SECTION 1：LISTENNG TEST (30 minutes)
Part A: Spot Direction
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with
blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the words you have heard on the tape. Write your
answer in the corresponding space in your ANWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the
passage ONLR ONCE.
Research shows that we make up our minds about people through unspoken communication
within seven seconds of meeting them. _______________(1), we show our true feelings with
our eyes, faces, bodies and attitudes, causing a chain of reactions, ranging ______________(2).
Think about some of your most unforgettable meetings: an introduction to
________________(3), a job interview, and an encounter with a stranger, Focus on the first
seven seconds. What did you ________________(4)? How did you "read" the other person?
How do you think he reads you?
______________ (5). For 25 years I've worked with thousands who want to be successful.
I've helped them ________________(6), answer unfriendly questions, communicate more
effectively. ____________________(7) has always been you are the message.
Others will want to be with you and help you if you use ________________(8). They
include physical appearance, energy, _________________(9), pitch and tone of voice, gestures,
expressions through eyes, and the ability to ______________________(10). Others form an
impression about you based on these.
Think of times when you know you ______________________(11). What made you
successful? You were ___________________(12) what you were talking about and so absorbed
in the moment that you ___________________(13).
Be yourself. Many how-to books advise you to ________________(14) and impress others
with your qualities. They instruct you to greet them with __________________(15) and tell you
to fix your eyes on the other person. If you follow all this advice, it is most likely that you'll
________________(16) including yourself.
The trick is to _______________(17), at your best. The most effective people never change
from one situation to another. They're the same whether they're addressing their garden club,
_________________(18), or being interviewed for a job. They communicate
___________________(19);the tones of their voices and their gestures _______________(20).
Part B: Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this part of the test there will be some short talks and conversations. After each
one, you will be asked some questions. The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken
only once, Now listen carefully and choose the right answer to each question you have heard and
write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER
Questions 1 to 5 are based an the following conversation.
1. (A) It is required by the course he is taking.
(B) He is promoting a product through advertising.
(C) He is applying for a scholarship at a university.
(D) It is part of the selection process for a job.
2. (A) How to become a successful job applicant.
(B) How to prepare for a good speech.
(C) How to make a good impression on the interviewer.
(D) It has not been decided yet.
3. (A) 20 minutes. (B) 30 minutes.
(C) An hour. (D) It's not mentioned in the conversation.
4. (A) To use the overhead projector.
(B) To read clearly and loud enough from a script.
(C) To illustrate his points with anecdotes or analogies.
(D) To say something amusing or striking at the very start.
5. (A) To listen to him rehearse the talk.
(B) To help him collect the required statistics.
(C) To analyze the data already available.
(D) To write a script for the talk.
Question 6 to 10 are based on the following news.
6. (A) It will cut its peace keeping forces in some parts of Europe.
(B) It will maintain its military presence in Bosnia and Kosovo.
(C) It will cease its arms control talks with Russia.
(D) It will have several eastern European countries as its full members.
7. (A) Germany. (B) France.
(C) Hungary. (D) The Czech Republic.
8. (A) Three. (B) Ten.
(C) Fourteen. (D) Thirty.
9. (A) Australians' personal debts hit an all－time low currently.
(B) Australians face financial difficulties which might hinder economic growth.
(C) The unemployment figures have been on the rise for the thirteenth month.
(D) The record high interest rates start to threaten a booming housing market.
10. (A) Because this was the first visit of the kind in the past four decades.
(B) Because this visit had not been announced before these people actually arrived.
(C) Because a denial of such a visit had been reported widely in the press.
(D) Because government-level talks between the two sides has been recently cancelled.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following interview.
11. (A) Steel production in the third world.
(B) Economics about the developed countries.
(C) Grain trade in northern Europe.
(D) Cereal production in tropical areas.
12. (A) To experience a flood disaster at first hand.
(B) To study grain trade.
(C) To make a lecture tour.
(D) To attend an international conference on grain production.
13. (A) She took ferries. (B) She had to hire a boat from the locals.
(C) She walked without any shoes. (D) She managed to drive a van.
14. (A) Snake bites. (B) Big black ants.
(C) Worms fleeing from the floods. (D) A fatal epidemic disease.
15. (A) The government organized relief in conjunction with international charities.
(B) The government brought down grain prices by selling its stock on the open market.
(C) The merchants managed to keep their stock of grain safe from the flood water.
(D) The merchants pushed up grain prices twice as much in some areas.
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following talk.
16. (A) "Young Entrepreneur". (B) "Business Matters".
(C) "Successful Enterprise". (D) "Talented Businessman".
17. (A) Local business people. (B) Self－employed people
(C) People aged 18-25. (D) Successful people of any kind.
18. (A) It must be typed on one side of paper only.
(B) It must be no longer than 350 words.
(C) It must have a person's signature.
(D) It must be accompanied by a charity donation.
19. (A) Six. (B) Ten.
