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					Ðep. Coå.                                                                                å5itriHì'
 Thesig                                                                              ,   ¿ïrJI ïO ¿;:
:   1::"t2                                                                           iü     f/lJ(i¡,t

                "gå.T.{t1 trEl   of .{ÊritLIIJif        1l.iÏ¡   3ÀlT¿}$

             s¡åtir SFEtl.eã âjg:,{R;II{t$ Ê*               i'tiil{1TÛ}3.{å"'   rr


               l$êssntÐð         fer tho ilegrßÐ üf
                        Hå,Sil?]f,   *i'     ;rRÌls

                                 a,t ths

                  $rÌrvlrfir'.üg t¡t       &tulfl3Ï$Etå,

             $tsååif$Hit$'3   üF    POÏ,T?IÛ"ô.Î, üü'tlWigg"

             ffånnI.p+g, ;'rprl.[      L9,      LgZtÍ   ,

                AL-*ko-.un-        , 5,

                                                            ÌH[               0r HILlllÏ0BA
-'o¿G,       "/ úfu**", á"n*/ -4r-.*
                 &r, ¿t
                        u ä' 2¿*.*:¿'h':
                                                   Giia-:ier    i.
                                Ilii'ÍIP'.?.:r;?,1TI0lf Otr   ;t TliilÐ3.r0Ï IÌT ÌÌTSt'C?'Ï.

                                             L. .Sif:iTllíG   fiü    rl,'ú3i-jtl0ll$ .

          .'t?he lary of   ,T;rp-l-a¡:d.
                           EílALand,       is f.n aeeord vitir cosrûol1 gense; s,eccrcLíng to tl:at
                                           Ís ln               cosr                                                    las¡'

 Ianå ig nob'bh.e grbject of abeolute propert/..".T[ê (agy r:aa] can only irold. an
 estaie i¡ tÌlon {the lønds}, and tl:at eetate he holds onlt¡ u¡der the Crosn as rep-
 resentatlire of the Coumurnity." t¡r:¿gp Ot0onnorn in his separate report" in $he
 Fi¡aL Reporb of the          Ro¡ra1 Co'nsnissio¡r on          Taxatlon of          L90Ì).      Quoti¡¡g   [I] thist
 profeesor l{istrolso¡ g!çetehee th.e bistor;r of r*iaÍ ñe'ÞaLts tlre '¡}enatton¡,llra,tion

 of the ï, and ðraws the folloøingi coitelusion.                           By the be6inning         of ti:e    1S'bh

 cenÈury gre Crown, as Erepreeonting the ¡:ationrt, ha'd                                 loet praci;1ca}ly all clai:zi to
 rovenrle from lrlsnd beLon6ing Èo the naÈionf! and, gneh lancl hed. been ptraeecl on the
 ea,lne   footing as other forn of             Ðso¿:ertirofr

          Hlg llne of g.rguse¡rt           ls as follosrsl
          Sources   of   revemles from land. perbainLi:g                  to the Crown were of            tero irindgg

 {a} frorn demeenee belonging to                 bhe K3:ng,,

 (bl from ferrd.a,l lands to the Croscl,,es                        representlng the         nation.       Suc-

 eeggive kfu:gs kept on alleaating lanris ard. renemrea inspíte                                 of   reErÉ¡aÈed'   protests

 by parlia¿rent. Àt lasto 11o thore was Eo little left of þoth lcinds
 of   land.s and. revermes        tirat Parlianent h^ad the Kir:g surrentler his rlghtg 1n es-
 chaage   sf certaln axclse iluties (16?¿) , Brohibited. fr,tture a1Íeru,tions" and ree-
 ognized-" ty parlia.noentary acts (L?OU ) o the de jure ornrersi:ip o:r fornerly alienated
 la¡rcls to thelr h.old.ers at the tiae.

 (Iç:'J. S. .SicholEo¡¡¡ Betee anú [areg ag Affectiry Á,gTiculture" 1905; !* 57.
 úo'åo profess-çr Slchotaoa justlce lt ry¡¡st be mentlog$.luat he regards the theory
 of, nationel osnerahfp wlth great resefçe" sa¡ringl: 1f 'thq¡¡¡tonäL 'oiundrshiB of
1a.nð syer existed. (exeeBt as a convenlent legal fÍetíon).'p. 59.
                                                   - 2"-
'         fhere are tvo questions lnvotve¿ ílr the vholo    aatter¡ (ai ¡f¿ the lend. ever be-
    Iong ** tho ¡ratioa ç¡ho supp(iegd.l$ entrusterl. ít to the ï1ng ae its ùrustee? (b)
    tSrat 3rnrliament tire rightlto rio*tly d.eclare the le¡rd. de¡latior:aLiaed.? ìîe iee,ve
    questlone opea for tite preoen*.
         rÎhe land'lord' hord.s la¡d. from the   Crcsm     in fee sÍrnple--ihe ¡earest     aBproacb    to
    absolute ow:rership ivlilch the Lat¡ reeognizes-or3 an lmBlied. condlltion fi:,at be          gfvee


    gerviee in retufll.r Thls aBBears tc be one of the bagie prlaelples
                                                                                       upon whÍeb   the          :

    Lj'beral land' CorrmÍttee of En6land. builde i+s        reeorryrend.ations   of ¡ationalizatfon of
    land fui tha'c cor:¡try (¿).

         ?T"Jhat seer¡s
                   perfectly eLear lg that all tbo la.nd. cf all manors vas the abaohrte                         :

Broport;r onl;' sg ùhe crorrn. 8!re Crorsn, stood. for the shole nation, Lorde of manorg                         :

froe tiref.r tenant laborers v¡lrsse reat was paidtin il:.e fora of labor oa thb¿esae
                                                                                         .:                          I

          rPersonal eeagecl to be    tuqoit"e.       Bat the principle of ¡rational servlce
as the     paJr¡aent   f,or the use of Land rras ne?er ebaRdoned.n         tg)                                       :

                                                               $lestfon uast be   aA                             I

Ïand'    of   F$gla.nd.? Professor Ïlieh.oleo:r eonelud.ed.    that eïeb lrìnd     haë been p3.aeed oa

the      footlng *" oih*" fssE of property. fhe E. R. of the L. L, C. c].aimpr thåt
       ea&e                                                                                                          '

the prlnclpte of natÍonat eervice as the peyflenÈ for the use of land. was Belrer


        S!'nce the ansser    to the   geeo¿d questlan      lE ln ore nay d.eBead-ing
                                                                               answer  upon the                      i
to the first,¡ ure have to aneøer to Èhe flrst questlon firet. Eowerer" the stüdent                                  i

tPì [fre La¡nl end' the Sation¡ Bural Bepofr of the Libera]. Ie,nð CorEftteeo               LgEg-Zã.   p. Ag4
{5} fan¿ and. }Iation, B.POO.
                                                           - a.-

 of general hlstorT,             being, 1n      tiris   c6¡s€, i¿evltably f,orced"      'o     gÐ'oacs    to the earllest
eentr¡rieg of 'E:rglfsb hietory", faces two schools: (a) the GernranÍste basÍng
their theorles u¡on the scaniy k:torr:ledge of r&at was tìre sssis-political a.nd
eeononlea3. organÍøation sf the ]¡"s.ny GeruranÍc trlbeso eollectivelr. calle<l Saxonu,

lrefore tiroy Left ttueiv own shores; {b} the Rouanlets baqlng thelr thearÍ.es upon
the scantj¡           know:leclg,e   of qha,t s¡rstJre result of         Rosan ir:fLuenee upon.      the socio-
politfcat        and economical organizatlon                of the Srltigh        Ce1ts.

      [tre srlter of these línes                  tried to find, an &ar¡yíer in the r¡orks of Ðr"                 IÞ,u].

lliaogratloff (41 as the lategt ai:thoríty                    hrorvn     to   hlmn and. over whose       historlcal
stìrdies dltt not brood the oleession of race, s,s he Ís neither a çerrlenÞ nor a
Eþeneh$Þr¡o and who had. ¡rot.             to   d.eeid.e iljjon    the   peð1.gree   of tb.e EnglÍsh" sinee he
hl-mgel.f   is    a Rï.ssiaa sa''rant reeogníeed a,s an authoríty                    in Erylad.    Qn earLy

Ertglisl b.Íetory"
     ffirat ls Dr. Tlnogred.offes eonctàlon as to the Roma-n i::fluence a¡d. the
 Theories of the Rcm,nistg? 'rfhe explar:e,tlon uappetl out                           fsr    Ëaul by     lbstel    tl.e

CouLangeø aud,           hls followers      hard3.y     sd.ts the'case of        GauJ. a.ud.   eertalhÌ.y iloes aot'
sutt the case of, Brlå                nflhe theocïf     of 3fr. Seabohmrs earLy book (grglÍsh
ffll.age    .
                Corum¡nlty) seelas       also aae-Elil.ecl å¡r as mrch ae lt starts frm the idea of
a complete        e,nd    unique organlaatíon           of the Bøa¿ viIla, rçhich is             mÐ.de   to repeat ltself
thiough the               ;
                      a,geo   like                             tt
                              Iike the 'th,exago:râ,1 cellsnof the beehiver[                 As a'whole" anô to
put lt shortly, the mral                 arraageæerrts      of tbo Borna¡ perloð        seetrD    to have been
to a great estent detemfned. by teltle                      acteeed.entÐ. Bhey were ¡ruch Lees alsolute
antl indÍvldrlallstle than the foæ-lae of Rona¡r la¡r.wouIô lead. one                              to    sutrrpose,   ed. eover          of the ertenglve Lorilshlpe¡ of genstorta]. maguatee, and of eentral

t4l lr.     PauI Etnogradoff:             Tftlalnge 1n Englandr'I89â.
                                          Íhe er@th of the lúanor, 1905.
                                          Evgltsh Seclety 1a the Etreventh Century, L908.
                                             - lt-
cities, a crop of ?ernåcu1',ar;oeeuliarltleg srrl sorïn€ruatístic practices câ.irte ìrp
whlch prepared- tire gfounå fos the       coiaf.n-6;   Ín of   neu bs,rbarian"r'
                                                                                i5)r (6)
        Lecli:.cÍ:rg [66 pages of terb s¡nd.:rotes] the Ronan inf,luenee to ç¡hs,t li; geems

 to be s¡orth hielorical};ro Ðr. Bíu.o6failoff leaveg thls eonclusive inpresuion upon
 the r¡Íuð of the urriter. llre influe$ce Eras strongest 1n Kent, v|z, alor:g ite
             eoast¡.ne:rü Lt d.o¡ni¡rated. the Saxou Shore; although lt formed. a net all over
 the cor¡-utry, 1t wås weâJçer as it aðvaaced. c'restsard. an1 nor*thrzard,u eopeclali.y fa
 rutoil, life snd. mral econo$t¡r itith the ¡ecaIl of the Ror¡e,n fûre'.--r fson Brltaia
 the coustry ua,s jrrøt as 0eLtic as 1t hsd e'ner been¡ 1n epeeeh, in $l6httrg vlgor,
 in rueal soeio-Bolitlcal aad, eso¡romieel sr€å,aiøaiion*vlth in Eento
 anel the t$a.anal soast generallg. TÍí]reêTer, tbe Sritisb CeL'bs contrfbute i¡Ìrelr bit

to the snashlng off the Borsa.n @rÍre åI,BsopríeÈing sone C"a11o-Rona:r ,åistrLcte anil
wipí::g out tirere Bomc¿ speech a¡id Bman lnstftu.*iors. In conclueion raa nay say that
 if the *Sa¡Eo¡ln i:rvaèerE aad. eonquerors, sâIile uader a$y Ínf1'r:enee aÈ all. on Sritish
seiL, thet lnf,luencê   saË 0e1tíe.and. not LwBn.

t5) In a note, IÍ" ?l.nograùofft speåkìng of Ðe Soulanges, req¡-rlcs3 nPhe ce].ebrated
Þench eeçâot (ttaltclseè by V. ) d.Érested hts S.¡slous one3.aught agalnst the atterapts
of gertnã-Eiiolars to vÍnûfsate a vtl.lage c@urity introdrreed lnto mecLlaesaL
É\rope by the Seutonie lnvasion;.bat he wor¡Ld. haye eertaÍn1y resented. even more the
notlo:r thst village comra¡¡rltles were lÍvirg or forming thefiselreg r¡ Rom¿n rule.
 He was cLear 1n hls mlnð about the orf.giz of all proper$¡r ln lard. fronr prlvate
ownerehip.   n

(gl [t!e quotatlons   e,re   from¡ flbe   Growth       of t]re trÍanor ?.   Bts-9?i tb,e note   is or p. I14.
                             .            :1. ?li:ì .'i:ìilii-.i;r;illl lí.;.: .Ìi .i?

        :fter ee;rturiea cr'lriracyu tÌ:o flrst 3.endln6 of Jutes o:l sail ríth a
vicç of co:rc¡aest èooh ptaeo in 4-4t, Ì:ut tire cexitleie conrlueut cf ïer¡t '.+rs offcctr:atcû,
trl.'bh tire 3a11 nf l,]EnÆ å.:r 4?fi' Ii ti:us tooìr a qr¡¿:,rèer sf a cen'ü::s; io ffåb<}..ire' 'biria

So :.1* eosnsr cf 3rf,taL,.r.

        fs. 4?? ålre Íavasieäe .st tÌ;le S" -#. a¡:å il. f*r.n Eeet be6an; 'chet uâs tbe sÈart cf
ftseeæ auå ãgsex ieopectfveS.y"                    In 495' ti;.e ':TeÐt $a€frnÉ .u?e$t irp ii:o Soulll:e¡Ë¡tono                  and.

i*.   5?? thøy     æea,*bor3.    tire $öqåfi F,åver* ifl:lået tire               Sexone        tiùï€   cÕ$r¿uÊr5ru3   tÌre   SouÉh

erxû î;îldd,Í.s   of 3rfÈaÌa        Êhe Sagtes Fesë €orsque:r' åhe                  þEt    and.   lTorth up Èo the teref,-
tcæy   of tirs ?fct.s. îhns lt took a centusy to                              conErr:r :ingLe,ï:d. {not inci,l*ålee ;ïeleø}

after    K.esJti h,ràd.   beøg conEuered."

       &lrinE all,         ol.LoËaeËes .fes cl.rcu=såssces                thÐt ha* façoreð tl.e Bs'âÈo:rsr               fsr    i$sta:rse
tlie rvfld:Ìeee af tle           3+*Êo ;;# rtq¡s¡t adrsgf ùheå Èhey were qieite vf,€Ð46ï1ê flgbÈers Éeu

:re renembæ that ai; the              ea¡ae   t*-.,e åhe¡ hed.       tr       f-i¿*rÈ egaånsè 31+ts Èa          tþe ll+råìru $ct¡ts
Ès È?re '.;eet" e;l{ tcrcy co*c-uoeeel Êhe BeËtD$Jf lyl                         C.s"13.   to   åhe Ëc'uth jusÈ    *o    tiroræ+;Sly

øa    'EeT Èsrs çrs¡quereð           i¡: Erftafn Þ;¡ tbe fscltûnso
       ïn våæ of ell Êh!s,                we effmÐÈ teise the             æro¡rfg of           tael.åu,u,,o$ åü&.&¡. Ðc,      sgl
apFtrI   1t to the Jutes f¡t ltesÈ at               5$$     ¿"5.     ''ilie
                                                                              ær¡r¿ot Lools q¡+n vlbi¡agø aÉ ses, LåEa

Eengf.*t .anü lforEs         ås.1¿ã)or?   the Slalil.or,rs.rx of their Èrfbes sg t:ìe lar:do lfre vlklng                            eae

noô tlre chs:iae          oi hle   ¡¡gð!¡ìe,,   tr¡t   Þ€   sr¡cT€ft¡rÀded,     hl"sself by nen of his           eu¡s   eboise. tr
leæd,, l..s eaee      cf rr:s" tlw        bosÈ bsee       ln 'tts organløeÈio$ tlre eÈ]urfcel a6::.+ÈÍc and
tesrf.tælel stäEp of na:rqser                   end,   eidar Einshlp            end,   of êhð 'b¡arh*¡ the ?lh{ngrs ss*
eslveø    fif#:t              tribø. bat ühet ts llkety hos feùr È:':eår bloo# enù
                    beLsns: ùo èîre sÊEÊ

ter:elterôel ttec,*U* Tbe çea le a roe,raft€ trllsce, fbe eËror6¡ær på:retaa *rå_rbt
forge nanqrrl*heû          angs    lntr   $¡ì]ssd.!natio.e3 vo!,rrgteuy oe ecmpulsoq¡r+ $rl land tbe peoBÏa
arr¡ Þósu Èoto a sI¡æÈ ant! ¡¡, €$&rk'r* thøg defonô tlrø terrf.tory' of ÈÏre village trlteg
tbe viking$,        f,lrst Þiratesr €rasrt pLnnd.ererr$, slave traBpere, ednestìÌsers l$ts

uaknowrx f&g{tr¡-ü:? *ù lat}' Þcaçs6d to loek fm ssovebLe trooty alorer but' Isohed ui¡as
   $osseesio:r       sf   le*'id. cnd. ¡reo;ilê,:;tsr bh€ :losÈ        ¡¡ttr:,ctive al'l.i? {?} ¡cr.fhl'c,e                 ceat=;¡'icg
   rli-d.   Ìion¡;lsts åird Ð+r3,:a Íaìl¿l.gc tlre 3rÍ';1s3r co$cts 3ärl ,.:¡cre be+,îen off b;r tl¡e                            Ìo¡nen*s"

   å poL1åicaL       a-u.rl   eccnoÍ¡i.cel cod,e       of justice ¡:utt           i:.¿ire teveloped,         esteciÍålLí es io ti:e
   åistFibrrtlon ,:f Ìrcacrg i::. r¡aa a:d. ':.l'roty sfter ';:ere                         ?tjr:e ¡iraed¡èerfs       i¡oriti=i\ lct
   us esll 1t" Ïe thet ílterval tÌie;r                      :meså    iie:re learn,:d 'oir¿i         Sritai'l     ç¡as çorbit 'rvl'¡.lle
   possessfulg, noÈ nelel;; .as s sr)rls'se of, booÈy ålld ulaveso                                îat    ¡lasaes€tfag Þoth     tìre   peopÌ.o

  m.d. Éheir la,nd,,: Zt:.a{T rvhera Ëe¡et rc¡s si laet ûbef.rsu a eûs(j-d.û-red, pxo;;;orb;/ of Èlie ÍIeryåste
  and' IÏoraaç a¡xd' clat of tb.ofr tri'beeo the¡i eSroved, thecrselves Ëa be nefth*r $ean<ltnevia.¡r

   nlkfuqgs a¡¡r Èorgnn f:qlee:=*å€re5. ürey eø*quered,                      a   !and. :-oe Èh.elr eLd:rsn cron€æt'oiìs" arid.
   ebtl8:*gn" f$¡e l:oetg cf               tSre ÌI+rse:ns3l ãÈÍe ,c$lïqïeged by                  the    eo*t¿uered, Frer¡ah    Ín   Ser:nand;

