional Gap Analysis findings are presented by discipline and topic area. Findings of note
include:

   •   The collected data for law enforcement training of disaster response resources suggests
       that significant gaps exist in mandated training. The discipline regionally appears to have
       been most successful in providing training to Bomb Squads/ Explosive Teams.
   •   Training gaps exist for three law enforcement response resources which were identified
       as “high priority” groups by the SUASI CBRNE project: Bomb Squad / Underwater
       Explosive Teams, Crowd Control / Mobile Field Force, and Observation Aircraft –
       Fixed-Wing, Types I and II.
   •   Training gaps exist for both Air Ambulance Fixed-Wing and Rotor-Wing aircraft which
       in turn requires training of EMS staff necessary to equip both types of aircrafts. Both of
       these categories were identified as “high priority” by the CBRNE project.
   •   The most significant Fire/Hazardous Materials training gaps appear at the supervisory
       and management levels as well as in the technical positions of Hazardous Materials Entry
       Teams.
   •   It appears from the data collected that the region does not have the capability to deploy an
       Area Command Team or one of its members.
   •   The region reported that less than 10% of personnel were trained in the majority of the
       courses required for certification in Incident Management Team positions. The CBRNE
       project Needs Prioritization Summary ranks the development of firefighting Incident
       Management Teams as “high priority”.
   •   Personnel elements of Fire Hand Crews (Crew Boss, Firefighter I and Firefighter II) had
       high completion rates.
   •   Most agencies have done well complying with the basic Standardized Emergency
       Management System/National Incident Management System (SEMS/NIMS) overview
       course requirements. Many agencies have experienced difficulties in addressing ICS-300
       and IS-800 training mandates for their emergency-related supervisory personnel.

The recommended regional Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan is based on analysis of the
gaps demonstrated by the collected data as well as on recommendations regarding specialized
regional training needs generated by the SUASI CBRNE project. The plan provides a broad
interpretation of the region’s long term needs. With the understanding that it is designed to be
flexible, jurisdictions within the SUASI region will also be able to utilize the plan to better
design their individual programs.



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                  v                                  BAY AREA SUASI
                                      FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                      FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                               Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


The Training Options Inventory identifies potential training solutions and recommendations to
address identified gaps. It is based on best practices and available courses at this time, and
incorporates cost-effective options, train-the-trainer courses and other efforts to address
sustainability and regional approaches wherever possible.

The information contained in the overall report will be used to guide further training and exercise
expenditures by the Bay Area SUASI. It can also serve to provide important guidance to local
first responder training programs seeking to comply with disaster response training and exercise
mandates. The long term goal of the combined elements of this project is to enhance the
operational readiness of the regional disaster response system.




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                 vi                                  BAY AREA SUASI
                                      FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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                                                                               Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory



                     CHAPTER 1: PROJECT OVERVIEW

A.     PURPOSE
The Bay Area Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) Training and Exercise Project was
designed to provide a multi-discipline, multi-hazard assessment of the current levels of disaster
response training and exercises in the ten-county Bay Area region. After the training and
exercise baseline for the region was identified, it was compared to training and exercise
mandates previously identified in the preliminary phase of this project (See Training and
Exercise Mandates Final Report). The Training and Exercises Gap Analysis was developed
based on this comparison, which was utilized as a basis for a Five-Year Training and Exercise
Plan as well as for development of a Training Options Inventory for the Bay Area SUASI region.
The long term goal of the combined elements of this project is to improve operational readiness
of the regional disaster response system.

The elements of the Bay Area SUASI Training & Exercise Report (T&E Report) were developed
in accordance with national, state, and local emergency management systems and guidance. Its
findings and recommendations are based on available data collected via extensive outreach
efforts as well as the expertise of subject matter experts in the disciplines examined. The T&E
Report provides a current snapshot of disaster response training requirements against which
regional compliance was assessed. The overall compliance findings as well as the data collected
on hindrances to compliance were helpful in developing a strategic plan to improve regional
capabilities. The Five-Year Training and Exercise Plan has been designed to reinforce the
principle that exercises are a segment of the training continuum and should be integrated into
overarching training strategies. It is threat- and performance-based providing a range of exercise
activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction. The plan provides a broad
interpretation of the region’s long term needs. With the understanding that it is designed to be
flexible, jurisdictions within the SUASI region should also be able to utilize the plan to better
design their individual programs.

The regional training and exercise plan is meant to build on and enhance local training and
exercise efforts. The T&E Report can also serve as a tool for training officers and others charged
with the responsibility for implementing and/or overseeing first responder training programs.
Both the compliance findings within the Training and Exercises Gap Analysis and the T&E
Report can be utilized by first responder agencies when developing budget requests and
justifications.


B.     SCOPE AND APPLICABILITY
This report considers three of the major disciplines within the ten professional disciplines
identified as first responders in Section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C 101).
First responders are those individuals who, in the early stages of an incident, are responsible for

CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        1                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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the protection and preservation of life, property, evidence, and the environment, including
emergency response providers. The three first responder disciplines, and their associated
definitions, are as follows:

     1. Law Enforcement: Individuals who, on a full-time, part-time, or voluntary basis, work
        for agencies at the local, municipal, and state levels with responsibilities as sworn law
        enforcement officers.
     2. Fire Service: Individuals who, on a full-time, part-time, or voluntary basis, provide
        life-safety services, including fire suppression, rescue, arson investigation, public
        education, prevention and hazardous materials response.
     3. Emergency Medical Services (EMS): Individuals who, on a full-time, part-time, or
        voluntary basis, serve as first responders, emergency medical technicians (EMTs),
        emergency medical responders, paramedics, etc., and paramedics on ground-based and
        aero-based medical services to provide pre-hospital care.

Only the training and exercise requirements applicable to those resources found in the list of
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Typed Resource Definitions have been
evaluated for the purposes of this report.


C.      METHODOLOGY AND CONTENTS
Current Federal, State and local disaster response training mandates were researched extensively.
A baseline was established for each of the three subject disciplines. Both mandated and
recommended training identified in this baseline was used to formulate three data collection
surveys aimed at capturing current training levels:

     1. Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) / National Incident
        Management System (NIMS) Training Survey
        Addresses compliance with Incident Command System (ICS) 100-400 level training and
        other relevant SEMS / NIMS coursework; hindrances and delivery methods are
        identified.
     2. Two Year Exercise History Survey
        Uses the 15 National Planning Scenarios and Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation
        Program (HSEEP) exercise typing to develop a picture of the recent exercise activity and
        priorities in the region.
     3. Comprehensive Resource Training Survey
        Asked disciplines to provide a snapshot of their current training levels based on identified
        Federal and State standards for FEMA-Typed Resources; hindrances and delivery
        methods are included.



CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                         2                                  BAY AREA SUASI
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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                                                                               Funded by DHS
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Data collection was accomplished through outreach by both the SUASI Regional Planners and
EG&G staff. This process included phone and in-person instruction and support to each of the
10 Operational Areas as well as numerous “benchmark” cities in each. These “benchmark”
cities were selected based on population.

The intent of this data collection effort was a thorough examination of the region’s training and
exercise profile based on Homeland Security Directives, FEMA Typed Resource Definitions,
NIMS requirements, and the National Response Framework.

The collected data generated a regional picture and a current status report for all of the Bay Area
SUASI Operational Areas. The gap analysis was conducted to measure conformance to training
standards for SEMS / NIMS and disaster response assets. Identified training gaps and needs were
the basis for development of a suggested long-term training and exercise plan that factored in
current training achievements, best practices, desired outcomes, potential partnerships with
contiguous jurisdictions, and the need to adhere to Department of Homeland Security guidance.
A Training Options Inventory was also presented for consideration of potential training
opportunities and costs, highlighting sustainable training platforms such as train-the-trainer.


D.     OBJECTIVES
The goal of this report is to offer a concise pathway for the Bay Area SUASI region and its
components to achieve training and exercise goals consistent with current Federal and State
standards and compatible with both local needs and regional collaboration strategies. The
outreach methods used in this project also provided an opportunity to disseminate information
regarding current training mandates to all jurisdictions. Participation in the data collection
offered an opportunity for realistic self-assessment as to individual agency capabilities and
progress level compared to stated benchmarks. The accumulation of data found in this report
endeavors to represent a regional picture of the same.


E.     PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS
This assessment and analysis represents a concerted effort to create a current snapshot for each
of the considered disciplines. The information utilized was subject to varying participation levels
and data provided across disciplines and jurisdictions. All inferences made as to current gaps and
training levels achieved are the result of analysis of the cumulative products of voluntary self-
assessments by participating disciplines. It is important to note that not all identified resources
are found in all jurisdictions; some are shared regionally or intra-county and some are not
applicable for an individual jurisdiction. Some resources, such as EMS, are provided through
contract with private vendors either wholly or in part. If the contract with any jurisdiction
includes provision of disaster response by the contractor, the training conducted by that
contractor was included in this report.



CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        3                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


All percentages represented in this report are based on the total number of responses received for
a particular query and should be viewed as such. They do not claim to represent percentages
based upon the range of possible response numbers and in some cases a low response rate to a
particular query may yield a misleading percentage. All graphic representations of data collected
include total response numbers per query; the resultant percentage may then be viewed
accordingly for actual utility of data.

It is the assumption of this report that, while general in nature, its conclusions do provide insight
into a complex and fast-changing training environment. This insight may be of use both for
training program planning purposes as well as for future grant funds expenditures for training
and exercises.


F.     AUTHORITIES, REQUIREMENTS, AND REGULATIONS
HOMELAND SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTIVE 5: NATIONAL RESPONSE PLAN                             AND THE
NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

On February 28, 2003, the President issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-5,
Management of Domestic Incidents, which directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to
develop and administer a National Response Plan and a National Incident Management System
(NIMS). NIMS was established to provide a consistent, nationwide template enabling Federal,
State, tribal nations, and local governments, as well as private-sector and nongovernmental
organizations, to work together effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and
recover from domestic incidents. Towards this end, the NIMS Integration Center provides
strategic direction for and oversight of NIMS. A key component of this oversight is developing
compliance requirements and compliance timelines for NIMS standards and guidelines.

Since Fiscal Year (FY) 2005, the NIMS Integration Center has provided the States, territories,
tribal nations, and local governments with required annual NIMS Implementation Activities
selected to enhance the national incident management capability in a consistent and cumulative
approach. On October 23, 2006, the NIMS Integration Center published the FY 2007 NIMS
Implementation Matrix for States and Territories and the FY 2007 NIMS Implementation Matrix
for Tribal and Local Jurisdictions. These matrices outline implementation requirements that
were to be met by September 30, 2007, in order to be considered NIMS-compliant. In February,
2008, new NIMS requirements were published by the NIMS Integration Center. The following
table outlines the 2008 NIMS training requirements for Federal, State, local, tribal personnel as
they pertain to training and exercise.




CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        4                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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Source: FY 2008 (October 1, 2007 – September 30, 2008) NIMS Compliance Objectives and Metrics for States and
Territories, Pages 5-6.




CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                          5                                    BAY AREA SUASI
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Source: FY 2008 (October 1, 2007 – September 30, 2008) NIMS Compliance Objectives and Metrics for Local
Governments, Page 5.




CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                         6                                  BAY AREA SUASI
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                      FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                               Funded by DHS
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory




CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        7                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                                                               Funded by DHS
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


FY 2007/2008 NIMS COMPLIANCE

The FY 2007 NIMS Compliance Metrics: States and Territories and FY 2007 NIMS Compliance
Metrics: Tribal and Local Jurisdictions were released on October 23, 2006. These performance-
based metrics were used to determine compliance in FY 2007. The NIMS Integration Center
developed the FY 2007 NIMS Compliance Metrics Guide for Tribal Nations and Local
Governments to assist in the measurement and reporting of NIMS compliance. It provided
specific guidance regarding how to use the metrics to report key information required for
assessing NIMS implementation.

In order to be designated NIMS-compliant in FY 2007, local governments were required to
answer in the affirmative the critical activity (Tier 1) metrics included and explained in this
guidance. State departments and agencies, tribal nations, or local governments that cannot
affirmatively answer these Tier 1 metrics are required to submit a Corrective Action Plan to their
State NIMS coordinator outlining how they will implement the required activity within 120 days.
To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of compliance monitoring and reporting, the NIMS
Integration Center provides the NIMS Capability Assessment Support Tool (NIMCAST), and
jurisdictions are strongly urged to take advantage of this resource.

In FYs 2005 and 2006, NIMS compliance was based on self-certification of the jurisdiction’s
ability to implement the required NIMS activities. In FY 2007, NIMS compliance is determined
from a jurisdiction’s response to the FY 2007 metrics, which are prioritized into two tiers that
reflect the importance of the corresponding NIMS implementation activities. Tier 1 metrics
measure those activities considered critical for NIMS implementation. Tier 2 metrics reinforce
previous-year activities and measure ongoing progress towards NIMS implementation.

States, territories, tribal nations, and local jurisdictions were required to respond to all FY 2007
Tier 1 and Tier 2 metrics questions in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the status
of NIMS implementation activities nationwide. A State or territory is not determined to be out of
compliance with the required FY 2007 NIMS activities if the State has a department or agency,
tribal nation, or local jurisdiction that is unable to implement the required NIMS activities by the
compliance deadline but has demonstrated in a Corrective Action Plan that the deficiency can be
corrected within a reasonable time period not to exceed 120 days starting October 1, 2007. A
tribal nation or local jurisdiction that has not implemented the required NIMS activities can not
receive Federal preparedness funding.

The basis for 2008 NIMS requirements, released in February 2008 include achieving compliance
with training appropriate personnel to the ICS 300 level. The projected 2009 requirements also
call for ICS 400 training to be achieved by appropriate personnel as outlined in the NIMS Five-
Year Training Plan. It should be noted that a new component to 2008 compliance metrics under
“Resource Management Objectives” calls for the initiation of a jurisdiction-wide system to
credential emergency management/response personnel for purposes of ensuring proper access to
incident scenes.


CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        8                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


HSPD-8: UNIVERSAL TASK LIST AND TARGET CAPABILITIES LIST

On December 17, 2003, HSPD-8 was issued to address national preparedness. HSPD-8
complements and supports the earlier HSPD-5. It introduces the concepts of the Universal Task
List (UTL) and Target Capabilities List (TCL). HSPD-8 tasks the Secretary of Homeland
Security to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened
or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. This is accomplished
through requiring a national domestic preparedness goal; establishing mechanisms for improved
delivery of Federal preparedness assistance to State and local governments; and outlining actions
to strengthen preparedness capabilities of Federal, State, and local entities.

On March 31, 2005, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued the Interim
National Preparedness Goal and the accompanying National Preparedness Guidance (NPG). The
National Preparedness Goal established a vision for a National Preparedness System, and the
NPG provided an introduction to several of the key building blocks for that system, including the
National Planning Scenarios, UTL, TCL, and seven National Priorities (now eight). This report
provides follow-on guidance for use by urban areas in placing their preparedness efforts within
the context of this new doctrine and updating their existing homeland security strategies to
ensure that they support the National Preparedness Goal and reflect the seven National Priorities.
Training and exercises are an integral portion of these strategies.

RESOURCE TYPING DEFINITIONS

In 2004, FEMA introduced the components of a national mutual aid system that included
definitions for more than 100 response resources. Resource typing is an important part of
resource management, which is one of the six components of NIMS. It refers to the
categorization and description of response resources that are commonly exchanged in disasters
through mutual aid agreements. These resource typing definitions will be continuously updated,
revised, and expanded.

Resource typing definitions are intended to give emergency responders the information they need
to ensure common terminology for the request and receipt of resources during an emergency or
disaster. Ordering resources that have been typed using these definitions makes the resource
request and dispatch process more accurate and efficient. In FY 2006, State, territorial, tribal,
and local jurisdictions were required to type their inventory response assets to conform to NIMS
Resource Typing standards.

The current 120 resource typing definitions were created to reflect the resources that are most
commonly exchanged via mutual aid during a disaster, not resources for routine day-to-day
emergency response operations. Additionally, the resource typing definitions are not meant to be
an exhaustive list of every resource that Federal, State, or local government might have, just the
ones most likely to be used in inter-State mutual aid during major disasters.



CHAPTER 1: Project Overview                        9                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                                                               Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis   Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


HOMELAND SECURITY EXERCISE AND EVALUATION PROGRAM

When developing training and exercise strategies, DHS requires urban areas to ensure that
appropriate disciplines are being trained at appropriate levels using a regional approach across
disciplines and jurisdictions. Urban areas are also required to further ensure that training plans
improve chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and/or explosive (CBRNE) detection,
response, and decontamination capabilities within the urban area or region. The Homeland
Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) is to be used to measure capabilities and
highlight areas for improvement. HSEEP is a capabilities- and performance-based exercise
program that provides a standardized policy, methodology, and language for designing,
developing, conducting, and evaluating all exercises. HSEEP specifies that the basis of effective
exercise program management is a Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan. This plan is
developed in consideration of a jurisdiction’s preparedness priorities and post-exercise After
Action Reports / Improvement Plans (AARs/IPs).

In order to be considered HSEEP compliant, entities must adhere to the following four
performance requirements:

   1. Conducting an annual Training and Exercise Plan Workshop and developing and
      maintaining a Multi-year Training and Exercise Plan.
   2. Planning and conducting exercises in accordance with the guidelines set forth in HSEEP
      Volumes I-II.
   3. Developing and submitting a properly formatted After-Action Report/Improvement Plan
      (AAR/IP). The format for the AAR/IP is found in HSEEP Volume III.
   4. Tracking and implementing corrective actions identified in the AAR/IP.

HSEEP integrates language and concepts from the National Response Plan (now National
Response Framework), NIMS, the National Preparedness Goal, the UTL, and the TCL. HSEEP
has been accepted as the standardized policy and methodology for the execution of the National
Exercise Program (NEP). The NEP is the Nation’s overarching exercise program formulated by
the National Security Council / Homeland Security Council (NSC/HSC) and executed by Federal
interagency partners.




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                          CHAPTER 2: GAP ANALYSIS

BACKGROUND
The SUASI Training and Exercise Project is designed to provide a snapshot of the current levels
of disaster response training and exercises for the Law Enforcement, Fire, and EMS disciplines
in the ten-county Bay Area region. This snapshot will be used as a tool to identify existing gaps,
consider their priority, and evaluate the best use of SUASI grant funds designated for training
and exercises.