(C) Three hundred. (D) Three hundred and fifty.
20. (A) Three weeks from now. (B) Two months after this announcement.
(C) June the fifteenth. (D) The second weekend in July.
SECTION 2: READING TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several
questions about it. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question.
Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that
passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your
When it comes to editorial cartooning, maintaining a special brand of slightly quarrelsome
humor ranks right up there with being politically savvy. For the Monitor's Clay Bennett-who can
now add the words Pulitzer winner to his credentials-that blend of wit and wisdom was honed
around the dinner table while he was growing up in the South. It was there that his two older
sisters would take on his father a career Army officer and well-informed conservative. Mr.
Bennett had known since age 4 that he wanted to be a cartoonist, but it wasn't until he was 13,
and had spent some time around that table, that he decided on editorial cartoons. On Monday he
won journalism's top honor, becoming the seventh Monitor staff member to do so since 1950, the
first since David Rohde's 1996 award for international reporting for his investigation of mass
execution in Bosnia.
Eight of the 14 awards given by Columbia University this year focused on the Sept.11
attacks and their aftermath, with The New York Times winning a record seven
Pulitzers-including those for public service, international reporting, and commentary. Previously,
the most any paper had won at once was three. THE WALL STREET JOUNAL was honored for
its breaking-news reporting. The paper continued to publish even after the attack on the World
Trade Center on Sept. 11 forced it out of its offices. THE Washington Post and The Los Angeles
Times each took two prizes, and Newsday and the Monitor each won one.
According to jurors who decided the cartoon finalists (the winners are determined by the
Pulitzer Board), the number of cartoon submissions was up by about 25 percent this year.
Bennett's cartoons, about everything from science to privacy, stood out for their European
style-largely caption less-and their execution. Monitor editor editor Paul Can Slambrouck says
of Bennett: "This man is obsessed, in a good way, with his work. This award is so richly
deserved because he cares so much about what he does. "For Bennett, his decision on which
cartoons to submit changed after Sept. 11, with 12of the 20 submissions created after the attacks.
"When you get to the end of 2001, "he says, "Cartoons on tax cuts and political wranglings in
Washington seem fairly insignificant."
Still, he says, not every issue he tackles has great gravity to it. To him, humor is something
that can be used to win people over to a certain point of view-it sneaks up on them, and while
making them laugh, also make sure the message stays with them. He calls it "bringing it in
through the back door. "Bennett started out as an editorial cartoonist for his college paper at the
University of North Alabama, eventually working for The St Petersburg Times for 13 years and
as a syndicated cartoonist before joining the Monitor. His cartooning style has changed little
over the years, but he says technology-specifically the computer-has given him more control. "It
made me a better artist. "Last year, he was named Editorial Cartoonist of the Year by Editor &
publisher magazine. This year, Bennett has won two other industry honors, the John Fischetti
Award and a Sigma Delta Chi award from the Society of Professional Journalists, which he also
found out about on Monday.
In the weeks before the Pulitzer Prizes were announced, he struggled to keep his mind on
his work. As in the previous three years when he'd been a finalist, Bennett knew in advance that
he was on the short list. Though Bennett says he is by new skilled at putting thoughts of winning
out of his head, sometimes the anticipation would prove to be too much for the 22-year veteran,
and he would let off steam in a way that his family now affectionately refers to as "Pulitzer
When word came that the prize was finally his, he praised the paper that hired him in 1998,
at a time when he had thought about giving up on the profession he'd pursued since he was a
teen. "It's been a really good run ever since I've been at the Monitor, "he said. "All good things
have happened to me since coming here. "In his victory speech, Bennett jokingly expressed but
one regret about his employer: "I finally win it, and I'm at a paper that doesn't drink
1. It can be concluded from the passage that the Wall Street Journal .
(A) had won the most of the Pulitzer Prizes
(B) had its offices in the World Trade Center
(C) had employed Bennett before 1998
(D) had stopped publication after the attack on the World Trade Center
2. According to the passage, the Pulitzer Prizes .
(A) are sponsored by Columbia University
(B) are awarded every year
(C) are determined by a group of journalists
(D) are based on other awards
3. The sentence "Bennett knew advance that he was on the short list."(Para. 5)can be interpreted
as which of the following?
(A) Bennett knew later that he would miss the prize again.
(B) Bennett guessed from some source that he would definitely win this prize.
(C) Bennett knew that the Pulitzer Prize was not what he wanted.
(D) Bennett realized beforehand that he entered the group of finalists.
4. We can know from the passage that all of the following s true about Bennett WXCEPT that .
(A) he had been through trouble before he started to work for the Monitor
(B) he has been changing his cartooning style with the help of computer
(C) he timely changed the cartoons submitted to the Pulitzer Awards
(D) he had been nominated for the award for a number of times before
5. In the passage, Bennet' s family used the expression "Pulitzer tension" to show his .
(A) anxiety over winning the award
(B) gratitude for the newspaper that hired him
(C) regret about his employer's policy
(D) dissatisfaction with his new job
Bill Gates is not the only American entrepreneur with business plan to save the world.