  Jn*t      aø the   h.oæÈs     of    Ëhe Frc,niss had :?ee^r Éo&qte*:rad b¡r               the    coaqnered. geL€-:l+*nË        ifl
  Fr:a¡Èe¡r3s$d.. ffië irogËs              ef tho    .Sr¡'r;oe   cal!.o,3   fa¡th nêves of              !:a*å¿.ratie:r f,Eoi.r-ûirelE
  Èeila'l     Srones   to   t3:.e 'l+eanåeed.     3&xr1,* E!r&e 1e 'bhe Ðbl¡r e:¡;l,anat,'i<i* poseåb3e t'oe Èjie
  naå:ater:å$ee      ef tbe GesÉê:1ie rtri*.}ects i:: Bsltaln                    .g$"3.   eitscrbtiocÌ sf- tho        qelts.      Tn sar
  the;r uere      sÉìt'&,.ges   ead. f,n    ti:aås   gd-y'a;:ca    al,} tåy:,,t '.vas teLtåe eyyJ. el,L ef ãûneu re3.!e
  ri'ae ¿::tlhi.IaÈoê     b*3¡ and         sorrS.g b:¿È   shen Èhe ernelty             of   &1e    ver *:h*ted tb.*rc sei           thBêe
  etÐcìle     of peoptree iihe          .Tuû€ tre{jaê.r€EsE         tire Se}bic cçntç+reåg anâ '¿Ìra irÍ,buÈar¡r naitr&"
  çf olrlt¡ &fkely        Èbe    t+oit a3.Xfes'of the rleg. sû:rquæoys*                      '

            fÏre cr*qfnSe æ:d t-bel.s follo,sereo ef.iher i:rd.lvåd,ustrL¡ or es e bcilp* sese noÈ boen
  íntlo s gf,ve* esÊ sf eecncnfcal. a$d po}{Ëtreel^.i                        co::Ê.f,t1o¡re eoa¡:eeted. the ccnqtrorod
  terri.toæy" no? serë tlrEls teå,]:ea aod. trlÞs,I f.nståtntfane d.lsecÈ3g f-netrnrÞntei. in tho
  conopest. Ehe circqaere* terrltory bel,orge to the                                efir.qÌ¿erûr irho yewarda             hfs follurersi
   Ehe settleeient ofTåarretand, JuÈlgir ãerrt ayrd thefr eeoc!Ðmis organåaatf$x aere                                            n+t the
  resutt of       ecsnaleie d.evelogrrent tn¿t åf,               BelitÍcal relstiæa                s,nÉ.   Borrers eoncentreted,          ln
  otle a¿ãglÐ Þêasoit           or,   aÈ   Þeet, erm¡nå a fcr'¡ irorw€'rfþl leaâe-rs. {trg                       lancl.   belqeel t+        Ëhe

  so¡3çE{ù.rÊrso Ëlie       Eengists aed Horses ând. thefr *esssnderiteo iËrefr fol.loÎ;ereo tbanos,
  and, the-'sü:tl¡or¡     ffðÈtûî"         ebu:cls" eere gtven land.              to      ceàule "åIro;xithe nobleo, tiËtedl.
 by tho       cqsÀq[€rfs]g ßetqlngil Ëetbês Èhe,n by noble deaeerrtn theee neir ']eÈhel.engÍ.*'øere

 Iraü¡rÐas'of ùbo fad. Þy the groce ôf thê $6¡s¡D.irçB¡s flxe i¡nnf,S¡reats $8y racoÍstlt¡¡te
   n+w æ€qFhor mqÏ lay ot¡å nes k¡s,rksno ma,¡r rev!.ve tï¡e o1È1 nootø¡ br¡t aLl ùhese oldt
( I t¿h'l:"<,á//"-2., "J¿,,., üe/" J¿ru.r/*¿./'t4/,fu-' i / I 8V, Ø1
                                                                     7 nz
 i¡rsì;i'üìå'ålûrlåL for:¿s':ore f,illerr- -.;'ith acid,iti¿r::sL cð:rtüeïti                   ;s r, rcoiü.'b ci jus ¡:rtcrl.aiaråE
 ¡¡¿5.f'!Jr::S,      uith jue fa¡"tf;:s.ieo ?i:e ,llng r¡¿s the T-,or¿L aad. h,c ¡,:evt Ì.*,ri åo ?:"i.s

 Þeoilo s¡:.rl ån hå¡: iies t;re eeni;re r:f ¿r*rity" 93:e patro:r;r"fti!¿al ¡:¿ilcs r:.geçl *n Èo;co-
 3re¡itice,l aonosela:ure i:r lient                .*:u$.   e'iìsÊ'+üní}lag een::rtir.:c       télL ur       tÌ:a;h '3Ì:.e :'nrcå;::cats cfjee,c
 üÌre ¿¡ahÉ,], seft),enent ¡rf            tlie larrJ h;r e.:n,reetfuig terrÈteråal                              lii::3ra¡å
                                                                                                        l].åvåsi+ä .?iti?                               :

 nae3Èirç ivr¿€ thls         fe   å*'b i.:r so¿trar1leÈf.,:r:          síå,h s:r:r eoEictrueåna tb:å tl:e ls;rd. ".;as gl'e.:tc.S.
 to   fiieæ Jaat as v+elI ¡rs 'e o 't&.e clteb.s;ril.eü. tr¡d.lyåê'¿aL eitïrLs *Ìreet3.;,r i>; tbe e'i:::.i-r1:4s or

 lnd.lrE¡etl¡ in ìrin        $*,æe Þ.¡     iris   vaoæ3.s.

 the tÌ:o',4$tË tbaÈ        ffi&.1i ä. elir:r3 llûFråE*, fsÈa             * tel'bt+      çp natÍve fslr3l; *i.å ræey e. 8e3ttc
 a,¡rå ær-il:re ffi{ê v;&õ !* r,ttghà furts a               ;j$,Fi3a   er   æegÈh, ¿¡sr} thue re.ntr          e   es¡¡-:n¡sæ3    er"gu:rÍ,øat!,oa           .

ças     fo?r.Ed.aÈu     vÌree*   ilie    ¡:¡:'J e::rsÍng' seÉ€ sû mzgh aì å'Ee :ieeogeisingl +se                         Lcrd *f Èhe IaBÊ.,                 ì

 tþe css!.*=3er*r*                                                                                                                                              j

       ih*t Srari *l åi:e ¡:c::r¿r,$3.o rågiit tI¿È e¡* ra'ry oelJ, r?jtr.e ¡e*,e.iaåcr!s ècrres*ridltoo,                                                           t,

hs-d. its Bl*ce beside $:.e'ias 3rl:ieda,å+rr* ,*7'1¿:î..irf,"ord, ¡i.*t' juu forÈi$5lls,É Betmeer¡ ä3t¿

$a:zccl chæ-els anå tsire$,e sla'lreg ì:h*r.e                ie e      BXrÏêlg cL*s+        sf p+opte 'iì;'ise ç:¡þo-ve. tc 'ui:e                           :

iforÈherncrss ti:.e il3.itsft cr             irilat*,r!å,              -Sþe¡: Êi:e n+;ç,,1,    Ía   .'- çe= ¡'Or       tì:s   sÊ;se   of   bOAty,

æÞFtuvsd- ãàe           ltÈe hlrn+e}f* lre        ga^ve t?:e     captlse ñ ¿rl.$re in iibe               l-zu-rål,¡r   as n    wosklg                       ì


h¿u3sl'.'.îf" !:orerer"            ?re cepÈ'*red. ::¡ea       ef a settled. agrl.c-,r1;r*a1 ;leo¡Is.*..?Ìe suÈdued. €åt                                     i

                            a¡d wtam                                                                                                                        ::

o¡ree   botlr the        ffel€nesïd left the e"r¡x o$             bls       traèd.   es if ûbt* ç¡ere t¡be taol b¡r r:rh,leh the

¡a+n wcnrl$.      f?an then an          toïl fæ 'iIle €$rh:t¡€rÐp*'{Bt,                 íìueb ceniLittong srere Í,É!ss                isnowr,¡r   to            :

the Saesns on the c*rtånenå".{$} flu¡e i;,la Rew renqiriàFoeu' ehicit ser@                                             ËÌie lord.e     of tho le.Ed.,
ef' lhe ectusi- a.;nl"mrltrer"al Isåê as F¡eLl s.s of ttre                            eoru¿tg-J¡' Eis   a sbo}e* redue¿sl the tolts
ariÊithç ¡:¡rtf.v!.- to      l.lte.'o the foete fesrã a çea;r î¡rtesesÈlsg i.ta¡¡ ås tbås sæial                                         *man5e-
'a$[*'o:ead,* aI.å]r*u6þ $sntian€' onf¡r l.a a cotrplo of, enacÈ preseat aeïeral tzell

(gl  S€*Âtach+'Søtt€nflï]shõchùe L                p.   1S8.
{igl ¡tS.¿ÊB Fo IS9*
           esi¿¿'slisirc'3 -lr¡-1i;so,.,:lb.e 3ÌEræ -.:sð aipi-.Iie.å'co t:-:o,j-':rrcei:d¿at8 ,.ti cc:r.-rlerÉçl ùribgs rjl:lcll

           retaíred ]ers:lna3'
                                    'fese¿h= ':*t'ì- ¿s¡tsl¡ i=i}¿1, rÍ'=rûou i-t¿t:e:,e
                                                                                               re,3r.ieed, *o tbe
          .ðf s:f -brÍ,butn;,.7
                                i.ic;;ea-,J,c*,;s cf tþà
                                                         rû¡¡ílìf,iìïo=,sro Son=e of .bl:en -tæ.::
                                                                                                                          b.avecsro Írsî1 ovcF iite
          see t13tJ: tÞe fr*ryæt: ?'al' eål:eila¡s,
                                                                           *a'a* :ve h:-r,ç.e   sleo       açå¡r.cætr).-co r.ooi:
         ff:rå                                                                                                                       tc      åh&t claeg tg
                  åhe griaae       of tirc      rtrn::¿:::Ès   of ti:c laaa::o_CeltÍc *::o¿ru.L,:t.ian of
                 ¿.r .r¡¿À:i'
                 ?r, *1".!o     eæ.:*eCti.*¿ ^,,i:r       ,s3i'.3'
                                                             jìr,!:åÌ.;: er:6gest ?;lr+È
                                                                                         i,:r üe,,t, espeefeåi;r åg                                ÈhC
         æÊrÍ't{$g     is'rt'    Làcra beÍ-:lra 3eå$e::çs tfae ,ftirose
                                                                           who                        h;-d.   crosscd oyer f"$n ¡ergåi:¡r
         eãbe    of   boo'û'y sed vr'3*'ag
                                                                                                                                                    fcr    {:i:e
                                                                      var beåa6: v*ffi                  è!re;r s,ssafaerj. thore. a¡rd;
         e'¡¿l'ÈåraÈe Èi:e Ssrc¿er*{å}}
                                                                                                                                        begun        to    .,

                                        a:rct                             i;re               Lnfåi¡eaee h:¡d. }een
                                                                                   'c¡¡*n                           }oscíT;};,::;ì:e eèeuu*est
         Ífl spûtaf*"      È,16    f:/cl;r or5:eåaurêi,fjx .=u"=.ä                 Í:a,;e¡ Ì;ee,,r a.**1o!rÍag ae
                                                                                                                  a f.eelior r.¡: eeo:r,hÍe
      orile;er:*+'io¡: bef'oæ 'ii':e ca+r5::3
                                                             sf *heitðÈee"                  ,m:e
                                                                                                   sfrea          rou*rf; g'el;r _r._;;;_;-*ru*
      see 'l?Pen*'Ís r1 mst Þe't'e
                                                      bee-:¡ å?r'e ,2rer:ioxrin:inÉ          faæ ee Ê'üíier to
     ähe Jì¡Êå'h cn*-quesÈ s-rx-e3';i
                                                                                                                          i..zrtfvf,d+.*ì.   pæ,rp..o,"t
                                      l:t:iieeed '+he pe+eees                                 f$ È3ret åfreet3,o¡¡ e.rir: .se çÊ*?¡?Ðù c:-pe,:r.
     ti:e   cc:l';-¿eger"¿      a*'stjsg   t+ lr:¡'r     for'r-lert 3r:rge ccryu,eåed
  'åææl'                                                                              ee¡rlree                    cr to   Srere ;:resc;:ueé an;
                  atss¡23'a':-3'll'n' rlh* +o:iiì-Jê!,rne
                                                          æ:sÉ ?:¡lrc i¡ee=                                   differeäti i:t sÈher parte
   êhe reî*,,'ãrÈÈf*s ?¡ed'                                                                                                                        ç&eee
                                   .::*eed -:*eer'¡            *niv eu*e'f:'cÍ*r ar ef                     * *r** ;*;";J"-                     eÞe rëËrs_
                    I'ess *;:''aclf?q, '';e Èì:e Secat
                                                           èså:bar. ornçaniaatiisÞ- +tr
 æ*pbe sn'3¿'ri;"*ted Þ;i *iree'tter-¡:s'ünr
                                                                                         tls ccnque'.u¿., utgu'
                                                   cf ti:e &gtcrg fai',lrå$€:'t::o ¡rretlæ,¡rce
 &Êdd ån Ëe*È c;.'d 'åhås l¿
                                                                                                     of ganer
                                 ;u:tr eåusf¡rg e¡:srssn¡ro to r:o
                                                                      earrler f*n r.enä then in o*rer
 p'rrtr *f 3¡€[and* rrÞert
                              æ¡ell¡ orgsnÍ*at{on ae:celg ter*s a¡"rd. ¡:e"¿!,¿ee,
                                                                                        ttfreS¡¡ façæ,ed ùheåE
 *         rf':rrnasãùÈton eed' *,ot                  ef Èhe$,r' år*,r,o-$*a&fi             eo.*q'åee   ars, (tz)
            sf   vhaÊ we hr-ve saf,d *bæÊ
                                          tire toaqueeè
Bg ç@            -:i:;":ï:i:::ï                                                       of    Srrtæågl    fu tire .*rteg ar:d, ;lrig¡t+rîcsrà¡s

                                                                                                                                        fæ¿s      fo;
{ro¡ ihø ßrowtÌr of, tbe t.î&srÊr" Þ, lÊ4
f l-r,
ttz/l Ør¿¿ ,t¿Jr¿:/Getlte ,¡ie tsli. 5; ;ä"
                                                        -   t-

 of the ;ri]ollle ¡l::d. ';i:e is:ld "ù.¡oil ':¡ì:åch tho        ¡eop1s 1å?¿r1" ?h&s ',ri+s the resì         of    eæ¡trråes
 of pir+cy     'r.;egoro   iÌle   'jaåe-.{n61o*Ja:<Ðr1. isosr{irÀesÈ e¡nd o'1 alre cê:l'ûìts;¡ a¡:el c::e r¿:j,a:.î{sr   rf   ß

ee.rriiæ;r   of   conlrreü'b"

       Í:i   Èile LÍ,1ht of, übås       inierçrct.:'.ti'::l sf the :i::gtc+ìcsoi:        to$r{Tfeet   of Srftaj-a ihe
'þroteetien       th.ecryer   cf tlie   ryrlnm$Ístse aeß+rrltng ùa -sirÍc.b tlra fs¡et?t Ësr             d.e51ved.     cf åts      .:

ån   erperr3enco b¿l 'ch.oee       offeeång pr*teeilo:r          to 1t"        tir*   *errgtor¡F theûr;rrt   of tire
?.stsnl.sts i:¡ ebteh råe pco?Ie cfranged 8Ìre susÈom&r-v holdlng: ielto a 'tråshÈ';t tht:s tgrfeLw;c*
im€ r¿:ro¿ the efgþts   cf ihe g.'aneg* af tlls 1,"*.n* troeee ån Èhe o5rf.:zi+:: *f tl:.e nriter" Èlre
ei6'riif3e,ance ag*råÞe* ^!* the,n as peLç:a¡ir eÊr:s€s of t!'ie ;a*nr:riaa'6iså, of tþe 3..s]:rrl- l:ei'aee

tl.e liegrsur Soru3rreoÈ. Thåg eo¡rçL'¡rsåcn le atreragÈÌrer$t wi:e.ï irç *CI*a1rlsF sttLl feeti:ær                                 ,

t?re aÈ:r¿gg3.e fsr sìÐÌFseÐ?F*sy* tÌte Senish.¿eic,ir *"nd ,Xcnc;ue*t"