A training and exercise mandates baseline for the region was identified in a preliminary phase of
this project (see Training and Exercise Mandates Final Report). The Training and Exercises
Gap Analysis was developed based on comparison of these mandates with collected data
regarding regional training and exercise efforts during 2005-2007. The Gap Analysis was
utilized as a basis for a proposed regional Five-Year Training and Exercise Plan as well as a
Training Options Inventory for the Bay Area SUASI region.

The following discipline and topic-specific gap analysis sections represent interpretation of data
assembled via a concerted regional survey effort. As with all surveys, the data is subject to
sample size, varying response rates, misinterpretation of questions, and limitations of the survey
tool itself. It should be remembered that the project goal was to identify broad patterns that will
be helpful in addressing the training challenges that face the region. The quantifiable information
produced contributes to understanding of where efforts are still needed. It allows the region to
prioritize those efforts and to justify projects.

Analysis of survey results was aided by the use of some statistical procedures. A few basic data
comparisons were carried out and seemingly logical correlations and conclusions were drawn
based on available data. Regional percentages were computed using the combined percentages of
weighted individual percentages. For example, an 80% completion rate based on 80/100 is
weighted more than 80% completion based on 8/10. There are some areas where problems with
data and methodology arise. Some jurisdictions are extremely well-documented in terms of data
while others are non-existent. Nonetheless, the sample size (over 200 respondents from a pool of
300 agencies) allows qualified but justifiable conclusions to be drawn. Although this analysis is
far from exhaustive, is provides useful insights.




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SECTION 1: NIMS/SEMS EVALUATION
A.       ANALYSIS CRITERIA

Agencies and jurisdictions within the SUASI Region are required to deliver Standardized
Emergency Management System (SEMS) and National Incident Management System (NIMS)
courses to its first responders. This report covers the categories of Fire / Hazardous Materials
(HazMat), Law Enforcement, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. The courses
surveyed for compliance were taken from FY 2007/2008 NIMS Compliance Objectives and
Metrics as well as the SEMS Approved Course of Instruction. They are as follows:

     •   ICS-100 – Introduction to Incident Command System (ICS)
     •   ICS-200 – ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents
     •   ICS-300 – Intermediate ICS
     •   ICS-400 – Advanced ICS
     •   IS-700 – NIMS, An Introduction
     •   IS-800 – National Response Framework (NRF), An Introduction
     •   SEMS Introductory Course
     •   SEMS Executive Course
     •   SEMS Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Course

B.       REGIONAL ANALYSIS

The SUASI Region has had a good degree of success in training its first responders in both the
State and Federally mandated courses. Almost all of the personnel required to take the ICS-100,
ICS-200, IS-700, and SEMS Introductory courses have done so. Survey results indicated that the
completion rate for these courses is in the mid-80% to mid-90% range. A lack of training funds
was noted as the primary reason why additional personnel have not received the training.

The survey figures for the courses required for supervisory and management personnel indicate
that a training gap does exist for these classes. For example, the IS-800 course completion rate is
at 76%, meaning that approximately ¼ of the supervisory and management personnel required to
take the course have yet to do so.

In comparison, the course completion rate for the other mandated courses for supervisory and
management staff is lower than the completion rate for the IS-800 course. ICS-300, meant for
supervisory and management personnel working in the field or at an EOC, has a completion rate
of 64%. ICS-400, which is required for both field and EOC management staff, has a completion
rate of 47%. These figures are also relatively low for the other SEMS courses. The SEMS


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Executive Course has a completion rate of 29%, and the SEMS EOC Course shows a completion
rate of 40%.

Overall, the survey has shown that for every course in which additional personnel need to
complete the training, the main hindrance to presenting these courses is a lack of available
training funds.




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C.       REGIONAL SURVEY FINDINGS

ICS-100 – Introduction to ICS

Across the region, the survey showed that respondents have trained an average of 89% of their
personnel in this course. By category, the completion percentage is as follows:
     •   Fire/HazMat reported an 86% course completion rate.
     •   Law Enforcement reported a 91% completion rate.
     •   EMS reported an 87% course completion rate.
The majority of the courses were given either online or in a classroom setting, using a
combination of in-house and contracted instructors. Most of the agencies reported in the survey
that the biggest hindrance to successful completion was a lack of training funds.

ICS-200 – ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents
Regionally, the combined disciplines have trained 78% of their personnel on the ICS for Single
Resources and Initial Action Incidents course. By category, the results are as follows:
     •   Fire/HazMat showed an 82% completion rate.
     •   Law Enforcement showed a 72% completion rate.
     •   EMS showed a 91% course completion rate.
As with ICS-100, most of the courses were either provided online or in a classroom setting using
a combination of in-house and contracted instructors. Many of the reporting organizations noted
that the biggest hindrance to providing their staff with the training was a lack of training funds.

ICS-300 – Intermediate ICS
An average of 64% of managers in the region have been trained to this level. The percentages by
category are as follows:
     •   Fire/HazMat reported that 71% of its personnel have completed the course.
     •   Law Enforcement reported that 48% have completed the course.
     •   EMS reported that 73% have completed the course.
All of the respondents noted that their personnel took the course either in an academy, a
classroom setting using mostly contracted instructors, or in another structured learning
environment. Again, the majority of the organizations noted that a lack of training funds has
hampered their ability to train more of their personnel in this course.

ICS-400 – Advanced ICS
In the region, the three disciplines reported that 47% of their staff mandated to receive the
Advanced ICS course have done so. The results broken down by discipline are as follows:


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   •   Fire/HazMat reported a 53% course completion rate.
   •   Law Enforcement reported a 37% completion rate.
   •   EMS reported a 48% completion rate.
All of the respondents noted that their personnel took the course either in an academy, a
classroom setting using contracted instructors, or in another structured learning environment.
This course is not available online. A majority of the responding agencies reported that a lack of
training funds has hampered the training of more personnel.

IS-700 – NIMS, An Introduction
The survey showed that 89% of first responders in participating agencies have completed this
course.
   •   Fire/HazMat showed an 87% completion rate.
   •   Law Enforcement showed a 90% completion rate.
   •   EMS showed a 73% completion rate.
The most common training method used was split between online and the classroom setting.
Additionally, most agencies noted that a lack of training funds did not allow them to offer the
course to more of their personnel.

IS-800 – NRF, an Introduction
Regionally, the disciplines indicated a combined 76% course completion rate for this course.
   •   Fire/HazMat showed a 73% completion rate.
   •   Law Enforcement showed a 79% course completion rate.
   •   EMS showed a 79% course completion rate.
The respondents noted that most of the personnel taking the course did so online or attended
classroom training. The major hindrance to additional staff training in this course was a lack of
training funds.

SEMS Introductory Course
Across the region, the three groups reported a combined 81% completion rate for their personnel
in the SEMS Introductory course.
   •   Fire/HazMat showed a 95% rate.
   •   Law Enforcement showed a 68% rate.
   •   EMS showed a 99% completion rate.
The majority of these courses were taught in a classroom setting by in-house staff. Law
Enforcement reported the greatest number of hindrances to the training, which was spread
between lack of training funds, staff backfill unavailable, and competing agency resources.


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SEMS Executive Course
Throughout the region, the disciplines reported that 29% of their staff have taken the SEMS
Executive Course.
   •   Fire/HazMat noted that 28% of their personnel have completed the course.
   •   Law Enforcement stated they had a 30% completion rate.
   •   EMS stated that they had a 0% completion rate.
The majority of agencies reported that their staff took this course in the classroom through
contracted training providers. Most organizations reported that the largest hindrance to providing
the training was a lack of training funds, with a smaller number indicating that they were
unaware of the specific training requirement.

SEMS EOC Course
Regionally, the agencies reported that 40% of their personnel had taken the SEMS EOC Course.
   •   Fire/HazMat reported a 28% completion rate.
   •   Law Enforcement reported a 54% completion rate.
   •   EMS reported a 58% completion rate.
Most of the agencies said that their staff took the course in the classroom setting using contracted
instructors. A lack of training funds was mentioned most as the reason why more personnel did
not take this course.




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SECTION 2: LAW ENFORCEMENT
A.       ANALYSIS CRITERIA

Law enforcement training criteria was developed from the following regulatory authorities:

     •   U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Federal Emergency Management Agency
         (FEMA) Typed Resource Definitions Law Enforcement and Security Resources (FEMA
         508-6 July 2007)
     •   National Bomb Squad Commander’s Advisory Board (NBSCAB)
     •   National Guidelines for Bomb Technicians
     •   Federal Aviation Administration – Federal Air Regulations
     •   California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST)
     •   SUASI Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) project: Needs
         Prioritization Summary

B.       REGIONAL ANALYSIS

When examining the current status of law enforcement training of disaster response resources in
the Bay Area SUASI region as a whole, the collected data suggests that significant gaps exist in
mandated training for personnel at both the required and recommended levels. The region
appears to have been most successful in providing training to Bomb Squads/ Explosive Teams.

Data for Aviation Helicopter – Patrol and Surveillance Types I–IV indicates that 27% are trained
at the required level for Types I, II, and III. None are trained at the Type IV level, which
requires the possession of a seaplane license. Aviation Helicopter – Maintenance is 25% trained
at Types II and III. None are trained at the Type I level. The Aviation Helicopter – Tactical
Flight Officer Category shows 48% having the required training, with two Operational Areas
(OAs) trained at 100% and one at 40%.

Bomb Squad / Explosive Teams are at 60% of the personnel in four OAs having the required
training for Types I and II. Type III shows 0%, which reflects the fact that it requires the same
training as Types I and II, but has the distinction of having no specialized equipment
requirements. Of those four OAs, three are at 100% and one is at 95% of the required training.
The SUASI Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) project’s Needs
Prioritization Summary shows Bomb Squads and Underwater Explosives Teams as “high
priority” groups.

Crowd Control / Mobile Field Force has no Federal guidelines or required training. The training
is offered through California POST and consists of guidelines or recommended training only. Of
the eight OAs that reported having Crowd Control / Mobil Field Force assets, 49% have
completed the basic Crowd Control course. These teams are listed as “high priority” groups in
the CBRNE Needs Prioritization Summary. The majority of agencies that have these teams

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report that they maintain an “in-house” training program for skills maintenance and advancing
tactical capabilities levels.

No OAs at this time have personnel who are trained in Types I and II for the Observation
Aircraft – Fixed-Wing, Types I and II. Aircraft of these types are listed as “high priority” items
according to the CBRNE Needs Prioritization Summary and will require all of the requisite
training in addition to the actual aircraft.

Three OAs have Dive Team Members trained in Types I, II, and III. Type I has approximately
3% of its personnel trained to required levels; Types II and III have 5% trained in the required
course. In total, 25% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses. Public
Safety Dive Teams are listed as “moderate priority” items in the CBRNE Needs Prioritization
Summary.

Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) / Tactical Teams are similar to the Crowd Control Teams
in that they have no Federal standards or required courses. These teams receive training through
POST-recommended courses. All 10 OAs have a SWAT Team and, overall, 25% of those
members have one or more of the 23 separate courses that are offered. Most agencies indicated
that they utilize an “in-house” training program for ongoing skills and tactical abilities.

Survey results also provided data on the most significant hindrances to achieving the level of
training required. A lack of training funds and competing agency priorities were cited as the
main hindrances in all resource categories.

C.      REGIONAL SURVEY FINDINGS

Aviation Helicopter- Patrol and Surveillance

Types I, II, III and IV - Pilot
     • Types I, II, and III: Nearly 27% of the personnel have the required training.
     • Type IV: No personnel have the required training due to the need for a seaplane license.
     • Over 11% of the personnel have been trained in one or more of the recommended
       courses.
     • The primary hindrance to the required training is competing agency priorities.

Types I, II and III - Maintenance Staff
     • Type I: No personnel have the required training.
     • Types II and III: 25% of the personnel have the required training.
     • The primary hindrance to the required training was competing agency priorities.




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Tactical Flight Officer
    • Types I, II, III, and IV: 48% of the personnel have the required training. 56% of the
      personnel have the recommended training.
    • The primary hindrance to the required training was competing agency priorities.

Bomb Squad/Explosives Team

Types I, II and III - Bomb Technicians, Bomb Team Supervisor
    •   Types I and II: 60% of the personnel have the required training.
    •   Type III: No data.
    •   27% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses.
    •   The primary hindrance to the required training was lack of training funds.

Crowd Control – Types I, II and III
There are no required courses or federal standards for Crowd Control. However, the Peace
Officers Standards and Training (POST) Commission offers 20 recommended courses for Crowd
Control. The four courses that are most often attended in the region follow:
   • Crowd Control: Surveys show that 49% of the respondents have trained in this area.
   • Tactical Response School/Community Violence: Surveys show that a little over 32% of
        the personnel have training in this area.
   • Critical Incident Response: Surveys show that 25% of the personnel have training in this
        area.
   • Tactical Operations: Surveys show that over 20% of the personnel have training in this
        area.
All other recommended training courses fall below the 20% threshold in regards to the number
of the personnel trained. The four courses listed above could be considered the foundation
training required for Crowd Control in the region. The primary hindrance to the recommended
training was a lack of training funds.

Overall, approximately 10% of the personnel have received training in one or more of all the 20
separate recommended courses.

Observation Aircraft- Fixed Wing

Types I and II - Pilot
   • No personnel have the required training.
   • No data was provided on hindrances to the taking the required training.


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Public Safety Dive Team

Type I Diver, Dive Team Leader, Rescue Diver
   • Over 3% of the personnel have one or more of the required courses.
   • 25% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses.
   • The primary hindrance to the required training was a lack of training funds.
Type II Diver, Dive Team Leader, Rescue Diver
    • Over 5% of the personnel have one or more of the required courses.
    • Over 23% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses.
    • The primary hindrance to the required training was a lack of training funds.

Type III Diver, Dive Team Leader, Rescue Diver
    • 5% of the personnel have one or more of the required courses.
    • Over 17% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses.
    • The primary hindrance to the required training was a lack of training funds.

Type IV Diver, Dive Team Leader, Rescue Diver
    • Over 7% of the personnel have one or more of the required courses.
    • 20% of the personnel have one or more of the recommended courses.
    • The primary hindrance to the required training was a lack of training funds.

SWAT/ Tactical Team

All Types
There are no required courses or federal standards for SWAT Tactical Teams. The courses which
are recommended and offered by the Peace Officers Standards of Training (POST) and attended
most often in the region are as follows:
    • Special Weapons and Tactics – Over 55% of the personnel have training in this course.
    • Tactical Response School/Community Violence - 42% of the personnel have training in
      this area.
    • Tactics Covert/Crisis Entry – 39% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • SWAT Operations, Introduction – 37% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • Tactical Operations – 37% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • SWAT-Officer Down/Citizen Rescue – 36% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • Rifle Marksmanship and Sniper – 35% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • Critical Incident and Response – 31% of the personnel have training in this area.

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    • Tactical Shield – 29% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • Special Weapons and Tactics Advanced – Over 26% of the personnel have training in
      this area.
    • SWAT Operations, Advanced – 25% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • Tactical Operations Update – 25% of the personnel have training in this area.
    • SWAT Mobile Tactical Assault – 22% of the personnel have training in this area.
All other recommended training courses fall below the 20% threshold in regards to number of
the personnel trained. The eleven courses listed above could be considered the foundation
training required for SWAT/Tactical Team for the region. The Primary hindrance to the
recommended training was a lack of training funds.

Overall 25% of the personnel have one or more of any of the 23 separate recommended courses.




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SECTION 3: FIRE/HAZMAT
A.       ANALYSIS CRITERIA

The following authorities and sources were used to analyze training criteria for the
Fire / Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Services Evaluation. They include State and Federal
statutes as well as National Standards:

     •   California Code of Regulations (CCR) Title 19, 2520: Hazardous Materials
     •   CCR Title 8, 5192: Hazardous Materials Operations
     •   CFR 1910.120: Hazardous Materials Operations
     •   California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) 4039: Ratings and
         Qualifications Standards
     •   California Incident Command Credentialing System (CICCS)
     •   Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 508-4: Typed Resource Definitions
     •   Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies
         (FIRESCOPE) 420-1: Typed Resources
     •   FIRESCOPE Incident Command System – Hazardous Materials (ICS-HM)-120:
         Hazardous Materials Operations
     •   National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) 310-1: Ratings and Qualifications
         Standards
     •   Target Capabilities List (TCL): Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-8
     •   National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 472

B.       REGIONAL ANALYSIS

The analysis of Bay Area SUASI Fire/HazMat Services looked at the following five components
of this discipline:

     •   Area Command Teams
     •   Hand Crews
     •   Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Entry Teams
     •   Incident Management Teams
     •   Strike Team / Task Force Leaders

Out of these components, approximately 46 positions or job titles were analyzed with
certification requirements that included 25 Required Courses and more than 30 Recommended
Courses. The most significant training gaps appear at the supervisory and management levels as
well as in the technical positions of HazMat Entry Teams.


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Looking at Area Command Teams in the region as a whole, it appears from the data collected
that the region does not have the capability to deploy either an Area Command Team or any of
its members. Every respondent for this component reported 0% completion for all of the
Required Courses for the four positions surveyed. The survey did indicate a 2.2% completion for
two Recommended Courses in the position of Assistant Area Commander, Logistics. A lack of
training funds was universally reported as a hindrance to training success.

Personnel elements of Hand Crews (Crew Boss, Firefighter I and Firefighter II) registered some
of the highest completion rates in the study. The Crew Boss position showed a 50–60%
completion rate in Annual Refresher Training and ICS 200. Less than a quarter reported
completion of position-specific training. Firefighter I and Firefighter II positions reported
completion rates of more than 56% in the annual refresher training, mid-60% for position
specific courses, and almost 70% for ICS. Funding remains the largest issue with the required
classes. Agencies reported they were unaware of the requirement for Firefighter Type I S-131
and Look up, Look down, Look around S-133 Classes.

It is apparent that a significant training gap exists for members of HazMat Entry Teams. Survey
respondents report that 75–80% of their teams lack completed training in either HazMat
Technician or HazMat Specialist. The numbers for HazMat Assistant Safety Officer indicate that
approximately 10% have completed the required training. Lack of available training funds and
competing agency priorities were cited as the main hindrances. Agencies noted that they were
unaware of the class requirement: Terrorism for the Technician/Specialist. Funding issues and
competing agency priorities were listed as hindrances to completion of training.

The region reported that less than 10% of personnel were trained in the majority of the courses
required for certification in Incident Management Team positions. Survey respondents reported
that limited class offerings—attributed to a limited pool of instructors—accounts for this
deficiency. The SUASI CBRNE project Needs Prioritization Summary notes this capability in
their high priority group.

