Legends at Stonehenge

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					Stones and legends at Stonehenge
Is there on this earth a monument to the mystery more unfathomable than Stonehenge? Is there
another vestige which has to this point left the scientists and historians in the query? Little is known
of Stonehenge, and out of the conundrum that constitutes the monument itself is added the
ignorance of the site on which it was built, which are known now it holds a lot of buried treasure. It
comes in effect to locate at least one kilometer of the monument the foundations of another circle, a
circle of wood, this one. Thus, the generations of researchers are relentless and little by little, years
after years, stone after stone, the building of the knowledge of Stonehenge is mounted. The site is
revealed, it wakes up and book a has a its many secrets.

The mystery of Stonehenge lies not only in the use to which it was made, but first of all in its
construction itself, which we cannot explain the modalities. We even wonder if the monument could not
be completed, or if there was no other megaliths to put in place.

We know that Stonehenge was not built in a single time, but in several times, at different times, the new
construction in complement or replace the previous one. It was once thought that the monument had
been erected in three phases, but another theory, based on the carbon-14 dating, asserted that he was
in four. The fourth phase would lead us very close to our current era.

The dates of construction differ from one article to another. We are talking about in for a
period ranging from less than 2800 to less than 1100, in that other article, for example, we found a least
3100 to at least 1600. The site British English Heritage, the organization that manages the site, gives the
following dates (detailed in three phases): of least 3000 to at least 1600, date on which the site was
abandoned. The fourth phase is never presented as a period of major changes on the site, but of
rearrangements and minor changes.

We cannot clearly identify not more to which returns the paternity of the monument. It appointed the
builders of the time of Stonehenge the "indigenous" people , in stating that it was not then of the Celts.
We know of course to which the site has been owned by the following: of King Henry VIII, it is happening
in 1540 at the hands of the County of Hertford, and then to those of Lord Carleton, the Marquis of
Queensbury… It was purchased by a family of Cheshire in 1824 and then was sold at auction in 1915
after the death of its last heir, who was committed on the battle fields of French. The purchaser acquit
on a whim, offering for 6,600 pounds of the time a small fantasy it, then fit gift to the nation three years
later. Thus ended the saga of the various owners of Stonehenge, and the archaeological site is in our
days the property of the crown.

Each phase of the construction of Stonehenge has its mysteries, and fact arise number of questions
remained for the moment without an answer, or whose responses found are still incomplete. We really
do not know, for example, at what time was erected the famous "heelstone", a Pierre totally gross to
the inclination marked. Its function remains mysterious, as well as the reasons for which she was
appointed as well in the Middle Ages. According to an old legend reported in the English version of
Wikipedia, his name would have a report with the fact that the devil would have launched this stone in
the heel ( "heel") of a monk. The second meaning of the term "TALON" in English, another explanation
commonly chosen for the name of this stone, as given in the Robert and Collins, is: "to bow, look
dangerously. " (1)
The first stones, the stones "blue", which were used for the construction of the first circle of menhirs,
and then have been filed, and for some, resized and then returned to the interior of the final
monument, dating from the second phase and come from quarries located to nearly two hundred and
fifty miles from here! We do not know exactly by what means they have been sent to the site, but we
think that they have been transported on the river Avon. Their resettlement in the center of the
monument final date of the phase three.

More incredible still, how the men of the time have they been able to carry and then build the giant
stones of sandstone? Certainly, the careers of or these blocks were excerpts are located only 40
kilometers from Stonehenge, but some weigh up to 50 tons! In addition, a hill sits across the road, which
had to make the company all the more painful for the men, who have developed several decades in all
route on the site, as it considers to be the case. How have they managed to hoist and then deposit the
huge horizontal sill at the summits of the megaliths?

How is it that with the technology that we have of our days, which has led to the human rights of
exploits also fantastic that go ask the foot on the Moon, not only we do not know to answer these
questions otherwise than by the assumptions, but in addition we have become unable to repeat this
feat, and reinventing, bluntly, the same processes that the ingenuity of the men of the era had
imagined? It is say the quite exceptional nature of this monument.

Every era has its methods, to each time its exploits which contain this made their share of mystery, and
sometimes even seem to fall of the supernatural. The new technologies replace the previous, who end
up irrevocably into the abyss of oblivion.