{3.íl} fec-#}ese: ,ïngLlsìl Soet+ty            i-'¡¡   3Leçsnth ûenft¡r;¡ ÞIrt* 3**9So
                                     ,t?Pl:lII-rTi I   a t:tIIü Cìll-ïII    i-l'iT{'jlj-j
           Ïn oi:r ea'bteii:pt to find. at ar:.suer to the flrai c;-i:.eoülonn viz, ,s,bort-blr.e trustee-
   siìll: ovor ¡,ei;:iolrÐ.l Land- ç't'-rtershiÞ invested. in the Kisg, va h.a?-e the¡ to ecnsÍ the
    Celtic ov.gtnizaÍvice in tìris respect as a poosiirle Íaftuencing facrlor {l)o By crÍElo.
  -!ro¡:erf,.,¡ of a clen -:rG orÀjht ::o'i; ùù i:¡¡åtantj. tìlai tho clan as s, r¡hole eitjrer throrzgh
  its 'rheadll or ' cLairoed tlfe 1¿ed ¿rg its d.oriì¿,ia either tor e cLan-vid.e eûjrutoil
  i:ueba;:d'ryu a kÍnð of economlc st¿ie-ecllecltivfsún or as o, eoqllex' of parceÌ-Ied. eatates,
  lots being let'bo í:laiviår.,ia1an iIa:rilies" or largcr collec'¿izities. Tþ,,e glan¡ nas e,n
  ethno6:'apìric r:¡Íi| ard it irad. clalns uÞo:1 a i'¡et1¿åefi::ed. terriiorial
 'lire n}r-¡.s!' tto a, La1;in 'cer:n) of tae clan grante¡j. ao lanrl sí¡ce jie ha¿ none, but his
 osffr d.u€ shåre , to gtent. i{e ;oossibl;' had. the ¡iriviJ.ege of geaatin9 or reflectíag clan
 T?P:"".lip;b?.Ied. tho cLan, but dldi¿ot econo¡a.ieall7 husbâ^nd- i.i;g ierritor! hl--,oetf, nor
 ctld' Ï¿e farin ii sfla.ïi Ìre eertalnly elained dues ae tìre ,rheed.n of the c1an, but not as
 'che }ord.-owrer of, 'bire laad..
          ffire rprineepsrt or th.e head. of a ilc,inuwúil trae to his divlsion of the êlan what the
 sltr.E? rvas to the whole cian
                                         and. represented. him 3.oeall;; he r:iiglrt regulate clalng as to
 La::d'r 'but not as tire lorû-ûnqner or lord-faurner of the lend. of ttte cymwa. Å sertal.n,
proportion of tire la¡rd. 'tvaa resesved. for hie ory:r cr:.1iÍr¡atior:r snd to it rzas restrieted.
hls economic rlgÍrt ancl. Lordship. He established.u Ín ccu¡rcil ïdth ¡ìnsmen ar¡d. ki:zel,¡ou,e$e
the r15ht of kfad'red a¡¡d. eonseclirently the rlght io a sha::e i:r tl1e lancL of the kir¡drod,
br-rt the k1lruhipts lard. s¡ag not on elry nanor Like ee¡r-i;rç, anö he v¡¿s no lorcl"
fhe c"prrd. s¡as an aårtÉistra'uive d.lvfsiorr, not alc eco¡rorr¡j.s .u$Èå.
         [t¡e trev or **LLa6a q/as not merely a cltiater of housee, a hamJ.eÈ or vl].]age, ond.
outLanù$ belongi:rg to a Lord-€nãlrler end. femied. by tena,nts or to sin¿çLe householãg eaeh
æi,nd'i:tg its iloi,Ys.'ù }o.rad.; .nor ïr&s it a nrrrnber of, irusband.ries í*clepend.ent of or depead.-
in6 upon garïe ElsrÀorial eor:rtg &xrd spread. over tÌ:.e eou-n'cries aror:¡lð. lhe trev,tyas
tores0nâ,1Íeticall;'ma:reå'ed. Lanê. r::rit, the jofn't properby of its ir:habite,ats in the gavel.
frev oe the Ís.heri'¿ed or aLlotted. propert;ø rvhere ttre nen traced flleir ùeseendence by
fatherre Lå¡re foüe to slx generatÍng of a gvretrif¡ &tr agne;tie lcinship back to a eor'*on
         In the €avel iirev the lend. pertain{ng to the village'nas divióed in equal shsres
ailÐi3g tb.e frrFe,
È-v€                        -iãaabtta;tts v3 the trev, Írrespecilvel;" {}J. ge:nealogical
                             ,4sv+owue       of sut; usqtvr. ¿¿-¿vÌJjJtíçu¿Us.r,J of g9.fieeÈI0.g1ÛA¿ Sros1tåon;
so are the tlutieg ineunbenÍ; ì:tr)o.n the Land.. 'lhe enor'¿t of layul heirj. i:;, ã shere-'
holcier should ale.o ena,båe hln te get a sufflcåent. f-ivln6 frsm ít, accord.iqg to. hls
        jPte¡d"{+ø, If therë, F¡as nc, rocfr to satfaf;r tire requtreneniffiflE-iirrr¡l tË
Ë'õFfrãfronffif-'Ëef a ¡ecessltated. red-ivisio.n, new iand. had.1ã ¡ã
new colony hail to be off.                                "*"rã¡*u¿r.-ã"""l}uy *
      In the gstely trev.evsry roale head. of a hoasehoLd. as ar. oligi:ra.tor of a grrely got
a eh¿re on e@or           ug wåth the oiber heads of hls generationf IJis gons lãherited.
and shared equel,ly in the Land. ell,otted. to theír father¡ Read,Justnents by reclivlslons
and' ertenslons toôlc Blace uraalLy æotx€ the seeond. or third. eou"ging" ¡ut ãften.later,
Sueh geneologieal aûaptations ¡lsturally were lese equalizÍng th-an Ín fire gavel trov:g
but they hopt the agrratic organlzatlon of the gwely and. trev nore stable. Ifow, thiá
Fely lras nc Patrlarehater 1t had. no ehlef f.n ownershlp" The trev äas the områ¡ of
the Iand.; the ryely wae the tecìrnlcal mea.ns of its d.istrÍbutioa; the slngle iror¡sehold.
vras an econonie r¡¡,lt on fts osn share of ta.nå 1n arable o1 â Go-partuer ln pastrrral
husbenúrJr. Â eould-r¡¡rler certain conditfons clai¡o le¡rd- outsld.elthe aguatlc
     It f.a i:aXrortant to renark that the gavel treç wag r,ore saåtable for a nlxed.
populatioa of nativl-once co-nquered by
                                           _the Ce1ts--a-rìd. Ce1ts. It fi¡rther allowed. easy
(II In the folLcmai¡g      eEtr¡oslüloa r*9ê wae aade         chíefþ   of   ;    nfbe Grov¡ilr of the   1,lanors'
Ch. î part I.
                                   '    - l/   -
 &,ccess to land to such as fos soiire cai.lse or other, lost iheir relationsbi;l io arqr
k1nshiil" ìiut atlll pertaini-rag: to the õIan et large. 3'or ob'¡ioug reâsons, ihe
 J.arger r¡:rrberg of inlabiiantg sf the ga.vel trevs tzere natlvÍ, Houever, there were
gtrely trevs of ¡¿tlni as well and oiirerg of Celts. fllis brirys us to the question
 of econonice.l relr.tiong bêt'i'ê€B tlre trco etoeks of population. ttre ¡urtívi -"rere
nc glavegr:l1tt åescend¿¡ts of a goacjlrered. popr:Iace" and., therefore nad.e tribu-bariee
to the conquerÍ.ng Ctan es s',rho1e¡ Þaj¡ing h1g'Ìrer r3.ues, being egti:i::r-i;ed. aì; lorzer
wergeld'¡ and. fillÍng out the rarrk anrl ff.le of the loi¡er elass of Ce1tg in sar servlces"
À* Iaeè it :nay be re¡narËed. thai the Ce}tic poj¡rrlatio¡r of Britai.:r was not only vertieall.
divl'J.ed. in clans and. gtrelys,but algo stratifiecl horiuontall7, wlihin the clans, Ln
aritocratic gvelys-from whleh the èrrces and pri.r}dggs E'ers bered.itarÍly seleeted.-
freemen¡ unfree and. strangers loolclng for proãection. Slaves in the uauål meaÈ,ing of
tbe word. lvere relatively few. Specfal ¡rerlts csulcl llft any g'üe1tr to aristocratLc
       In conclusfnn rEe w:î gw a few word.e about metbocls in arable. Both in the gavel
and^ gwely tren the corunQr¡alistic property in land. ïlae a centrlpetal. poøer. fhe
reqtrirementgu Borvereg and. Bersoral latereets of ind.ivld.r:aL houeeholders r¡ere centri-
f,ugal povers of varlable'rqtes. ?he Broðuctå":n æ.g, prepond.eratingly cooperatíve pnd.
 thus eupportirg the eeatr$petal conmtlnalisn. Tery often the siøe-oi ilre-sharo in
 the allotted, Land.o consequently ihe fmits of onds;. laboro vas d.eternined. also
aecord'1ng t.o the ehare of perforaance ln auch cooperatiire arable und.ertakíng¡ pro-
vid'Íttg the ploushareo acting as a ploman" contrlbrríiieg oxen" tlriving tlien, ans.o"
Bhls mBst have been especf,ally trt¡-e slthln th.e gvely¡ ánd, tikely 1esã in the gavel
trev. l.fe ¡nay Just1y thlnk tha'c every factor, euch }iÞe trar, ü^.at co¡rtribdeã to
        cluol firbo
!"fo8coa"ration. f;be agnetie orgzur3zation of a 'oríbe saused. also a breaËlng away
from                 A elan, ae e srholeo might asei'îlLste the gf,ssngerü its ge.tes
althou¿h its gwelfes êro Largely sp,rgsbed. as eonstitutÍonel elenerztg. Coaration in
I'TaLes haYe ceased. to a Large estsnt earl¡r
                                                      and" &ceoxll¡.g to Ðr. Slaterçs (â)
suggestion" the iìngti.ah couni¡1es Cor¡ru¡alL and. Devonshlre and those'oorderfng on'r'Iales
oved. thelr early appeera.nce as inclosed,ia Bart at'least,io d.iffer€aees in i¡e agri-
cultr¡ral systen due to an asei-ri!.ation of thelr eondition in this respect to that
BrevallÍng over the bo:rder. Cosfttono udrieh r¡as not practised. in'rirâl,ec, d.fd. not
preval,l in ihose esr¡-ntles and. ttN.ti soæncn rigtits after crop over the varloug strips
ln the arable fi-el.d,s aLso ra,:rl.shed.
t2)   See   Prof. S,C.K. Gowrers   Co¡mEn Ïø;nd, anü   I¿eloqrre   p. l?8.
                                                                      ¿t/_ ,N

                                               t* gg* i           tSiT ,.L tt.:-,t';clrrä ílt:.¡.,:Jtåj:'.

           i:r   5?? i;L:a coaqïec-b          of 3r1i;eån:xr;i 3a {:Ðt:sÍdrsrerJ +,.* a,f:icl,:;-eier1:                   B;¡ i;hej Èfu:le rire
  na-ng    r';1!:4 chiefls of, ilbe tosr.-i&Brf¡?e:     'rïrs redueerT. to süTrrjÐ a,nå eve¡¿ ue*c6 ã;
  the *t:raggÌ.e f':r- ð1rrl?reqla€;, veet ceo an'3 gc we find åe'hi:el+crbt¡ iiiqq,.Ìf äeridu
  ov€rlorù1 æer ne!¿Ír"soel¡€ Ìrj-i:gÈercs vcffer åeilea-í; i 5?.¿ i at ti:e i:*,::r].a ,:f ti:e Teetn*Sffiç/ì+

  be{+re tl:e L:.'.å'Lae ëllapleteü *heiv E}ì.i:rê cf thç: Bcaqucet" Ti:i* iltru¿¡ge for Erulr€¡::i",.lj¡
  kopt +n tÍlL stÍ;r .*þou.'Í tro+ sentr:siee scÌ. çr:e i:+Lf c,fter th.e e+*p1,etig.1 af t?:e ccliq:ieed
  rshes    jgbeeåi       ¿:f iï'ssse: ee.* re+egegad a^s t3:e                     averlord of         e3.L   tirs EEgLtEå. Iå           Ëas
  durft:E     Íhie 'q;ilac ilirlt       Sh.s'irtl*üåt¿r Þacane c-n +::¡;rní.zeù. irtwee L*                         Beiå,*,j¡, ÐÌç'is-ii*nlii;
  s¡¡gå it-':Ys sirrei';'å ,äj}û*-j Èha .iu*es               Í¡ ii$1t      sri'bhæ¿t '*æi'ãlng        for    l11eer: Jestj:¿ã    ¿sl"C, ,S,c,

  *tryætåeera ril.nså*lr {59?}* ,rus þtr tbc,ttrteeeæËse çååå: Èhe                                      ¡ar¿$i'u   +f .ùho conquereú tire
  sBge     uf    Ëhe con;¡u-esör :Baså             þi¿oJÉ Ë,*.   f;h3.*   r+e;leet, '*een eo:*';¡*e:reå. .ïeftirer the **r.rçg,le
  f,Ðr   iiu-gr*:*ûåïr   3]ûi hhe Eiree.d.Ieg           *f   ffrråsÈååãiå*y çertr}.d Ì:eva rerereed .*:,s re3{Ltåo¡r                       sf
  l,a3:d e,rrå toe'å      í:i   $afÈc:ig4 åÞ{/Egk ècÈÞ. +*lrårgb'a"r#* åo tire *åvesee                              sf   iÏ}e riËl#å€eÉfcn

  of draÈ E'e ru[l ealL the rt¡nfiltshü usder o;:e lcråo
          ?Esf,*    iísiê3.eå':d   +e *åvåsi.o$.        sf   ï,=ãtiss' ¡r--Í:"-*te .prc¡e,eå;-        ín     s$!ïtc Ê,eds aeê      lriryvs
 ríËiltÊ fut othr:rs Ìe *Ðü ,1n co¡rtred,f.etion te                             È?:e =aiÍ-rag+s a*]",eoir¿à+ *nrs:.*fshãg        baür fn        Larcd.

 ri:É. Be*p3e æd          t]:e     ¡;g.'e,ctiq,-   a¡x\f sf h-Í¿.iîs, .ïs           tr åethelþcrtrs i$58! effecti.n",; e"n
 exelra.ege trâ !.aryJ æåLh ar¡e              +f bås       w,¡s,   ãI:a*es      *s tæo i¡rÊvate oçÊ:¡3ss'             *Ì:e r¡rf,:ier   ce¡rt
 aeuqrÈ Éhet fos n+r'e ttrrss. lÈs acfürst:."2 woeÈb-. L,&ê Fsalm$,sÈ, ss ti:e Êlqü"o ãavldu did
 nst tF'TrÊ âtrÐir tþt s'ife of lrfe fe"it?f¡¿l                       cold,fer,ft    si:itså the l.etier            ËÊç   sålve¡ Þut        sg!ryt

 hfun    tc e fi¡re cl.c'ath fyr tite frssrt              rr¡Eks"
         Bi,?i: the advee;k          of ãgÞsrbt tç the thror¡e cf, Ê"ressex t$$ël Ë ¡ìes s*s                                 iyr Eråtåsfr
 blstoqy brvala* Ì,n¡ tbe Æa::å& tnçasâocs                                eed,,       îf    Èba    Þdsh        büsÈs, rseleo¡ted, Ês

 they Ë,e$t b;r tì}+ ¡r¡leFs ef tbe ÂJltlesr                        çctr¿d. haye Þeen foSlcrwed b;* E.€lçes                 af   Sanåeb lÍHl$*
 Spatfonr trre goury: *i*Eog &ngfo-$e,rox eÍvl3Ísation of rslteÍ¡r                                           wouIS. hase.Þe€Ë .s'r?asp€Ss                ff.
 neË **mBletel¡" d,esÈro¡re6" a'nd.r lne$€sd. eg an F,ugLand, håsÈory ssrîrld h+ve Þror¡gþt about +

. Ðar,ilg1sd* ås it .-¡&s¡ êFe& Èhe }*ae-law ï16Ê nÐ,hue}e,cdt: the e+n¡¡aerlg6 !â¡re wae uIlnstely
  nssfrûfr.eieû fÌLesh ,*¡rû kosÊ bg the oely qrlÞerf$.efeÏly çonqaereê. Åu6:lee. Eäê rrêsfJr of

:iÍedrlore (B"lf¡ì was only         to          ôefea,t. -.',trat,.'¡¡s the resuLt? llew b'osts åj-s'ireøCerl,
                                                                       gto¿k cf free anii harf free gccm'en
o¡t-l'd. a::'ci nerT partr of the 1¿':rå íirerrtêd al'ra;r to a ¡:eu

in the }anela'¡" There ls s, marked. lifference bet¡,veon south and. vest ;uiglo-sar¡oa ålsirlcts
and. tb.e      easi and north             ô-igtrfcte due to thlg rei¡etitlon of tht¡ conquesfulg
process by a -eray or teruorËþy chaag'ir3€ of rcr¿stere of th.e Land. in a p:rt.of ihe country'(l5)

Et.¡itêT€3,e the relation of lorrl and. land was not revergeå.

            at lagt lanee s,re on the throne of 5oglancl, tho Sorrth a¡d iïest I1tt1e


affecteê exceþt for tbe charge sf Barlg. fhe ¡rerloit of 1042ê1066 can bard'J'y be co¡reíd'ered'
as an¡t'ching: but a tÉansitlon from Danåsh nile to the foreefu-l lTor-aan conqrzeet a-nd. a

of contest bet=¡ee¡. Ðanes anù ilorg¡a¡-s over the do'1p,76ina'tion of lngland'.
     Î,Tow." ð all thls¡ lanlsh perfoô of oser t$o ee¡3turfes,
                                                                       the conúf'tÍon cf tire i;eoples                       l

of   Englanðu $hether Sa:conS, .1-ngLeO, .lùies os Da¡res, trhether thanest chur}øt loots o.'ltee

*. r¡nfree sogrnen, the ecanomlc organizatio¡r anû ÈÌie fi¿lers and thelr favoriteen whether
,Lqto-saxons or            De¡nee   eoryrleteL¡i Sepærated. froru eÍ1'J beca,rae more absolute uestere         of boih

people ancl the la!1ü. that the people îrere                  fill!trg   e,.nd   liirí^ng on.

        1'be peog].e nG|sey *oosaessed            tbe lanð of Brltai.u, they chose thefr magterg on
Brítlgh ssi1. $ir eeÉurfeu qf uarfare þve the people no ti:ne to pond'er over
                                                                                          i;he qnedbloa"

whether they hail aqr rlght elt all to ch-e land. and. eeeepted the coacftåc¡rs
                                                                                     as they. ''iere
                                                        I'tr*rûrr Alfred'?rs day ft was aesumed' tfuIt
bcnn lnto ard. the Ðasters they were rlvlng
¿o   s!¿ì,xl   could"   exlst ç'lthorrt a lorû.rrr        Green   tells us (141o
    rt 1E evlðeut tlrat tbe flgoüguest'r d.iit not. only not reve5ge the order of thlngs
røþro to lorû antt lanitn but, with the change oi the masterso the c:nrehing: land¡Lessneeg
d the people robbeit the fes freems:r tha.t wera l¡¡ft of the Little freedqn they etill
enJoyecl. Ff]Ila,n the conqlreror,by. mthlecs san'agery, rueeeeÔlng' to enforcE
                                                                                hÍS nla'E¡fultr

                      of the Ìr!s&or!r ar¡it           soeiety in-the
                                                            nStne*1sh                       &leventh Centurytt refereggeE
ffih                                               'b11t one sb'oüld' be                    lnilicatenl here: Engr lsh
io infu polnt are too $üne?ous top.    em¡merE¿i;e
Soclety  tn tlte E1euerrüh Gentur3rr      57'
 (lal Sñor-b Elstory of tlre Eu6l'iah Peoplan p' ?6'
e3:i:;: ii)    -.J,.2,:-t'å   tl:+   äc;:j'+$g3-,'tã iirrcr::So h;'.;":*;L                      i*r      l-.i*s+I"g¡::':'; ;:*j:xl      <l¡-:¡:eg:::SEo      T'::tcr

            .,:rc!c¿il   l.isûsl:o.:ij. ii:;.it                          ã{l:,"ì1'f- ii.ü:r.a:flito   3;r:iL'1.;!:ce -:.t?s-e':l ii,Li¡,
                                                                                                                                           " îåg
ce3.3,exl                                                    r,'¡É!::r                                                                                  lËerx-:r:¡r,'s     ti-ç:..û ;LE#i:,;¡Ìø3     )y   bcÍ::33        3lrnÈr:i: ¡iã:.s*;¿i::+n L.*:tf,g ft*. ¡:i;i"våecg                          ¡Ê..l?,i.r,-:3-rr?r.:,;åiÉ.

s.ltr:i ,:3,L+¡J*:*e* ',r;                i;'-e*a!:     oÍ'f*;Ji;¡ r*eui.t'J,i -i:'¿ t'¿x'feåÈ:?Ë*a af                           '¿Le   l*;:1 .;li:t ¡+ 'r"i:e
ì¡c:laflt ef ti:e Í¿iì3,,:¡t ;çi:iel: ,'âë åÌ:gaHT:: {::È* i,':c :e::¡es:. ?l&"il¿i+g i:.r* ir '$i:" Í; ;.i l;:*
e.Ðat$-J¿.Ðã:nd. ;air f,ri'cr: iire i+rå s å::Íri:E rå Èl.c' !.;::i* ïf i::, 1åst*r; äl:;.:.rG ï.;Í¡ .iï,'

r::ågã: o.f :::-i¡ í.r'.i[.',]:'ÈÍJ':¡,:;    l,:1i.1   ,a   råiÈÈ ti:' s¿:;i'î-çet::t ttgst il*-:''                        1,â   llãs   .Bo    å:'] iclil;-¿c'rs']
:EÍ)gût?.-)g! ìie Ou:rl* l:^;Sa;;ff¡rde¿} È+                             dt:;r*'" îet:'¡'i egt,f flêlre                  Eå9 " iovt;;:cå)."              *f
iorð*Tsi*rts*å¿*;]Þiaf rl:s ¡car* h-Ì.,e Èi'-s¡l È!::e '..'å,'l;*ä:9,-le¡oå nl:3eh -irilg g*ãÊeÈ                                             Í,*:l¡+ ';l:e foeee

eg r3+e'ä       i:i:;     1e6r-.3.   i:efr*t36-)

iAãi :þc;: lh*,r3*æ.:gne                 H:brius3 î+:re;: Èi'1i*g;¡ l:¡:dr'*.r hÈ;v iÞ:v',ã:$gi: Iiee}?;t !Èe +o+r¡                           'L'+,:le
Ëi:c i:lri ú:å i:fi :¿t ::*+hn; fl:*;r ge::*cyj'                  ts      i=t::: ';o+ 'åll::3*Tr:'il*e {Se* 3eïf:sei:* iìi.ï*e:.-,r;,,,e+3ri+!rÈeå}
                                                                            _/   r_
''                                            l"    .,'.-l¡-¿ifi T{:.Í}   :i.ì,"rf   i a:¡ j.- :ii-.   iì'j"J.:-'.Ìl-Ilí;*,"