Personnel elements of Strike Team / Task Force Leaders (Strike Team Crew, Strike Team
Engine, and Engine Boss) reported moderate completion rates for the refresher course, ranging
from 38–50%. ICS training rates ranged from 36–67% completed, but position-specific courses
showed a 12–23% completion rate.

C.     REGIONAL SURVEY FINDINGS

Area Command

Survey findings for this component universally report at 0%. The region supports the concept but
is unable to employ or deploy a team at this time.




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Hand Crews

Results for Hand Crews are as follows:

Crew Boss Single Resource, Hand Crew

    • Required Classes
        o Annual Fireline Refresher RT-130                             50.3%
        o Crew Boss Single Resource S-230                              11%
        o Intermediate Wildland Behavior S-290                         24.3%

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fireline Refresher RT-130                             53.2%
        o Basic Air Ops S-210                                          2.2%
        o Company Officer Academy Cal Fire                             15.8%
        o Conservation Camp Orientation FC-212                         1%
        o Crew Boss Single Resource S-230                              24.4%
        o Fellowship to Leadership L-280                               0%
        o ICS-200                                                      63.3%
        o Ignition Operations S-234                                    9%
        o Interagency Business Management S-260                        0.2%
        o Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior S-290                    35.2%
        o Wildland Fire Chain Saws S-212                               8%

Firefighter I/ICT 5 Hand Crew

    • Required Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      40.65%
        o Firefighter Type I S-131                                     38.7%
        o Look Up, Look Down, Look Around S-133 2                      7.6%

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      56.2%
        o Firefighter Type I S-131                                     52.6%
        o Look Up, Look Down, Look Around S-133                        41.4%
        o Portable Pump and Water Use S-211                            4.4%
        o Wildland Fire Chain Saws S-212                               5.6%

Firefighter 2/FFT2 Hand Crew

    • Required Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      56%
        o Firefighter Training S-130                                   62.4%


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          o Human Factors on the Fireline L-180                        24.8%
          o Intro to ICS I-100                                         69.4%
          o Intro to Wildland Fire Behavior S-190                      68.4%

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      56.5%
        o Firefighter Training S-130                                   65.4%
        o Human Factors on the Fireline L-180                          27%
        o Intro to ICS I-100                                           65.4%
        o Intro to Wildland Fire Behavior S-190                        64.8%

HazMat Entry Teams

    • HazMat Technician – Required Training
        o HazMat Technician                                            25.5%
        o Terrorism for the Tech/Spec.                                 14%

    • HazMat Technician – Recommended Training
        o HazMat Incident Management                                   7%
        o HazMat Operating Sites Practices                             10.5%

    • HazMat Specialist – Required Training
        o HazMat Specialist                                            21.5%
        o Terrorism for the Tech/Spec.                                 15%

    • HazMat Specialist – Recommended Training
        o HazMat Incident Management –                                 5%
        o HazMat Operating Sites Practices –                           6%

Hazardous Materials Assistant Safety Officer

    • Required Training
        o HazMat Assistant Safety Officer                              10%

    • Recommended Training
        o HazMat Incident Management                                   2%
        o HazMat Operating Sites Practices                             4%

Incident Management Teams

The training completion rates for this component were minimal. Training percentages for any of
the 20 Type I positions ranged from 0% to 4.6% with 18 out of 20 reporting less than 1%. The



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highest levels of completion were recorded in the lowest level command authority, Type V
Incident Commander.

Strike Team / Task Force Leaders

Strike Team / Task Force Leader, Crew

    • Required Training
        o Annual Fireline Refresher RT – 130                           31.3%
        o Fire Ops in the Wildland / Urban Interface                   17 %
        o Task Force / Strike Team Leader S-330                        11.8 %

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fire line Refresher RT – 130                          53.2%
        o Certified Purchaser                                          6.6 %
        o Fire Ops in the Wildland Urban Interface                     18.9 %
        o Fireline Leadership L-380                                    5%
        o Human Factors in the Fireline L-180                          11.5 %
        o ICS-300                                                      35.8 %
        o Incident Manager 2                                           11.1%
        o Intermediate Firing Operations                               9.3 %
        o Task Force / Strike Team Leader S-330                        12.3 %

Strike Team/Task Force Leader, Engine

    • Required Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      32.8%
        o Fire Ops in the Wildland Urban Interface                     17.9%
        o Task Force / Strike Team Leader S-330                        18%

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                      37.9%
        o Certified Purchaser CALFIRE                                  1.5%
        o Fire Ops in the Wildland Urban Interface                     18.7%
        o Fireline Leadership L-380                                    3.4%
        o Human Factors on the Fireline L-180                          13.3%
        o ICS-300                                                      38.7%
        o Incident Manager 2 CALFIRE                                   2.7%
        o Intermediate Firing Operations CALFIRE 234                   13.2%
        o Task Force / Strike Team Leader S-330                        20.2%




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Engine Boss

    • Required Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                               40.8%
        o Crew Boss, Single Resource S-230                                      21.8%
        o Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior S-290                             29.3%

    • Recommended Classes
        o Annual Fireline Safety Refresher RT-130                               42.4%
        o Basic ICS I-200                                                       67%
        o Company Officer Academy                                               15.9%
        o Crew Boss, Single Resource S-230                                      23%
        o Engine Boss, Single Resource S-231                                    24.7%
        o Fellowship to Leadership L-280                                        0.5%
        o Ignition Operations S-234                                             10.5%
        o Interagency Incident Business Management Systems                      0.7%
        o Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior S-290                             32.5%
        o National Interagency Management System                                63%
        o National Response Plan IS-800                                         25.3%




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SECTION 4: EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
A.       ANALYSIS CRITERIA

The training criteria used for analysis was derived from the following sources:

     •   Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) document 508-3: Typed Resource
         Definitions – Emergency Medical Services
     •   FEMA document 509-3: National Emergency Responder Credentialing System –
         Emergency Medical Services
     •   Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA’s) Title 1910.120: Hazardous
         Waste Operation and Emergency Response (used to round out Federal training
         requirements)
     •   The California Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Authority Disaster Medical Services
         Guidelines
     •   Ambulance Strike Team/Medical Task Force Guidelines
     •   SUASI Chemical, Biological, Regional, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) project Needs
         Prioritization Summary

B.       REGIONAL ANALYSIS

Based on data provided, it appears that Air Medical Transport Fixed-Wing, Rotary, and
Rotorcraft are absent in the region. As found in the Chemical, Biological, Regional, Nuclear,
Explosive (CBRNE) Needs Prioritization Summary, both Air Ambulance Fixed-Wing and
Rotor-Wing aircraft are listed in the “high priority” group, which in turn will require the training
of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) staff necessary to equip both types of aircrafts. There are
contract providers that offer both Fixed and Rotary Wing Air Medical Transport Services to
many of the Operational Areas in the Region so the capability exists for these resources to be
deployed. However, these contract providers do not follow FEMA Typing standards for their
crews and do not fall into the Typed Resource Categories applicable to the scope of this project.
As such, they were placed into the “Partial Resource” category in the CBRNE Resources
Inventory by most responding agencies and their training specifics were not answered in the
Surveys appurtenant to this report.

Overall, it appears that inconsistent typing standards exist between FEMA and the State of
California in both Ground Ambulance and Ambulance Task Forces for both crew specifications
and training. The State of California Emergency Medical Services Authority (EMSA) has written
an updated Ambulance Strike Team Manual which is currently in the review process and may
serve to bring consistency between the Federal and State training and crew standards. The
EMSA Ambulance Strike Team Committee is also restructuring the Ambulance Strike Team
Leader Course and hopes to have it available soon.



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When evaluating the Ground Ambulance category, 50% of the three Operational Areas (OAs)
that have a Type I are trained in the required courses. Data provided on Type II indicates that
four OAs have achieved 64% completion of the required courses. The Type III category is found
in three OAs with 28% trained to required levels, and Type IV exists in two OAs with 61%
trained in the required courses.

Ambulance Strike Teams are divided into four types, each with a Strike Team Leader and
descending response capabilities from Paramedic and Advanced Life Support (ALS) Emergency
Medical Technicians (EMTs) in Types I and II, to Basic Life Support (BLS) capabilities in Type
III and IV.

There are two OAs that have a Type I Ambulance: ALS Paramedic and EMT with 34% trained,
and a Type I Strike Team Leader with 35% of the required training.

There are two OAs with a Type II Ambulance: ALS Paramedic and ALS EMT with 85% trained,
and the Strike Team Leader at 44% of the required training.

The remaining Types III and IV are found in one OA with Type III Ambulance: BLS EMT and
BLS Driver (Emergency Vehicle Operator [EVO]) at 29%, and the Strike Team Leader at 35%
of the required training. The Type IV Ambulance show the BLS EMT and BLS Driver (EVO) at
33%, the Strike Team Leader at 33%, and the Ambulance: BLS Driver (EVO) at having
achieved 33% of the required training.

The majority of EMS services in the Bay Area SUASI region are contractually provided; the
primary provider of these contract services is American Medical Response (AMR), which holds
contracts with all 10 of the OAs. AMR representatives provided much of the data collected for
EMS resources. Its contractual obligation for services includes provisions for disaster response,
and it is currently developing a Strike Team Training program that will facilitate the capability to
assemble Strike Teams compliant with State and Federal training standards. AMR faces the same
impediments to achieving training compliance as the EMS response assets that are imbedded in
Fire / Hazardous Materials (HazMat) agencies: primarily lack of training funds and course
availability.

C.       REGIONAL SURVEY FINDINGS

Ground Ambulance

Type I – Ambulance: ALS Paramedic/EMT
Across the Region, the survey showed that respondents have trained an average of 49% of their
personnel in the required courses. The percentages by category are as follows:
     •   Disaster Medical System Plan Training reported 42% completion rate.
     •   HazMat Level B Training reported 17% completion rate.

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    •   OSHA HazMat Awareness Training 88% completion rate
An average of 80% of all EMS staff has received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrance was a lack of training funds.

Type II – Ambulance: ALS Paramedic/EMT
The survey showed that 64% of respondents have trained their personnel in the two required
courses. By category, the completion percentage is as follows:
    •   49% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   79% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
Additionally, 49% of all EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrances were lack of training funds and course availability.
Type III – Ambulance: BLS EMT/Emergency Medical Responder
Regionally, an average of 28% of personnel are trained in all three required courses.           The
percentages by category are:
    •   22% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   25% in HazMat Level B Training
    •   38% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
An average of 21 % of all EMS staff has received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrances were lack of training funds and course availability.

Type IV – Ambulance: BLS EMT/Emergency Medical Responder
An average of 61% of personnel have been trained in both of the required courses. By category,
the completion percentage is as follows:
    •   48% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   75% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
An additional 48% of all EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrance was a lack of training funds.

Air Medical Transport

Paramedic (Fixed Wing & Rotary)
    •   Types I-IV – The region currently does not support Air Medical Transport Paramedic
        Types I-IV.

Physician (Fixed Wing & Rotary)
    •   Types I-IV – The region currently does not support Air Medical Transport Physician
        Types I-IV.

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Registered Nurse (Fixed Wing & Rotary)
    •   Types I-III – The region currently does not support Air Medical Transport Nurse Types
        I-III.

Pilot (Rotorcraft)
    •   Types I-IV – The region currently does not support Air Medical Transport Pilot Types I-
        IV.




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Ambulance Strike Team

Type I – Ambulance: ALS Paramedic and EMT
Regionally, 34% of the personnel are trained in all six of the required training courses. The
percentages in correspondence with each course are as follows:
    •   50% in Basic Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI)
    •   25% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   2.5% in HazMat First Responder
    •   0% in HazMat Level B Training
    •   75% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
    •   50% in WMD Awareness
An additional of 2.5% of all EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrances were a lack of training funds and competing internal priorities.

Type I – Ambulance Strike Team Leader
An average of 35% of the personnel in the region are trained in all seven of the required training
courses. Individually, the percentages are as follows:
    •   43% in Basic MCI
    •   18% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   30% in HazMat First Responder Operations Course
    •   43% in HazMat Level B Training
    •   30% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
    •   43% in Strike Team Leader Ambulance Course
    •   43% in WMD Awareness
Across the region, an average of 22% of all EMS staff have also been trained in the
recommended courses. The primary hindrance was a lack of training funds.

Type II – Ambulance: ALS Paramedic and ALS EMT
Regionally, 85% of the personnel are trained in all three required courses. The percentages by
category are as follows:
    •   50% in MCI
    •   100% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   100% in WMD Awareness


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Additionally, 33% of all EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrance was a lack of training courses.

Type II – Ambulance Strike Team Leader
The survey showed that across the region, 44% of the personnel are trained in all four required
courses. The percentages are as follows:
    •   50% in MCI
    •   50% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   50% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
    •   25% in Strike Team Leader Ambulance Course
An additional 25% of all EMS staff has received training in the recommended courses.

Type III – Ambulance: BLS EMT and BLS Driver (EVO)
An average of 29% of the personnel are trained in all seven required courses. The percentages
by category are as follows:
    •   0% in MCI
    •   50% in Coaching the Emergency Vehicle Operator
    •   50% in Defensive Driving course
    •   50% in Disaster Medical System Plan Training
    •   0% in Emergency Vehicle Operator
    •   0% in HazMat Level B Training
    •   50% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
None of the EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The primary
hindrance is a lack of training funds.

Type III – Ambulance Strike Team Leader
Regionally, 35% of the personnel are trained in all 5 required courses. The percentages are as
follows:
     • 50% in MCI
     • 50% in Disaster Medical System Plan
     • 0% in HazMat Level B Training
     • 50% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
     • 25% in Strike Team Leader Ambulance Course
An additional 25% of the EMS staff has received training in the recommended courses.




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Type IV – Ambulance: BLS EMT and BLS Driver (EVO)
Across the region, an average of 33% of the personnel are trained in all three required courses.
The percentages by category follow:
    • 0% in MCI
    • 50% in Disaster Medical System Plan
    • 50% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
None of the EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The primary
hindrance is lack of training funds.

Type IV – Ambulance Strike Team Leader
Regionally, 33% of the personnel are trained in all four required courses. The percentages for
each course are as follows:
    • 50% in MCI
    • 50% in Disaster Medical System Plan
    • 50% in OSHA HazMat Awareness Training
    • 25% in Strike Team Leader Ambulance Course.
An additional 25% of all EMS staff have received training in the recommended courses. The
primary hindrances were both lack of training funds and course availability.




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  CHAPTER 3: MULTI-YEAR TRAINING AND EXERCISE PLAN

FOREWORD
Following the domestic terrorist attacks in 1995 and 2001 and the establishment of the U.S.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2002, homeland security professionals at all levels
of government and in all types of communities have prepared to prevent, protect against, respond
to, and recover from a variety of threats to public safety. Exercises are an integral part of the
training continuum and play a crucial role in preparedness. They provide opportunities for
emergency responders and homeland security officials to practice and assess their collective
capabilities, as well as address gaps, deficiencies and vulnerabilities prior to a real incident.
These priorities then become the basis for future funding, training, and equipment purchases,
which become the basis for future exercises.

Well-designed and executed exercises are the most effective means of:

   •   assessing policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and interagency agreements
   •   training personnel and clarifying roles and responsibilities
   •   improving interagency coordination and communications
   •   identifying gaps in resources
   •   improving individual performance and
   •   identifying opportunities for improvement

The basis of effective exercise program management is a Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan
that establishes priority preparedness capabilities and coordinates exercise and training activities
that can improve those capabilities. The plan utilizes a collaborative approach that integrates the
capabilities and resources of various agencies, organizations, and individuals. A building-block
progression allows training and exercise activities to focus on specific capabilities in a cycle of
escalating complexity. The multi-year plan also graphically illustrates a proposed schedule for
training and exercise activities that supports regional priorities.




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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

A.     BACKGROUND

On December 17, 2003, the President issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-
8 to address National Preparedness. It introduces the concepts of the Universal Task List (UTL)
and Target Capabilities List (TCL). The TCLs identify and define 37 specific capabilities that
States, communities, and the private sector should collectively develop in order to respond to
disaster.

Each capability includes a description of the major activities performed within the capability and
the critical tasks and measures associated with the activity. Critical tasks are those tasks that
must be performed during a major event in order to minimize the impact on lives, property, and
the economy. Planners at all levels of government can use the TCLs to help them design plans,
procedures, training, and exercises.

On March 31, 2005, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued the Interim
National Preparedness Goal, which introduced the National Planning Scenarios and the National
Priorities. The scenarios and priorities detail desired training and exercise goals for local
jurisdictions.

The Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) is a federal Department of Homeland
Security grant that provides resources for the unique equipment, training, planning, and exercise
needs of 35 selected national high threat urban areas, including the Bay Area SUASI.

The Bay Area SUASI has funded development of this Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan as
an important resource for regional disaster planning and response, in alignment with the
previously-noted directives.

This Multi-Year Plan is consistent with the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program
(HSEEP), which constitutes a national standard for homeland security exercises. Use of HSEEP
protocols allows local jurisdictions to integrate language and concepts from the National
Response Framework (NRF), the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the National
Preparedness Goal, UTL, TCL, the National Planning Scenarios and the National Priorities.


B.     PURPOSE

Emergencies and disasters can affect numerous jurisdictions simultaneously and involve multiple
first responder disciplines and significant inter-jurisdictional and interdisciplinary coordination.
Mutual aid resources and systems will be tested by any disaster event. The following Multi-Year
Training and Exercise Plan is one component in an overall strategy to achieve a regional level of
preparedness for these events.


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The Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan details a comprehensive multi-year training and
exercise strategy for the Bay Area SUASI region and its component agencies and jurisdictions,
based upon the results of a capabilities assessment and gap analysis. The primary purpose of this
strategy is to address regional priorities, develop target capabilities and improve the operational
readiness of the regional disaster response system.

The Multi-Year Plan provides a roadmap to follow in accomplishing regional priorities. Each
priority is linked to a corresponding National Priority. The priority is further linked to the
associated target capabilities that would facilitate accomplishment of the priority and the training
and exercises that will assist the region in obtaining those capabilities and achieving that priority.

This plan provides the region with a broad understanding of the projected training and exercise
priorities over the next five years. It provides a multi-year strategy with exercise goals, a
regional methodology, and a summary of the exercises available. This plan also includes an
exercise timeline that preliminarily proposes an HSEEP-compliant exercise schedule based on
the regions’ needs and capabilities. With the understanding that the plan is flexible, local
jurisdictions will be able to better plan their individual training and exercise programs.

The Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan is a living document that will be updated and refined
annually. Developing and implementing a comprehensive exercise strategy is a continually
evolving process. Current events will determine some changes to be made. As local, regional
and national strategies, policies, and plans evolve, other revisions will be needed as well.




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SECTION 2: PROGRAM PRIORITIES

As part of the continuous preparedness process, the SUASI funded eleven initiatives in 2006 that
are consistent with National Preparedness Goals. Based on the guidance of the U.S. Department
of Homeland Security (DHS) as depicted in the National Preparedness Goal, the strategy aligns
the SUASI to the National Priorities and Target Capabilities defined by DHS and supplements
these priorities and capabilities with initiatives specific to the Bay Area’s threats and capacities.


National Priorities
   • Expand regional collaboration
   • Implement the National Incident Management System and the National Response Plan
   • Implement the National Infrastructure Protection Plan
   • Strengthen information sharing and collaboration capabilities
   • Strengthen communications capabilities
   • Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and decontamination capabilities
   • Strengthen medical surge and mass prophylaxis capabilities
   • Strengthen planning and citizen preparedness capabilities

Additional SUASI Priorities
   •   Training and Exercise
   •   CBRNE Detection and Response

The Target Capabilities List

The Target Capabilities List (TCL) is a federal initiative that identifies and defines 37 specific
capabilities that States, communities, and the private sector should collectively develop in order
to remain prepared for a natural disaster or terrorist attack. A capability is delivered with any
combination of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel that
achieve the desired outcome. Entities are expected to develop and maintain capabilities at levels
that reflect the differing risk and needs across the country.

Each capability includes a description of the major activities performed within the capability and
the critical tasks and measures associated with the activity. Critical tasks are those tasks that
must be performed during a major event in order to minimize the impact on lives, property, and
the economy. Critical tasks may require coordination among federal, State, local, tribal
territorial, private sector, and/or non-governmental entities during their execution. They are
essential to achieving the desired outcome and to the success of a homeland security mission.




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Planners at all levels of government (federal, State, and local) can use the Target Capabilities
List as a reference guide to help them design plans, procedures, training, and exercises that
develop capacity and proficiency to perform their assigned missions and tasks in major events.

TARGET CAPABILITIES LIST

 COMMON
  • Planning
  • Communications
  • Citizen Preparedness and Participation
  • Risk Management
  • Information Technology and Telecommunications

 PREVENT MISSION AREA
  • Information Gathering and Recognition of Indicators and Warnings
  • Intelligence Analysis and Production
  • Intelligence / Information Sharing and Dissemination
  • Law Enforcement Investigation and Operations
  • Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE)
     Detection

 PROTECT MISSION AREA
  • Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP)
  • Epidemiological Surveillance and Investigation
  • Food and Agriculture Safety and Defense
  • Public Health Laboratory Testing

 RESPOND MISSION AREA
  • Animal Health Emergency Support
  • Citizen Protection: Evacuation and/or Shelter-In-Place Protection
  • Critical Resource Logistics and Distribution
  • Emergency Public Information and Warning
  • Environmental Health
  • Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Management
  • Explosive Devise Response Operations
  • Fatality Management
  • Firefighting Operations/Support

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   •   Isolation and Quarantine
   •   Mass Care (Sheltering, Feeding, and Related Services)
   •   Mass Prophylaxis
   •   Medical Supplies Management and Distribution
   •   Medical Surge
   •   Onsite Incident Management
   •   Public Safety and Security Response
   •   Responder Safety and Health
   •   Triage and Pre-Hospital Treatment
   •   Urban Search and Rescue (USAR)
   •   Volunteer Management and Donations
   •   Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) / Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Response and
       Decontamination

 RECOVER MISSION AREA
  • Economic and Community Recovery
  • Restoration of Lifeline
  • Structural Damage and Mitigation Assessment

Training and Exercise Project Goals

The Bay Area SUASI has identified the goals listed below under the Training and Exercise
Initiative. The first two are addressed in this report:
   •   Conduct a multi-discipline, multi-hazard capabilities assessment and gap analysis of the
       Bay Area SUASI region’s training and exercise levels identifying standards and
       establishing benchmarks based on local, State and Federal models/guidelines.
   •   Develop a five-year strategic training and exercise plan that is inclusive of a
       sustainability component, based upon the completion of the capabilities assessment and
       gap analysis. The plan will address development of the Training and Exercise capabilities
       applicable to the 10 Bay Area Counties.
   •   Provide regional specialized training programs based on identified priorities and needs.
   •   Provide training course and program development, delivery, and/or evaluation with
       special emphasis on train-the-trainer programs.
   •   Provide training materials to regional facilities.




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SECTION 3: PROJECT OVERVIEW

A.     PROJECT METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this multi-year plan is to propose timely and relevant training in a multi-year
format for the jurisdictions that form the Bay Area SUASI, as required by the USDHS
Preparedness Directorate’s Office of Grants and Training (G&T). In order to accomplish this
goal, the following methods were used to gather and analyze data.

To establish a baseline for exercise priorities, the “2005-2007 Exercise History” survey was
developed utilizing the National Planning Scenarios and distributed to the ten counties and 105
jurisdictions within the Bay Area SUASI.

This tool was designed to identify seminars, workshops, tabletops, games, drills, functional
exercises, or full scale exercises that had been held in the various jurisdictions throughout the
2005-2007 timeframe. The survey also requested information on hindrances to exercise
development, planning considerations, and scheduling strategies. Participants were also asked to
identify scenarios and exercise partners they would like to pursue in the future. Survey
responses were entered into a database for correlation and analysis.

Using collected data, an analysis was conducted to identify gaps where minimal or no training
had been noted in areas defined as critical by the National Planning Scenarios. These areas were
given a higher priority for planned training.

The results of the survey were then reviewed by subject matter experts, who assessed the type of
exercise(s) completed by the jurisdiction(s) in the past, the possibility of developing a regional,
multi-jurisdictional, multi-disciplinary approach to future exercises, and whether the jurisdiction
should move from a lower complexity exercise (i.e. seminar or workshop) to a more complex
exercise design (i.e. functional or full scale) in order to allow for a logical progression to
enhance the jurisdiction’s capabilities and provide for the greater learning opportunities outlined
in the Building Block Approach (Section 4: Types of Exercises). It is not the intention of this
plan that each jurisdiction schedule a complete exercise progression for every scenario, nor does
this plan strive to do so. The methodology utilized in this plan and recommended for local
jurisdictions is to schedule discussions-based exercise types prior to operations-based exercises
for a particular scenario. Scenarios and exercise types should be scheduled according to local
needs and priorities.

It was also taken into account that a first responder’s approach to a chemical or biological attack,
regardless of the agent involved, may be similar. Due to these similarities, this multi-year plan
does not engage every agency in every type of chemical or biological attack listed in the National
Planning Scenarios.




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 42                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


The list of requested training submitted by members of the Bay Area SUASI was also assessed.
The requests submitted by these jurisdictions were compared to the overall training priorities,
and, where appropriate, included in the training recommendation. Specific risks due to
geographic location and the demographics of the jurisdiction (i.e. urban vs. rural, etc.), and
recommended training that would more likely be used in a “real world” scenario were also taken
into consideration. The core and benchmark cities were also noted as priorities when adding
additional scenarios not otherwise found in the National Planning Scenarios but deemed
desirable for the Bay Area.

Finally, the CBRNE project Needs Prioritization Summary was considered relative to the three
identified disciplines. Exercise plan emphasis was placed on the “very high priority” and “high
priority” categories, where “teams” were identified under “kind of resource”. The multi-year
plan includes training that reflects those priorities.

In summary, the three tools that were utilized to determine regional training and exercise needs
were:
      1. SUASI CBRNE Project, Needs Prioritization Summary
      2. SUASI Training and Exercise Project Training Gap Analysis
      3. SUASI Training and Exercise Project Exercise History Survey

B.     PROJECT FINDINGS

The findings shown below are FEMA-typed disaster response resources and their associated
capabilities that have been determined critical by a consensus of the region’s first responder
community as well as exercise scenarios and types that have been underutilized in the region.
The combination of these two elements were the focus of the structuring of the Five-Year Plan
and are integral to the region’s ability to achieve its prioritized goals.
Training and Exercise Gaps - Significant training and exercise gaps were noted in the training
and exercise surveys as well as in the SUASI CBRNE project Needs Prioritization Summary,
which ranked the importance of specific resources in the following order:


                               Typed Disaster Response Resources
       I.       Incident Management Team, Firefighting
       II.      Underwater Explosives Team (FEMA Typed as Public Safety Dive Team,
                Type IV)
       III.     Bomb Squad/Explosives Team
       IV.      Hazmat Entry Team
       V.       Public Safety Dive Team


CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 43                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                          FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory



The teams and their associated priority and capability elements are described below:
I.   INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM, FIREFIGHTING
     Incident Management Teams are comprised of personnel that provide command and
     control infrastructure through command and general staff positions in accordance with
     Incident Command System (ICS) models.
     Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
     decontamination capabilities
     Associated Target Capabilities:
         •   Firefighting Operations/Support: Dispatch and safe arrival of the initial fire
             suppression resources occurs within jurisdictional response time objectives
         •   WMD and Hazardous Materials Response and Decontamination: Hazardous
             materials release is rapidly identified and mitigated; victims exposed to the hazard
             are rescued, decontaminated, and treated; the impact of the release is limited; and
             responders and at-risk populations are effectively protected.
         •   On-Site Incident Management: The incident is managed safely, effectively, and
             efficiently through the integration of facilities, resources (personnel, equipment,
             supplies, and communications), and procedures using a common organizational
             structure that is the Incident Command System (ICS), as defined in the National
             Incident Management System (NIMS).
         •   Responder Safety and Health: No illness or injury to any first responder, first
             receiver, medical facility staff member, or other skilled support personnel as a result
             of preventable exposure after the initial incident or during decontamination and
             incident follow-up.
     Associated Critical Tasks:
         •   Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
     Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority
         •   Nuclear Detonation
         •   Chemical Attack – Blister Agent
         •   Chemical Attack- Toxic Industrial Chemicals
         •   Radiological Attack – RDD
         •   Explosives Attack – IED




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 44                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


II.   UNDERWATER EXPLOSIVES TEAM

      Public Safety Dive Teams are used for recovering bodies, evidence, or objects that are
      underwater. They may also be used for salvage and explosives handling, depending on
      type.
      Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
      decontamination capabilities
      Associated Target Capabilities:
           •    Explosive Device Response Operations: Threat assessments are conducted, the
                explosive and/or hazardous devices are rendered safe, and the area is cleared of
                hazards.
           •    Public Safety and Security Response
           •    WMD and Hazardous Materials Response and Decontamination
           •    Responder Safety and Health
      Associated Critical Tasks:
           •    Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
      Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority
           •    Radiological Attack – RDD
           •    Explosives Attack – IED

III. BOMB SQUAD/EXPLOSIVES TEAM

      Bomb Squad / Explosives Teams respond to potential explosive devices, including those
      containing weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and engage in render-safe, containment,
      and disposal activities

      Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
      decontamination capabilities
      Associated Target Capabilities:
           •    Explosive Device Response Operations
           •    Public Safety and Security Response
           •    WMD and Hazardous Materials Response and Decontamination
           •    Responder Safety and Health
      Associated Critical Tasks:


CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 45                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


           •    Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
     Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority
           •    Radiological Attack – RDD
           •    Explosives Attack – IED

IV. MOBILE FIELD FORCE/CROWD CONTROL TEAM

     Mobile Field Force Law Enforcement / Crowd Control Teams are deployed to maintain
     peace and preserve order.

     Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
     decontamination capabilities
     Associated Target Capabilities:
           •    Public Safety and Security Response
           •    On-Site Incident Management

     Associated Critical Tasks:
           •    Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
     Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority:

           •    Chemical attack – Blister Agent
           •    Chemical Attack – Toxic Industrial Chemical
           •    Chemical Attack – Chlorine Tank Explosion
           •    Chemical Attack – Nerve Agent
           •    Natural Disaster – Major Earthquake
           •    Radiological Attack – RDD
           •    Explosives Attack – IED

V.   HAZMAT ENTRY TEAM

     HazMat Entry Teams respond to and enter into areas of contamination from chemical,
     biological, radiological, and/or nuclear sources for the purposes of assessment,
     containment, monitoring, stabilizing, and decontaminating. The response and type will be
     dictated by the nature of the hazardous material release.

     Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
     decontamination capabilities
     Associated Target Capabilities:

CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 46                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


           •    Explosive Device Response Operations
           •    Public Safety and Security Response
           •    WMD and Hazardous Materials Response and Decontamination
           •    Responder Safety and Health
     Associated Critical Tasks:
           •    Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
     Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority:
           •    Radiological Attack – RDD
           •    Explosives Attack – IED
           •    Chemical attack – Blister Agent
           •    Chemical Attack – Toxic Industrial Chemical
           •    Chemical Attack – Chlorine Tank Explosion
           •    Chemical Attack – Nerve Agent


VI. PUBLIC SAFETY DIVE TEAM

     Public Safety Dive Teams are used for recovering bodies, evidence, or objects that are
     underwater. They may also be used for salvage and explosives handling, depending on
     type.

     Corresponding National Priority: Strengthen CBRNE detection, response, and
     decontamination capabilities
     Associated Target Capabilities:
           •    Explosive Device Response Operations
           •    Public Safety and Security Response
           •    WMD and Hazardous Materials Response and Decontamination
           •    Responder Safety and Health
     Associated Critical Tasks:
           •    Develop and Maintain Training and Exercise Programs
     Training Exercises that Support this Regional Priority:
           •    Explosives Attack – IED



CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 47                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                          FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                        FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                 Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis     Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


C.        EXERCISE GAPS BY SCENARIO

Based on survey results, the following are the most underrepresented National Planning
Scenarios as exercised in the region:

     1.   Cyber Attack
     2.   Biological Attack – Foreign Animal Disease
     3.   Natural Disaster – Major Hurricane
     4.   Biological Attack – Food Contamination
     5.   Nuclear Detonation
     6.   Chemical Attack – Blister Agent

Below is a summary of the current status of the region depicting which types of scenarios have
been used most frequently for training purposes and identifying areas that still need to be
addressed.

Natural Disaster – Major Earthquake

                    ALL                     LAW
                            FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
                DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
     Seminar         20           11          8                                            1
     Workshop         9            8          1                                            -
     Tabletop        40           18         21                                            1
     Game             4            4          -                                            -
     Drill           20           13          7                                            -
     Functional      40           18         17                                            5
     Full Scale      16            9          5                                            2
      TOTAL              149                   81                     59                   9




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                  48                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                           FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Biological Disease Outbreak – Pandemic Influenza

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         24           12         11                                            1
    Workshop        18           10          5                                            3
    Tabletop        22           8          11                                            3
    Game             2            -          2                                            -
    Drill           5            3           1                                            1
    Functional       1            -          -                                            1
    Full Scale       5            2          2                                            1
     TOTAL               77                   35                     32                   10


Explosives Attack – IED (Improvised Explosive Device)

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         24           13         9                                             2
    Workshop         3            2         1                                             -
    Tabletop         8           3          5                                             -
    Game             3            1         2                                             -
    Drill           7            4          1                                             2
    Functional      10            2         8                                             -
    Full Scale      14            4         6                                             4
     TOTAL               69                   29                     32                   8


Biological Attack – Aerosol Anthrax

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         21           11         8                                             2
    Workshop         5           2          2                                             1
    Tabletop        10           4          4                                             2
    Game             2            -         2                                             -
    Drill            5           4          1                                             -
    Functional       4            2         1                                             1
    Full Scale       7            2         4                                             1
     TOTAL               54                   25                     22                   7



CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 49                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                          FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Chemical Attack – Toxic Industrial Chemicals

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         14            9         5                                             -
    Workshop         4            2         2                                             -
    Tabletop         8            4         4                                             -
    Game             2            -         2                                             -
    Drill           16           10         5                                             1
    Functional       6            5         1                                             -
    Full Scale       4            3         1                                             -
     TOTAL               54                   33                     20                   1


Chemical Attack – Nerve Agent

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         19           12         6                                             1
    Workshop         4           2          1                                             1
    Tabletop         4           1          2                                             1
    Game             2            -         2                                             -
    Drill           10           6          2                                             2
    Functional       2            1         1                                             -
    Full Scale      12            9         1                                             2
     TOTAL               53                   31                     15                   7


Radiological Attack – RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device)

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         22           12         8                                             2
    Workshop         4           2          1                                             1
    Tabletop        5            1          3                                             1
    Game             3            -         3                                             -
    Drill           9            6          3                                             -
    Functional       3            -         3                                             -
    Full Scale       6            1         3                                             2
     TOTAL               52                   22                     24                   6



CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 50                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                          FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Chemical Attack – Chlorine Tank Explosion

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         12           6          6                                             -
    Workshop         4           2          2                                             -
    Tabletop        10           5          4                                             1
    Game             3           1          2                                             -
    Drill           8            4          2                                             2
    Functional       6           4          1                                             1
    Full Scale       5           2          1                                             2
     TOTAL               48                   24                     18                   6


Biological Attack – Plague

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         18           10         6                                             2
    Workshop         2            1         1                                             -
    Tabletop         6           4          2                                             -
    Game             3            1         2                                             -
    Drill           4            2          1                                             1
    Functional       7            4         2                                             1
    Full Scale       6            2         1                                             3
     TOTAL               46                   24                     15                   7


Chemical Attack – Blister Agent

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         17           10         6                                             1
    Workshop         2            -         2                                             -
    Tabletop        3            1          1                                             1
    Game             3            -         3                                             -
    Drill           5            3          2                                             -
    Functional       1            1          -                                            -
    Full Scale       -            -          -                                            -
     TOTAL               31                   15                     14                   2



CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 51                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Nuclear Detonation

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         10           6          3                                             1
    Workshop         -           -           -                                            -
    Tabletop         2           2           -                                            -
    Game             1           -          1                                             -
    Drill            2           2           -                                            -
    Functional       2           2           -                                            -
    Full Scale       4           1          1                                             2
     TOTAL               21                   13                     5                    3


Biological Attack – Food Contamination

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         7            4          3                                             -
    Workshop        1            -          1                                             -
    Tabletop        3            -          2                                             1
    Game            2            -          2                                             -
    Drill           2            1          -                                             1
    Functional      2            1           -                                            1
    Full Scale      4            1          1                                             2
     TOTAL               21                   7                      9                    5


Natural Disaster – Major Hurricane

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         3            3           -                                            -
    Workshop        1            1           -                                            -
    Tabletop        6            3          3                                             -
    Game            -            -          -                                             -
    Drill           1            -          1                                             -
    Functional      2            -          2                                             -
    Full Scale      3            2           -                                            1
     TOTAL               16                   9                      6                    1



CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 52                                  BAY AREA SUASI
Exercise Plan                          FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                       FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                                                                                Funded by DHS
 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Biological Attack – Foreign Animal Disease (Foot and Mouth Disease)

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         4            2          2                                              -
    Workshop        -            -           -                                             -
    Tabletop        -            -           -                                             -
    Game            -            -          -                                              -
    Drill           -            -           -                                             -
    Functional      1            -          1                                              -
    Full Scale      -            -           -                                             -
     TOTAL               5                    2                      3                    0


Cyber Attack

                   ALL                     LAW
                           FIRE/HAZMAT                                                  EMS
               DISCIPLINES             ENFORCEMENT
    Seminar         3            1          2                                              -
    Workshop        -            -           -                                             -
    Tabletop        1            -          1                                              -
    Game            -            -          -                                              -
    Drill           -            -           -                                             -
    Functional      -            -           -                                             -
    Full Scale      1            1           -                                             -
     TOTAL               5                    2                      3                    0


Other
This section allowed agencies to write-in any additional training they participated in or held over
the past two years that were not part of the National Planning Scenarios. The training ranged
from seminars to full scale exercises using a variety of scenarios. The scenario addressed most
often was floods/winter storms, second were wild land or brush fires and the third was a military
or large plane crash. Other scenarios included active shooter, hostages taken on school grounds,
RDD, earthquake, nuclear detonation, mass decontamination, and missing persons in the
wilderness/search and rescue.




