How to save on electricity consumption

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					The increase in real electricity prices can not be avoided. Electricity
price increases world average of 7% a year, while Indonesia has announced
there will be an increase of 6% every 4 months. One reason for this price
increase is to build new power plants to meet the need of increased
electricity consumption. If every consumer can save between 5? 10% only,
then there is probably not necessary at this year's new plants. The
government could come into play to support these energy savings by
providing incentives for implementation. Indeed these energy-saving
programs provide benefits to all parties, consumers can reduce bill
payment, electric companies are not being chased make new plants, the
government could reduce the amount of debt plan. Electricity savings
program is not just a technical issue alone, but is a consideration and
management decisions, particularly in terms of finance. The discussion
below is mainly intended for large electricity users with electricity
bills over Rp100 million per month.

How Do?

Broadly speaking, the way the energy consumption savings can be divided
into 5 categories namely:

1. A review of technical systems and the improvement of the architecture.

From the results of studies, statistics and measurements on a number of
buildings in Jakarta obtained by the fact that the electrical load to the
AC averaged around 60% of all electricity consumption. The focus of the
savings should be directed to the cooling system, such as selecting /
replacing the air conditioning unit with an EER has a low or repairing
refrigerant flow system so that electricity can be more efficient, and
reduce the cooling load. One of the major cooling load is the direct
sunlight into the room, especially between the hours of 10 am until hour
15. By installing a sun barrier on the east and west outside the building
on the corner at 10 and 14 hours, will be able to greatly reduce the
cooling load drastically. Installation of vertical blinds in the building
has no meaning for AC machines, because solar radiation had already
entered the room and will remain a burden of the air conditioner.
Propagation of solar heat through the walls can be reduced by adding a
heat insulator. Good heat insulator is air. The use of double walls with
a distance between the wall about 10 cm would greatly inhibit the
propagation of heat. The use of brick presses with air cavity in the
middle can also reduce the propagation of heat. Cold air or hot air out
the incoming equally wasteful. By conducting a review into the field,
into every room, always will be able to obtain some holes leak cold air
with hot air that must be closed immediately. The results of measurements
in the hotel lobby door is left open during the day, and cold air out,
showing a waste of 5000 watts, which is equivalent to 10 pcs KPR-BTN
people's houses. Installation of automatic closing doors, revolving doors
or tool? Water curtain? can overcome this problem.

2. Improvements in operational procedures manual.

Some of the operational procedures that can be easily implemented
include: requiring the building users to always turn off the lights or
air conditioning when not one, turn off the lamp near the window glass
during the day, did not turn on the pump at 18-23 because of the price of
electricity is more expensive, always close the doors and windows that
separate rooms are not air-conditioned with, always check the street
lights and park lights are often forgotten to be turned off during the
day. Operational procedures that seem simple in its execution was not as
easy as said. Necessary instructions, warning, continuous supervision and
involve many people, until it becomes a habit or culture of saving
electricity.

3. Operational procedure automatically fixes.

Way as No. 2 above is easy and can be implemented for a short or a small
factory building, and would be difficult to implement for the building 25
floors or greater than 5000m2 factory. To overcome this difficulty, has
been available many types of sensors and actuators for various purposes.
Light level sensors, door sensors are being opened / closed, the sensor
in the room of one's existence, self-timer, and so forth can be strung
together and combined to achieve the electricity savings goals.
Konfigrasi sensor networks can also be planned carefully. Even now also
available technology? Addressable? sensors, actuators and monitors. Each
unit can be given the address, and the relationship between the units
fairly viewed as inter-address. During the same addresses, wherever
located, can always interconnected. All communication is done in parallel
connection with fairly regular use of two telephone wires. For example
the sensor presence on the 17th floor conference room was given address
number 34, then if there are people inside, then light space (address =
34) will light, conditioned conference room (address = 34) will light up,
light signs have coffee in the pantry (address = 34) lights up, lights a
sign monitors in the control room in the basement (address = 34) is also
lit. If the meeting room was empty within 10 minutes, eat all associated
with the address 34 will die of all. Duty officer in the room monitor has
the power to shut down all associated with address number 34. All done
with a very simple way, without a computer. One disadvantage BAS
(Building Automation System) is located on human resources frequently?
Clueless? (Stuttering technology) computer program, either on the side of
the operator and management. Thus, many who do not use sophisticated BAS
capabilities.

4. Installation of electricity-saving devices throughout the
installation.

In principle on most loads (appliances that use electricity), electricity
can be saved though always a little bit. Here the necessary foresight and
expertise to determine the type of load and select the appropriate tool
for saving. Burden of incandescent, fluorescent lights, heating, air
conditioning units, motors, etc., all have a specific saving devices /
unique based on the performance of load, load schedul usage. In this
issue, which is more important is? Multiplier effect? from small savings
this. Understanding? Multiplier effect? It is still difficult to be
accepted by most technicians / engineers we, who are used to partially
savings. What is the level of total savings that can be obtained for an
installation, can only be estimated based on the statistics of many
programs / projects ever undertaken. Companies engaged in the field of
electrical energy savings has a secret number? Multiplier? that can not
be opened against clientnya. Thus the form of contracts that can be done?
Result Oriented Contract?, Or? Performance Contract?, To the level of
savings that covers the entire installation / electrical network in one
building height, building or factory complex. Electrical Contractor Cost
Savers companies conduct energy audits are commonly used, look for
opportunities wherever possible savings can be made, calculate / estimate
of the savings, ensuring large savings in percent, calculated payback
period (payback period). In this way, the level of savings could be
achieved between 5-20%, with a payback period of approximately 30 months