           ::¡'ltir ';ino 'ehd Coaqlrcvûreã *o4tÌr               etarts iho              arcsì} l:rie:-'estirìË c;rg,j)'úer                of Sn3lia!:           TÏiøi;o:ry"

TÌ:e !a::,ag C*sapBear& 8s árï iååejÊ¡¿úonÈ fs,c'.ar l.rr                                    the sì:a,:Íng cf             'Lite'i3ry of'              -,;Ère

'3ire te3Ès          a:d ciãÈÍvl. sad. tiie eütfl.oÍ             ,',¡g3.s-S¿rsoss          ald tiie oth:r el.ersnts                       aeee füsed.            lnto
a:ie ccnt¡ira=fsrl æ,es          b..,=   Èi:e preør"rio        cf t}:e cssr:;r:,ez'ål:g ìiorrecrs. i
                                                                                )eår:g: ìi,rsqLgslg,. ilgðtaÍ                           í;ìriU jtr:Cibi

t{ornancly :;}lpærå f:rü+ ã=g3cã3. csveu                       of    5o::=s$ årrrågr*::"üs r.}a$ ;rot                   of      3r¿rÐ.'ts a:;t1           :;:råffis    amrl

ëlerg3r alusre a atr$ ?fes'aåÌ*ls:d. prsr*d, ii*v.e þeov: 3lscùr:.ced" iicrceres" :rrr                                              ib ie*eo ti:e ål::91ísb
s!:ûri'åil $iremgel:reÉr eapabte              #f efuiaÊt{nt ifûg.iÊ¡3Í} s¡si, .1:}õGtri.r-:s as ft                             irsrrê    ötgeetetl Þr            .   'ir¿i

of     È3le   -*stiaso 'nAe decmno the n+b$.Ï.iÈg ard t3r+ e3.er6r e,st ûntÊrssed. i$ t3:e 9i¡*:Èe erôå
foe ils        ?'.111   Jior¡cs a;ri. eaeh     dne i:: ti¡r:r ofte¿'i È::iee to v¡9s thr.: pi-rî:p{r#                               tf the .,¡res¡-rle'î,
Fhe eÈor; 'e:eve 't,++ 1+*,3 Éo :r+;.*Èie, tæ:.t èì:.e Ees'"rÏ,'t                           ,r*s i:þ:; the           î¿::x3.
                                                                                                                                                          ec.+seil    to
irel*¡i3 'bc ti,e Græut¡ Èo Èf,lL tho                      l^Ead sErJ, 3.fve             cn es3 fræ: åire Laud eeese'J to be c.f s#csgøå*,
     îr;i tÌ:.a tsece of tLo 6rc,eîi?, Þr> oLrl }e¡-.rtr arls"bÐs,r*e;r* fiss'þ f,ougïìt b;r ''13:e f::.doc-e'ú#ß thse
9p-uesetl      b;, ÈÌæ .ïtu*rts 'rers ¿;*e*tL;i re&uoed Þû*b t:: r:r:niieefl, anå .*uåhor$.ty* Ilsirer€.ee s,s'
     cf åtn *,s tISd ee¿reÌ: È3:e åestÐr.=Èion* aorå¡l hsw åÈe ;rle*e oe3;r,br. altroe'Í¡g åùs ÞLa¿d

tlee ts T¡s '¡lr'ûlrcn tiworrgÌr by o eacå*3. eLass j.crser tha¡r iteeS,f u 'hhe elaes #f, er¡uSresn
       el.*se   å¡sSä srãIlelt Èhc$.p         y¿rtr$sr cÞfl,cl-res ïr'*'s çser d&seert<li,ng asÍ, feæ t=bfcb.
                                                                                              peecs                                                                  çese

srrs'      b6'E!!g   reerutted,;         w3rå3,e   Èhe bøIy        ßí      t?ìG cor:ntqf       gesrg              of -
                                                                                                            r¡åró fonnsd,           tlæ ereet biiSk                           .,
                                             res {å?er bsf¡rg exL*oê, È+ from þçlos by ti:e ec:nlseíoæ, å:r+*+ tþel,ir i.

tþ.f.a cugÌo'Es. Sslsteeyåc;r

rsgks oS the sçeees$f*l larrgeru the{sf, nereh+-qä or o$hep geoEipÍçrüs æs of,                                                                        tn:s$,uees.

enê     aff¿írs,rt. tf*¡

{}g}        åsth'¡¡s     Ìî* .îofflnsÈon: ü*            Ðtus,p¡rÊE¡sffiee              Ðf ti-!o Ëæü.L ta,glsea*rr 19ûgr p"                                 8S*
                                          fr   .   i\ÌiiÌTcli-,1¡l¡i,Iiùitl CI Lt.ìÐ.

       rl:he É,cte        of
  .                                      $ût -rcta of de::srtfoflalísetioa of fire land., but the
                               15?Ëi oad. i70å)      wero
 parS-iaeenteiry d.irounl.r6'of the Crosn of iüe las-b eåa::-rag to
                                                                    il:e ovnership of ihe Ìanclo
 a elai¡r that Lssiucl and' geer frou Ilengest over Grrthrrrn a¡rd. c<rntrtt to ::1¡m. of I.los,iß¡d.J1?s
 Ðoensday 3ooÌ<, enc.            later   E@r't 6ü, iteeaytrrg        gron the trne of the nGreat cher,å.:=e
  ItPLSl   anel'   tÌre   rtGreal¡ Revoltrr         (rggr) to,those ns!Þrable
                                                                 cf i;jre and.
 f1¡:aL1y those Acts of Parlfanent when ch¡rles Il ç¡ae foreed. to sìl3'::eÞder
                                                                                 tbe. lagt
 feudsl eãårtns of ths Crow¡x.
    : $oldir€ lanú. rmder thg Çroerr¿ as reflrese:rbg.bjlI-*.g-
 Þe,e-"o.g**È fecte for a Brou¡rd. Profeasor Tiiehol.son+s fireory of ,'deiratiorelizatlon
 of the lsnd'rrûÌl gaehand',aaii the Llberal lan¡l ComLtteets DprineÍ.3¡Ie of æ,tiorzal servåce
                                                     on th e of /rern
as the     paSrnent       for the uge of         rest on that Legar fíctÍon. fh¿E the
                                                   the lanêr'a¿poth
al¡sîler to the seeond. qtestlon must be; t4qt gqlllgryrrt ncÈ only not ¡Lenationarfse
                                                                            _n_             .-   .._Y

thglanê_, but ¡ry Ít d,ivested. the Crown cf tÌre lest sest      of its tvelve ceaturieb olcl

      Elatory kaot¡s sone fine kinke: Eer,r;r TIII seeularfusil:e iards sf Rone,n*4lathólie
lnstftutlose. anå Ê1rffãps the old. ¿ristocraes by neiq laRd;hslders, His dåïâhter :lrary
reeto:es by &ody tleeds Rwan-Catholieisr::, but eantt. reeÈore the seeularåøeô Larrls
the Ghuroh"-''¡3ho Conuonrzeelth eonflseates a¡:d. sells to ecr¡nün peo.ole the lanrLs of geudaL
I'oæde EÈo strpported'          th.IÊ Ktry by Tifvlne Rlglrt.                -iith,e¡l
                                                                                         ÎÍo$archÍsn    is res3orerl, Ch.Iï,   agatn
Ktne b¡r Ðlvfne Bl6ht r revGnges bis behead,orl fether by hanglng the e:ùune¿ ded.d
of the Conmonweatth\bìrt ca¡:not reetore the trand.s to the Ctrownlg layat supporters.*
IÍoreover Parlla,neht dlsinherlts the Orm¡n of i-!s 1200 yearrg old sla{rnq of the
of the Lenit grantiry the exelse oo *t.. {1?} ch.rlre egrforÈtr:¡e,L potic;r nat¿
consld-ered' thcse         loyal gentry, sho hail rnad,o auch great 'gacriff.ees t!.r:rtry the clvir                      trTar,

(tzl lowetr 'nlstory-'of           tsaxatlou anc! Ba^ses f,n England. To1.                  IIr F. 30 ff      Exclge.
 ;liìd..'.Those   losees he had. n::t aitogether "aeen a,-aLe to                         n¿¿ke   goorl"             :;Æ];III eane to the
 throne the pðtlt1aa1 notivê                    r,err,F   sitarply a1tered., brri iÌæ reflr1t               sr¿:s   the saúe.     Instead.
  of a $egl.ti.:¡ate ¡nonerch          re"         ihe'   lùncoï,mñnêi    ariatoeracy for           iheir loyatty,        anil
 e¡rd.eavorlnå by         i¡aierlal    aeans        to knlt stil1            roore eirorg'l;r the ldeal             bod   be'crean hínseLf
 ard. thom, ve have an illeglti.e¡ate ;,s.¡nareh sJiro had,                          to     seek Èo gai.n th.e f*,t'or        of a elasç
 shose censent he           need.ed.   to the íni:ositlcn of                  er la+d.   t_a1"(l8} {preseat rzrlterls ltalica)
          TÌ:e flhurcbr the tro'ræo the 0Id. -{rletoeracy, each                              fn tr¡ra lost in ihe fighÈ of
 sæytng 'bhe lord.-owner,shil of the                       land.         Iloryever, the oontest not            eéd.   ti:ere.   The

 Hlstory of Euclosureeo of                    cleveLopment         of Snal1      llol.ctlngso    of   some phasøs      :of lands

 Taxatíon,        and,   at lest tho siltft ft tlie raüks sf Sngllsh Llbesaif.ea, over tìie Ri:raL                                    Land.

 PoS.icy teLl.      ue Ll:at uot on-iy dåcl the etn¿rgle ::ct                        end.   wlth tbe       á.r'bs a'i L6?2 and iYüân

 arrd,   not   oal.y eouJ.& the lÏngllsh, .natioa                  not have de¡re,tioaelizeil. the lanrl of                 rsä.fch she   -¡¡as

 no't the d.e      jr:re   orener,   hú thåt tha co¡rtest                   betÍree3x    a ttsutlous sristgcracyn             and. 'bhe   nation
 at large 1s s'bilL on srid. the v'atchs¡ord seeas to soïjrê¡ natioralization of the 1a¿il.
 ''Sratever this çatehsord. nreaus to 'bhose viro eüËÉ. ít; åEn81a taw.' eq)ro;Èriatio¡t¡ -ølth or

 wltholrt coupenoa.Èioa, n*tionaLized. or eomsurralletic cnværaÌrip, socJ.alfzed. proûrrcti.oun
 cii.strlbetÍ.oa     to    garaLL hoLiler.s        ts nd our busln*"o 'to ellsürss. ï{ere lt sufflcee to                               sey

 thåt,    bsr,rever      ra$É   Èhe ter¡a        1s,      b.ovre'r"ìr d.tvergent.    the d.ireetisne Ít r3tpeeaentso                lrowever

 varied. the u¡.derlylng prlnclples (ntstcric"'materlatlgtie, na'hural rf,gbts* *thÍ.c},
 np¿tior.allzaÌ¡1sn        of the    land.     ís    f{n¡6È1t      for   an{L   agafnst in       EngJ.and    oi toåay.

         If    we hold. an ontlootr,           hleÈsricall;r          and,   for   bhe esents         of   sì¡r'oq¡n generation we         fträ.ü,

 tbat every country in blrrope, ennall or targe, ¡1eo-rom4of teuton, slav¡ or fiao' nort{os
 aouth, clù" youn$, or            trew,       offer plctures of the               sane genetal tratÈs as insuJ-ar Engln¡d.                    and.

 the atnrggle f,or lanè natlonalizatlo:e ls actr¡a,}. -0,.u. lntereetltrg aketeh of the stnrggle
 ls   glven by Ve.un (191 aoncenring l.aatl otrneruhf.p. Ehe el,fverse ¡reoBle mrst have fora¡ulated- sr
 are in the proeeEa of'fonnulatlng nevconeeptlona of rfgbt and. nw laud. pollcÞS,"ot""¡,tions
 baseû ¡rot on historical aüå Legal int$lcacf,es e.nd. flctlone anÈ lt lg e.n the b¿¿els of sucb.
 nerv eonceptlons that the eirurggÌ.ra' for Èhat as yet u¡d.efined. rflaüd ¡atlonallzetion'r *ÈÈù Is
 condncterl fn the countrlee of Europe.
  (lgl      liJ. Hilgbaah¡ å Efetory of the Engllsh Agricul.turel         L92OB p. 49
' (f9i lr. À. Vgnn:F$undatlons of ågrtürltursJ. Econonlce* l9å5¡Laborer, {""."t o't¿12 **?-
       J.                                                         ÞP. 50-5?
         M/4"         øÉ¿'
                                                        '/8 -

                                                        Chapter II
                                IIIfERPRE?,',fïCI,] 0T    L IIiIDÍjtCy Ij:i IISTOtry (It)

                                           :i" 'IIE II"3.Cis     CilÄjì.¡:it

     of ihe tan                  living tn lt, anrL that not ag tnisieo representivg the nation3
                      u¿,årthe Beople

     f.f an lllustration 1g necessary to sr:¡rport our concl¡síon that the tend.ency of the
     peopleîn actions sag at last to d.fsoqæ. the Cro¡r:r ad. nationallze the land.¡ let one read,                                 :

     thoughtfuLly the hiotory of liÞ¿rÍtoban fornerly Prlnce Rupertrs Laad., the güd.son Bay
     Ccrcpargrçs    ferritorfes.     tbough the geographical er,odêÌrtg of the three do not

     þet we shell not hegitate to enbocly the hietory of the three i.n the cne we are mos*-.                                       i

     lnteregted.                                                                                                                   :

             Eoweverr the     ç¡riter ie     act-:dous Ëo preveat s,.4y         misiJlterpretation, îíe ear:not very                   l

    weLl go back on hlstoryo rÉ¡ven6:s on our eontemBoraries                           for the wrorìg cLoíngs                ì
    com¡nitted, two anit a hai-f eenturies agöe                 i.eú at aüti¡re       when   the u¡,ill            peoplg
                                                                                                        -of jhe,                   j
    to    posaess   that       to u"¡er"o* thu -*lg'ht-gf !þu 0topo ]ased. on trad.ition and
                            la¿cl tried.

    hiotory of tselve centuriog a,nd. elalming justifieation ln the Ditrlne lìi€ht of Kings,

            -{fter Charles Ïrs trventy-fora'years loirg strr:ggle for the rights of the                            Crown

    of tnenty-o$e yeers duüing             ç¡   0harles    II             at last, after
                                                                     was d.eprlved.lof the Crovrn;                                 :

    ths monarchr and. the strrarËg were restored,, Charlesrl faced. a oonvention (166o-166?l                                       ,,

    a volee    denanitetL   the regtoration of the Star Cha¡nbeç, or cf monopolies, or of                        the               :

    Court of High Csnnlsslon¡. no one óisgrted. the Justice of the cond.ennatfon                             of ghitrp             ì
    moneyor the assertioa of the eole rfgbt of Parlf.a¡nent to grant suBpllee i;o the Crowr,.n                                     l

    abollehlug the     cla!6 of the Crovn to             ret    lefs   s,sd.   ward.ohiBo, $rrveJ.ance., arid      pre*
    anptlon, and by tþe converslon of lands                 beleL    till      then   ln chivalry into land.s helal
'   ln    eoruûon aocage.$(L)

    tll   Jobn Blchard. Greer¡:      .4,   short t{lstory of the Erglf.nb poopl,e, iB¡visod. ¿Itee S.                     Green)
    Pp. 204r¿05
                                                          -/Í   -

              ',tre'maJr   nell easÍly picture to oul nind. the d.iro nlaety oî guoh a crorv¡x, ¡è
     the.oolltical hil¡lll,latfgg.                ?hese Trero, hovever,           the cond-itiong uneler ,.'¡hlch Ch:irles fI
     was E'he!.     he, Ía great secrecy, .grantetl the charter to the                           t?Gent1enen.{ôventureho¡

     Tradlng ì;o Ì{udsono"           \o{,   on 7,røy2, 16?0"

              It ls cb.aracterlstlc                           the
                                           of those nGe:rtlemen lLd.ventu¡ergß.ç.
                                            $ho were                 ]"eail.ers


    was  f,irst goveeno! of the H.3.C¿ {1620*lAeS}" Ittrs Ðu}e of ïork¡ the'Ktngrs t"oi?ies ,                                             '

     later Jaaes II¡ Klpg of England., the first ln the lfst of Eharehotd.ers, trås second.
    gover¿or of the.ï.3"0. {16S0-1695¡. Duke of Ài}ag,a'¡teo vboeo fatherr tonera} l.Íonk"
    Tfag {netrì¡xae¡rtal 1¿         the restoratfon of 0h.II., Earl of, ArrlingÈoil¡ â menber of the
    nrlirg      CabaJ., and. f¡ord.    A.Ehleyrlateri EarL of $Ìraftesbury, Lnfluentfal la the Rqstoratû.s¿                               ,,

         a nrinlster of Ch.I3, enð IarI of Craven, â persane,i grlenð of Frfnce Rupert, trera

    wlth Ï*lsee Bupe:rt and. Ðxke *lbermarle æorg the potitlonera fcn ilre eharter of tho                                                 ,

    II.B. C.

              flhs thlrd giovorEÐr of tho HIB"C. tL6e5-t69lf waÐ [orå ohr¡rcbl.I¡ a f,avorlte cif the
    guke of YorlË, Later lngtrr¡¡rer¡tal ln caL11ng tÍIfl1,tam of, 0raqge to Et6laniL a¡d. raised.
    by the latter tos Dukedon of lhrlbarcugh,but aftersard,a thrown lnto ¡rr{soa for high
    treason. . From tlrese namos 1t nay be eeen thet tlre lsadters of the trgentlemea                                   .A,ðventu:rerdr
     were ¡nqa       of the Kingtg kinehfp           F,Fd      ëEtorl.ragÊ. the appllcation.waa Ðad.e in               g:re,et
    sêerecyr a ki¡nt of family              affalr.           mrê Gherter was ¡nrrely           a ro¡ral favor, d.epenití¡g      on

    that lrlea of the Stue,rts that tho eartlr wae ixot the Lord'e,                              'out the Stv¡ræte',   to te
    clloBosed       of es they wfshed.n(P)
              Fon   rhat the aBpllcants           nln¡¡rbl.y besoughtñ        the King    a,nc[   whet they and.   their    srcqeãscfrs
     EerE grantetl, tag morê trìari           I
                                      the Conqueror wonlô hava granteil. ",Èhê sole traûe
    and. someree of a1l thoEo Eeagr otralts¡ bayEn rlvera¡ creeks and, sourrûs fn $rhatâoever

    latåtud,e ttrey ehatl bô'thåt             lfe    rç'ithf.n      the antrance of the strafts celleû             Hudssnrg
    Straitg together wlth alL the ta¡ds, eorrairieg                           anal   te¡rltorfesr upon the eoasts          and. con-

    flnes of the           EeaËr   $trEltE¡ baye, lakes, rlverer'.nd. Creekg entl oo.unda, aforøgaldt q'hlah
    are ¡ot now aotr¡ally posaeeeed by aqr of, our arbJecte or by the rabJecto
                                                          -                                                      of any other
i   1
       r.,l j!u-.-.-'i)+ . :¡:.4i: ìi:e 'Jc::q'-:.:-'3f ci';l:e Gr'¡¿t .lorth- ïïest,'p.111 , ll .119
       lc\     ,......-.i
                                             _2.Ð _