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 53                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


D.        HINDRANCES

Agencies were also asked to note hindrances they may have encountered while planning exercise
schedules. Any or all of the following hindrances using the following guidelines were offered as
appropriate responses:
     1.   Lack of Exercise Funds
     2.   Competing Agency Priorities
     3.   Staff Backfill Unavailable
     4.   Unaware of NIMS Requirement
     5.   Other
Region-wide, “Lack of Training Funds” was the most noted Hindrance, across all disciplines,
with 86 responses. This was followed by “Competing Agency Priorities” with 78 responses and
“Staff Backfill Unavailable” with 71 responses. “Other” Hindrances totaled 14 responses, and
“Unaware of NIMS requirement” had 12 responses.




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 54                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 Gap Analysis     Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


E.        EXERCISE PLANNING

Agencies were asked to identify the prioritization methodology for planning their exercise
programs. They were given the following priorities to choose from:
     1.   Local Jurisdictional Needs
     2.   Agency Needs
     3.   National Priorities
     4.   Target Capabilities List
The favored strategy for selecting priorities was “Local Jurisdiction Needs”, as evidenced by 103
responses to that category. The second most favored methodology was “Agency Needs” with 85
responses. “Target Capabilities List” was chosen 32 times, and “National Priorities” was
selected in 30 responses.




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                  55                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 TRAINING & EXERCISE
 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


F.      EXERCISE SCHEDULING

Agencies were queried as to how they schedule their exercise planning and were asked to rate the
following scheduling considerations:
     1. Yearly
     2. Recurring
     3. Needs-Based
The most prominent scheduling criteria were found to be “Needs Based” with 92 responses. This
was followed by “Yearly” planning with 59 responses, and then “Recurring” cycle with 22
responses.




CHAPTER 3: Multi-Year Training and                 56                                  BAY AREA SUASI
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 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory



SECTION 4: PLANNING PROCESS
Exercises conducted at all jurisdictional levels within the SUASI are encouraged to follow the
planning, training, exercise, and improvement plan cycle. As the cycle indicates, it is
recommended that jurisdictions accomplish the following specific planning steps prior to
conducting an exercise:
    • Assess current emergency operations plans (EOPs) for completeness and relevance
    • Assess the current level of training and EOP familiarity for all response agencies within
       the jurisdiction
    • Conduct necessary training for all response agencies
    • Train personnel on newly received response equipment
    • Conduct exercises using equipment, training, and emergency response plans
    • Develop an After Action Report (AAR) that captures the lessons learned. Areas for
       needed improvement form the basis of the Improvement Plan (IP), which sets the stage
       for the next round of exercise activity

When a jurisdiction has completed the planning, training, and equipping steps of the exercise
cycle, it is ready to begin designing the exercise. During the design phase, the exercise planning
team determines what type of exercise is appropriate for its jurisdiction. The SUASI
recommends a building block approach, which utilizes a series of exercises that increase in
complexity and difficulty.

A.     BUILDING-BLOCK APPROACH

The Bay Area SUASI jurisdictions possess differing levels of
preparedness regarding terrorism prevention, response, and
recovery capabilities. Because of these differences, the Bay
Area SUASI Exercise Plan uses a building-block approach in
the design of the overall exercise program. This building-
block approach ensures successful progression in exercise
design, complexity, and execution, and allows for the
appropriate training and preparation to take place in the
community receiving the exercise.

The baseline exercise progression for each jurisdiction is to move from a seminar to a TTX to a
functional exercise (FE), and finally, to an FSE. These particular exercise types allow for a
logical progression of regional and jurisdictional preparedness by increasing in size, complexity,
and stress factor, while allowing for significant learning opportunities that effectively
complement, build upon, and directly lead into one another. This model is flexible enough to
allow for the addition of other desired exercise types.



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 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


Finally, this exercise model allows for a cyclical approach to exercises, which provides the
region with a sustainable program for achieving higher degrees of overall preparedness. The
program follows an annual cycle of:
    • Planning/Development
    • Training/Preparation
    • Exercises
    • Improvement Plan

B.     EXERCISE PLANNING TEAM

The exercise planning team assists the exercise director in the design and development of the
exercise. The planning team’s duties include determining exercise objectives, tailoring the
scenario, and developing the sequence of events and associated messages and actions. This team
is responsible for creating and distributing all exercise materials, conducting pre-exercise
training, and assuring the logistic and administrative necessities to conduct the exercise are
complete. The team should include a representative from each of the participating jurisdictions in
a multi-jurisdictional exercise and from key departments in a single-jurisdictional exercise. An
exercise director oversees the team’s efforts, ensures all exercise preparation activity is
accomplished, and resolves any conflicts of interest or inconsistencies. A senior planner is
usually assigned responsibility for ensuring all exercise planning and development is related to
the purpose, scope, and objectives of the exercise. During the exercise, the senior planner
customarily serves as the senior controller. A chief or senior evaluator is responsible for
developing, publishing, and distributing the evaluation plan and overseeing exercise evaluation
to provide feedback on the effectiveness of the exercise.

C.     EXERCISE EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT

In order to get the maximum benefit from an exercise, planners and evaluators must look at how
participants implemented plans and made decisions in response to the simulated incident. This
should focus on positive outcomes as well as areas for improvement. Participating agencies and
jurisdictions should view the evaluation results as an opportunity to identify ways to build on
strengths and improve capacity. Because planning and conducting an exercise requires a
significant commitment of resources, it is important to maximize the benefits gained from the
exercise through the evaluation and improvement process.

The goal of exercise evaluation is to validate strengths and identify improvement opportunities
for the participating organization(s). The process is vital to improvement and will serve as the
basis for future plans and resource allocation within the jurisdiction. This is accomplished by
observing the exercise and collecting supporting data; analyzing the data to compare
performance against expected outcomes; and determining what changes need to be made to the
procedures, plans, staffing, equipment, organizations, and inter-agency coordination. The focus
of the evaluation for tabletop and other discussion-based exercises is on plans, policies, and
inter-agency/inter-jurisdictional relationships, whereas the focus for operations-based exercises

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 Gap Analysis    Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan   Training Options Inventory


is on assessing performance in preventing or responding to a simulated event.

Evaluation Components

After Action Reports (AARs) and Improvement Plans (IPs) provide valuable input into strategy
development and program planning, as well as lessons learned that should be shared with other
jurisdictions across the country to increase the preparedness of the nation.

An AAR provides a description of what happened during the exercise, issues that need to be
addressed, and recommendations for improvements. There are different methods for compiling
information for the AAR; however, all should contain the following key elements:

   •   Date, time, and place of the exercise
   •   Type of exercise: Is it tabletop, functional, or full-scale?
   •   Focus of the exercise: Is it oriented toward prevention, response, or recovery from an
       incident? Determine the type of hazard (terrorism, earthquake, hurricane, etc.).
   •   Participants: Who were the participants, how many were there, what agencies were
       involved, and what type of responders or officials was involved in the play?
   •   Objectives: Exercises should be based on objectives exercise participants need to
       accomplish in order to improve preparedness, as opposed to scenarios they want to play
       out. For example, if a community feels that evaluating notification systems between
       hospitals and emergency medical services is their objective, then emphasizing this
       response element should be incorporated into the scenario.
       − Sample Objective for a TTX: Discuss casualty management and patient tracking
           issues arising from a weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incident. Identify what and
           how information is shared between on-scene response resources, healthcare
           facilities, local agencies, private organizations, and contiguous jurisdictions.
       − Sample Objective for an FE/FSE: Exercise emergency operations center (EOC)
           internal notification / call-down procedures for a terrorist-caused chemical agent
           release. Validate critical infrastructure protection pre-plans.
   •   Discussions or Observations with Corresponding Recommendations: Discussions are
       those issues evaluators summarize for a discussion-based exercise. Observations are
       those issues evaluators capture for an operations-based exercise. These discussions or
       observations should be broken down functionally (e.g., law enforcement, Incident
       Command, medical response) in the AAR and for each issue discussed or observed (e.g.,
       gross decontamination, agent identification, surveillance procedures). There should be
       corresponding recommendations included that help discern lessons learned from the
       exercise.
   •   Lessons Learned: Lessons learned include knowledge gained from an innovation, or
       experiences that provide valuable evidence (positive or negative) recommending how to
       approach a similar problem in the future. Lessons learned are not just summaries of what


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         went right or wrong; rather, they should provide insight into the situation to describe a
         change that needs to be made to address a particular issue. More broadly, these lessons
         should be suitable to share with other jurisdictions in an effort to enhance preparedness.
         Although every finding and recommendation that comes out of the analysis process may
         result in lessons learned for the participating jurisdictions, it is those that may have
         applicability to other jurisdictions that should be highlighted as lessons learned in the
         AAR.
     •   Principle Findings or Significant Observations: Principle findings are the most
         important issues discerned from a discussion-based exercise. Significant observations are
         the most important observations recognized by one or more evaluators during an
         operations-based exercise. These generally cut across functional disciplines or are areas
         within a function that are found to be extremely important for elevating preparedness in a
         community, region, or the State overall. These often directly tie back to exercise
         objectives.

The AAR will provide a picture of the response with the exercise participants and community
leaders so that everyone can understand what was planned to happen, what actually happened
during the exercise, why it happened, and what could have been done differently to improve
performance. Generally, the initial IP will be included in the final AAR.

The IP is the means by which the lessons learned from the exercise are turned into concrete,
measurable steps that result in improved response capabilities. When complete, it specifically
details what actions will be taken to address each recommendation presented in the AAR, who or
what agency or agencies will be responsible for taking the action, and the timeline for
completion.

The IP should be realistic and should establish priorities for the use of limited resources. Every
effort should be made to address recommendations related to performance of critical tasks. Other
recommendations should also be addressed, as appropriate. When the availability of resources
may not be immediate, short-term and long-term solutions should be discussed. In this fashion,
IPs can serve as the basis for future local and State assessments.

D.       SHARING LESSONS LEARNED

Several of the goals and benefits of sharing the AAR/IP are as follows:
   • The AAR/IP should be shared with officials from the agencies that participated in the
       exercise. For local jurisdictions, the IP will provide a workable and systematic process to
       initiate and document improvements to plans, policies, and procedures and to identify and
       secure needed training, equipment, and other resources. Local officials develop it to
       address local needs.
   • For the State of California, the AAR/IP provides a method for collecting information
       about improvement actions from local governments and State agencies.
   • For DHS, the AAR/IP provides needed information for program planning, directing

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       resources, and assessing levels of preparedness. This information will also enable DHS to
       provide Congress accurate information on Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation
       Program (HSEEP) performance as executed by Federal, State, and local agencies and a
       basis for integrating HSEEP initiatives with other programs in DHS and other
       departments. The AAR/IP also provides information that can improve the development
       and refinement of performance standards and recommended practices and enhance
       federally sponsored training programs.

DHS will provide copies of AARs to the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
(MIPT) via Lessons Learned Information Sharing at www.LLIS.gov, a web-based best practices
and lessons learned information network for first responders and emergency planners
nationwide. LLIS.gov serves as the national repository for best practices and lessons learned and
is accessible to approved users within the response community through the DHS Secure Portal.
LLIS.gov will analyze the information and extract the best practices, lessons learned, and trends.
All AAR information will be secure and will be provided to approved users in summary form
and/or with all identifying information removed.




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SECTION 5: TYPES OF EXERCISES

A.     DISCUSSIONS- BASED EXERCISES

Discussions-based exercises are normally used as a starting point in the building block approach
to the cycle, mix, and range of exercises. Discussions-based exercises include games, seminars,
workshops, and tabletop exercises (TTXs). These typically highlight existing plans, policies,
mutual aid agreements (MAAs), and procedures. Therefore, they are exceptional tools for
familiarizing agencies and personnel with current or expected jurisdictional capabilities.
Discussions-based exercises typically focus on strategic, policy-oriented issues; operations-based
exercises tend to focus more on tactical, response-related issues. Facilitators and/or presenters
usually lead the discussion, keeping participants on track while meeting the objectives of the
exercise.

Seminars

Seminars are generally used to orient participants to, or provide an overview of, authorities,
strategies, plans, policies, procedures, protocols, response resources, or concepts and ideas.
Seminars provide a good starting point for jurisdictions that are developing or making major
changes to their plans and procedures. They offer the following attributes:
    • Low-stress environment employing a number of instruction techniques such as lectures,
        multimedia presentations, panel discussions, case study discussions, expert testimony,
        and decision support tools
    • Informal discussions led by a seminar leader
    • Lack of time constraints caused by real-time portrayal of events
    • Proven effectiveness with both small and large groups

Workshops

Workshops represent the second tier of exercises in the Homeland Security Exercise and
Evaluation Program (HSEEP) building block approach. Although similar to seminars, workshops
differ in two important aspects: participant interaction is increased, and the focus is on achieving
or building a product (such as a plan or a policy). Workshops provide an ideal forum for the
following:
    • Collecting or sharing information
    • Obtaining new or different perspectives
    • Testing new ideas, processes, or procedures
    • Training groups in coordinated activities
    • Problem-solving complex issues
    • Obtaining consensus
    • Building teams

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In conjunction with exercise development, workshops are most useful in achieving specific
aspects of exercise design such as:
   • Determining program or exercise objectives
   • Developing exercise scenario and key events listings
   • Determining evaluation elements and standards of performance

A workshop may be used to produce new standard operating procedures (SOPs) or emergency
operations plans (EOPs), mutual aid agreements (MAAs), multi-year training and exercise plans
(TEPs), and improvement plans (IPs). To be effective, workshops must be highly focused on a
specific issue, and the desired outcome or goal must be clearly defined.

Potential relevant topics and goals are numerous, but all workshops share the following common
attributes:
     • Low-stress environment
     • No-fault forum
     • Information conveyed employing different instructional techniques
     • Facilitated, working breakout sessions
     • Plenary discussions led by a workshop leader
     • Goals oriented toward an identifiable product
     • Lack of time constraint from real-time portrayal of events
     • Effective with both small and large groups

Games

A game is a simulation of operations that often involves two or more teams, usually in a
competitive environment, using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or
assumed real-life situation. It does not involve the use of actual resources, but the sequence of
events affects, and is in turn affected by, the decisions made by the players.

Players are commonly presented with scenarios and asked to perform a task associated with the
scenario episode. Each episode then moves to the next level of detail or complexity, taking into
account the players’ earlier decisions. The decisions made by game participants determine the
flow of the game. The goal is to explore decision-making processes and the consequences of
decisions. In a game, the same situation can be examined from different perspectives by
changing variables and parameters that guide player actions. Large-scale games are
multijurisdictional and can include active participation from local to national levels of
government. Games stress the importance of the planners’ and players’ understanding and
comprehension of interrelated processes.

With the evolving complexity and sophistication of current simulations, there are increased
opportunities to provide enhanced realism for game participants. The use of computer-generated

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scenarios and simulations can provide a more realistic and time-sensitive method of introducing
situations for analysis. Planner decisions can be input and models run to show the effect of
decisions made during a game. Games are excellent vehicles for the following:

   •   Gaining policy or process consensus
   •   Conducting “what-if” analyses of existing plans
   •   Developing new plans

Tabletop Exercises

TTXs involve senior staff, elected or appointed officials, or other key personnel in an informal
setting, discussing simulated situations. This type of exercise is intended to stimulate discussion
of various issues regarding a hypothetical situation. It can be used to assess plans, policies, and
procedures or to assess types of systems needed to guide the prevention of, response to, and
recovery from a defined incident or emergency. TTXs are typically aimed at facilitating
understanding of concepts, identifying strengths and shortfalls, and/or achieving a change in
attitude. Participants are encouraged to discuss issues in depth and develop decisions through
slow-paced problem solving rather than the rapid, spontaneous decision making that occurs
under actual or simulated emergency conditions. In contrast to the scale and cost of operations-
based exercises and games, TTXs can be a cost-effective tool when used in conjunction with
more complex exercises. The effectiveness of a TTX is derived from the energetic involvement
of participants and their assessment of recommended revisions to current policies, procedures,
and plans.

TTX methods are divided into two categories: basic and advanced. In a basic TTX, the scene set
by the scenario materials remains constant. It describes an event or emergency incident and
brings discussion participants up to the simulated present time. Players apply their knowledge
and skills to a list of problems presented by the leader/moderator; problems are discussed as a
group; and resolution is generally agreed on and summarized by the leader. The exercise
controller (also known as the moderator) usually introduces problems one at a time in the form of
a written message, simulated telephone call, videotape, or other means. Participants discuss the
issues raised by the problem, using appropriate plans and procedures. TTX attributes may
include the following:
    • Practicing group problem-solving
    • Familiarizing senior officials with a situation
    • Familiarizing staff to a new plan or procedure
    • Conducting a specific case study
    • Examining personnel contingencies
    • Testing group message interpretation
    • Participating in information sharing
    • Assessing interagency coordination


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     •   Achieving limited or specific objectives

B.       OPERATIONS- BASED EXERCISES

Operations-based exercises represent the next step of the exercise cycle; they are used to validate
the plans, policies, agreements, and procedures solidified in discussion-based exercises.
Operations-based exercises include drills, functional exercises (FEs), and full-scale exercises
(FSEs). They can clarify roles and responsibilities, identify gaps in resources needed to
implement plans and procedures, and improve individual and team performance. Operations-
based exercises are characterized by actual response, mobilization of apparatus and resources,
and commitment of personnel, usually over an extended period of time.