With what tools have-they could extract from such pans rocky? Certainly not with the picks of antler or
the shovels in shoulder blades of cattle that were used to dig the ditches, and whose remains were
found on the site at one of the many excavations.

The explanations provided for the construction of Stonehenge are therefore in reality of assumptions,
such as the one describing the transport of stones on sleds pulled by hundreds of men, who went up
then by means of ropes and levers and scaffolding… If only we could travel in time!

It now admits three theories concerning the function of the monument.

The first, which assigns the site the role of burial place of seems to be a near certainty, the fact of many
human bones that have been found. They have been dates to the Carbon 14, which helped to determine
that Stonehenge served as a burial place for the first phase of its development, and not just from the
period monolithic of the place (that is to say, before the installation of trilithes), as we previously

Always according to the archaeologists, Stonehenge would have been a place of worship, a kind of
temple in some way, but also a place therapeutic because of the curative properties that was expected
from then to the stones blue, the very fact of their color. This could explain why the inhabitants of the
region are gone to seek these stones blue as far. To support their supposition, the scientists are based
on the discovery of corpses of people who have been able to determine that they had died of disease,
and which were buried with pieces of these stones. The sick and wounded, we learn, came to
Stonehenge to benefit from the healing power of stones blue. The question is, if these people lived not
far from the site because, in the opposite case, the people would they have had knowledge of the
existence of the monument?

The astronomers, in particular, have always preferred assign to Stonehenge a function of observatory
and astronomical calendar, which is the monument a symbol of the knowledge of men at this time.
William Stukeley has observed for the first time in 1740 that the day of the summer solstice, the first ray
of the morning sun comes to knock the center stone. Its rays reach another location during the solstice
of winter. Some researchers believe that this was not the rising sun at the summer solstice which was
important, but its sunset at the time of the solstice of winter.

In 1965, in his book entitled Stonehenge DECODED, the British astronomer Gerald hawkins presented to
the general public of the findings of its studies, conducted with the help of an IBM computer and that he
had published two years earlier in the magazine Nature: the correspondence between the alignment of
stones of Stonehenge and the astronomical phenomena major cannot be a coincidence, and the 56
holes surrounding the monument would have been a sort of astronomical calculator for predicting
eclipses of the moon (2). His work, including the theory on the calculator, has been critical enough.

Others have seen in the five trilithes a representation of the five planets in the solar system visible to
the naked eye.

As a general rule, many archaeologists are not at all convinced by the theories involving before the
report between the monument and astronomy. They opposed the fact that Stonehenge was built in
several stages, the doubts concerning the astronomical knowledge of the peoples of that time,
indispensable for building such a device, and inconsistencies in some points of advanced theories. We
even wonder if the climate of the time allowed the astronomical observations.

Be that as it may, one thing is certain, whatever the function, or multiple functions and of Stonehenge,
the stones that were used in its construction were not willing to chance, but according to a geometric
plan extremely precise.

Excavations and restorations

The Middle Ages, always prompt to advance the science as we know, has especially seen in Stonehenge
a work of the Devil. Fortunately, things have evolved by the result. However, the erroneous
interpretations on the construction and the function of Stonehenge are not arrested for as much. Thus,
William Stukeley commit the error, always in 1740, to assign the construction of the monument to the

Between the 18th and 19th centuries, the successive teams of search have sometimes been witnesses of
the collapse of some parts, as was the case in 1797 for a trilithe restores then in 1958, during the second
major restoration campaign. The first major restorations of the monument took place in 1901. Other
excavations (as well as the campaigns of restoration) not only of the monument itself but the
surrounding site 1924-1932 then during the 20th century and the beginning of the 21th, and were at the
origin of many of these discoveries, such as the exhumation of the remains of the archer in 1978.

Recently, a new campaign to study the site of Stonehenge, which should last for three years, just to be
open. Just a few weeks after its beginning, the scientists have already done in the third week of July
2010 an incredible discovery: thanks to the new imaging techniques to X-rays (thus, there is even more
need to dig!) they have scanned the ground and have located approximately 900 meters from the main
monument, buried under the earth, another monument to approximately 25 meters in diameter. (3) It is
thought that the structure was made of wood, for which reason it has not stood the test of time. Its
precise function remains here, too, for the moment, an enigma. The site of Stonehenge is far from
having revealed all its secrets, and this campaign of excavations, which has just started therefore seems
very promising.