Chz'istlan i'rinco or Sta*,s ' ''
           ìlot rnerely the råc]res alread.¡r d.íecovered-                  ¿ind.   stii.i
d.lscoveraìiie   ,   :n'Jt   onty tìir-r '.:wnershlp o-f the      L¿¿nd.s, br-r-t   also
Ëovesei(¡;nity oïer' the tevr:ito:y Ía u+kín¿¡ lans" iip;,l.$íng iind.
enforeÍng ti:.en :iithoub úÍt¡ j:s.. ed-i¡îent cf the Cro'¡n çes tiie Üom,iary-
grante,3" ïy Cb" lls arople gr€¡ee, and tbe struggling natior:l was che::ged-
to airl, f*vor, help snd. ¿rssist the compi'¡Try cn l¿nd. ¿rs o'o. sea. igee
;p,cencllx 11; .
            itrrnat   vae the great ¡nerit  of the 'i$entler,ren idventurers"T
lhe A]naæte't ielle us t' "these have ,¿t their o,in great eost aäd.
ch.irrges ¡-rnd.ertaken ¿ìs e,rrpeditS.on for 5uðso/s Bay ån the llorthr¡est Þar'q
of .ûsrerlca for the d.lscovery of ¿r ner? p¡?.esage tc the Soutb fiea end. r'or
ti:e fånûing cf scne'l;raåé.'r lJÌrat aouLd. tiie KlnB hsve as toltenn cf
all.egiance fos hj.s ''usre espeeial gre:co'r? i{hen }re or hLs s'aeces.îors
shaLl bappen to enter tho doninions granted-o the toæpany sh;:Ï.1- pay håm
"tir¡o E1.ks and. tr¡o SLaak 3eåì,rrer,". Çonsírleríng the clrertmstantes, both.
aateråa.l. ar:,€ 1:oLåtfcaL of Ch. 11 at the tine, &B oxp}.alneå above, and.
tr<nowing;¡ho    the Lead.eÍs of the t'Gentlemen "åûventerers" HesÊ, vle mnst
rea11y qond.ey       at his                  fn beeiorving, for two eLk and
              ll                     ..:,,.           17
two beavers'his rao5B es,eee íal. graae to re'¡ard. them for tho o:qred.iti.on

tlre¡r harl unitortalr*on" The ca.bots got oÐ.Iy ¿lLO fron FI T31" llorr abqut
th.e nai;Lon'i $he had. to "&'1r1, faüor, heLp ¿nå assist" t'he Conpany,
v¡ithout the le¿rst riglrt or cl-aim. lhe Crol¡n ûeSrrfrrecl of her ri,g:hts ¿t
homo  plays a stroi<e abroad. ¿rt "che natlon¡e oxpenee" The nation hait to
strrrggle and. even brÍng sacrifices fn to acqulre tb.e rfghts of
ovnershlp 1n the tes'rltories granted awas by the Crolvn.
                                      * 2/-

                         J\PPg}I}TN   ÏT
       r'Sxtracts from 'rths Che,rt,er fnaorpor.ating tho Hnd.sonr s
                                                                     ågy con. {I)
      ".---0f our speclal. grace oertaln kno'ulled-go and- mere notion v¡o have
given, granteð, ancl confirnsd. and. by these ¡rrosontso for us, our Ìreirs
and. succossors do givd.n grant, ratify and. eonfirnr unto the said. üovernor
anû. Company and- his sucCIessors   tiro soLe trado ancl comr¡orss of alL those
 s,€as, stralts, bays, rivers, lakesn eroeks, ancl gound.s in i¡hatsoêv€r
 I-atitud.e they shall" be that lls withln the entrance of the straits, GCÐ*
monly aai.led. ã¿tclsonts 3ay Straiis, togother r¡lth aL1 tho lands and. ter-
ritorios upon the countries, eoasts and. eonflnes of the soes, bays, lalrês,
 rivers, creolcs aniL sounús aforesalcl, that are not alreai!.y ac'cuat-Iy pÐss-
esssù by of g:ranted to any'other ChristÍan Prinoe or Stat6 or to any of
our subjeots or possosserL by the subjects of any other Christlan lriaee
or Stato, witÌr the flshing of aL1 sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, aad.
all oihor royal flshes, ln.the soas, bays, flvers, inJ.ets, anù wlthia the
preniseÊr,-#d the fish therein iaken, togother wfth ths royaLty of tho
soa-upon the coasts withln ths lfunlts aforosalcl, and. all xines-royal, as
inell dlssovereù or not d.lscoverocl, of goLc[r.,sllver, geuts anÕ. pracious
stonos, to be found. or d.iseovereil. ulthin the tsrriÉoËies, limÏ.ts aneL
plaeos aforesaitl. ancl. tlnal ths sairL Lan& bo f,ron hsnsefortb reckonsð anù
roputecL as oas of our pJ.entatlons 6r coloales in ^A¡cerisa eallecl ttRupertrs
            It was not a inerö tracLe uonopoly that ths &overnor aad. Gompany
of .è.d.venturss of.EngJ"ani[ tradlng lnto Huðsonrs Bay ï¡sre granteel, Eor ï¡ere
they givon onty the riehas of tho esasts aqù the riches w¿tnfn those
 thits ancl te*itoriss, bgt ilfurther we d.o by these prosonts for as, helrs
ancl sucoossorsr mako crsate anit eonstituto ths saicl
for the tlme being, +.ncl their succoËsors, the tnade Êovernor and Coúpany
                                                          ancl. absol.ute Xorãs
ancl Propristors of the sa$e territorÍ, limits, and. placos, asð of a1.1,
othsr.the_pronises, saviqg aLways thð falth &-alteglence anê soverofgn
ilonlnion tlue to usr^our hetrs ana successors, f,or lhe ËÐlne to bavo, Ëo14,  .

possess_a$q enJoy the salù torrltory, Ilutts and. places, a^ncl all aria sfri-
gular of the pl,acaso premlses hereby grantoü as aPoresaiü., u¡ith their
ancL every.of thelr.rights, usmbers, Jurisd^íetions, prerogãtives, royaltles
and..apBurteaanoss, _whatsoeveFr- to_ tþgn tbs saiù góv-ernor-and. corãpanþ, aFå
thelr E¡ìrccossors, for ever to bo hoLctlng of us ou.r helrs anrL suoäessors-
ln free ancl comon soscage, antl noi-iã-ã"prr{ã ór-¡i r"lght;s-sãrvroe,
¡relgitts antl payllg ygarly to us, our helis, and. suóoessõrs, for the áeme,
two Elks ancl tr¡o Btack beavers, whensoover ancl as of,ten a.s uI6, our hefrsr-
ancl successors, shaLl haBpen to enter fnto tho ealù oountries, terrftories
antl regÍ.ons hereby grantod.".
           trfiotreoverr-t*sy Ygra,aot       gnanteö absoLute ounershÍp of the
aforesald. llnLts and. terrltorl-es, -ontV            oonoerled.:        îne-s*ið
                                       thoy sha1l tane, orrlain,"'Ihet
Governor and. ConBanÍr.es_often as Þlrt-tÉq Slag                     ãr=astãtfrsn=
?ÊY- suoh laws, oónstitutlons, oril.ers õr                 . . sh"if
fully lrpose, _ortlafn, X.lmit gne prgvldte oraüanoeå, . penaf{fes, -aã¿"punisn-
                                              gT¿gh palns,
nolls upon all offeneters contrari !o_suob lewã, aoásîrtu{roñs, ora"i'À, *û
orillnanoës, oI- any- of then ëLS.r..shaIl so6m Beo€]ssary, rsqr¿sítãl os oot-
venient, for the obeervation of tho sane_laws, oonstï.iuiiönsr-àr*íer" and.
orellnanaes'                            a.merolsnants sha¿ anü úi, -Ul-inEfr-_
             -antl the sa¡ne finss anËl tlno
offlaers anal serrants from'tine to           to bo appointeù foFÏít"{'po"poee,
(1) $ee .appenüix to Bestsles ïlrlsonrs nlhe 0reat companyr, lggg.
                                       t-t -

  levy, take, and h&',/s to ths use of tho så,id Govornor and.OompaÄy and. their
  sueoossors' without the lmpeclluont of us, our helrs, oF su.ccÕssors, or
  Ê,¡ly of the officsrs or ninisters of us, óur hoirs, ot succossors, and. uith,
  out any aeeount therofor to üsr our hoirs, or sucéessors, to bo uade,, j..;
  sû alnays as the said. Laug, eoú.stitutionsi orôers, ord.inán€es, flrJs rr¡å
  amerciamentso, Þo reasonablo anð no't contrary or rápr:gnant, bu{ as nuuri*s
 moy-_be agràeable to the lags,
                                    _statutes, or óustoms-ol thiá our realn. ",j ;"
       'r----Ihe Êovernor and. his CounclJ. of tne sevoral- and. rospeetivs pLeo"s
 whoro the said..ssmFan/.shalL irave plantatíons, *orts, faetoFlos,
 - or plaaes of traüe i¡lthin any of iire aountriáso ranásr or iãrrítories "oiJnjãõ,
 heroby Sranted, nay have.pouol_to_judge alt peréons-bãio"gioã-ãõ ti,u saiô
 Governor and" Gornpany or that shatL-lile gnOe-r thsn, in aIî, oãoses, r,lhether
 qlv++' orínlnalo accorcling tc ths 1aws of the tringdou, and. to exácute
 Justiee acoord"lngly.Ò.'..f .whers juiLlcaturo oannòi
 of a êovarnor ancl Cor¡*teil thsr6¡ trens¡ûrt 'ùaebe-exscutså for.øaat
                                                            p"i{v, iõeelhãr wltir
 fhs offance tc suoh other px.antáttoa, faotory o" *ìrãirtåi"'iËr;-saag-'
 bo a Govðrnor antl. Councllno.'rr.of råto tHs-riagaon of nrgfanå."r..noil
      '----Tfe do give-and.grant untó ths saíd. eoverãor ana Coäpñt and.
 succêssorsr frso, llborty_and. lioonae... nto senrl either shipä oþ *ar,their mán¡
 or aütuunltlon iol? &ny o{ thelr-p1an}at1o_asn fcrts, ge,etoriãs,-oi; ãiaããst
 of traüo afores¿lcl,.ool"'to eontlñuo 1o naïá'perã"-óf,
 or psople-uþat_scev+r, thqt are not christfaal ia any rrar lelth'"aV irriÀeã
                                                             plàoJ-orhure"tËÀ seiÕ
 ccEpsn"Y sltall.have-'any plantations,           or raetoi¿äs, ãt ãðjáoent i¡rãru-
 to"".'.lt                                -forts,
                 shalr be änA. nay !e i"no*ur-tó'anã f;r iiro      *overnor anå
 Üoupa:av ano their Ëu.oßessorã from tlue to tine-ãn¿-ãi saååtñåõlËänoatorrh,
 to eract and bnllil suah eastlg*, rorlirieatiõns;-gortu, e"r"Iilñ; eolonies,
?gü-prontatf.o&,s, toslns or vittrá"*, tn *ny p*rtå õr-pÍåcä;-;itúî",th"
llnits anil bounðs granteå..è..orno,..rr --.'
    n*---!Íê ôo grant Égtg fhe saå& ßovsrnor ancl tompany
                                                          and. to their ÊüGo-
esÊ'rr*'full i,Qwor aad, lar¡fut authorlty tã sãiuã-ãñõiit¡rä på;d;;-of-aii-
:Tq+ $o$ll.1 o:r anv-othor thu4r gur sg.bjects,
or inhabit in any êf ths eountríes, rsianðs; "uistÀa1l inîs sffiìed to
                                                                    Huðson,e Bay
the sarð governoF and. conpant rüfiñåuã-laElr'-r,åro"-õ-*,-lisããe;,-d'd. in that
behatr' first hacL andL outärnäa,    ttraiiuãrI-ãdãt*ån-A¿--aíåoËy it"iä*"
 orclers and' sencl then tg            "F     cass_agÍ person or psrsons being
 convl'etaf, ancl seatenced. Soglgná.".r.:1t
                             by*ths PrssiiLent                   the
 and comBä'tr$c..:Yi131r ?Ppeár fron the eeqe "na-Cö"ãõir'gornay said. Çovernor
                                                r^lt shaLl-ancl
 ancl for ths eaict Presiäãnt ana õbuaìii rãåtore-õñ-fuäo1", tobs la'wfux. to
 hin of thern and to carry hím or-iirãn-uose prlsonãrã"rãiã'griõrãää]-t" tt.
 saiû Govqrnor and Ooupaäy therá tã-feããive*s"ãh oãnalgn punishmont
 Ga,s6 shat t nequire anã. tirs ra¡n -or- tG-Ëiioñãfrãü'îi.                 as his
 ¿ - '-:--aay oÀa-ls at x.iberty to-¡riaãe-whothet;ii irtrs d.oss not moan a
 iransferr€äcs of the crounrs-soveËJiËnti}-io-{nä-ðooä*oor ancl conBany
the sra"rted teruitôrieã ana-rrmii;;-"ii is rrue -th;i"iË'cË".Ëtäiîarrsover
restrlatlons of the rar*sn anil eonstttãiiõ[ei-oi¿ài"õ-and. ordi'e,nceË, to rpr be
reassnabre and' not contrary or repuglant bui àÃ-ãããr-es
to the raws statutes of fùlq our leär*. T"Ï,                    may be agreeabx.e
who applles thon anrL who engorõãs-ãËö'anÃ-.tó who makes anct Lssuss then
                                                     *nõn-tu* one
oYor tho 0hanter ahargos the aatron -itrràugn geql-;*furals, appear? trfore_
Justtoos, Ì[aJor$, $heirÍ.rfs, sonsta¡r^ú; Ëallris, ;nû ;li-år';üñiar
our offlcers'-mlnLsters' llðgenoq,. ana-å"¡lããtãl'*ñãi"o*vsr                   other
favouring, heJ.ptng ana essisEi*;'tËä-g6mpany tron lanð aÞ onto uä aif,ingr,
                                     - 23-
                         '3, Fìed 1ìiver Ss.ttlenlent,,
              Here ie nct Ë,ce r,*o,gc ínto the:i,3"Cc s historyo to
  'ielL cr= its srlccÇsseíJ Ðr' r¿.Ìi;:res, to sìzo? il-e iiri:orta::ee in fte
 *Ðûsitivo &ai1 nop;ative c+nt-:i'il'rr-il.ons 'ta the develcpnent s:l 8"ltr.i";
 ì?e t?rerefore Ðeöã to i;he pÐricd- tiz¿t fi:terests as nost, iibor:-t 140
 ire.avõ   after   bhe   5r;nti:rg or tÏre tTtar'üer,to the:lor:nding of the.3..R.
. Settl-eznent by iord. seLkÍ'ho ¡i feç eh¿ractarj.etLcs o:i- tha,r pe-rf.od. are
   sígni-í1esptr¡a) tire i'eud wLtb. riv¿l- trad.ers fsrced- tlr.e British Government
  tr inetltute t?re "Û¿nad,a iirr1sü.l.ct1oa iet'' in 1$ûã, and. the tri¿¡l *nder
  that act of liiow¿r'å of the ã.3oC. in }lov., 3iìûg for benlng shot
  Ilacl)taeLl of the iï.lî.Co. On iord. Ëelkirds enq'aiiry o1 titl vilitlÍty of
  'bhe tha3"'üer of tì:o ii.3"J" in lts various aspeeia,
                                                                    iegal ¡¡i¿ti:csitles
  i,r: iin¿{land. dåd. nc{; Í;lriair t}rat';ire ü¿ni¿ûa Jurisdie"blon ¡et i¿; # 111.),
  6¿¡lrâ eå'bher ,rr" 'í;he 0aner.elas jurisd-f.ction iritirlt: tïie tez.ritory of the
  1-I*B-Üo, the sa¡ae i;elng çti'¿hi'*'Èhe jurfsd.iction of 1;heir to"¡ernr¡ye *nd
  0ounciL. Ìiowèver, f'r, soon became cle¿¡r -bha."ç bhe sonereignÌty of the
 II;3.C" 'Fla.s'sir-ken by the veïy exLeten*ce of th¿t'¡ct"
              b):n LðOg the ií petitÍoned the chanceLor of the
 F**'eheiuer for, tumirffi assietanee to ualntafn a color,y of 60rJ
 Jluropeaee, their'rvives and ebi1dren and. soue th.cued.îeîs of n.,itlsu
 Ind.f ¿;ns ' Co'ncerning the Tnd.Lens the petftlon pointed. out- th;t they
 were for T;heir very exie'bence on the of fire-alîlt,e in
 hunting, and- the h'atchot fn bu-íLrtin,gff, and. other Brittsh n¿nufaetures.
 that was oer']a1nl"y a gco(t reascn '*\y the nation shouLd assist from
 publlc,fund.s. Fur'r,*her 1t rvas told- fn that petltion that the ïl.B.C.
 sbou1.d be asslsted. thut 1t mÍght continue the aðvanteges to the Inrlfans,
 relíglous and. elvfl rvef.fare and. prog'ressive lalproveuents tn thûir
 grad.u*l civlliz¿tlon ancl ed.ucatlon. fhis ¿¿fter tr"40 yoars of
.soverel.gqXty. îho petition also                       to the history of ,tbe EoB.C.
                                              Þ off Í{renah attaeks rrpen the Co}npanyts fectorfes",and so by
                                      - 21-
i:*i:,.eri;i1 services they raigilb lay cla1m u¡lon l;itc lnl::l1sh n¿$ion'ç;
ossistance. Tiris tlis';z'€sseC- situ¿t1oil , of eãll;.f)êa ï?¡..:.s lÐrxxgxÊ*
ulainod '-!¡: bt; .; r'c¡r¿l"t itf uire n;,::iie-.f cituati.on åu-ri::g the -T¿poleonic
-:iå.rs. Hoïever', "ül:.r'ð is nci- -li:.e ,,ioi;-r Ihe
                                                    "       ¡lcil:* is t]:.;,; ';l:e ¡,3.û.
d.ið. i:ot coloni¡e, ôiü no-i e.ËsrJre 1¡s oiln Eupopea.ris üï i'r:s Jnåí;:rs
witÌi r¡eans of err-LËi:i'b¿lce, diå not shcu great willingrïess tc bri::g
sacrífleles, anC. ¿slieå'ch+ ratlon, thc public i:+ I1ngland. tc ir,sslst
ctrt o-" Bt:b3.íc funðs" Jho rea.sons for f;h¿t aseietu.irce are fully
transparent    o

          c)     i.t t;ny tine cr" its exåstauc,:, 'i;ìre peopJ-e questioned. the
 3-eg*.3.ity ¿.r.nd. velid.Íty of tTre ü.}.S's e3.¿i¡ns" i;s early or ¿ì,s late as
 3T1..8 e s-ùeeiaL cor¡raÍtÈee inquÍre,,î. ånto the rights of
 'i;l:.oae cL,;ims aitd. the eon&itåcns of the ií.3,C'g ar'fairsi end. teryj.tcrfÍ5-e':;