Drills

A drill is a coordinated, supervised activity usually used to test a single specific operation or
function in a single agency. Drills are commonly used to provide training on new equipment,
develop or test new policies or procedures, or practice and maintain current skills. Typical
attributes are as follows:
     • A narrow focus, measured against established standards
     • Instant feedback
     • Realistic environment
     • Performance in isolation

Functional Exercises

The FE is designed to test and evaluate individual capabilities, multiple functions or activities
within a function, or interdependent groups of functions. FEs generally focus on exercising the
plans, policies, procedures, and staffs of the direction and control functions within of Incident
Command and Unified Command. Generally, events are projected through an exercise scenario
with event updates that drive activity at the management level. Movement of personnel and
equipment is simulated.

The objective of the FE is to execute specific plans and procedures and apply established
policies, plans, and procedures under crisis conditions, within or by particular function teams. An
FE simulates the reality of operations in a functional area by presenting complex, realistic
problems that require rapid and effective responses by trained personnel in a highly stressful
environment. Attributes of an FE are as follows:
    • Evaluating functions
    • Evaluating Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs), headquarters, and staff
    • Reinforcing established policies and procedures
    • Measuring resource adequacy


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   •   Examining inter-agency and inter-jurisdictional relationships

Full-Scale Exercises

The FSE is the most complex step in the exercise cycle. FSEs are usually multi-agency, multi-
jurisdictional exercises that test many facets of emergency response and recovery. They include
many first responders operating under the Incident Command System (ICS) and Unified
Command structure to effectively and efficiently respond to, and recover from, an incident. An
FSE focuses on implementing and analyzing the plans, policies, and procedures developed in
discussion-based exercises and honed in previous, smaller, operations-based exercises. The
events are projected through a scripted exercise scenario with built-in flexibility to allow updates
to drive activity. An FSE is conducted in a real-time, stressful environment that closely mirrors a
real incident. First responders and resources are mobilized and deployed to the scene where they
conduct their actions as if a real incident had occurred (with minor exceptions). The FSE
simulates the reality of operations in multiple functional areas by presenting complex and
realistic problems requiring critical thinking, rapid problem solving, and effective responses by
trained personnel in a highly stressful environment. Other entities that are not involved in the
exercise, but who would be involved in an actual incident response, are represented by a
Simulation Cell (SimCell).

An FSE provides an opportunity to execute plans, procedures, and MAAs in response to a
simulated incident. Typical FSE attributes are as follows:
   • Assessing organizational and functional performance
   • Demonstrating interagency cooperation
   • Allocating resources and personnel
   • Assessing equipment capabilities
   • Assessing plans and procedures in a simulated incident
   • Activating personnel and equipment
   • Assessing inter-jurisdictional cooperation
   • Exercising public information systems
   • Testing communications systems and procedures
   • Analyzing memoranda of understanding (MOUs), SOPs, plans, policies, and procedures

The level of support needed to conduct an FSE is greater than that needed during other types of
exercises. The exercise site is usually extensive with complex site logistics. Food and water must
be supplied to participants and volunteers. Safety issues, including those surrounding the use of
props and special effects, must be monitored.

FSE controllers ensure that participants’ behavior remains within predefined boundaries.
SimCell controllers inject scenario elements to simulate real events and represent non-playing
organizations that would be responding in a real-world incident. Evaluators observe behaviors

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and compare them against established plans, policies, procedures, and standard practices (if
applicable). Safety controllers ensure all activity is executed within a safe environment.




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             CHAPTER 4: TRAINING OPTIONS INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
This chapter identifies discipline-specific training opportunities currently available to
first-responder agencies which may be utilized to address disaster response training mandates.
Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) / National Incident Management System
(NIMS) training options, as well as Law Enforcement, Fire / Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) recommendations are presented. This inventory is not an
attempt to capture every possible training platform and potential vendor; rather, it is illustrative
of the types of training available to agencies and jurisdictions. An effort has been made to
identify “very high priority” needs and “high priority” needs (as outlined in the SUASI
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) Needs Prioritization
Summary) and to focus on specific training needed in order to close those recognized gaps.

Special consideration should be given to sustainable training opportunities such as “train-the-
trainer” course availability. Such platforms transform a single investment into an ongoing,
accessible resource for local instruction.

Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) funding, including staffing backfill and course
costs, may be made available to agencies that participate in regional training opportunities as
recommended in the body of this report.

SUB-REGIONS

For the purposes of scheduling training in adjacent geographical areas and in alignment with the
CBRNE Project model, the SUASI region has been divided into four sub-regions: North, East,
South, and West. The characteristics and composition of the four regions is provided in the
sections that follow. Training managers should coordinate needed classes with other managers in
their sub-region, thus minimizing travel time, conflicts and duplication of training offerings and
expenditures.

Agencies in the sub-regions that have California Commission on Peace Officers Standards and
Training (POST)-certified instructors and curriculum in needed courses should plan to host those
courses and invite their neighboring agencies. The SUASI region may fund course costs and
backfill for attendees, if they are not already reimbursable by POST.

North Sub-Region

The North region consists of Marin, Sonoma, Napa, and Solano counties and is the least
urbanized portion of the Bay Area. The City of Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bay’s
largest city, with a population of 156,200. The City of Vallejo in Solano County is the second
largest city. Within the North region, there are many areas of undeveloped open space, farmland,

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and vineyards. The North Bay is the only section of the Bay Area that is not served by a
commuter rail transit service. Much of it is isolated from the rest of the Bay Area by water—the
major access points are the Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Carquinez, and Benicia-
Martinez Bridges.

East Sub-Region

The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is often referred to
as the “East Bay.” The East Bay is split into two regions, the inner East Bay, which sits on the
bay shoreline, and the outer East Bay, consisting of inland valleys separated from the inner East
Bay by hills and mountains. The East Bay includes the major cities of Berkeley, Fremont,
Hayward, and Oakland in Alameda County and Concord in Contra Costa County. The inner East
Bay includes the cities of Oakland, Hayward, Fremont, Berkeley, and Richmond, as well as
many others. The outer East Bay includes the San Ramon and Amador valleys and cities such as
Walnut Creek, Concord, and Pittsburg. The East Bay is urban and densely populated with a large
amount of older building stock built before World War II. The Port of Oakland is the third
busiest port in California.

South Sub-Region

The South region is made up of the counties of Santa Clara and Santa Cruz. Although Santa
Clara County is urban and home to Silicon Valley, Santa Cruz County remains somewhat rural in
nature. Several notable technology companies are headquartered in the South Bay, giving it the
designation, “Silicon Valley”—they include Intel, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Cisco
Systems, Hewlett-Packard, Apple, Google, Yahoo!, and eBay. Santa Clara County includes the
City of San Jose and other outlying high-tech hub cities, such as Santa Clara and Sunnyvale.

West Sub-Region

The West region consists of the City and County of San Francisco and the County of San Mateo.
The City and County of San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides and is bordered by
the County of San Mateo (often referred to as the Peninsula) to the south. Transportation routes
into the city include bridges, rail (overland and underneath the Bay), water, and overland
vehicular routes.




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SECTION 1: NIMS/SEMS TRAINING
As required by the National Incident Management System (NIMS), basic overview Incident
Command System (ICS) training (ICS-100 and ICS-200) and basic overview NIMS training
(IS-700) must be given to State, local, and tribal government personnel, as well as to private
sector and non-government organization (NGO) personnel who may be called upon during an
emergency. In addition, personnel from these organizations who are assigned supervisory roles
during a disaster, such as working in a field command or in an Emergency Operations Center
(EOC), must complete advanced emergency management courses, which include ICS-300 and
IS-800. In addition to this, senior management personnel assigned to command or management
positions in the field or in an EOC must also take the advanced ICS-400 course. The State of
California has adopted these Federal training requirements.

Federal requirements list specific dates by which training courses must be completed by all
agencies. Although the date of September 30, 2007, has passed for the basic overview courses to
be provided to first responder and EOC-assigned personnel, and IS-800 to supervisory field and
EOC personnel, some agencies in the Super Urban Area Security Initiative (SUASI) region have
not completed the training. As the target date of September 30, 2008, approaches for completion
of ICS-300 for field and EOC supervisory personnel, many agencies will be striving to meet that
deadline. The training target date for ICS-400, initially set for September 2008, has been pushed
back to September 30, 2009, by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) NIMS
National Integration Center (NIC).

The basic NIMS overview required training is available through various public and private
organizations in the SUASI region. Many agencies have sent personnel to a train-the-trainer
course for the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS)-NIMS-ICS Combined
course sponsored by the California Office of Emergency Services (OES) through its California
Specialized Training Institute (CSTI). These personnel have then taught the classes internally
within their organizations. Agencies also have provided their personnel training via online
classes at FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute website. These courses have also been
delivered by emergency management consulting professionals who specialize in providing public
and private sector disaster-related training material.

NIMS and ICS overview training for newly hired public safety (police and fire department)
personnel is provided at the various police and fire academies in the region. Fire personnel
receive the training from fire academy trainers who have taken the train-the-trainer courses.
Some internal (agency-specific) fire academies require their personnel to take the FEMA online
classes. All new fire personnel are NIMS-compliant after graduating from their fire academies.
All new police personnel receive a course in their basic academy that is mandated by the POST
Commission. Topics in this course, called Learning Domain 43, include the items covered in
ICS-100, ICS-200, and IS-700, as well as terrorism-specific training. According to the California
Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training (POST), this course ensures that all new
police officers are compliant with the NIMS overview training requirement.


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As with the basic overview NIMS training, the required advanced training is available through
various means. Many agencies have sent personnel to train-the-trainer courses in order to teach it
“in house.” Agencies have also used outside training companies and consultants to teach the
ICS-300 and ICS-400 courses, as well as sending their personnel to ICS-300 and ICS-400 classes
approved by State OES or POST. However, the current ICS-300 and ICS-400 courses are
specific to field ICS situations and do not address EOC supervisory and management issues.
CSTI is currently working on an updated ICS-300 course specifically for EOC supervisory
personnel, as well as an updated ICS-400 course for EOC management personnel.

Both ICS-300 and ICS-400 require a classroom setting for instruction due to the complexity of
the course content. However, the ICS-800 course is available to SUASI agencies via various
means. They may use their own personnel trained to instruct the course; they may use outside
classroom training resources; or they may have their supervisors take the course online via the
FEMA website.

Overall, most Bay Area SUASI agencies are working towards meeting the NIMS training
requirements. Most have done well complying with the basic overview course requirements.
However, many agencies have experienced difficulties in reaching ICS-300 and IS-800 training
mandates for their emergency-related supervisory personnel, as well as the ICS-400 course
requirement coming next year.

Jurisdictions in the sub-regions should provide ICS-300 and ICS-400 courses to their emergency-
related supervisors, inviting personnel from the adjoining counties and scheduling to ensure that
the September 30, 2008 deadline for ICS-300 is met for all applicable personnel. Future training
plans should be developed for meeting the ICS-400 training deadline projected for September 30,
2009 utilizing sub-regional collaborative strategies and shared facilities/instructors. Instructors
must meet SEMS/NIMS Instructor Certification and Qualification Program recommendations
(http://www.oes.ca.gov) and/or Instructor Qualifications standards found in the 2008 Five Year
NIMS Training Plan. SUASI funding, including staffing backfill and course costs, may be made
available to agencies that participate in regional and sub-regional training opportunities as
recommended.

ICS-300 and ICS-400 are both instructor-led classroom courses. ICS-300 requires a minimum of
18 hours classroom time, while ICS-400 requires a minimum of 14 hours classroom time. Course
length and content standards are set by the NIMS National Standard Curriculum Training
Development Guidance. Other resources are outlined in the following training options matrix.




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   Course
   Name/                                  Provider(s)                              Location(s) Frequency                 Cost
 Description
ICS-100:        In-House Instruction                                        Local                As needed   Internal costs for instruction
Introduction to    • Use State OES-approved course curriculum and materials jurisdiction                     and materials
ICS Course           from website
                   • In-house instructors meet OES guidelines
                   • Combined Introductory Course, including IS-700, which
                     meets OES guidelines (CA-035-RESP SEMS/NIMS/ICS
                     Combined course)
                   • http://www.oes.ca.gov

                  Online                                                          Local          As needed   Student’s time taking course
                    • http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is100.asp                jurisdiction               online
ICS-200: Basic In-House Instruction                                        Local                 As needed   Internal costs for instruction
ICS Course        • Use State OES-approved course curriculum and materials jurisdiction                      and materials
                    from website
                  • In-house instructors meet OES guidelines
                  • http://www.oes.ca.gov

                  Online                                                          Local          As needed   Student’s time taking course
                    • http://training.fema/gov/EMIWeb/IS/is200.asp                jurisdiction               online




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   Course
   Name/                                  Provider(s)                              Location(s) Frequency                  Cost
 Description
ICS-300:          In-House Instruction                                        Local            As needed    Internal costs for instruction
Intermediate         • Use State OES-approved course curriculum and materials jurisdiction                  and materials
ICS Course             from website
                     • In-house Instructors meet OES guidelines
                     • http://www.oes.ca.gov

                  California Specialized Training Institute (CSTI)                San Luis     TBD          TBD for FY 2008/2009
                    • State OES- and NIMS-compliant courses                       Obispo and
                    • http://www.oes.ca.gov                                       various
                                                                                  locations
                  Emergency Management Services, Inc.
                    • Courses geared toward field or EOC personnel                Various      As needed    Based on location and
                    • http://www.emergency-management-services.org                locations                 number of students

                  American Homeland Solutions
                                                                                  Various      TBD for FY   $445
                    • Field-related course
                                                                                  locations    2008/2009    per student
                    • http://www.americanhomelandsolutions.com

                  Industrial Emergency Council (IEC)
                                                                                  San Carlos   May 2008     $295
                    • NIMS-approved course                                        facility     Aug. 2008    per student
                    • http://www.jectraining.org                                               Oct. 2008




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   Course
   Name/                                  Provider(s)                              Location(s) Frequency                  Cost
 Description
ICS-400:          In-House Instruction                                        Local            As needed    Internal costs for instruction
Advanced ICS         • Use State OES-approved course curriculum and materials jurisdiction                  and materials
Course                 from website
                     • In-house Instructors meet OES guidelines
                     • http://www.oes.ca.gov

                  California Specialized Training Institute (CSTI)                San Luis     TBD          TBD for FY 2008/2009
                    • State OES- and NIMS-compliant courses                       Obispo and
                    • http://www.oes.ca.gov                                       various
                                                                                  locations
                  Emergency Management Services, Inc.
                    • Courses geared toward field or EOC personnel                Various      As needed    Based on location and
                    • http://www.emergency-management-services.org                locations                 number of students

                  American Homeland Solutions
                   • Field related course
                                                                                  Various      TBD for FY   $445
                   • http://www.americanhomelandsolutions.com
                                                                                  locations    2008/2009    per student
                  Industrial Emergency Council (IEC)
                                                                                  San Carlos   May 2008     $295
                     • NIMS-approved course                                       facility     Aug. 2008    per student
                     • http://www.jectraining.org                                              Oct. 2008




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   Course
   Name/                                  Provider(s)                              Location(s) Frequency                 Cost
 Description
IS-700: NIMS,     In-House Instruction                                            Local          As needed   Internal costs for instruction
An                   • In-house instructors meet OES guidelines or have           jurisdiction               and materials
Introduction           completed the train-the-trainer course for IS-700
Course               • Combined Introductory Course including ICS-100, which
                       meets OES guidelines (CA-035-RESP SEMS/NIMS/ICS
                       Combined course)
                     • http://www.oes.ca.gov

                  Emergency Management Services, Inc.                             Local          As needed   Based on location and
                    • NIMS-approved course                                        jurisdiction               number of students
                    • Support train-the-trainer courses
                    • http://www.emergency-management-services.org

                  Online                                                          Local          As needed   Student’s time taking course
                    • http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/IS/is700.asp                jurisdiction               online

IS-800:           Online                                                          Local          As needed   Student’s time taking course
National            • http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/IS/is800.asp                jurisdiction               online
Response
Framework         In-House Instruction                                            Local          As needed   Internal costs for instruction
Course               • By instructor who has completed the IS-800 train-the-      jurisdiction               and materials
                       trainer course
                     • http://www.fema.gov

                  Emergency Management Services, Inc.                             Local          As needed   Based on location and
                    • NIMS-approved course                                        jurisdiction               number of students
                    • Also support train-the-trainer courses
                    • http://www.emergency-management.services.org

                  American Homeland Solutions                                     Various        As needed   $516 per student
                   • Part of the NIMS train-the-trainer course                    locations
                   • http://www.americanhomelandsolutions.com



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SECTION 2: LAW ENFORCEMENT TEAM TRAINING
The SUASI Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) Needs
Prioritization Summary identifies five areas in the law enforcement category as high priority:
    • Mobile Field Force (MFF) / Crowd Control
    • Bomb Squad / Explosives Team
    • Underwater Explosives Team
    • Law Enforcement Observation Aircraft (Fixed Wing)
    • Aviation Helicopters-Patrol and Surveillance

The Gap Analysis section of this report indicates that additional training is needed for the region
in these areas:

A.     MOBILE FIELD FORCE / CROWD CONTROL

The majority of California Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training (POST)-
approved classes are designed as refresher training for existing teams. Classes are available
through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Preparedness
Directorate, Training and Exercise Integration Secretariat, Training Operations catalog, for train-
the-trainer for Crowd Control/ MFF teams. POST has two types of classes listed in its catalog,
MFF and Crowd Control. These classes cover similar material and tactics provided by a host
agency and instructors. Most agencies will train annually, at a minimum, and prior to a large
demonstration if time allows. In-house training, rather than a formal course, is used to train new
members of the team.