5. Electrical power quality improvement.

In the seminar HAEI (Association of Indonesian Electrical Expert),
November 2001, revealed that in some installations in Jakarta found
several anomalies of electrical parameters, such as neutral currents
greater than the phase current, power breakers to work even though the
load current is still measured 60% of its capacity, the motor heat faster
than usual. At first these things confuse electrical engineers and to
overcome them while they increase the size of the neutral wire, so the
same size as phase wire (which is usually quite half of the wire phase),
increase the capacity of the power breakers, etc. motor capacity. This is
where it has done one good waste of electricity monthly fee and cost of
capital investment. One reason is the existence of? Harmonics? that
arises / is in the power grid.

As with any knowledge about the human body, the harmonics can be
analogous to cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol travels through the
bloodstream, it can clog blood vessels, making the heart work harder,
clog the brain, the heart may even stop working. Harmonics also spread to
the entire network installation, make the wiring more heat, the machines
hotter motor (decreased capacity), the connections on the power breaker
is hotter, the main transformer (the heart of the building) is hotter.
Thing that can happen is fatal overheating on the cable, connection cable
and the transformer that can explode and can result in fire.

These harmonics, in addition to installing a spread in the consumer, the
installation could be spread to adjacent neighbors, and even spreads to
the PLN in Substation Distribution transformers and substation. So, do
not be surprised if there is a relay station or cable distribution of the
original PLN secure safe course, can suddenly explode.

Harmonics arise in two decades due to the use of tools? Modern?, Which is
widely used for better control systems, such as inverters, speed control
/ rotation, UPS (Uninteruptible Power Supply), electronic ballasts,
industrial temperature control heater (oven , heater) that uses SCR /
chopper, etc..

Harmonics of this phenomenon can not be detected by ordinary measuring
tools that exist on the control panel or regular pliers-ammeters. As with
regular stethoscope can not detect the cholesterol or the heart's
performance closely, then the necessary tools ECG, it is also necessary
for the harmonic spectrum analyzer that can detect the level of harmonics
1 s / d 31 and the magnitude of the harmonics in percent and can
calculate the value of total harmonic , the currents and voltages.
To solve this problem harmonics, can be mounted filter and stopper
(filtering and blocking) on ??the sources of harmonics or on the main
panel of consumers. From the measurement results can be determined the
amount of harmonic filters that should be used. If the load varies, the
filter can also be made automatically changed according to changes in
load.

Energy wastage also occurs in other electrical quantities, namely the
voltages and currents are not balanced, power factor, current / voltage
surge (surge, impulse), the voltage momentarily subsided, momentary loss
of power supply, power supply is lost first phase. Association of
American power producers (NEMA), published a graphic characteristics of
the engine, which suggests that the imbalance of supply voltage by 5%
only, could result in increases in heat by 50%, and the resulting
reduction in capacity by 25%. If the motor 10 PK machine is not able to
lift loads of 10 or even 8 PK PK, it should be suspected, and this is
often escaped the attention of management. Technicians usually only
advised to wear a bigger bike course, be safe, but unwittingly
squandering of capital and electricity bills. Measuring devices and
recorders that can be at once, at the same time, reading a graph of
voltage on each phase, it turns out in many cases, the phase voltage
difference of about 2? 7 Volt. Phase current imbalance causes an
unnatural neutral currents, cause overheating in neutral wire (wire
zero), which also wastes energy. By installing the tools balancing phase
voltages and currents, then the loss / wastage can be reduced. Plant
control tools or installation of buildings can be disrupted by tension
subsided for a moment, momentary loss of power supply, or single phase
power supply is lost. Losses due to cessation of the plant or building
activity due to impaired control tools are not easy to calculate in
general, but a qualitative definitely a big loss in special cases, such
as printing paper, the plant with a batch process that can not be
repeated.

Power quality improvement by reducing the waste that has been done
unwittingly, could achieve a total savings of $ 5? 25% of the monthly
accounts. This figure is derived from the statistical implementation of
energy saving programs, and is? Multiplier effect? from small savings on
each of the electrical parameters.

The investment required to fund energy conservation programs, with
savings rates as above, may return in about 24 months, or can reach the
level of ROI (return on investment) amounting to 30-38%. If this
investment is seen as the establishment of new business, then this is a
business that provides a definite advantage, able to walk alone, without
adding labor, without a demo, without a strike. If the bank is now over-
liquid condition, why not distribute the funds in this program?.
Guarantee the payback period could be strengthened by insurance, then
this is a new area for insurance companies in Indonesia. The investment
for this program if calculated dollars / kwh terhemat, still much smaller
than in dollars / kwh generation

				
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