 'Ìi:e i-e1--or* war f;*ro',:lr;blt'bc'¿1he Üomparãr, yet the nation ¿lt largo ke;¡t          :i

 û qriestiontng:"
           q In spite of h¿rd. ti¡res ind aeed. of assistanee" lire g.B.ü.
 Ð,Þ3iarontft7' need.ert *ncL ccu].it- h.ave ¿'bsorbed. hund.ref,.s or men, This ean
be 6een fro-r¡ one of lo'vd FelkirΡ's: obl.igatåûtlse áls fls sh¿¿1l presentl;r
                                          -                                       j..

see, to províd.e'the tonpargr uith Ê00 se¡¡ for'cen Jrears eta.rtf.n6 1814n
'Ihe fact is thåi, rJús d.ifÍLcult to serì¡,ïe men for ';he II.B.C" tn
epite of the unfortu¡ate eonclitåons 1n tlreat 3rf'caitu- Bhe IL3.C.
d.uring Lts e:cfetø.nee ne?er tried. to w1n the sympathy of the nation at
l-arge or of the coLCIry 1n fts tarritorles.
       such eireunst¿nces aad at such tånes thero stepo into
the field a young ï,orr1., feuclal 1n hls views, patervrùlistíc- 1n his
s¡rmpathies, aübitLoue in hís br:glnoss ventu.s:es, Havíng gubrnitted. the
fJorcpanyts Charter to lega1 eritics as to lts vaLldiW,..vsåth respect to
exelusìYeness of trade, te:rrltorÍ¿I property, jurisd.Lc-tlonaL.power antl
powsr to lev¡rff tqar, ancl tire tharter bolng founrl val.ttl he secureû. (l-SôO)
(lefO] ?,/f of the Compen¡r's,etook, Mo $1vff,enôshacl been palð on tÏ.e
                                                   -2 Ö*-
  S"ìJ"Ü's etecle fo::'years þefûrc        th¡'t :nd ii;s ,s'focte h¿:.c1,¡:one d_or-.¡n.r-o:oa
  Êå;O '34 6t nl.;en Stlrr', Êelitirji d.ecirted- to
                                                     ijc Ínto ltis adventn:ro,
               .'ifiier   Ì;g for:-¡'ÌTi   ag.iiäst ¿iti¡eys*r'ics r;rho hoced. -bo .iret
 tj:.e ¡rs.aie:ïr   of 'ciie :i-"1"Ü' into ti:eir ir¿nds, a;rainst rn",:ry cf ti:.e j{.1,.t,
 i:3se1f' ago.inst rj'rhers ïrrho 'bit]-ed, iri.n ,: pi:an,Ftãsíst, f,oyd seliri:rlç ?as
 g:ilnted' by the.lJ.:'Ü- on irejlri?ììqr 6tlzo 1811rin fee ainl:le ¿ stretcl:
 Iand-, where he ceci¿led. 'co   et¿rt his e:i1:erirnent r-:: eoloniøat.ion.
               The Land's d.efåned by"ð- to be trensferred. to tror¿l Selle.i:rh
  i7ere betr¿een i?a3a'T¡orthern lat anil loP" 3rJ! rqestern loägitude
                                                                              and oa
  Ï¡oti} sid'es of the Red- to the ssst aneL or; b,;f;h sf dos of the ¿ss:--nl.bclne
  to 'r;he soath a,nd, tbeir confLizeTlcs" {5} gne conclitions gere: t.)
   'Iorå $eLTrlck tccjr the Ob11:iatåon of supr:lylng
                                                         the üonpany pû0 nen
 fo-¡ 10 õ¡eacË' startlng to cnbarlç lley ].st*, Lg3p" fosfeiting *3.û
 r+en sirort of etO í nj fhe Congrrin;r trt trans sc"t a.b Lts oy,,ft ercü)ey¡ee
 the eervante sent.oirt for its servÍee; peg eaeh rnarl i,?¿ges not excced.fng
 î'3t; 5') ;åt tl:.e expf.ratfon of tb.e to:m of servlce w,ith the Cornnu-ny
 a tË;rrf rúo get PtO aeresn a feetor L00O scres, snd beco:le å set*Ler
                                                                                 åf he
 does no,t leaVe *he terrÍtoriesi         l-) lhe tonpany to i:ra¡:spstt settLers
on tonpaqyt s shlps, tho eeÐi:lers paylng f'or thelr transportat j.oni *É'
   ìil The tomparry to lev;r cueteqn dutrfes on ex¡rort an* Snrport payable bn¡
settLers not abovo 511' s-t iort Felson ¡rnf.ess hlgher clnty be Levied, at
Quebec; eueh dutiee to be used for grvernmentrpoLice ancl Írnprovenent
kÈneem of corununication betçeen l,ake iÍi;inípege

 løl ,ie to the._area -gru.nted.,-the_ctat¿ do#Æ not agree. [hü,s rue find- in
Joha l[acoun Wanitoõa and. tho Groat rt¡"uï", l8gã-p-+ng, úhe area to
3::l 1t6, qgo ?g o mi " r.n eeórj;-ùúee; i¿-sisiårp'iräää¿täa*.
       'Fx..67,             o
                       aren1s^gíven 6.jiE;oõo eq, mi. Tn an
tt Ls s¡}t ag !þe as 70rc0õ sq. Éã., nðuvever,- wben wãl-t..teotrrec. oonsÍcl.eretÍc"
                ]crr'¡                                            j.*to sorrrce
the faet that up-to Ls46_there was no flxecl'buund.ary ¡àC*e]n-3.s.ä. an*
the IJ.go oast'aäd. west of tbe noãr*ãõ,-** have aisã"an exþlanet1on for
the oxtensíua of. th_g lancl _grant to r,oia selil.rk:äã"rä" soufir asj6l. fulLy
80O nlLes lnto the TJ.S" of-tod.ay.                                   pâtaltel

    eriù 3çrå iTeLson, 'brr-t \t'i *.s ¿:roflto for ti:.e.Üompary, ,,.) 'Ihe nen
    :-ecruÍ'üef,. as hi:; iorilsli3fs serv;rlbs Ìo't -t *r;e:i:?o oi -yeare to ircrli 1n'å;he
    coLc-4y t¡o:-:-T-ü;3et '¿û tire c:cp{s'*¿i-c,r      of the "6erfi., 140 Jc:t(}fr'Îtee;::û.
    J--Ðc.-rirÕ free sô'i'1;iers
                    Iij e¡cr-¿i.iL be men'¿lsiiet ?rez'e i:: pasein1 ,-í th¿'i; '¿]:e tü'ri?d4y
    i:li,-]- ts ¡:ifo:" pr+'tec'bloa te 'i;Ìre $etr5l-emen*(,Vin fiinee the fs"íctior. be{;,¡ocn

    'f be tonpa4y an.4- lts rív¿le
                                          Ererr ir,tre fn$en¡ce bee¿russ of l,ort ÉeLliirk's
    enteryrløe r'*d. ihe settie¡aen* Ëas ttseLf betueen aLed.g'e ¿ad.
    anvl3., t?re Ïnperl"at A''6noritíes Tvere reerlyn tì:o' unwílling, to ste-e ia
    anfr. -th.¿t rse¿nt encroeching on 'bhe 6or;3:*q¡'m ecveroi¡3nilty, a great êea.1-

    $cse than'blie Canada ir'u.rj.sdÍetiou,;et vras 1i.r<eþ to Leat tu'r*                             i

                    SÍor,?, feud.elien hrd to conÐLlcete f',-:eelf ¿nd- bring about its


    i:::ing settlerg:¡lLc'*cu"Lð. i:r''g ";he 1..rnå" þe i,.iauL$" alec i:ave serv¿nis l;hon

    afte's 'i;he e xnír¿:ticn of ''clieii" te-¡ro of scrr¡ice , Eoulû. b6 gra:.ited- land             i    l

    h:¡ ¡.fn ¿nt becone free eet+;leg'so tlre $t.'¡ersii':r: eon¿,-'i;j:3r Tücald. 1êYy

                                                                                                      l* a*d. have tiio i¡:eeilrsj.vr; tr¿:rße and. resevveú. 'üh.e t)gta.i of free              t,

                                                                                                 '.       .:

    eccess        tc   s.J.i land.s gra:,nted. clr snrren'3e:red., t,he scverolgn na.tÍon   fn        i

    satehinå: oì¡er seeurity and. gocå o:'.f,er i.:: the eo3.o:.y pLtiron'b 5-irfrirging              ;,

    the sovereign[.iy of ti:.e Soveretgn Gonpan¡r" ìIha1t abor:t the real.
    iristorÍcal- owr:srs of the land. a).cng thr¡ Reå llåver and. th.e.¡ssiniboi¡re.
    ior,.1 Selkirh <1uie*ed the Ini[i.:;n tit].a in July 181? bg a treaty by whlctr
    the Ípdlaus traneferred. 'Îu-nto orer Soveroign Ï.oril the King" all that                         :-

    tract of land. €ú..... to havo and. to bcld. forever thosald. traet of L¿nü                       i


    aird appurtenancos to the use of the sei.d, lord- of.Selklrls ¿üd. of ths                         l

    sGù'ú3ers belug ost¿rbliehed thereon with tlre'cotleent and- permj-ssfon
    of oi:¿r fio'verclgn ÏorÊ the Elng or of the saÍd. Sar1 of SeLkLrlr!'
.   eeeh.   of the ciettlers        anel Cres   ]iå¡tlone. [hue, the Inclfans belng un&etr

  tlre l1åreet protoetici: of '{,-he ürg,,.m" 'tiris ,1:oz.tic:r ür ïal:iv ru"ifåu
- transfer:'orL -¡,Ð "i:':.+ ..Ji:g fåa'tire use o.f Ïord $e1i;iri: .iì:r1, itis =et{rlers"
  tl*o Ï,?sr1 ìeelf,., foriäallt}-,the ].¿¿i:tlr. r'yc¡a the oin#" b,-Li: tÌre 6cinpany bad.

  stne r1;;;hts reserved. "i;o it àceord.íngto a iÍ.eg's Ch¿¿¿''tea'- ¿ cen::;iLzi¡
  :1ild. iì half o3-d., lhr:s i:7Ír,g 'oìre r'crmtil-" 1-+ga1, f'euË.¿l ge'itlerrent of

 XË Îor.rgldrsn so na¡ned. fn Troaor of f,ovd. íìe}l<1rk, ii: the coSongr of
 æ"s-s:ruåftqi:ra ,*seinibo'l¿È, 9t n¿:aeri ar'ter the river of the äam€ äåïne, ifl
 the liupods [and, so nâmed" by the 0harter.. The ].aad.e i;=aaeferred to
 thr Fing wers aåJucent to the Rod. Rfver; beginnång at the nouth of Ì;b.o
 Ïìeð hlver and. up ta the gree*ü, forks at thø mouth or' the Red i,a'ke Êf.ver,
 ü'*,,1- alcn$ tire ¿esinlboine Hiveybo Èhe l{usk Ra,ti Ri.¡er ayld. e:c'¿Ð t+

 slx rcå].es fro¿n.Fcrt Ðoup;las,{KiLd.onan of toü.ay) on everîr sÍúe and :¿1so
 fs'en Fer* iaar {Fe's'bina} a"rrii ai-so i's'om G:'e¿'í; ¡or}lso eu:ë. in ot?:eg';l+rts*dtþ   o-Y *.,ro isngl-ås3r statr:-'Le     :¡i1es    T,acie   fro¡r   '¿he lianke oy-;   either
            l,orå $eikirk dåed. in ;1:111 1ã]ã.ü afte:: + $.eead.e of bre,ve
 strugsle fcr the :re¿l-lzatlon sf his visåo:r-¿s, =By a eLng3-o tl:ou.ghtlese
 feuå41 aet tre caus-eti ån 1814 the absslufe dee{irfi.eÈ aad. sr¿û.åeaÈ.{oi:
 of this eqlory in a for'tTa'igint,Ju:re I to 85,by the Ítroriirr,;estelr-g
 aga.inst whora the ¡et was dlreeted." ;Tlth hås åeath he.also serveû his
no'cl-e arim; an obetaeLe      to                       of "bhe ï{.3.t. ¿nå iî;e
                                    tine üãlao anrrlgami¿tion
elvaLs rvas reulovecl, fhe auaLgr:matÍon took plerce Ín ÏvT¿reh l"SAi. far a
pe-:rlod. of å1 iresrs " Oae eontlJ.tlon of the pact r,rras 1?o expense of
col-enfzatfûn-, in LS35 o hoi?eveî, the coinpany bougÌrt baek the Land.s
cnee grantecl to lorû SeLkirk, and. péif+ hls suaeessorlr *S4,000, and. thls
for'tr,¡o reesCIils; oae p611tica1,       othgr of rur t¡acle. fhe poLitleaL
reaõon was that the settLers would soon ask for e fom of Governroent
as those oi l"ti¡tegot.a--'and that y,rould-.lneen ].oss of sovereignXty over
a good. portlon of tbe ].ancl. îhe f\¡r tred.e roason lças thet ttre settLers

wouLð. not allorz the se¿Ìrch'for fr¡r for "flllcltrt    tratle, I{ovlrthe E.B.C.
                                                           ^ z?-
                                    fl"     Assertion a;f 'the i]¿tion"
                      \S.h¿te',¡¿T ûÐ:e's view-. aor.rlå 'bs ¿bo'':J; the i{'Ê.C. 8,s a

      -., :).t fuit;:orirl- e:ciiait:s:i'c::. or Loss !:efOrs l-95Û, bat r¡e El-y s*fely'
      '; ,.,ì 1ts cOnti.i;-.1¿:lce gl'Ol'¡c:d, ¿n eViflent iãeÐénce 'l:A 1:he nesneeX-
       .)     ,::.;-.'uiJ;i:   ]I.:i" 'ilhe ;1. ]"Ü"        SeAd-erS th,engelVCS ftnd.efetc:Od- tnA-

g:.r'*i:r¡:   rj.a:ri,3er   of being      pe::cef'"'---l.iy to:rql?-erÐð    b;' i::;mi'6'ta'bion   and.

cOL.:nia":tion         ¿::.t1.   Le"rü-evs   of    +;ire   thpire   s¿w   iire   i-rninínent ü-;nger Of

loeing tet-ti:tary ritbout bLocûshef,. 'lrhe resul-t æàs th¡-t the ,'J-8.C.
                                                    of :':overning the terrítorieÊ
fn Iû5? s¡o-aLcl gSaiLly ge'ú rfd. oiJ t?re bnrdenptssessive
if it coulít be d.or.c cqr-rt'taT:l-e e,e to their "Ëh$ilå{'S ri¿3hte" anû- it sÛ
1n:i-osne;:r   the 1¿rrl"ie,uen'riiqr tor*lrÍt'cee, ivhld,h,hovever,
F.a;rcrt's B.anü be            left ir:   excl-:rs-j-ve cant:'cL      oi ã'3'Co
               fi j.s ch¿ricterle"bfc cf the conditions 'uira'í: in tÊ'ftÉ 1924
 *þc se'ctLeri i-terÐ cÌ:*l"geð. fos' t1,.e1= land. 5s per" ã¿cre; ln L839 tire
 pr-ice flas raorÈ'bilsn,d.cubled., bS tb.e stevn resLstenee of the setå3'ers
 fcrced- 1tj &os:l t'o ?s6J-;(4)ir: L84l- the set't;Lere îrerê i'n ¿'motl revoLt
                             tg44                              . with
 eg*i:lst the eoï::È.1ïig,  1l:n+:6s lrccl-:netfcn threaåer:ig'n forfoiture of
 3an.i-.rses issned" /{rÉ {4ß#"(rl}Gusta'¡e îlyers; tîf.story of C¿nedåan
    .          ïn 1U5?, 5?5 settl-ers aonp1aineå to 'bhe BrLtish larli*¿rent
 t?r¿t t5e conpan;r yefr:.sed. theæ tì:.e. eieeð-s fo-¿' the l-"¡nds they h*d' peid
 fo:: aníl- they anpealod tþat {:he protectlon of the Ðanad'ian Laws an&
                      '      tothern
 lnetitu{.;Lons be e:;ten*ãA¡ The Inð-lans aLso conrp3-ainef, to the
  'rGreat ]'r that the i:I"ts.f, cf.glmed e11 ti:e le.nds
                                                                      bet'peen the
 *¡ssinfboíne and. 5alçe ivf.n::tpeg, nearl$ trvice of what ttrey rÍera origlnaLiy
 asked. fer. Å11 that 1s an lnd.fcu.tlon that .l,here 'was. ¡à future 1n the
 l,and. to. tako tho place of the pqst Ín fnrs" a natlorf;governlnens to
 repl-aee f,þersatraPisznof ths H*3"C.
               In LS6E an Inter:r¿t1onal Ffnanee sesoclatlon pu.rchased al"1
 the rf.ghteD prlvlleges, and or'¡nershfp of the II.B.C. fOr iL,500'0O0'                                       '

(tU* orlglneL Ínvestmenf; Ín 1ð?O was ÊLO,000) anil eoon another aouparlf
 of   bon:r í1'3o T)i11'.:2¿asÐrt c+u¡:eted       vitli the'iioi'lr:y:r¿e:r'c +f .b?l,e næ,"11y
   or¿;ai:åzec1 Þ"oninlcn of taa*C.¿ {Li:gt)" ,?e jrglc.; !-:+:t llnqtish h"J.stcry
           jlrtl',:bLee 'f,kere îte:ri Ða +:cc=,r--':t
  =l:at                                                o:' "bo:a,¿, f .i-dc pr:rc?tas;rs,i etd
  r.ûri', a* "alce bre=':rc1c'rn cf tire l;rsÈ le".-ld-:L .dcl:-;L:r iilstory zgi;.ea.,b¡
  itself . 3he f,an¿r.lie:: iiTccLer;1 i?e-lrreserrtatfr¡es -,¡JerÊ :ielu.::ily lici
  ¡¿L3clved. to ri?-:eÐ*j.en tbe vaiíd.ity of ih.e Conp:inyrr: tìrris.*or,
  1n 1û56 wheu tenad-a lnsfsted- 1n seti,Ling: 'çl*e bcrr:d-a:-¡¡ J:etÐeen it
 entl' T{'3.C. 'Ierrttorfes, Ntr)üf 6ana..4-åans ?erî tcLå nc't tc qrrestiçn i-!re
 va3.íd.1ty ¿1 t?re ehacter es that natter e,;s -rri ilrperii¿I one *i:.ä nc1u: e
 pæuvlncLaL one. Cns mc-gü r¡onder çrl:¿t; l:i:id. s.i' ¡ the Ïincerf;3-
 tov¿.:r-:tnent brou.ght ta be:lr upon the bonr; fid.e 1:urcbaseutift:ru
€oînpa:ryr'g citurtefidrlghf;e to accept the fin*l- tenrs as they d.i,3" ,,.raE
 it ilot eonneetef, çíth the -qree'i,-1cniag ef the 6Ìt¿rrter*
                   il't ir.¡¡,' ra{:e, the r:¿Ee of ,äehu].ts 1,îS4' the tr*nefer of tlie
centse ef gravåty "bo lortage 3,e FrefrSe laOSl tT:e n;:ine of Tjenitobe
    .              eonåæg
1867, tbe          æq'rrs*ne of 'bhe ¡retLs Èo t?re fore 1n theå,r oxn Ín*ece;ts              sLæ,1

t'ans of ot?rer fnciü-en'rs werÐ¡ th;t the ï.'i.C" æcr'e gcing *o
l-ose ollt 1f .tiÌ¡ey difl- not ?r.*:r:î¡ to rccept terms fnste+å ef Jrackf,.oo::
eoqeetting; witSr othez''-intereets" Tlre te-¡rjtoråes                h¿ad.   'rieo¡: ÍneLu*.ert