Legends and ceremonies

Whenever a mystery any surrounds a fact or a monument, it generates a number of fanciful theories. It
is therefore the case for Stonehenge, which is said for example that he would have been built by beings
from elsewhere, or that only supernatural processes were able to achieve such a monument. In a
medieval legend dating from the 12th century, it is Merlin who built Stonehenge, with the help of a

From 1972, the site of Stonehenge was the theater of a music festival free of several days in June, to the
atmosphere mainly hippie, which Margaret Thatcher mit an abrupt end in 1985.

Every year, during the summer solstice, a crowd of visitors to gather on the site of Stonehenge and
camped on the spot to attend the sunrise, and, for some of them, as the neo-druids, neo-pagans or
followers of the New Age, practice of ceremonies. The first ceremonies of neo-druids on the day of the
summer solstice date back to 1905. These ceremonies were banned in 1985 after the violence caused by
the prohibition of the festival, and then the authorization was again granted in 2000, but under very
strict conditions. These ceremonies are now entered in the legend and the tradition of Stonehenge, and
the media regularly go to place in order to make documentaries on this subject.

What is the future of Stonehenge?

The first visitors of Stonehenge had the possibility to walk in the midst of the monument, touching the
stones and even the climb. The problems associated with vandalism have momentarily resulted in the
closure of the site in 1978. Accordingly, the visitors are no longer allowed in our days to touch the
stones (except special provisions for the non-leds), and must even be content to take a tour of the
monument without entering to the interior of the circle of stones. This provision is exceptionally lifting
during the solstices and equinoxes, and the visitors can also make a special request to obtain the right to
enter the interior of the monument outside of these four days of the year.

Stonehenge (and the surrounding site) is class since 1986 with the World Heritage of UNESCO, as they
are almost a thousand other sites (to be precise, 878 in 2009), not all archaeological in nature, where
one can mention Angkor in Cambodia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, some sites in Egypt, the Castle
of Chambord in France or even the island of the Meeting, with its Natural Park, which is just to be
inscribed on the World Heritage beginning August 2010.

Twenty eight sites in the United Kingdom have had the chance to see Assign the title. The Tower of
London, the botanical gardens at Kew and the Cathedral of Canterbury, are a part. As a result of its
classification to the World Heritage, everything must be implemented to preserve Stonehenge in order
to transmit to future generations. The British government has an obligation to make a report to UNESCO
all six years on the conservation of the site. The classification to the world heritage also encourages to
propose a better infrastructure for home for the visitors, since the prestige that this status gives very
coveted of UNESCO in fact increase the number of significantly. It is certain that reconcile the needs for
the protection of a classified site with the increase in the number of its visitors must not be an easy
thing. Stonehenge now receives nearly a million visitors each year, without counting those who come
for the summer solstice, and the tourist information on the site put in before the fact that everything is
done to accommodate the best visitors, all visitors: pamphlets in several languages (50% of the visitors
come from abroad), wheelchairs on simple request, brochures in Braille, reserved parking right next to
the entry for motorists disabled…

A new plan to help on the short, medium and long terms, dating from January 2009, has been put in
place for the conservation and presentation of Stonehenge and the surrounding site. In addition to the
backup of the site and the encouragement of research that are being made, the plan also takes into
account the protection of the surrounding nature and the needs of the inhabitants of the region, many
of whom were farmers, who have participated in the elaboration of the plan, which replaces that of
2000 and whose action will extend until 2015. The infrastructures for the reception date back a little, we
are criticized for example the too great proximity to the parking with the monument, which Eyesore the
view, and it is intended that they be improved, including by the opening of a reception center furthest
from the monument. It was even discussed the possibility to permanently close to the movement a road
that goes into the middle of the site (just behind the Heelstone) and to the fitting-out work necessary
for the retrain in lawn. The necessary funds was very important, the project for the time being has not
yet been implemented.

Stonehenge, the most mysterious of all the monuments?

Stonehenge is one of the most mysterious remnants that we have inherited from our ancestors, but also
one of the most steeped in spirituality. Can we find the similarities to this level with other archaeological
sites such as Lascaux, for example, or Angkor? The approach to compare these sites obviously has
nothing of scientific, it is not even logical, this is just the start to try to understand how they are
mysterious and, to that fact, why they exercise such a fascination in the world.