There are thousands. Consider Steve Kirsch, who had just turned 35 when he had everything he
could want. Adobe, the software giant, had just purchased one of his startups, Eframe, The sale
made Kirsch very rich, with a share in a private jet, an estate in California' s Los Altos Hills and
a burning question: what to do with the rest of a 50 million fortune? After a few years of doling
out money to traditional charities-his alma mater, the United Way-Kirsch got ambitious. He set
up his own foundation to benefit "everyone", funding research on everything from cancer to
near-earth objects. "It is guaranteed that we will be hit by an asteroid sometime in the future,
"perhaps "before we end this phone conversation. "Kirsch explains. "It would cost several billion
lives, and we can save those lives for 50 million, which is less than the cost of a private jet. I call
it enlightened self-interest."
American philanthropy isn't what it used to be. Gone are the days when old money was
doled out by bureaucrats from mahogany-paneled rooms. More people are giving out more
money than ever before, at much younger ages, and to a much wider variety of causes. In the
1980s, Ronald Reagan's call for private charity to replace government largesse was greeted with
hoots of liberal derision-and an outbreak of giving. The number of private foundations rose from
22, 000 in 1980 to 55, 000 today. They now dole out about 23.3 billion a year, a 700 percent
increase since 1980. And many are the offspring of capitalists, who bring the language of
business to charity. Vanessa Kirsch, president and founder of the entrepreneurial charity New
Profit Inc., says, "There's this new breed of social entrepreneurs coming out of Harvard Business
School or failed dot-coms, and they're saying, ‘I want to make big things happen.’"
Their outlook is increasingly global, in the Gates mold. The share of funding that the 1, 000
largest foundations devote to international causes jumped from 11.3 percent in 1999 to 16.3
percent in 2000. And while the U.S. government is often criticized for stingy foreign aid (well
under 1 percent of GNP each year), the same can't be said of private donors, who now give away
2.1 percent of U.S.GNP each year. "No nation comes even remotely close to the U.S. on these
things, "says Scott Walker of the Philanthropy Roundtable. "If you're in Sweden or France, it's
something the government is supposed to do. If you were in England, it is the nobility.
Americans don't think it's enough to say, ‘I gave at the office with taxes.’"
To be sure, business and philanthropy are old bedfellows in the United States. The
Rockefellers, the Carnegies and the Fords set the mold. But many were what Mark Dowie,
author of "American Foundations: An Investigative History, "calls" s. o. b. s" patrons of
"symphonies, operas, ballets, "and "museums and hospitals where rich people go to die. "The
new foundations are more like "quasi-public trusts progressive institutions of change, "argues
The new movers and shakers of American charity are more likely to be flashy TV titans like
Ted Turner. The story of how Turner gave away a billion is a founding legend of this class. In a
cab on his way to make a speech at the United Nations, the cable titan, sick of official U.S.
reluctance to pay U.N. dues, decided to pony up 1 billion himself. This shamed Washington and
inspired imitators. "It is a lot more personality-oriented in this culture of new wealth, "says Ellen
Dadisman, vice president of the Council on Foundations. "It's sort of like wealth meets People
In Silicon Valley, the new fashion is called "venture philanthropy. "According to one survey,
83 percent of valley households give to charity, compared with 69 percent nationally. But they
prefer to "invest, "not "give. "And to attract "investors, "fund-raisers promise hands-on
management of the nonprofits they support. They demand seats on the board, set performance
goals and plan an exit strategy in case expectations aren't met. "Traditionally, foundations have
not been as invasive, "says Dadisman. "They didn't go to the nonprofit and say, “How much are
you paying for rent? Why are you using these old-fashioned computers?’"It may be invasive,
but if it works it could help save the world. Even from asteroids.
6. Why does the author introduce some American millionaires at the beginning of the passage?
(A) To introduce the rapid growth of American millionaires.
(B) To show how they become millionaires.
(C) To display the relationship between business and philanthropy.
(D) To explain their changing attitude towards charities.
7. The author mentions Ronald Reagan's call for private charity to replace government largesse
(A) Ronald Reagan was the then American President
(B) his call was severely criticized by the public
(C) Ronald Reagan first understood the significance of private foundations
(D) his call received mixed responses but pointed the way for philanthropy
8. The expression "who bring the language of business to charity" from the sentence "And many
are the offspring of capitalists, who bring the language of business to charity. "(Para. 2)
(A) who run charities in the same way as they run businesses
(B) who uphold the principles of business in managing charities
(C) who manage the money they send to charities
(D) who think philanthropists should receive training
9. Which of the following can be concluded from Scott Walker's comment(Para. 3)?
(A) Charities in European countries are run by the governmental department.
(B)America should earnestly learn the practice of charity from France and Sweden.
(C) European countries should learn from American charity.