The train-the-trainer concept allows for agencies to train personnel in-house using trained
instructors. Both FEMA and POST have approved classes for train-the-trainer. Due to the size of
some of the teams, the in-house instructor and in-house training is the most economical
approach. The only POST-approved classes for MFF are in Southern California, which increase
travel time and housing costs for Bay Area agency personnel to attend. The Santa Clara County
Sheriff’s Office has provided the FEMA train-the-trainer class at least twice for area agencies
and has used State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP) funds to cover backfill costs for
those attending the class.

In order to increase the level of expertise in the area of crowd control / MFF in the region, it is
recommended that each sub-region hold one of the following core classes in the next 12 months.
These courses were identified in the data collection surveys as the ones most frequently selected
for team training.
    • Crowd Control (regionally, 49% of respondents have training in this area)
    • Tactical Response School/Community Violence (regionally, 32% of personnel have
        training in this area)


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     •   Critical Incident Response (regionally, 25% of the personnel have training in this area)
     •   Tactical Operations (regionally, 20% of the personnel have training in this area)

It should be noted that aside from the Critical Incident Response Course, none of the above
classes are currently listed for future presentation in the current POST courses catalog. This
includes the Basic Crowd Control course. Agencies and jurisdictions that have established
successful in-house training programs should look to expand their training opportunities into
neighboring jurisdictions along sub regional lines. This encourages the promulgation of best
practices and consistent training methodology among contiguous jurisdictions.

B.       BOMB SQUAD / EXPLOSIVES TEAM

In order for any agency to form and train a certified bomb squad, approval is needed from the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The FBI, through a local Special Agent Bomb
Technician, conducts a review of the organization’s need for a bomb squad based on the number
of calls for service, as well as by conducting a regional needs assessment with input from area
Bomb Squad commanders. If the FBI approves the formation of a bomb squad, the agency
requests training and technical assistance from the FBI’s Hazardous Device School (HDS) at the
Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The HDS is the only domestic bomb training school in
the United States.

All FBI-mandated bomb squad training takes place at HDS. Bomb squad technicians must
receive certification by successfully completing the HDS before they may operationally deal
with (render safe or touch) an explosive device. The cost of the course is paid for by the FBI;
however the sponsoring agencies do incur the costs for travel, room and board and other
associated expenses throughout the six-week duration of the training. The length of the HDS
program will soon increase to eight weeks. After certification from HDS, bomb technicians
undergo continuous in-service training. Following guidelines from the FBI and the National
Bomb Squad Commanders Advisory Board (NBSCAB), the professional association that
oversees and advises all certified bomb squads, technicians receive at least 40 hours of formal
advanced training (NBSCAB-approved) each year in a variety of hazardous device subjects.
They receive an additional 16 hours per month of agency or regional training classes hosted by
other bomb squads. Bomb squads also receive specialty training whenever they obtain new
equipment or replace existing detection devices. Prior to admission to the HDS, NBSCAB
standards also require completion of Hazardous Materials training consistent with the OSHA
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (HAZWOPR).This training
may be met by a 40 hour course offered (and funded) through the Center for Domestic
Preparedness (CDP). The California Specialized Training Institute (CSTI) also offers both the
HAZWOPR Course and a Hazardous Materials for Bomb Technicians Course that meet the HDS
pre-admission standard for Hazardous Materials training.

It is recommended that all bomb squads within the region and sub-regions coordinate their
formal advanced training to include neighboring teams and reduce duplicative scheduling.

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C.     PUBLIC SAFETY DIVE TEAMS (INCLUDING UNDERWATER EXPLOSIVES TEAMS)

Dive teams have no national standards of training. There are recommendations from several
professional associations, but level of training varies from agency to agency. The entry level
standards may be as minimal as “open water diver” certified by the Professional Association of
Diving Instructors (PADI). There is only one class shown as POST-approved in the catalog for
Law Enforcement Diver (Diver Course –LE), and the class is located in Southern California with
no upcoming sessions listed. Almost all of the basic classes, such as Rescue Diver and Open
Water Diver, are available frequently through local area dive shops. The Public Safety Diving
Association developed a certification that is more structured and geared towards a law
enforcement diving team: Public Safety Diver I–III. Most course offerings are on the east coast;
one is offered in California.

Underwater Explosives Teams (currently typed through FEMA as Type IV Public Safety Dive
Team) were listed in the CBRNE Needs Prioritization Summary as high priority and classes are
held by the FBI Los Angeles Regional Underwater Hazardous Device Team. The course is
POST- approved reimbursement Plan IV (Course #1820-23121).

D.     SWAT TEAM (BASIC)

The entry-level Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Basic class is offered frequently by
agencies or private vendors. The class is normally 80 hours in length and POST-reimbursable for
agencies. There are numerous listings for advanced classes, such as sniper and other specialties.

Although there is not a national training standard, POST-approved classes follow the California
Attorney General Guidelines for training and content. It is highly recommended that all SWAT
team members receive the basic course, and that jurisdictions within the region and the sub-
regions who have certified trainers hold one of the following courses within the next 12-month
period (these courses were identified though the data collection surveys as the ones most
frequently selected for team training):
    • Special Weapons and Tactics (more than 55% of the personnel have training in this
       course, which should be a prerequisite for the following courses)
    • Tactical Response School/Community Violence (42% of the personnel have training in
       this area)
    • Tactics Covert / Crisis Entry (39% of the personnel have training in this area)
    • SWAT Operations, Introduction (37% of the personnel have training in this area)

It should be noted that the current course catalog of POST-approved courses shows no future
classes scheduled for any of the above courses except the Basic SWAT course. To best meet the
need of training to these courses, it is recommended that each sub region host these courses
utilizing POST-approved curriculum and trainers, including vendors as necessary. Agencies that
have established in-house programs to present these courses should take the lead to expand their

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programs to neighboring jurisdictions. This approach further enforces both regional cooperation
and consistency of training.

E.     LAW ENFORCEMENT OBSERVATION AIRCRAFT (FIXED-WING) / AVIATION HELICOPTERS
       PATROL AND SURVEILLANCE

Airborne law enforcement, including helicopter and fixed-wing craft, is governed by Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) training standards found in Federal Air Regulations (FAR).
Standardized training and licensure compliance must be met in order for law enforcement
personnel to be used in air operations as pilots, crew members, or maintenance staff.

Fixed-wing aircraft requires a commercial or higher Airplane, Single-Engine Land (ASEL) pilot
license (with Class I or II Medical) and Pilot Training, Commercial Pilots Certification or higher
(instrument rated) updated every 6 months (with emergency procedures). The pilot must meet all
FAA license requirements and be assigned full time to an aviation unit. For helicopters, required
training is a commercial or higher rotary/helicopter pilot license with Class I Medical, prior
Tactical Flight Officer (TFO) experience, and full-time assignment to an aviation unit.

Prior to receiving this advanced training, which costs approximately $30,000–$60,000, the
candidate is required to have a valid private pilots’ license. The cost of training coursework for
maintenance staff ($1500 for Air Frame & Powerplant [A&P] and $700 for Inspection Authority
[I/A]), and Tactical Flight Officer must also be considered. These costs do not take into account
recertification and continuing professional training and experience requirements mandated by
FAR 66.77. Due to the extensive certification and recertification requirements, it is
recommended that jurisdictions approach pilot training and aircraft acquisition on a regional
basis in order to share resources and training and equipment costs.




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                                   Crowd Control / Mobile Field Force Training
   Course          Location        Cost       POST          Dates                   Web site                  Length          Description
 Mobile Field     Varied                     Approved      None         http://www.post.ca.gov/Publications   8–24        Instruction includes
 Force training   Locations                                Scheduled    /Course_Catalog/3475.asp              hours       MFF concepts,
                                                                                                                          formations, orders,
                                                                                                                          less-than-lethal
                                                                                                                          munitions, and laws
                                                                                                                          pertaining to labor
                                                                                                                          demonstrations and
                                                                                                                          unusual occurrences.
                                                                                                                          Practical exercises
                                                                                                                          are included.


 Crowd Control    Varied                     Approved      None         http://www.post.ca.gov/Publications   2–8 hours   Varies
 Update                                      IV            Scheduled    /Course_Catalog/2479.asp




 Managing Civil   Local Agency    No Cost    No            Scheduled    FEMA National Preparedness            24 hours    The course combines
 Actions in       Host                                     as needed    Directorate Training Operations                   classroom instruction
 Threat                                                                 Course catalogue                                  detailing the history
 Incidents                                                              http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/t               of devices, types of
 (MCATI):                                                               ei_course_catalog2008.pdf                         devices, tools to be
 Protester                                                                                                                considered for
 Devices                                                                                                                  extrication, and
                                                                                                                          safety considerations.




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   Course          Location        Cost       POST          Dates                   Web site                  Length         Description
 Managing Civil   Local Agency    No Cost    No            Scheduled    FEMA National Preparedness            40 hours   This train-the-trainer
 Actions in       Host                                     as needed    Directorate Training Operations                  course provides
 Threat                                                                 Course catalogue                                 Federal, State, and
 Incidents                                                              http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/t              local law enforcement
 (MCATI):                                                               ei_course_catalog2008.pdf                        agencies with the
 Basic Course                                                                                                            knowledge and skills
 Train-the-                                                                                                              necessary to prepare
 Trainer                                                                                                                 for and successfully
                                                                                                                         mitigate threat
                                                                                                                         incidents involving
                                                                                                                         civil disorder.


 Mobile Field     Orange                     Yes IV        Not          http://www.post.ca.gov/Publications   40         Class is designed for
 Force Train      County                                   Scheduled    /Course_Catalog/3481.asp#NA206                   sworn instructors who
 the trainer      Sherriff                                              0-23763                                          teach the MFF
                                                                                                                         course. The most
                                                                                                                         updated and
                                                                                                                         advanced training
                                                                                                                         information is
                                                                                                                         presented. Topics
                                                                                                                         include: Overview of
                                                                                                                         MFF Concepts,
                                                                                                                         Police Officer
                                                                                                                         Responsibilities,
                                                                                                                         Mobile Tactics,
                                                                                                                         Citizen/Officer
                                                                                                                         Rescue, Use of
                                                                                                                         Force, Crowd Control
                                                                                                                         Management, and
                                                                                                                         landmark tactical
                                                                                                                         incidents. The
                                                                                                                         training includes a
                                                                                                                         tactical exercise.




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                                                          Dive Team Training
    Course           Location           Cost          POST           Dates              Web site              Length        Description
PADI Open Water Bay Area /         $395 less 15% No                             http://www.sfscubaschools.              The course provides
Diver           Monterey           for teams                                    com/sf.html                             pool training with 2
                                                                                                                        days of open water
                                                                                                                        diving.
SDI PADI Open     Bay Area         $399             No                          http://www.bayareascuba.c 2 Days
Water                                                                           om/open_water.php?osCsi
                                   $199 available                               d=22f7ff6f3ec65b8fe4e5f8
                                                                                2d273e9262
PADI Rescue       Bay Area         $361 with        No                          http://seattlescuba.com/co 2 Days       The course is designed
Diver             /Monterey        materials                                    ned.html                                to develop the
                                                                                                                        necessary knowledge
                                                                                                                        and skills to effectively
                                                                                                                        perform diver rescues
                                                                                                                        and assists, manage
                                                                                                                        diving accident
                                                                                                                        situations, and render
                                                                                                                        proper first aid.
PADI Rescue       Paradise, CA                                                  http://www.paradisedivece
Diver                                                                           nter.com/classes.htm
Public Safety     Paradise, CA     $400             No            Call for      http://www.paradisedivece 3 Days
Diver I                                                           schedule      nter.com/classes.htm

Public Safety     Los Gatos CA     $350             No            6/6-6/9       http://diventrips.com        3 Days
Diver I
Public Safety     Paradise, CA     $400             No            Call for      http://www.paradisedivece 3 Days
Diver II                                                          schedule      nter.com/classes.htm




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    Course           Location           Cost          POST          Dates              Web site           Length         Description
Diver Course LE   LA County                        Approved      None          http://www.post.ca.gov/Pub 240 Hours This course will train
                                                                 Scheduled     lications/Course_Catalog/2           and certify Peace
                                                                               701.asp                              Officers in Public
                                                                                                                    Safety Scuba Diving,
                                                                                                                    including evidence and
                                                                                                                    body recovery.
                                                                                                                    Students shall be a
                                                                                                                    peace officer holding a
                                                                                                                    SCUBA certification
                                                                                                                    from a recognized
                                                                                                                    certifying authority.




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                                                          SWAT Team Training
 Course       Location        Cost      POST        Dates         Web site           Length                        Description
 SWAT       Alameda                     Yes IV                  http://www.post      80 hours   The course provides individual officers and teams
 Basic      County Sheriff                                      .ca.gov/Publica                 with skills to handle responses to hostile situations
 Course                                                         tions/Course_C                  with minimal danger to the public and themselves.
                                                                atalog/Alameda
                                                                CountySheriffs
                                                                DeptAcadlist.as
                                                                p
            FBI-                        Yes IV     5/12/08      http://sacramen      80 hours   The course is designed to provide the student with
            Sacramento                                          to.fbi.gov/                     the basic skills to perform on a law enforcement
                                                                                                agency tactical SWAT team.
            International               Yes IV     4/28/08      http://itr-          80 hours   The course is designed as introductory training for
            Training                                            swat.com/                       individuals assigned to the agency SWAT team and
            Resources                                                                           focuses on tactical and weapons skills that prepare
                                                                                                the officer to function as a team member. It includes
                                                                                                training in team tactics and planning and executing
                                                                                                high-risk operations, tactical movements, and entry
                                                                                                tactics. The course meets the POST SWAT
                                                                                                operational guidelines and standardized training
                                                                                                recommendations.
            Santa Clara                 Yes IV     In           http://www.sccs      80 hours   This is an introductory course to prepare individuals
            County Sheriff                         Process      heriff.org/portal/              to be members of a SWAT team. The course
                                                                site/sheriff/                   includes team tactics, planning and executing high-
                                                                                                risk operations, tactical movements, and entry
                                                                                                tactics. Course meets POST SWAT Operational
                                                                                                Guidelines and Standardized Training
                                                                                                Recommendations.




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SECTION 3: FIRE/HAZMAT TRAINING
An open-source search of Fire training providers within the State found that 7 of the 25 required
courses for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-Typed Fire / Hazardous Materials
(HazMat) Resources are not currently taught in California. Some courses can be taught by only a
limited number of California State Fire Marshal (CFSM) -certified instructors. For example, a
review of the CSFM database of certified instructors for Incident Management Team courses (S
series) showed only one or two certified instructors in the State for any of the courses. The
current instruction certification system is a lengthy process, which means that increasing the
potential pool of instructors will take a considerable amount of time. The current system used by
CSFM for granting outside certifications to be transferred to the CSFM system is called Peer
Assessment of Course Equivalences (PACE). It is also lengthy and requires approval of an oral
review board at the completion of the process.

The most consistently reported obstacle to training completion was a lack of training funds. This
refers to actual training materials and programs as well as backfill, which allows line personnel
to attend training classes without degrading the organizations’ ability to continue to provide vital
emergency services. Overtime or backfill costs are typically incurred when line personnel are
trained on-duty or off-duty. On-duty vacancies could require backfill staffing to maintain
company strength, and off-duty training usually requires overtime compensation for the
participant. Analysis of survey results indicates that course training delivered in an academy
setting has the highest level of success, which does not affect agency staffing levels. It is
recommended that Bay Area SUASI training funds be used to pay for training materials and
instructors as well as reimbursing agencies for backfill costs, allowing participants to be trained
in dedicated academy settings.

Training coursework is only one component to reaching federally-mandated training levels for
deployment as a Fire/HazMat disaster response or mutual aid resource. These positions have
additional experience, currency, fitness, and prerequisite training elements that must be met in
order to be credentialed and deployable. This credentialing process is tracked through Position
Task Books, which are filled out as credentialing elements are met. Credentialing mandates
derive from the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) Wildland Fire Qualification
System Guide NWCG 310-1. Local credentialing systems, such as the California Department of
Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) Position Qualification System 4039 and the California
Incident Command Credentialing System (CICCS), base their credentialing requirements on
NWCG standards.

For many Incident Command System (ICS) positions, credentialing may take several years. This
requirement for “experiential exposure” is regarded as an important component of the
credentialing process but is completely dependant on the randomness of qualifying emergency
events and whether the person is available to respond as a trainee asset. This aspect of full
credentialing is not within anyone’s ability to control. The credential or “Red Card” that is issued
allows firefighters to act outside their jurisdictions in ICS roles, typically in fighting wildland
fires. As a potential solution to alleviating the protracted nature of the credentialing process, the

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granting of equivalent credit for participation in exercises—such as large-scale, live burn
exercises or multi-jurisdictional full-scale exercises—should be considered. As an example,
participation in two live burn exercises that adhere to credentialing authority standards could
equate to one deployment to an actual incident. Although this does not lie within the Bay Area
SUASI region’s purview, a consensus request endorsed by member organizations may influence
the NWCG or CICCS to consider it. This would provide another avenue for effective
credentialing that is more easily controlled and adaptable to need.

Although credentialing systems rely on standardized course content and fieldwork to ensure
seamless coordination of resources during a disaster or mutual aid incident, the granting of
course equivalency recognition remains an obstacle.

The recently completed SUASI Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive
(CBRNE) Needs Prioritization Summary ranks the development of firefighting Incident
Management Teams as high priority. The Bay Area SUASI region has taken initial steps to
satisfy this need by recently awarding a training funds grant to provide Incident Management
Team training classes across the region. Understanding that these classes average anywhere from
24 to 40 hours in length, the ultimate success of this program may rely on a jurisdiction’s ability
to adequately backfill the vacancies created by the students it chooses to enroll.

Some agencies in the Region are developing creative methods to address training needs. The
Oakland Fire department is about to launch a web-based “Command Training Center” that will
include 16 network computers and offer all levels of training and command usage. The vision is
to offer initial access to Fire and Police personnel and ultimately expand to all levels of
government agencies.


The Fire Training Organizations are as follows (and are detailed in the table on the next page):
   • NWCG: National Wildfire Coordinating Group
   • FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency
   • CICCS: California Incident Command Credentialing System
   • CAL FIRE: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
   • CSFM: California State Fire Marshal
   • FIRESCOPE: Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies
   • CERCS: California Emergency Responder Credentialing System
   • NFPA: National Fire Protection Association
   • CSTI: California Specialized Training Institute
   • IEC: Industrial Emergency Council




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                                                            Fire/HazMat Training
                     Of the 25 courses that the Federal Government requires for various resources/teams, only 18 are known to be offered in
                                                   the State of California based off of an open source search.