 ål the FrcrgYA?m?.T1.Q of Confa¿eratice sínae 3865.
             Bhe'¡nen cf th.s l"¿rl af 3ng3.enå rrere of the opf.nlon tii.;t Jtþ6
Rupe:'tê Lanû. dåd" not bo1ong to the peoil-e of Jin,SL. nd.o bui to È¡o Ki:rg
of Eng};;nr1, ¿nd th.:.t 1n aF5.f;e of tho courËe cf events, tho sestored.
eForm. had, ¿r rfght to alieas.te that 3:.lnd 1n e:ccTrange of two eLks, ãäd.

two b1acir beaners lf he or ürV of his suecessors woulil ever eone to
llupertts k¡nd." Tho peopLe quostioneil and. oa.::nestSy qtieetioned. ihe
eoreeptlori o-f rlglrtiousness of the äen sf tho la,w oË SngLand. .üfth
tbe Red Rlver rebe]"lfon, feud.¿r,Irisn cçso to e conclusiûn j.n thlg
eou:rtSr. lhe Srovåncs of iåanftoba euerged. fron thef; ehoae in L8?o as
one of the provinces of the Fod.eratlon"
                                                   _3 /_
                    Iaejr o:f ., it¡fl-: ta:;:   s-..¡,:ïG,i .t-c C.+fen.J hi,.:,   :r13lr::r grl..i:,teii.   by
    iíse Gir¿i:ter wae t?;e 6crnprrä-;.rr¡5 ïsi:lc,1ess; *hi;.t i:¡ ti¡e oplnlon
                                                                                         aj orag
   .:i.,.,..':;;n5(5Jgs¿ àiï.ciiG il:¡.:-ii..,e --1.f, ì,AaVÌ .tt¡c fcnrp,:ry ¡oir_lcl
   '-i¡ ì'r:*.:r'ì ' itse-îf :rÍ.u;L: b:7 eïe h f',eilance.
                                                            liri:e orJ,ginai oolp:rû.njr í1.ÕIiC) .ic
   ira'-Ji ¿'e¿ej.ved- ¿f+,jcr 3¿J,r yea::l: of ¡;uin:i.-+i e:cp3-cit,¡.r.åor: af
   åcc*i'r   Ühi"Lö0 fo1-d ci ill; ori.31:u3 investruen;, in,l peaeo,r'b].e
   'i¡'-i?sütcticll, r;i:e Tn{-:er:i;dionuj. ¡:1.¿ance :: Ðsoc.i ¿:ticn in possese ic::                       of
  tire:i'3'0s   6har''reÏ slnce Ltô5 cecei¡¡e€ f&,f f"or tlre renÈui:ci:;.ti:rc
  e:çcLusl'le trad.e, :':ronopþ imd tcr-rí.boría.l_ rightsrwhich
                                                                 nc a,..Er         nu
  ecr:rt of     Ie:,,y cou-ärl ïr¿¡v.e
                                      t.:l9lÍ].,e ,
                                                   four;¡e¿r=s ti:e ro,*nå sr:¡r of
  ;lJûQc0O er Êc;:i. cf t?r*ti:'c,Ot0Jeres ¿rou::d tae poe.üs
                                                                an.i L¡l,?o cf ti:.e
  leç:d' bo be suive;c'J- i:¡: the f+rfçile bçlÉ, maïlJr tí¡res.,;h.e
                 l'¡Ïrert   fcr a nflit*r;r systeu!          þûiti¡ a   1åtile       eûa;rra eensc of
  a'1L ;-'tlrtÍes Öo:iiceïne'fr. t?reR.5. r'ehellie:: cor:Jd. ¡(ex6 aSso b,ave beea
  ¿:*¡ciåscl' to say nothing abcr:-t tiie cri:rln¿] ir:eit:;ticn
                                                                       fnto å,ö and. tbe
  wÍc..1¡eri ç:ei:ioi.tatåol:s cf it     G

    '           dccor*.ing to the urftsr's fnf erpretatícno lìirperiï,s L:nå
  $as na'Ûionalfzed. not wh.en th. 3i, used. his feuðai royal
  c3'iiårníng those L=ncls for the crcr,-m û,s .rçp3'esenta,üiï-e
                                                                     of bhe ratícil,
  bii-* î¡hon r,*ire reprê'sen'f;atives cf tire pecple in the xcmlnj.on red"eeeed.
 then' Ðevðr having recoSnlø'ed. the v"rlid.ity of the @hsrter. iìot on].y
 Yrere tho 3.r/P0 of {;ìre lanil n¿;tion¿¡I"izeÕ'but sven
                                                                ti:e 1ie0 left in the
 hand'g of the 6orepa'r:¡r o* 'priud{{l?t 'oroaEht ei step closer to
 li: ti¡e   gerise that Ít 1s hel-d frcm the peopS.e
                                                          and. at the d-isBosa1 of tjre
 peopLe at l'arge in e:rchunge of eevtalrn uarlret,
                                                                           and. subjoct
 to taxatfonbv the peoÞIe anc. ro iËgli*lå;ä"                         passect       or ro be ågpassed
 by the peopre. ,ì11 'r}egal ficÈion'' to use prof. iüícholsons
                                                                    r¡orås ín
 thts connoction, is effaeed." the 6rov¡a ancl. fts vaçrsaf.s irave been
 Énch cl'f¡sow"h eû by a peoplo eLui¡cing the rfglit to ancL privilegea
 seLf  government.
(çl A. htr¿,,-." â4 Út*Zf*--V".-7'? ff4 7. Ut.
                                              -   'vL
                                                        4.t   -

                                             ChâPter              liL
                                tug   e:{,   Tenebrig
                             (å ltigtorie Sur:rey of !'Þ.nitcba)

                                       Á.:     IiliIT-l:TT 0:r          PiìtïÏii0f

         Th,e   organic;fct (1) of   18?O oroated                  anl brcught into the to$feteration            +"he   ?rov'åae€   :

of l.$anitoba. fhe gcth end.99th             nericLia¡ra rcere             the eastern and ?esiieen limits reapoctiv'ely,
srhile north end sout.a 1t      e:rtend.ed.       onl;r one anù one half                d.e.gree   lati-tu,le nostÌr of the
4g.ûÌ:   parallel'. I:rJSBL an t-et      ertend.èct               it tc   abor¿'b    95 eað about .^-0 20r


borrndary rsas      not eettted befose 1485" In       figu'es {â} 'b!ie e:rtenÕed l,isnlioba

covered. in atl close to. 70o000- Êq. rnÍ." ,\. nes e:rbension tooli place in 1911 ad'd'íng about

188r0ûO Bq. aio and. gi,ving bee an outlet arorrnd, ihe iluðsoÏr Bs.Í.                                                              l

(11 Eiie Organåc,[e'b of lt?û 1s eãplalned. in teorge BrJ¡eets I'A Hlsto'q'I of ]ianitoba'r                               L906
(¿]gUeee f,igu:es are rou¡ded.         up fyom a na*r of Lh¡:-itoba publishecl Ì:T tiie Ð"of. of Agri-
¿uLture o4 $ía¡rit!soa¿aX3'X,Nhp-8.     fn I91ã.

                                                 B:   IBCflf--SLi

            The Populatioa    of the-R. 1ì. Settle¡rer¡t in 1B5t i,ras Pr590 persone in                460 families
    nhites and halfbreedg together. In 1840 there                   '.¡i¡eye   about   4r?AA peFsons   In   ?45    fanilies
    ín ilssåniboie, in     1849 abcut Sr?gl      in   Lo052 fa¡rfutieg         eulti'¡ating   6u592 acres nrod.ucíng

    ã bu.. Ber acre. ltSI ghe     official      tenÊus   of 18?1 geve for the populetion oi the R. R.
    Settlenent and. along the      Red. and.   :\ssinfboÍne Rivers r:itÌr F-Ðrå Garry as a center3
    wlrites Lr5ô5, French ITalf-Sreeds 5?57, Engllsh llalf-Breed.s 4*085r 558 Ind.ians..By
    religion3 R. C. 6?A7, ?rS" 5?16, Total 111965. 3y settlenents¡ to the north,
:.iaäún€     the Réd the Scoitish deseendantg of the orirgi*al Sellsíric settlerg reinforced. by
    retlreiL l[.3.G. offlcia]s    their fanílies¡ to the south French Half-Breed.s; 'iæst

    along the Á.ssiaiboineu reaehirg: es far as ?ortage la ?z'alrèe ecattered. Scotch end. ¡"rench
                 in 1862 the hamlet of 'rïinnlpeg trâs begu.n an6 there geveral, stor"eg competed
                                                                         ¿ê'ttt r-¿
    wlth the II.3,t. shops of Furt Gamy. Ehe co¡m¡ereia} and, adnialetratire^of ihe gettle-
    ryentu hewevern sas Fort Garry        fn the r¡rid,eù +f t!ìe        50O    aeres res.erved to tlre H.B.C.             So

    the no-¡th of Íi;þe ufn-afBefi*T, *È of 13 build.ings 1,r all along a trait vhat is                            now

    Pornage Á.ve. anú fi:-tther aortho      alorg thE aaín trail ¡ ihin Stseet of                tod.ayr stood. the

    viLlagé of Poi¡t Ðouglae" later .{inniBeg greu to tnvallow þoth. Portage La PreÍrie
    'sas   the extreme ¡.'¡estvard outpost of tÌre R.R. Settlenent.                 -JinnÍ-oeg wag ineorporated            in
    LB75 tutdpr
                   the general nunieipal. ¡\ci of the province and tn 1902 6ranted a øpecial
           fbe   settlenaent wae d.epende¡rù,   fo¡ its      supplies upoa Stn Fauf, Minn.rovar 400                 ¡01.

,   &flêgr the fleight rates from St. Pauf were 16 sh. sterling per 100 lbs.
                   gbt                                          per                                    ¡r¿ryable hal.f

    in   cash and   half In goodo,    To suBply:a publlc revenì¡e these goods paid. an                      impc

    :[Sl fn thls hfgto.rieå] sketeh the writer follswed Ín the naÍn J.W.]efoers Economfs
    Hisiàry ef the Þ¡afrie Provlncee LB?û to Lg}Srn in tr0aneda and. I'bs Provineesft Vol.)ffi¡
    1914. pÞ. ¿8ryfqgg, Hawever" rnarqr clata sere taken from other ssr]rces sueh as Brycers
    nA,HÍatary of $anltoba'r, L9O6, Ilarolä ¡1. Innisr
                                                       "À Histony of the Ca¡aclfan Faclfis
                                                    -3q -
ûf   4S ad valorem e:<ce;:t sn alen nine ald.                 spirlts     upon çqilich 26í1 'ac,s   levicd, these rateå,
uorrttrruecL   for fou:r Je:lïs ât-J-;a th.:        c';'e:'-rion   o:C i,,E¡:iiÈoba   as a pro',rínce oi'cire
etlon of   Carnda.

       ÅfÈer Confeder¿r'Ðion the ?o B. Settlerseni coulrl,be reached over Ca¡adian ?errftor;r
by 1400 ml, up to the SreaÈ lakee               and.    tiren oveE rvate= and land frorn Port å-ethus to Fort
fi.arry". Over the :'onte throu6h the ü. S. the railroacl brought the settler only '-rlthin
400   ul. of Forb Garry. In 1B?1 a etage line and. transnission of naí}e begaa nxflnÍng
betriee¡rç],'IÍarlípeg and. Å'bercenabte,ï',ïin.n tri;'reek}:l aú Ln 77 d.ail:¡. Firgt telqraph

1Íne opened fror TÍa:rÍ;eg to FembÍna ln llovember L3?L, In ìSì"? thg;rÉriate Stemer
É$elkirh?t nas the f,lrst on i;he Ro R. earryin6 sr..ppLien Sor'ühe settleilsni" whilst the

fl¡:,teæ¡ationaltt bad. beea d.oi:rg sefirlce for;,'eareo but f,or the Conpg¡ly enl;r. She flrst
Railway to be operated Ln låtnL'bola                ,,vag   the .?frrniÞeg-Xæerson neetisg the St, Paul
anå   ?aciff.c; its construetio¡r star-ted Septæber I8?? aid fi¡¡ished                           Ðeeember 1878.

       tihe H. S¿ Ê" sime¡:desirg her               teruitorial the settlemegtr- âd                    thf,s sae the
gterb of tn-e      Tryouf.iras   of   ].'Tanftoba   with an are&        o"f I550S sqære        sil'es-the   Doninlon

Gweewserrl'.aggurecl     the  fine settlere of tbe reeognj.tÍon of tbetr rights to thelr

1slads uBon eompletlon. of the s:lrirêfi Trhie gave an to sqr¡ÉrtÈlsg, in 1g?1. For the

hslf-breeeLs tlie Ïonfnion Gover¡ment seÈ aside f ì +OO, 00O aeree as theír reserves. . Itt

ISTL pralrle,surveyl¡g began 1n one gquare mi1e b,loeks or gections of                                64O   âcrêttr         ['he

nÊrrЀ anrl lorrg    ri¡rer l.ois      vrere resqg¡rlsed end. Iega1iøecl as               aatter of fact, In faLl of
1975   the Prûrince of I',fanítoba wag reaily fcn settLement'
                  .çe lJr li.l¿Lrtl,Ùuu¿¡ hr¡¡u ¡-ul1(¿J r95 uttt

       Of the 56 seetfons ín each torrnship (a slx nl. eqaare! soctlons, B and. ?6 sere réseryei
as F.B.C* Iayid. fro¡a the outset" and., 1n lB?9, eeetlons 11 ald,29 wero reserved froro
Ìronesteaetf-ltgas an endop¡ment          fcn comon gchosl           eûu.cation       ln the provlnce. fhe       ga-'ae systern

gf srrrveylng and openÍng for                                for the telritpries rcest of ].Blt.
                                          homesteaellng vag e:rtonilett

fo remove the land lnterests of the half-'l¡reedg due to their fndlen d.éscent t lanil scrlps
ç¡ere f.sslred. to then, each scrip good. for 1.60 acres of auy quarter section open for gale

cr settlenent. Ilembers of the experlitlbnary foree Ìrere also reward.ed. by sfmilar scrfBsi                           'I

As those scrips ¡vere transferable" the beneficlarles often solcl them for a few tlotlars
or   esen üúr a, fes    bottleri of ehiskey.                Ehe resuJ't wag     that hundred,s of thougand.s of               acres

of the best landl |n the provlnae, ln the lmeillete viclnlty of Hånnlpegr                                 cane   lnto the
 hends   of a fec/ 9;iectiator'ø. TÌte orí51na1 lslf-breed seserv.atlånnof                lrA,rJ0.lOOO.itcïeF çâtr

 lncreaged, by subøeriuent .issuas  of iieLf-ïceed^ scli;:s to ::ie-:t arld,itioylal. denends. _,
  ' Tha lnd'lans i¡r each cligtrict l?ere ïegn¡.d.ed. as possåseia¿ ti:e Inilia:r tj.tle for that
 ci.fstrict , anù fornai. treaties were ,aåd.e rlith tÌrcnr ì::,- ie¡;resentatives of the croç¿nó Bhe
 fÍrgt trso treaties covered. tlle to:-ritor;. in the orþÍna1 ?rovÍnee of lÍasritoba. B,y üre
 Ïndian treatles reserTes r'¡ere set aBart on the basis of 64û acl:es for a family of,
        Ehe Rall"."ay    ;ict of   1s?4 provid,eC.    for locliing up large blocics of land alongç the
 propooed.   railve;r roube, absolutely prohibiting aettleinelt on thoge lends.                   HoiÍevere e
 Large ancunt was aquatted, and tire gozersraent r¡as fcrced,              to   recogniee the   rÍghts of   those
 squatters to    br.ry   their farns.
      In 18?9 the Ì&cd'cnalil Go¡rer¡ment laltl out flve lard, belts along eaçh stds of ¡¡re
naf'n lfne sf tbe raÍ1say, fornlng a stri¿: fn a1L 140 nl. wid'e" s¡lth retes
for .oreolErtlon a]rd. .lurchsse wlth the rlght to lr.omestead. on ev€n y¡unbers" -{galn the
Gover¡¡rent wag f,orced          to moilify its plano. l,ater the       Goserr¡uent d,eeided,   to set asid.e
106r000rt00 acles     cf lttncl as e legerve for build.Íng the C.p.R, ÀLl ungranted. Ianris
                   f the áro tro*, l¡¿re elthdrawn frcm homesteadfng. A.ealn nod,iflcetíons
ç¡ere fsrced upon        the Gçn¡er¡ment b.w settlerst agl.tatÍong, .{fter           a,srangeme¡rt had. been
mad.e sitþ the G,F.R. synd.feate, the Gæernrent reseryed. all od.d-mnbered. sections
tiro'ughout the lïsgt for rallvay purposea, throwir:g open to homestead.fng a1l even rn:mber,øI
sections. .trl tlrese bIl:-ndere delaygrit;seàtt'ement for a d.eced.e.
      In splte of all dlfflculties of transportation, tbe gresshopper plagne af IE?ea?5,
the loclcing up of Lands 1n veeervesrand. the soncentratf on pf land. by epeculation f.a ecrþs
a¡rd' the F¡rong Land. polle;r of the go.uernment wltb regarcl to ho¡resteailÍng¡ 1826 eaw the

ffrst e=portatlon of wheat from. the R.R. Settlenent, The erop averaged Se*tu. to the
acxe. In 1878 tbe wheat yfclit of $Þa:[tobe was IrO00r0O0 bu.
     fhe flrst settling was along the water soìtrses aad prospectl,uei linee of, railaaya.
In 1B?5 a eo-nsfderablq n¡mber of homesteaders carae fqcùr Eastern Cen¿da to the pepbg.s                             '

Sokne 80 "-rr;, fro       +tozip e g:-a ; s";r-/.;;¿cá7;;f,;:-/;
                        rzz/y¡                                   t/r-;"'
Ãloì¡-utaiE ÐtstricÐlsa¡ûe year 60oû Ïdenonlteg had. entered. aBon I? toç¡nshíps between the