(D) The concept of American charity is different from that of European ones.
10. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
(A) Charities will become profitable businesses in the future.
(B) More people in Silicon Valley give money to charity.
(C) Management of charities is required to undergo changes.
(D) Foundations are beginning to check how the charities are running.
With 22 years on the job, Jackie Bracey could be considered a career employee of the
Internal Revenue Service. But she defies any stereotype of an over-eager agent running down a
reluctant taxpayer. Instead, she spends her time defending people who owe the government
money. Ms. Bracey, based in Greensboro N.C., is a taxpayer advocate, a created by Congress in
1998 as part of the kinder, gentler theme adopted by the tax collection agency. Bracey and
advocates at 73 other offices nationwide, backed by 2, 100 field workers and staff, go to bat for
taxpayers who are in financial straits because of something the agency has done or is about to
Though it may seem counterintuitive for the IRS, the advocate service not only helps
taxpayers, but identifies procedural problems that, once unsnarled, could help streamline the
agency. The main goal, though, is for the ombudsman to step into a dispute a taxpayer is having
with the IRS when it appears that something the IRS is doing, or planning, would create an
undue hardship on the taxpayer. This can range from speeding up resolution of a dispute that has
dragged on too long, to demanding that the IRS halt a collection action it the taxpayer can show
he or she "is suffering or is about to suffer s significant hardship."
"We look for all the possibilities we can to help somebody, "says Bracey. When it comes
to her attention that someone is backed against a wall-say, a taxpayer faces eviction because he
can't pay rent since the IRS has levied his paycheck, the advocate can call a halt to the collection
process. The advocate isn't saying that the money isn't owed, only that collecting it would
impose a hardship. Bracey says she doesn't like to think that people might have a car repossessed
and lose their ability to get to work because they can't make payments that have redirected to the
Besides trying to halt economic hardships, taxpayer advocates also deal with cases of
procedural hardship. This can happen when the IRS doesn't do something it said would do, or
doesn't do it in a timely fashion. Bracey, for instance, ayes that at this time of the year, her office
fields inquiries about speeding up refunds for people who filed paper returns and need the
Taxpayer ombudsmen have been around in one form or another since 1979, says Nina
Olson, the national taxpayer advocate. But they were given much more clout in 1998 when
Congress decided that the workers would no longer report to regional directors but to her office.
While this gave them a great deal more authority. outside watchdogs say more can be done.
"There is a long way t go to get an agency that feels independent and emboldened" to work for
taxpayers, says Joe Sepp, a vice, a vice president of the Washington-based tax-advocacy group.
While Mr. Seep applauds the service for removing management oversight of advocates from
local tax officials, he says more advocates should be drawn from outside the IRS, bringing an
independent viewpoint with them.
The taxpayers union also has complained that Congress and the Bush administration don't
seem to be taking the advocates seriously enough. Each year, the IRS group reports to Congress
on the top problems that advocates see. Many of these are systemic problems that can gum up
the works for both taxpayer and collector, such as a December notice from Ms. Olson that the
IRS should have just one definition of a dependent child. rather than the three definitions
currently used. While taxpayer advocates can help smooth things out in many cases, they cannot
ignore laws. This seems to be a particular problem with Earned Income Tax Credits, which
people frequently are not able to claim because they don't file tax returns on a timely basis.
If taxpayers haven't made legitimate claims for credits, there's nothing the advocate can do
to reverse that course. And Olson says that while taxpayers are free to use her service, they
should keep in mind that it does not replace the normal appeals process and should be the last
place a citizen calls upon for help, not the first. "We're really there for when the processes fall
down, "she says. Every state has at least one taxpayer-advocate service office. Look in the
telephone book blue pages for their phone numbers and addresses, or call 877-777-4779 to find
the nearest office. The IRS website. www. irs. gov, also has information on the service.
11. According to the passage, the main task of tax advocates is.
(A) to chase and collect tax from reluctant taxpayers
(B) to cooperate with field workers and support staff
(C) to help taxpayers and find problems in IRS work
(D) to negotiate with National Taxpayers Union
12. The advocate service "may seem counterintuitive for the IRS"(Para. 2)as .
(A) it works for the National Taxpayers Union
(B) it often finds faults with their own work
(C) it speeds up a collection action
(D) it always criticizes IRS on behalf of taxpayers
13. The word "clout" in the sentence "But they were given much more clout in 1998 when
Congress decided that the workers would no longer report to regional directors but no her
office. "(Para. 5) can best be replaced by .
(A) power (B) strength
(C) capacity (D) ability
14. The phrase "gum up the works" in the sentence "Many of these are systemic problems that
can gum up the works for both taxpayers and collector, "(Para. 6) can be paraphrased as .