These sites are classified with the World Heritage of Humanity, and they are all more or less in danger.
Stonehenge, as any archaeological vestige, is threatened by the time. The cave of Lascaux, closed since
1979, is wracked by fungi, and parasites to the point that it had to be closed to the public, and that in
2008 UNESCO has put France it to remedy the problem. Finally, the ruins of Angkor, classified since
1992, are being eaten by the heat, humidity, and the nature which is constantly wanting to resume its

Lascaux, Stonehenge dating from all two of prehistory, although obviously the Lascaux cave is much
older (between 18,000 and 15,000 approximately before our era). They are of invaluable evidence of
achievements and the degree of knowledge and technique for our distant ancestors and, as such, really
deserve to be considered as the heritage of humanity.

It may be pointed out that Lascaux and Angkor (in any case a part of the site) have been discovered in a
similar way, by the greatest of coincidences, in the forest. Four children and a dog have discovered
lascaux under vegetation and, to simplify, an explorer of the 19th century in search of exotic butterflies
has rediscovered some ruins at Angkor, overrun by vegetation.

Compare Stonehenge and Angkor obviously seems difficult, would this that, because of the considerable
gap between the periods of construction. In effect, the site of Angkor is a recent development,
compared to Stonehenge, since its many buildings were constructed, by and large, between the ninth
and the thirteenth century of our era. And yet, it is easy to find the differences, a few small similarities
can be identified (in seeking well). First of all, the two sites have always retained their respective share
of mystery as to their construction, the temples located on the site of Angkor having, at the origin, the
reputation of having been built by the Gods themselves.

The articles concerning Stonehenge does not mention the reason for which the site ceased to be
frequent in 1600 before JC (date advanced by the English Heritage). Similarly, the theories differ as to
the exact reasons for the desertion of Angkor in the 16th century.

It also continues to explore Angkor, and these studies are used to the work, often daunting, for the
restoration of the temples whose stones are necessarily collapsed with the time.

Another analogy between the two sites lies in the fact that there have not yet discovered all the
remnants they contain. Buried under the ground at Stonehenge, still hidden in the forest at Angkor. As
recently at Stonehenge, these are also the new imaging techniques which have helped to determine
that Angkor still possesses many treasures! But where the surface which will be studied during the next
three years around the monument of Stonehenge is only 14 km² (the complete site done 26 km² ), the
site of Angkor, him, in fact at least four hundred!

Thanks to advances in technology, so it may bet that the next few years will be rich of new
archaeological discoveries, either at Stonehenge, at Angkor, why not on the archaeological sites in
Egypt, or in many other places around the globe. The next few years we reserve yet, without the
slightest doubt, beautiful surprises!

What conclusion to this attempt to approximation a little force between these sites and monuments?
Find links, even required, between the monuments built in various places on the planet, at different
times and for functions sometimes very distinct may also make them aware that the goals sought by our
ancestors, time after time, were basically the same, that the history is therefore common to all
humanity, and that the responsibility rests, therefore, with the whole of humanity to save his fragile
heritage and continue to the transmit, Coute that Coute, to future generations. The memory of
humanity is lost when no writing was unable the fix or when, during a troubled period, a period of
darkness, it was deliberately tried to erase it. The best link between all of these sites and extraordinary
monuments being their classification at the World Heritage of UNESCO, these monuments and natural
sites contribute, by their very existence and the fact of the protection they are the subject, to make the
entire planet the greatest, and the most beautiful of all the museums of the world.


(1) other theories seem to suggest that the term is derived from "helios", greek appellation of the sun,
or even from the old English "heol ", which means "way", due to the fact that this stone is located in the
perspective of the monument. And if stonehenge had a function curative, could it be that "TALON"
either the graphic deformation (the pronunciation is the same) to "heal" which means "cure, heal"?

(2) It is thought that these 56 holes, the "aubrey holes" in the name of the antiquarian who has studied
in the 17th century, that make a meter in diameter approximately, may have content of the poles of
wood, but no rest cannot confirm this hypothesis. This would be the case also for the monument which
comes to be hid under the earth, including the holes have the same dimensions, and which we think, as
we have seen, they were the foundations of wood poles.

(3) a 30 for the main monument.

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