                                                                                                                                                       Frequency
         Course Title              NWCG      FEMA       CICCS       CALFIRE       CSFM        FIRESCOPE          CERCS      NFPA      CSTI       IEC      per
                                                                                                                                                        quarter
I-100 Introduction to ICS                       X                                                                                                       online
RT-130 Annual Fireline Safety
Refresher
S-130 Firefighting Training                                             X            X
S-131 Firefighting Type-1                                                            X
S-133 Look Up, Look Down,
Look All Around
L-180 Human factors on the
Fireline
S-190 Introduction to Wildland
Fire Behavior                                                                        X                                                                    1
S-200 Initial Attack Incident
Command                                                                              X                                                           X        1
S-215 Fire Operations in the
Wildland/Urban Interface                                                             X                                                           X        1
S-230 Crew Boss Single                                               X (Fire
Resource                                                           Crew Capt)        X                                                           X        1
S-290 Intermediate Wildland
Fire Behavior                                                           X            X                                                           X        2
S-300 Incident Commander
Extended Attack                                                                      X
S-330 Task Force / Strike Team                                                                     X
Leader                                                                  X            X       (S333,334,335)                                      X        1
S-390 Introduction to Wildland
Fire Behavior Calculations                                                           X                                                           X        2
I-400 Advanced ICS                                                      X            X                                                           X        5


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                                                                                                                                      Frequency
        Course Title             NWCG      FEMA      CICCS      CALFIRE      CSFM        FIRESCOPE    CERCS   NFPA   CSTI       IEC      per
                                                                                                                                       quarter
S-400 Incident Commander                      X                                 X
S-420 Command and General
Staff                                                               X           X         X (I-420)
S-481 Advanced Management
Concepts
I-520 Advanced Incident
Command
S-520 Advanced Incident
Management
S-620 Area Commander
HazMat Technician                                                                                                     X         X        2
HazMat Specialist                                                                                                     X         X        2
HazMat Assistant Safety
Officer                                                                                                               X         X        1
Terrorism for the
Technician/Specialist                                                                                                 X         X        2




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SECTION 4: EMS RESOURCES TRAINING
A.     AMBULANCE STRIKE TEAM LEADER TRAINING

The California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (OES); State Emergency Medical
Services Authority (EMSA); California Ambulance Association (CAA); Emergency Medical
Services Administrators’ Association of California (EMSAAC); and California Fire Chiefs
Association developed an Ambulance Strike Team (AST) / Medical Task Force (MTF) Leader
Training Course. The 16-hour course was recently updated and its new content and curriculum is
expected to be made available in various locations throughout the state in the near future.
The prerequisites for the course include Ambulance operation experience; ICS 100,200,300, IS
700; the HazMat FRO Course; and sponsorship by a provider agency.

In 2007, a version of the Strike Team Leader course was provided to the Texas Engineering
Extension Service (TEEX) for further development to become a national training model. A pilot
course was held in March 2008 in California. The course is now going through the U.S.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP), approval
process. Tuition is currently $35.00 per person. Once the course is ODP-approved, homeland
security funds can be used to reimburse eligible funds.

B.     AMBULANCE STRIKE TEAM PROVIDER COURSE

The Ambulance Strike Team Provider Course is distance learning, online course. The AST
Provider online course is also going through the ODP-approval process.

The Ambulance Strike Team Provider Course (EMS-315) is an 8-week, 16-hour, self-paced,
online class. The cost for tuition per person is $35.00. Once it is ODP-approved, homeland
security funds can be used to reimburse eligible funds. The class is provided once per semester
(fall, spring, and summer).

C.     HAZMAT/WMD INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION

Although the HazMat / Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Instructor Certification Course is
not required for EMS personnel, it provides EMS agencies with a cost-effective method for
training their trainers to deliver standard HazMat/WMD training in the field for State
certification. The 4½-day, 36-hour course is provided by California Specialized Training
Institute (CSTI) and costs $500.00 per person. Upon completion of the course, participants are
certified to instruct the CSTI HazMat and/or WMD course(s) they have previously completed for
State certification. Using this method, EMS agencies with certified instructors would be able to
provide mandatory trainings, such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
1910.120 HazMat Awareness Training and HazMat First Responder Operations (FRO) courses,
as needed and at their convenience. The CSTI Application Form for HazMat Emergency
Response CSTI Certified Outreach Courses is available on the CSTI website.


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D.     AIR AMBULANCE (FIXED WING) / AIR AMBULANCE (ROTARY WING)

Both categories of Air Ambulance have been declared high priority by the CBRNE Needs
Prioritization Summary. Airborne Ambulances, including helicopter and fixed-wing craft, are
governed by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) training standards found in the Federal Air
Regulations (FAR). Standardized training and licensure compliance must be met in order for any
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel to be used in air operations as a pilot, crew
member, or maintenance staff. Due to the high cost of acquisition, training, and maintenance,
most jurisdictions use contract providers to furnish Air Ambulance services. These contract
resources often are not staffed consistently with FEMA typing standards for crew specifications.

Fixed-wing aircraft operation requires a commercial or higher Airplane, Single-Engine Land
(ASEL) pilot license (with Class I or II Medical), pilot training, and commercial pilots’
certification or higher (instrument rated) updated every 6 months (with emergency procedures).
The pilot must meet all FAA license requirements and be assigned full time to an aviation unit.
Rotary-wing (helicopter) training requires commercial or higher, rotary/helicopter, pilot license
with Class I Medical and full-time assignment to an aviation unit.

Prior to receiving this advanced training, which costs approximately $30,000–$60,000), the
candidate is required to have a valid private pilots’ license. The cost of training coursework for
maintenance staff ($1500 for A&P and $700 for I/A) and medical staff must also be considered.
These costs do not take into account recertification and continuing professional training and
experience requirements mandated by FAR 66.77.

If investments are made in this resource by the SUASI region, it is recommended that
jurisdictions approach pilot training and aircraft acquisition from a regional or sub-regional
standpoint by sharing training costs, storage, maintenance, staffing, and other related costs
accordingly.




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                                                              EMS Training
      Course Name/
                                                 Provider(s)                               Location(s)        Frequency              Cost
       Description
Basic MCI Field Operations    May be taught by an agency’s Primary Training          On site                 At the           No Fee for Training
Training Course (8 hours)     Officer using materials available through the                                  discretion of    Materials
                              Mountain Valley EMS Agency                                                     the agency’s
                                 • http://www.mvemsa.com/documents.htm                                       Primary
                                                                                                             Training
                                                                                                             Officer
Coaching the Emergency        National Safety Council                             CD-ROM; Online             Unlimited        $34.60–$48.25 for
Vehicle Operator (CEVO)         • CEVO Online Training Programs                                                               each course CD-
                                    http://www.nsc.org/onlinetraining/driving/cev                                             ROM copy
                                    o.cfm                                                                                     purchased
Defensive Driving Course      National Safety Council                                Onsite training from    As needed/       $275 per person for
(DDC4)                            • http://www.nsc.org/train/ddc/ddc4/index.cfm      a certified National    requested by     members;
                                  • 1.5-day, 12-hour course                          Safety Council          client           $365 per person for
                                  • Call 800-421-9585 for scheduling                 Defensive Driving                        non-members
                                       information                                   Course Instructor
                              National Safety Council                                    DDC Training         Quarterly       $275 per person for
                                  • http://www.nsc.org/train/ddc/ddc4/index.cfm          Center.                              members;
                                  • 1.5-day, 12-hour course                              Closest Center to                    $365 per person for
                                  • Call 800-421-9585 for scheduling                     the Bay Area:                        non-members
                                       information                                       Safety Center, Inc.,
                                                                                         Sacramento, CA,
                                                                                         800-825-7262




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     Course Name/
                                                Provider(s)                              Location(s)         Frequency                  Cost
      Description
HazMat First Responder       Office of Emergency Services – California              On site                 Dependent         Dependent upon
Operations (FRO) Course      Specialized Training Institute                         Other training facility upon CSTI         certified instructor
                                • Hazardous Materials First Responder                                       certified
                                    Operations (2-day, 16-hour course)                                      instructor        ~$0–$300 per person
                                • May be provided by qualified instructors                                  schedule/
                                    within the Bay Area                                                     availability.
                                • More than 2,000 certified instructors
                                    registered with CSTI
                                • Contact: 805-549-3344 for schedule and
                                    instructor information
OSHA 1910.120 HazMat         Office of Emergency Services – California              On site                 Dependent         Dependent upon
Awareness Training           Specialized Training Institute                         Other training facility upon CSTI         certified instructor.
                                • First Responders-Awareness                                                certified            ~$0 – $200 per
                                    (Methamphetamine) (FRAM) 1-day, 4-hour                                  instructor           person
                                    course                                                                  schedule/
                                • More than 2,000 certified instructors                                     availability.
                                    registered with CSTI
                                • Contact: 805-549-3344 for schedule and
                                    instructor information
HazMat/WMD Instructor       Office of Emergency Services – California               On site                 Dependent         $500 per person for
Certification               Specialized Training Institute                          Other training facility upon CSTI         tuition
                               • 4.5-day, 36-hour course                                                    certified
(Not a mandatory course but    • Will provide an internal agency certified                                  instructor
provides an internal agency        training instructor                                                      schedule/
training resource to meet             - Able to provide FRO and FRAM (and                                   availability.
FRO and FRAM                             other HazMat courses) after completion
requirements)                  • Contact: 805-549-3344 for schedule and
                                   instructor information




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     Course Name/
                                                Provider(s)                              Location(s)     Frequency                Cost
      Description
Strike Team Leader –           Ambulance Strike Team Leader                         Projected: Selected Periodically     Not yet established
Ambulance Course (16           Course Prerequisites: Ambulance operation            satellite training
hours)                         experience; ICS100, 200, 300, IS700;                 centers throughout                   *Once ODP certified,
                               Sponsorship by a provider agency.                    California                           tuition will be
                               Contact Harry Geise with EMSA at 916-322-                                                 reimbursable
                               4336 x467
Ambulance Strike Team        Alan Hancock College                                   Allan Hancock       Once per        $35 per person
Provider – Distance Learning Ambulance Strike Team Provider (EMS 315)               College Online      semester (Fall,
Online Course                   • 8-week, 16-hour, self-paced, online class         Blackboard System   Spring,         *Once ODP certified,
                                • Contact Mike McDonough, Allan Hancock                                 Summer)         tuition will be
                                   College EMS Faculty for more information                                             reimbursable
                                   805-922-6966 x3810




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     Course Name/
                                                Provider(s)                              Location(s)   Frequency              Cost
      Description
WMD Awareness Course         Texas Engineering Extension Service             Online                    Unlimited     No Fee to Enroll
                               • WMD/Terrorism Awareness for Emergency
                                   Responders (Internet)
                               • Course Number: AWR-110/WMD 005
                               • Course length and estimated completion
                                   time is 3-4 hours
                               • http://www.teex.com/teex.cfm?pageid=trainin
                                   g&area=teex&Division=ESTI&Course=AWR
                                   110&templateid=14&navdiv=ESTI&online=tr
                                   ue
                               • http://www.teexwmdcampus.com
                             WMD Awareness Level Training                  Online                      Unlimited      No Fee to Enroll
                              • Course Number: AWR-160
                              • Provided by New Mexico Tech Respond!
                                 Web Campus
                              • http://respond.emrtc.nmt.edu/campus/index.
                                 k2?locRef=1




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SECTION 5: ADDITIONAL TRAINING AND EXERCISE
RESOURCES
A.       LOCAL AND STATE JURISDICTIONS

Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (OES)
http://www.oes.ca.gov

Governor’s Office of Homeland Security (OHS)
http://www.ohs.ca.gov/hseep/TrainingHome.html

http://www.ohs.ca.gov/hseep/Exercise_Branch.html

Bay Area SUASI
http://www.bayareasuasi.org


B.       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (DHS)

Main Homepage
http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm

Course Catalog
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/coursecatalog.pdf

DHS-Sponsored Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Courses

Awareness Level Courses
  • Emergency Response to Terrorism: Basic Concepts
  • Emergency Response to Terrorism: Basic Concepts (Train-the-Trainer)
  • Emergency Response to Terrorism: Basic Concepts (Self-Study)
  • Managing Civil Actions in Threat Incidents (MCATI): Basic Course (Train-the-Trainer)
  • Terrorism Awareness for Emergency Responders (Internet)
  • Emergency Medical Services (EMS): Basic Concepts for WMD Incidents (Internet)
  • Public Works: Basic Concepts for WMD Incidents (Internet)
  • Law Enforcement Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction – Awareness
  • Law Enforcement Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction – Awareness (Train-the-
      Trainer)
  • Incident Response to Terrorist Bombings – WMD Radiological/Nuclear Awareness
  • WMD Radiological/Nuclear Awareness (Train-the-Trainer)

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Performance Level Courses
   • WMD Crime Scene Management for Emergency Responders
   • WMD Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Evidence Collection
   • Managing Civil Actions in Threat Incidents (MCATI): Protester Devices
   • Public Works: Planning for and Responding to a Terrorism / WMD Incident EMS
       Operations and Planning for WMD
   • Emergency Response to Domestic Biological Incidents – Operations WMD Tactical
       Operations Course – Technician Level
   • Public Safety Response – Sampling Techniques and Guidelines
   • Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) – Operations Level
   • Law Enforcement Response to WMD – Operations Level (Train-the-Trainer)
   • Advanced Chemical and Biological Integrated Response Course (ACBIRC) – Technician
       Level
   • Incident Response to Terrorist Bombings – Operations (Train-the-Trainer)
   • Radiological/Nuclear Responder Operations Course
   • WMD Radiological/Nuclear Course for HazMat Technicians
   • WMD Exercise Development Course Mobile Training Team
   • Emergency Response to Terrorism: Operations Course
   • Emergency Response to Terrorism: Operations Course (Train-the-Trainer)
   • WMD Technical Emergency Response Training Course (Live Agent)
   • WMD HazMat Technician Training Course (Live Agent)
   • WMD HazMat Technician Sustainment

Planning and Management Level Courses
   • Mayoral Institute for WMD/Terrorism Incident
   • Senior Officials Workshop for WMD/Terrorism Incident
   • Incident Management/Unified Command for WMD/Terrorism Incidents
   • WMD Incident Command Training (Live Agent)
   • Managing WMD: An Executive-Level Program
   • Managing Civil Actions in Threat Incidents (MCATI): Command Course
   • WMD: Threat and Risk Assessment (Local Jurisdiction)
   • WMD Hands-On Training (HOT) (Live Agent)
   • Hospital Emergency Management: Concepts and Implications of WMD Terrorist
       Incidents
   • Master of Arts Degree in Homeland Security


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Other DHS-Recognized Federal-Agency-Sponsored WMD Courses
Awareness Level Courses
   • http://www.cdc.gov/train.htm
      − BTtv-advertisement and promotion of live streaming video courses sponsored by the
          Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concerning bioterrorism
      − Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Network – National Public Health Training
          Network (PHTN)
   • http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/
      − The Public Health Training Network (PHTN)
   • http://training.fema.gov/
      − CSEPP Chemical Awareness
      − IEMC/Consequences of Terrorism
      − Orientation of HazMat for Medical Personnel (Self-Study)
      − Radiological Emergency Management (Self-Study)
      − Radiological Emergency Response (Self-Study)
      − Refresher Course for Radiological Response (Self-Study)

Performance Level Courses
   • http://www.cdc.gov/train.htm
       − Laboratory Training for Public Health and Clinical Laboratories
   • http://training.fema.gov/
       − Advanced Radiological Incident Operations (ARIO)
       − Fundamentals Course for Radiological Response
       − Hospital Emergency Department Management of HazMat Accidents
       − Radiological Emergency Response Operations (RERO)
       − Radiological Series (Train-the-Trainer)
       − ACT FAST (Agent Characterization and Toxicity First Aid and Special Treatment)
   • http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fire-service/nfa.cfm
       − Hazardous Devices School – EOD/Bomb Technicians
       − ERT: Advanced Tactical Management: Mass Decontamination/Patient Management

Planning and Management Level Courses
   • http://training.fema.gov
       − Exercise Design
              WMD: Biological – Anthrax Scenario
              WMD: Chemical – Sarin Scenario

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                 WMD: Chemical – VX Scenario
                 WMD: Nuclear Scenario
                 WMD: Radiological Scenario
         − Exercise Evaluation
         − Senior Officials Workshop on Terrorism
         − Emergency Response to Criminal and Terrorist Incidents
         − IEMC/All Hazards: Preparedness and Response
         − IEMC/All Hazards: Recovery and Mitigation
         − Recovery from Disaster
         − Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Planning
         − Terrorism and Emergency Management (Higher Education)
     •   http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fire-service/nfa.cfm
         − ERT: Advanced Tactical Management of WMD (Consists of Unified Command,
             Mass Patient Management, and Tactical Information Management)
         − ERT: Incident Management
         − ERT: Strategic Considerations for Command Officers
         − Incident Command Systems

C.       WMD-RELATED FEDERAL AGENCIES

Department of Health and Human Services
http://www.hhs.gov/
    • Training: http://www.hhs.gov/TrainingOpportunities.shtml
    • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov
    • CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/train.htm
    • Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response: http://www.bt.cdc.gov
    • Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr
    • The National Health Information Center: http://www.health.gov/nhic/

Department of Homeland Security
http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm

Department of Transportation
http://www.dot.gov
    • Office of Hazardous Materials Safety: http://hazmat.dot.gov

Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/

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Federal Emergency Management Agency
http://www.fema.gov/
    • Education and Training Resources
    • Emergency Management Institute (EMI): http://training.fema.gov
    • National Fire Academy (USFA): http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fire-service/nfa.cfm

Nuclear Regulatory Commission
http://www.nrc.gov/

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
http://ccc.apgea.army.mil
    • Textbooks and Handbooks on Chemical Weapons Casualty Care:
        http://ccc.apgea.army.mil/products/handbooks/books.htm includes the following (you
        must login to download)
        − Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare
        − Field Management of Chemical Casualties
        − Medical Management of Chemical Casualties
        − Medical Management of Biological Casualties
        − Medical Management of Radiological Casualties
        − NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations
        − The Medical NBC Battle Book
        − Treatment of Biological Warfare Agent Casualties - Field Manual

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
http://www.usamriid.army.mil/

D.       ADDITIONAL WMD AGENT REFERENCES

Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page
http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/index.htm

Chemical Warfare/Chemical Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC)
http://www.cbiac.apgea.army.mil/

Medical NBC Online Information Server
http://www.nbc-med.org/ie40/Default.html (requires a login and password)




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