(A) impair the benefits (B) bring about solutions
(C) lead to trouble (D) improve the relations
15. When Olson say "We're really there for when the processes fall down, "(Para. 7) she means
(A) they will provide help whenever taxpayers make claims
(B) they will get involved in the normal appeals process
(C) they will offer counseling when citizen calls
(D) they will give help when procedural problems occur
A friend who had lived in New York in the 1970s was recently here for a brief visit. I asked
him what, in this ever-changing city, he found to be most startlingly changed. He thought for a
minute before answering. "Probably the visible increases in prostitution, "he replies, My
astonishment at this comment was so palpable that he felt obliged to explain. "Haven't you
noticed, "he asked with surprise, "all these young women standing furtively in doorways? You
never used to see that when I was here."
I couldn't resist my laughter. "They're not prostitutes, They're smokers. "For indeed they are.
More American office buildings no longer allow smoking on the premises, driving those who
can't resist the urge onto the streets. the sight of them, lounging on "coffee breaks" near the
entrances to their workplace, puffing away, has become ubiquitous. Since most new smokers
apparently are women, my friend's confusion was understandable. And there are more than ever
since September 11.
Stress is probably better measure anecdotally than statistically. I'm not aware of surveys on
this matter, but anyone living in New York these days has stories of friend who, amid the scares
of 9-11 and its aftermath, have sought solace in cigarettes. I used to go to a gym near Grand
Central Terminal. Some days so many people stood outside, tensely smoking, that I assumed an
evacuation had just been ordered. At least three friends who'd given up tobacco have lapsed back
into the habit, claiming they couldn't calm their nerves. Others have increased their previously
reduced intakes. Some, in their quest for a crutch, have begun smoking for the first time. In
Manhattan the frantic has become the preferred alternative to the silent scream.
New Yorkers, of course, are coping in more imaginative ways, as well. A friend swears he
knows someone who has stashed a canoe in case he needs to escape Manhattan by river. Another
says he has moved a heavy objet d'art into his office so that he can smash the window if a
firebomb makes the elevator or the stairs impassable. A woman working on one of the lower
floors of her office building has acquired a rope long enough to lower herself to the ground; one
who works at the top of a skyscraper tells me she's looking into the purchase of a parachute. Still
other have stocked up on such items of antiterrorist chic as flame-retardant ponchos,
anthrax-antidote antibiotics and heavy-duty gas masks.
Crackpot friends, but surely not your own? Hardly. One close acquaintance, concerned
about my welfare as an international civil servant, tells me I should not be going to work at the
United Nations without ensuring that I have, in my desk drawer, a flashlight, spare batteries, a
clean cloth and water to dampen it with, all to facilitate an efficient exit through smoke and
darkness. Though touched by her solicitude, I have not yet taken her advice. But I believe her
when she tells me that many others have, especially her female friends.
Recent polls indicate that American women are, in fact, more stressed out than men. Over
50 percent in one national survey of 1.000 adults admitted to being "very " or "somewhat"
worried in the wake of the terrorist assaults, according to the Pew Research Center. Ten anthrax
scare may have receded. But recent incidents from the airplane crash in the New York borough
of Queens to the arrest of the London "shoe-bomber" to rumors of suitcase nukes, seem to have
had permanently unsettling effects Take food. A surprising number of people are apparently
unable to touch their plates. (Some happily, discovering that fear is the best diet.) Others are
eating too much, seeking reassurance in "comfort food. "Give the alternatives, smoking seems a
reasonable refuge; after all, the long-term threat of cancer seems far more remote these days than
the prospect of explosive incineration.
And let us not forget other obsessive coping behaviors. A surge in compulsive shopping,
drink and self medicating has been reported, along with exercising, buying music and
movie-going, I haven't checked the stock prices for Philip Morris recently, but I'm told it's doing
better tan expected. As people deal with their fears, the newspapers tell us the economy is
bouncing back. Could ordinary people's coping mechanisms be helping spur a national recovery
that, in the first weeks after September 11, had seemed a distant prospect? Few things could be
more American than giving in to your weaknesses-and finding that makes the country stronger.
16. The word "ubiquitous" in the sentence "The sight of them, lounging on ‘coffee breaks’ near
the entrances to their workplace puffing away, has become ubiquitous"(Para. 2) can best be
(A) noticeable all the time (B) present everywhere
(C) unique in nature (D) unpleasant to all visitors
17. In the sentence "New Yorkers, of course, are coping in more imaginative ways, as well. ", the
author mainly means .
(A) New Yorkers are full of imagination before terrorists
(B) New Yorkers are steadily confronting disasters
(C) New Yorkers are ready to combat all kinds of threats
(D) New Yorkers are ingeniously prepared for possible threats
18. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
(A) American men are as stressed out as women before terrorist attacks.
(B) The stock prices for Philip Morris must be on the rise.
(C) The coping behaviors under stress are widely varied and different.
(D) Smoking is considered a useful means to reduce stress.
19. In writing the last sentence "Few things could be more American than giving in to your
weaknesses-and finding that makes the country stronger.", the author .
(A) reaches the conclusion of the passage (B)tells her sincere and real thought
(C) adopts a satirical and paradoxical tone (D) criticizes American weaknesses
20. Which of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?
(A) Changing smoking habits over the past decades
(B) Fight-flight mechanism in front of terrorism
(C) compulsive response to long-term diseases
(D) Distracted behaviors under stress from terrorism
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the
corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
After nearly a year of emotional arguments in Congress but on new federal laws, the
national debate over the future of human cloning has shifted to the states, Six states have already
banned cloning in one form or another, and this year alone 38 anti-cloning measures were
introduced in 22 states.
The resulting patchwork of laws, people on all sides of the issue say, complicates a
nationwide picture already clouded by scientific and ethical questions over whether and how to
restrict cloning or to ban it altogether.
Since 1997, when scientists announced the birth of Dolly the sheep, the first cloned
mammal, the specter of cloned babies, infants that are in essence genetic carbon copies of adults,
has loomed large in the public psyche and in the minds of lawmakers.
Today, there is widespread agreement that cloning for reproduction is unsafe and should be
banned. Now, the debate has shifted away from the ethics of baby-making and toward the
morality of cloning embryos for their cells and tissues, which might be used to treat diseases.
The controversy pits religious conservatives and opponents, who regard embryos as nascent
human life, against patient' groups, scientists and the biotechnology industry.
SECTION 4: LISTENING TEST (30 minutes)
Part A: Note-taking and Gap-filling
Directions: In this part of the test you will hear a short talk. You will hear the talk ONLY ONCE.
While listening to the talk, you may take notes on the important points so that you can have
enough information to complete a gap-filling task on a separate ANSWER BOOKLET. You are
required to write ONE word or figure only in each blank. You will not get your ANSWER
BOOKLET until after you have listened to the talk.
Snap judgments are opinions which are formed suddenly, seemingly on no sound
______________(1)at all. They are usually thought of as signs of ____________________(2).
Most people think we judge a person by what he says or how he acts over a period of time. But,
according to _________________(3) researchers, the importance of speech has been
_______________(4). We actually use other forms of communication by which we are
_________________(5) sending messages. These messages are unconsciously picked up by
others and used in forming opinions.
We communicate a great deal with our __________________(6) we are not actually talking
then, but we are "saying" a lot with the "body language". Two of the most
_________________(7) forms of behaviour are diving cars and playing games.
_________________(8) not only serves a practical function, but also communicates many
things about our social __________________(9), state of __________________(10) and even
our __________________(11) and dreams. The __________________(12) we wear often tell a
variety of things about ourselves, such as our _________________(13), beliefs,
________________(14) in certain groups, past _________________(15) and economic status.
Our choices in ___________________(16) and furniture can also be said to show something
about our __________________(17).
When we meet a person for the first time, you start __________________(18) his actions,
his ________________(19), his clothing and many other things, even if he doesn’t speak to you.
All these things tell us a lot about that person if we know how to understand the body
Part B: Listening and Translation
Ⅰ. Sentence Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 5 English sentences. You will hear the sentences
ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each sentence, translate it into Chinese and write your
version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Ⅱ. Passage Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 2 passages. You will hear the passage ONLY
ONCE. After you have heard each passage, translate it into Chinese and Write your version in
the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. You may take notes while you are
SECTION 5:READING TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SENTENCES the
questions which follow each passage. Use only information from the passage you have just read
and write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
For 40 years the sight of thousands of youngsters striding across the open moorland has
been as much an annual fixture as spring itself. But the 2, 400 school pupils who join the
grueling Dartmoor Ten Tors Challenge next Saturday may be among the last to take part in the
May tradition. The trek faces growing criticism from environmentalists who fear that the
presence of so many walkers on one weekend threatens the survival of some of Dartmoor's
internationally rare bird species.
The Ten Tors challenge takes place in the middle of the breeding season, when the slightest
disturbance can jeopardize birds' chances of reproducing successfully. Experts at the RSPB and
the Dartmoor National Park Authority fear that the walkers could frighten birds and even crush
eggs. They are now calling for the event to be moved to the autumn, when the breeding season is
over and chicks should be well established. Organizers of the event, which is led by about 400
Territorial Army volunteers, say moving it would be impractical for several reasons and would
mean pupils could not train properly for the 55-mile trek. Dartmoor is home 10 rare species of
ground-nesting birds, including golden plovers, dunlins and lapwings. In some cases, species are
either down to their last two pairs on the moor or are facing a nationwide decline.
Emma Parkin, South-west spokeswoman for the PASPB, took part in the challenge as a
schoolgirl. She said the society had no objections to the event itself but simply but simply
wanted t moved to another time of year. "It is a wonderful activity for the children who take part
but, having thousands of people walking past in one weekend when birds are breeding is hardly
ideal, "she said. "We would prefer it to take place after the breeding and nesting season is over.
There is a risk of destruction and disturbance. If the walkers put a foot in the wrong place they
can crush the eggs and if there is sufficient disturbance the birds might abandon the nest. "Helen
Booker, an RSPB upland conservation officer, said there was no research into the scale of the
damage but there was little doubt the walk was detrimental. "If people are tramping past
continually it can harm the chances of successful nesting. There is also the fear of direct
trampling of eggs. "A spokesman for the Dartmoor National Park Authority said the breeding
season on the moor lasted from early March to mid-July, and the Ten Tors challenge created the
potential for disturbance for March, when participants start training.
To move the event to the autumn was difficult because children would be on holiday during
the training period. There was a possibility that some schools in the Southwest move to a
four-term year in 2004, "but until then any change was unlikely. The authority last surveyed bird
life on Dartmoor two year ago and if the next surveyed showed any further decline, it would
increase pressure to move challenge, "he said.
Major Mike Pether, secretary of the army committee that organizes the challenge, said the
event could be moved if there was the popular will. "The Ten Tors has been running for 42 years
and it has always been at this time of year. It is almost in tablets of stone but that's not to say we
won't consider moving if there is a consensus in favour. However, although the RSPB would like
it moved, 75 per cent of the people who take part want it to stay as it is, "he said. Major Pether
said the trek could not be moved to earlier in the year because it would conflict with the lambing
season, most of the children were on holiday in the summer, and the winter weather was too
Datmoor National Park occupies some 54 sq km of hills topped by granite outcrops known
as "Tors" with the highest Tor-capped hill reaching 621m. The valleys and dips between the hills
are often sites of bogs to snare the unwary hiker. The moor has long been used by the British
Army as a training and firing range. The origin of the event stretches back to 1959 when three
Army officers exercising on the moor thought it would provide a challenge for civilians as well
as soldiers>In the first year 203 youngsters took up the challenges. Since then teams, depending
on age and ability, face hikes of 35, 45 or 55 miles between 10 nominated Tors over two days.
They are expected to carry everything they need to survive.
1. What is the Ten Tors challenge? Give a brief introduction of its location and history.
2. Why is it suggested that the event be moved to the autumn or other seasons?
3. What are the difficulties if the event is moved to autumn or other season?
Mike and Adam Hurewitz grew up together on Long Island, in the suburbs of New York
City. They were very close, even for brothers. So when Adam's liver started failing, Mike offered
to give him half of his. The operation saved Adam's life. But Mike, who went into the hospital in
seemingly excellent health, developed a complication-perhaps a blood colt -and died last week.
He was 57. Mike Hurewitz's death has prompted a lot of soul searching in the transplant
community. Was it a tragic fluke or a sign that transplant surgery has reached some kind of
ethical limit?The Mount Sinai Medical Center, the New York City hospital where the complex
double operation was performed, has put on hold its adult living donor liver transplant
program, pending a review of Hurewitz's death. Mount Sinai has performed about 100 such
operations in the past three years.
A 1-in -100 risk of dying may not seem like bad odds, but there's more to this ethical
dilemma than a simple ratio. The first and most sacred rule of medicine is to do no harm. "For a
normal healthy person a mortality rate 1% is hard to justify, "says Dr. John Fung, chief of
transplantation at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. "If the rate stays at 1%, it's just
not going to be accepted. "On the other hand, there's an acute shortage of traditional donor
organs from people who have died in accidents or suffered fatal heart attacks. If family members
fully understand the risks and are willing to proceed, is there any reason to stand in their way?
Indeed, a recent survey showed that most people will accept a mortality rate for living organ
donors as high as 20%. The odds, thankfully, aren't nearly that bad. For kidney donors, for
example, the risk ranges from 1 in 2, 500 to 1 in 4, 000 for a healthy volunteer. That helps
explain why nearly 40% of kidney transplants in the U.S. come from living donors.
The operation to transplant a liver, however, is a lot trickier than one to transplant a kidney.
Not only is the liver packed with blood vessels, but it also makes lots of proteins that need to be
produced in the right ratios for the body to survive. When organs from the recently deceased are
used, the surgeon gets to pick which part of the donated liver looks the best-and to take as much
of it as needed. Assuming all goes well, a healthy liver can grow back whatever portion of the
organ is missing, sometimes within a month.
A living-donor transplant works particularly well when an adult donates a modest a modest
portion of the liver to a child. Usually only the left lobe of the organ is required, leading to a
mortality rate for living-donors in the neighborhood of 1 in 500 to 1 in 1, 000. But when the
recipient is another adult, as much as 60% of the donor's liver has to be removed. "There really
is very little margin for error, "says Dr. Fung. By way of analogy, he suggests, think of a tree.
"An adult-to-child living-donor transplant is like cutting off a limb. With an adult-to-adult
transplant, you're splitting the trunk in half and trying to keep both halves alive."
Even if a potential donor understand and accepts these risks, that doesn't necessarily mean
the operation should proceed. All sorts of subtle pressures can be brought to bear on such a
decision. says Dr. Mark Siegler, director of the MacLean for Clinical Medical Ethics at the
University of Chicago. "Sometimes the sicker the patient, the greater the pressure the pressure
and the more willing the donor will be to accept risks. "If you feel you can't say no, is your
decision truly voluntary? And if not, is it the medical community's responsibility to save you
from your own best intentions?
Transplant centers have developed screening programs to ensure that living donors fully
understand the nature of their decision. But unexamined, for the most part, is the larger issue of
just how much a volunteer should be allowed to sacrifice to save another human being. So far,
we seem to be saying some risk is acceptable, although we're still vaguer about where the cutoff
should be. There will always be family members like Mike Hurewitz who are heroically
prepared to make the ultimate sacrifice for a loved one. What the medical profession-and
society-must decide is if it's appropriate to let them do so.
4. Describe in your own words the liver transplant between the two brothers Mike and Adam.
5. What is the major issue raised in the article?
6. Explain briefly Dr. Fung' s comparison between organ transplant and a tree. What does he
imply through this analogy?
7. If family members fully understand the risks in organ transplant and are still willing to
proceed, shall the medical professionals encourage or stop them? What is your personal view
toward such issue?
Burnt by stock market losses, investors in ever-increasing numbers have found an answer to
their woes: litigate. According to Stanford Law School, shareholders filed 327 class-action
lawsuits against American companies last year-up 60% on the previous year. Their pied piper is
Bill Lerach. He and his law firm, Milberg Weiss Bershad Hynes & Lerach, have turned the class
action lawsuit into an industry. More than half of last year's suits were fought by Lerach and his
Branded an "economic terrorist "by one rival and "lower than pond scum" by one rival and
"lower than pond scum" by another, Lerach's firm is the terror of corporate America. Milberg
Weiss has won more than 20 billion in class-action suits but has not escaped controversy of its
own. It is being investigated by a Los Angeles federal grand jury over allegations that it paid
"professional plaintiffs" to use their names on lawsuits.
Few of Lerach's cases ever get to court, Settling on the law court steps is an American
tradition and often less embarrassing and expensive than taking a case all the way. But the rules
have been rewritten since Enron's collapse. Having failed to reach an argreement with Lerach
and others, Arthur Andersen trial starts this week in Houston over accountant's alleged
destruction of Enron-related documents. On Wednesday another judge will hear from other
defendants being pursued by Lerach.
Lerach's original suit was filed late last year in Houston's federal court on behalf of the
University of California Board of Regents, which lost 140m, and other Enron shareholders. The
lawsuit names a stellar array of blue-chip banks, including Barclays, Citigroup and Merrill
Lynch, as parties to the alleged Enron scheme that cost investor 25 billion. It also names law
firms and 60 Enron and Arthur Andersen executives, directors and partners. When the judge
decides whether to let any of the parties escape the court case, due in December 2003, settlement
talks will begin in earnest. In the meantime, the heat is being turned up on Lerach. A recent Wall
Street Journal editorial attacked the university for hiring him. "The real lesson for the Regents is
that when you lie down with lawyers, you catch ethical fleas, "it said. The Journal's attack tallies
with many senior business figures who privately say Lerach and his followers have made the law
a joke, basing their attacks more on a participant's ability to pay than their guilt. "Lerach isn't
expecting to prove his case in court, but only in the media, hoping defendants will settle
regardless of guilt to get their names out of the news. Is that a good lesson for the kids?" asked
Lerach did not return calls when asked to comment, but Trey Davis, a university spokesman,
dismissed the criticism: "The decision to name the investment banks and the law firms is not
based on a search for assets in the wake of Enron's bankruptcy and Arthur Andersen's business
decline, "he said. "It's an earnest effort seeking return of money that rightfully belongs to the
John Coffee, law professor at Columbia University, says the rise in class actions is
inevitable give the fall in stock prices. And he says that, if anything, changes in the rules have
improved the quality of many cases filed. Legal reforms, introduced in 1995, have made it
almost impossible for disgruntled investors to sue a company for disgruntled investors to sue a
company for missing its profit forecasts. The changes also require lawyers to show evidence of
wrong-doing for a case to proceed. The reforms were designed to curb the frivolous lawsuits that
had become part of the cost of doing business for almost every American public company. Most
cases now brought against companies allege some sort of accounting impropriety.
And says Coffee, the reforms mean more suits now have a strong case to answer. "There's a
whole industry out there saying securities litigation is all frivolous, " he says. "There's a high
correlation between an earnings restatement and some highly suspicious monkey business with
the prior financial reporting. I don't think these are cases in which the defendants are perfectly
8. What are the class action lawsuits referred to in the passage? What do you learn about Bill
Lerach's law firm?
9. What does it mean by the sentence "Milberg Weiss... has not escaped controversy of its
10.What do you know from the Wall Street Journal editorial's attack (Para. 4)?
SECTION 6: TRANSLATION TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the
corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.