Sembt:re ilsu.ntaln a¡rd the Bet[ River, 'notrrlthstancling the absence of tlmber.                Å¡other
partq of Henonltes took u¡l the            same   yesr   B                       River. Ât onE tlne there
                                                             tos¡shfBs 6est of the
were 68 llenonlte ufllage          con¡tûìrnea   f¡ the largei !€rserve. l¡tÐ &lononitEs were tha first tc
lfhey settled.             ln colonleg Ln the outskÍrts of Ì.-grnitoba, eest of ihe llecl R.Íver an¿ alo¡1gr-blie
nor'Ùhuestern;ø fï.ey ivere placed. o¡r gcrlrbby                       la¡rl   on   vhich eagtern Canadian, Eng1isÌ:

-asd. Á¡'aerican settle¡s t¡ou1d aot have wanted. to be sett1ed." ï.n 1.896 .årnerícan fiuoÍ.gratlon
bega.n tû s.èi'ble in sc¿ttered. ¡naaner. Io 1g9B Large l:odies of Ðoruchol:ors tîere setti.ed.

alon¿'        the Coff.R, 1n aorthav:r $askatchesan anrl onl;r partly in ì,îq$Ítcb:. ?he'poÞrúation
ia lg.nitoba rose f,rcm 152506: i.n LS91 to                     hÐ1*ZLL f.n 1903.o lncliuli.i:g Yizuripeg      uith   42oti4û
            the PoPu f vtt4n w&3
pa¡rulatíono In 1911r^45513L4 besíctes                        the    6O15   of the tersj.tory ari.ded, Ðr 6nl8 per sgune.È
mile cf          t.b.o postage    etanp. (L36r055 ia i:iinoln*r" Ehe gcreage uncler crop ín                      1901 was

2?5€L06 as agains+ î.¿F,a,gr04l- acres                   in   1891   .   60ß   of the lancl s¡ir.s g"i.Een up to wheat .
Éaeh farmer           f.n ihnitobâ osned an aîrerage 278 âcresr
                It rras in. this deead.e atrd. 1:r r¡Þnitobs that the 0.11.1,. system originatedn as ihe
T-o   lra    I5a4Ítoba 3ai1u4y and. tanat Conparly began tr¡ lBgS by the Glsdstone Ðauphf,n line, In
19C1         u¡ the ¡rane     of   üanacl.f.a.n   gorthern ft absorbeil the ïforth.ern PacÍf!.c iÞnlta'oa Lfneg
ancÍ.                  lts l,bnltotra $ysten with Port Àrti:ur, wÍth the aid, of subeidÍng of the .

provincee5          and. in 1905 extend.ed. toivardg Ed.ruonton and Pri¡ce.{,1ber4 by the ald, of }om{ndort

Erraraateeql bend.s.
                                              ,   -3?
  ed'ucation especi:II7 Ín'ne-:v i:.o,'¿esteari settl-epri.'ntgc îhe.UnÍversi-t7
                                                                                 of j,,,Iânft-fbá
 abrfsþed in 19$? ss.a. gonfed'eratlon of theological coll,eges
                                                                         and ln lg8t a nciic¿¿l eolSegr
 r;ras üncorporatecl in íi, .anrl
                                  Ín 1399 a general fneuLty of science and natheue.hics was
 opered' by   it'   rn    the Ðc¡n. Govo'assÍ6ned. to ihe new univer-slty l50r00o acres
                                                                                                 ojl raai
but it" too vae toolilng forth to assis'banee of tire
             '                                                ¡rrovinciaL 6u.irernnent. fhus the
neccls cf 'uhe -province becn-ne nrrtiTford. i¡r nu¡rber                                            ':
                                                         ancl e:ctent, soi$e tÌrough a,; ihe first
gì.arrcea¡iBea::Í:t*:tobeofa1oca1cireracterI'1|eIe.be7cncì'thereacilof1oga1authorities                        i

and' ¿r*ew   tsto n^ltiorel sígnÍflcance¡ others        rvere evid.ently provineiaL   in   cl:Errastoy but
beyond.   tj:e ¡¡¡eans of the provlnce"

          ?o understancl the   fl¡aneial condftlons of tire prorlnee vs imrst recall-the terns
of ii:e 3r' ll' '¡i'" of 186?" l';¡e ¡aret aLso rerae¡nler that this province,
                         ,1^-!   ^F   t ôaH                                                                   .

                                                                                    v!:en firet
e::elte'å out of a eoraer gf the Ruperits rancls it wsc i:ot
                                                                  h::ad.ed. oi¡er -bire conirol    ar¡ú
aiL¡:riais{räti'on of tl.: ;rub1te rlo¡ri¿.Í-n ,síthin its bcü_adaríes*                                       .:
                                                    cTl:;?,rt:ì   Îy

                                lf'li,it     i:a:ìli;i Ol -r,i;llU.?_i ,tJ i   0,1

                                         ¡ïSl'Ì:ìI:i;f iCii Ct ÌIGï{TS -}.ll)
                                3Ti11 I:A tF T r.::,îIJU îï û_.\li;Ð.L.

                          L"               Srovisioi:s oi tìre B.if .À..i.

               TÌre   rigÌrts    c? ta.Ee¡ticn snd ihe:::odes
                                                         or s;rste:ns of t:-,,xaticn are ezpliqit1y d.i.striå
        lþuted by the 3.."i.-!..1i" By SI, 5: ,r?be raiging of Ì.ioney -tt:;
                                                                               aa¡ il'çde or S;rsi;e.Lî..of. rla:r_
        siÍo¡:." coiil€B withia tire e=clnaive authorit;¡ of tÌte Far1íanent
                                                                                of Cs.¿ntle" ,,î!:$
        ion,.laybe eÍtireg dis'ect or íerlj.¡ect." By g;?"2; ,,}irect
                                                                      Ta:.atj.on çithÍn tho ?:rrvince
        Ít orúer to tl:e raising of a ïìeuenue for rÌrovincial;¡Lrr:lcses*
                                                                                        aitirin the e:rclnËir.,
. rig"hts of tile ?rcvince. Tc tÌ!is, .ialte:, S. Scott
                                                                    {L) anirctal;es as fc1tews: *Fhe
   PrcvincÌel i,egisL.,irrre rca;, vi:.e::evsr ít sees fii, i:npose
                                                                           d-írect ta:.;liicn for a j.osoi
   iuslloce u:loil ¿r partieril:rr locilit:¡ zfthin ti:.e ilrovi !eê.2? ,,1{;
                                                                                  ås ultra vires of ¿r ïço:',
   í::cÍal legí to Èa:; propert;¡:rot within the provi3tcÊ..? ,?It
                                                                                     has becn he}d. in .,F.lii
   oca thet he¿;:ciii:6 14 of this seciion( dealing: wô'¡h
                                                                 acï:iinistraiion of j's.bice e.nir ali
  per'caining to 1t)viii not authorize Í¡¡ûirect taxation'for
                                                                            the _Ðurposes of tr¡ret heaclíng,,
           is to'bre.ter:-:s *d'í-*ect tageg?! and'rinc.irect tir:r='srr! ï.Ial.ier
                                                                                      s. scot.t (l) ennr:tntc
  ag ln a certai¡ e-se aÞ.oroqed- of b7 tì:e
                                                   'Þriv;r cou:rciL, as foL;ows. ,,;1. d.irêcL Èex ia on",
  el'ricb 1e clerxånd'ed Íron 'i;Ìre verT persc.n çrho it Ís               'or
                                                              i.lztencle¡l     desiree s.lroïúd pay it.
  rnöinect ta:ceg are tÌrose wliieh are d.eÍìânded, fro¡o, one
                                                                    Þerson in the eqoectation and. Í'te¡â
 )gtlon th::t rre shall ind,emnify hi.nrself at tìre e:dpe$se of
        .þoting Scoit agaln, he anirotetes to 9p,g: ,rl,,tunicÍ.pa1
                                                                     ïnstitutions in the ï
 as follows (a): "The au'thorÍty gfveîn by s.92 (s) to r¡alçe rar.¡s
                                                                       as tomÍ.t-,iclpa1 institut-
 ior:g in the provi¡rce cnl-'¡ authotize* tne givíi,6 of sr.,ch
                                                                instltutiofis                           po')ers   tiint ere
 given to tha ¡rrorrÍncial legislrtu-le b;r-the- other
                                                         head.ings of iire sectionsr                         al:d. dces not
(t) ìTaltet S. scott, 'lFhe Ca¡iecl,Lat trlåstitutío*,,:
{,?} ''Gen*,8isn ConstitntioÌ,r' p. e+O.              IglB; p. p5g.

   e:lr.:it t.rc el-o.i;i:^r.:l; ,f        Èi:c :::,x:ici;lr1   irsti.b*ùi;' vi¡i., al-i          bli-e   ;ii:ic euilrcsit;r   ç.rÌ:ich mighf
  have^sr''r::ts'cl'   tc then before fec1ers,'                 Frc;r3 ,¿r:i.i_s it    :lec,::e.11,,il;l fol1si:rs bl:.1:t :iai;i.iclpü
  ias:tíon        cri-net   fe;fr.ireet .t:irc:ti Jn.
            ÐLrecÌ;    tazaticn i,e" hoiuez:r, r:rt                l:'.lelbcd.   tc -le:so::al     .äaees a:ld.
                                                                                         t¡ ii:e.ãa;,¿tÍon af
  ieal or peracr:ar Prcr:Jerty' 3y 9213: "sh.cB, rìal+g.n"
                                                                  Î*vernr -ii¡-ie-t.ioaee: ar,å othe:: i:ice:rce,:
  i::' offJ':r t': llre:'eiai:i3'of a Revr'?'.re fûr ]vcvi::eial"
                                                                    locaÌ., cr.,iir1Íei¡ral pL-J.*clsûs?! àre
  cif;liia tÌ:e povara of 'bì:.e prolri:rce" 'Ta--ratian by licereo
                                                                         Ís direct t¿lntioìfrrf $eÐ.''; a:u:o-¡.
  ¿rieg iu)'" .:Je nâJ f-rretl:cr ¡ tii:.:t rlSneane:Ja::eg:!
                                                                      &,re dl:.eet taxes uhil¡t rnononolÍes=
 rcC. essi¡es        are indirecÈ .i;n=rt!onþ"
           Fton    a1l tl:.Ís      s.¡e   *c¡iclu-Ce   il:::.t .*j-:ile il:e lo¡rL::iorr.3::riialenj:           hi:.s Ehe   pcrer oÍ   inpoe_
 ia3      'lirec'i enti i::ûiz'cct ta:reuo tiie Froví¡rcial
                                                                                    iq;Í.e3.e-.t',r...u   *,y inpose direct        tar<es   rjr"
 errlyr 'ì fïrti:er cce's1'-r-sion ie th¡:t ì;'lenlcÍpal
                                                                             -r,:rilrorities      Ìrer¡,.3   or,:I;r pc:;crs B.s d-elesateû
 t': the:i by the       if'o-i''i;:ci¿11 i,e6ånlsture aild cre-seçreetly, tuc:-bic¡i
                                                                                                              for ::riu:1cipal :ruppûses
        cal;r cå:';eç'¿" :ll¡ ;lvt gl, tÌle rÍght'of 3.;v¡dlg *::.c1 eoileetini;
                                                                                 c.astons enei eaeåse c.ç.t,''eg
  f* r.gsef'fed e'sclusivel:¡ Í*ot': tìre Ðoüi-.*icn P,erlienent*
                                                                      Tire Ínsåitution çf e i¡niforn tantf|
 i:7¿ìs one of ti:e profess*d                                            dø
                                  objeete cf the ad.,¡ecrit of Con.fffuiion" ÎÌûvrever"
                                                           es                                on giring up
titfs ehief       ssì:-rce    of   :*evênr'rer    Ùld canaca snd tÌle            xF*c.siÈÍr¿e Frs-,rÍ¡:.ees      ir¡ü to ìra ¿¡iven    soae
conpens*tlon         for the flnarrcler            neeclc   of t!:e prorineiar gover:.*ents" fhis pas prcvid.ed
                                                                                   :- ---: ¿u¿s Yqø
for ia several ïïays3
        Flrats gecu'Ìi::g tire Brotrineiar legÍeratures tlre autiroritg
                                                                        of 'Ðf¡ect sasation
witl:1n the Sror¡ince iR order to the raising of a ievenue
                                                              fcr proì¡iÐ.cial F.lrpoeesr? (ge¡*}"
           secoad': granti+5: rtrhe fcllowing                   gu¡ns    shal1 be oaÌd. yearry b;i. canad.a to the geveral.
Frcr¡inces for .tÌre supporb                of thglrGeirern$entg          and,    iegislatures:
                             OntarÍo                         Eigilrty tbousqnc:. ÐoLters
                            Êuebec                           Seventy ?hougand.               ri

                            Fova Scoifa                      SixÈy fhousriìnd. "
                            Iíetr 3:r:nesick                 Fifty fhousand.
                                                           .!&ö-@sencì                       Ft

                                                                                                                 lol.Iars ( #tl8l.
{åi "0anaeHan Conetttutioaf,ril p.                  p40.

           .lÌrj::r1   :    'ra¡i an-::ruil 3raet     i:l   .rjlrL   of   e¿rci:.:rl:o'.ri:-ce siralj- be l'r.:icle,    eluiil to       e-i6'hl.-','cenb

iler      IIû¿.rL   of     .bhe Pr:.r-uJ.:ticj1..às   aseelt¿rireil b7 -l!ie Census cf one tllor¿se.nd eiSht ÌIr:ni:eu                                  ¿¡r.Ù-

sÍxi;;i-one-,,o"o,,"(,;Ll8i.                    T!te::e Bì;111 ïí)ír,ÌiÌÌed.           tc i;j;e;:rorillces in?oît,:lí¡i alid t)Epensi'ie
flu:ctist:s srlch:,is etl;ei.aistiî¡rtiol: of j;sl-,ice                        a:y'l   ali pertinei:t to it, educationr                    senì'let-b'ìu¡

ïó:i,,'is    a:rd'briúgee" îÌ:e              E5 cel:te sr:bsii-.y si1o,-ìLd conbribute                   io the      c.eîra:,'ir*-.{   ir'iit"       o=p-'


           Folrth: :\ soulee of reverue of ihe sel'ersl ¡riovi::ces froa the lrrrbi.ic                                           land.s      i:r     tl:.g

respecti."re proïiacss Sefore                    ûorrfe4erg.tion.                  B;/   the   B"IT":1-.;ì."   I09.' . 'rjúl l,sni-ee l?iLrag"

llineråls        lo;raltiee bei.r:r-ging to tÌre several irovineee of Cctnad¿:¡ ÏJor¡a $eotÍar å-i¡ti. liei:'

Br.üjlstïicjr at the L-r:iior, ai:.r3. all gu¡ag tj:en dre or p:o¡able fcr such lan'fg¡ l::j¡reee I',iûle-;.a1:,
o:.,=,o;r;lliles, ehell;:elonE to ilne se'teral Provinces of Orttasior îlue'ûecr:'Ic-¡a Scot:i* ¿:ir1'
j:,Tel,J Br-Linsviek in:¡i:ieir th.e s¡r¡Ìe are siblåted or ariee" s'..r.bject tc any trusts e;isfinS: :in

               ,      tO any iir'cereut ûrÊer than
resgeCt thefeOfn a::ù io a4y iÌltcrect other T:"I[lfI                                  tìrat of the rr::ovinces itr tbe
                                                                                       ÏiÌflî oI r]II('.¡:5u                           Ëâïieorr

        lo ti:is arti.€le,3ectt;*Ðnotateg: t$,þ ilIt rn¿*t bo alua;rs kept in'tliat sb¡33'e
                                                           rtlL{r propert;r sft or Ês rbeLc¡ãed to¡ bi:
nuf:iic. landr :,rj.i;h iis igrefdenten is åescribeii ¿:rs
-jlo,-¿iaion or e prûvi::ee" these e:qrressiono
                                                 lerelyíqrort thet the rl.ght tc its beriellielaÏ                                                .

usÞr, or tc iÈs procec'ås, har* Þecn.-ep¡:rapriaie'11 'to tha louínion of the provincer a$ the
casê rua¿, be, ls su'bject tc tire co¡ltrol of its leglsletirre" tbc lend. itself -Þei¡-þ veËttr
 in the Crûr.rn.            'I

      ,fle fu:rthen renarks ??ianús in                          ûnt¿,irio s',Ere:1dered. by            the fndÍons by treat;'bef{r:ry';
 vested        in the trown for the beneficlal use of the province"n                                       ancl, Agaln, be reshrker'"iu
 Ãonio"u eannot of its o';n rotion and -eower ertfu4ulah Indl.q.n Rights"'t                                                    thqtevÞÉ          the
 .bérn ,nvested. ir: tl:e Crowa" may meun to the nen of llws; de faetou however, 1t:raeans less

 to:day tþn tire sa;ri¡*'rflre lande belong ts tho people." lt is a useless Lega1 fict¿on
 devoid.        of all cortent.
  t5)       nCanadian Constltuti$Jß,'eg                 p.     2/17.
                                                  -   4e*

        $1fÈli3 ?roce,:din¿ i;Ì:¡-:b ,'il¿:rrrla 3i13!l b: l_i:rj:}a foy iheD.ei):rj ¿rnd. iiaìlilil:ies of
ei-ìc:; :i'Ð'¡j-;l¿a e:tis'bi:rg at -bi:e Uciln t il-10i. i,i:j.b¡ of ..Jlclì d.s-oiír are set a¡ frllci-;r¡:
 Ontario an.d- 'i:-eoec ccnj::ini;}y ç,ier50CrOût, trie;i 'nr.virq, tc i;a;¡ tc D¡.¡.,rìs i;:.ierest :-i; the
      o: {íi (.i]-izti llovc,icoiia,inC ìÌen }runsriicl; $'rtûûrcO0 and 7r0O0r0Ò0 res-oeciive.L;
(i-r-4 ¡i¡;t1 1i5) tÌre-,'ir:,.rì.:rg tc reeei;e fcr the cL::f¿ci ini*'¡esi| at F;:l ¡re-r ar,nu.n
                                                                _ //+_

                                  B         -r;.olication of r.hesePFûvl'..1iDl:.s tc j:anitob¿.

             llitir relrtÍcn to       l-ae¡rito'ba those subsid.i...s ','"ero epplLed ag              folloils;        (.1-)

 ia) In             1ê?O   l:ilniioba entere,å Con-fer'.eration çi'¿ir an es'bi:íla'ier.1- popuJ.eiica of aborit 1?0,3ù
 and e d.eb't al-1cir3.-:rce          cf   $4?¿CCO   for   '.vhÍch agsìmed        in   del:ted.ness   the -îo¡ri::j.o;r GoveE¡Tneni              :

 had       ta þaJ íit' interest to the provlnce. 'Ihe al-Lorvance                          rra,s increased, on sevelal $cca-

 giorl.á; Ín L91P it¡ bound.arleg were estended. it wes again increased to il8 ,!A? rãOtJ"                                                       :

 Hoiøever, i.'enitoi:a h:.,d d.raw¡:. on          the capital of debt allonance tc the erbeat of                               f"4?5¡81Ê
 thus reducing it ta ?rl:gLrô84 Srle1ding at                        ã,,4,   an aa¡rusl í.ncor¡e .rf $38Lr504.

           ÆCIE"-qer,!g pÌr* Heâd qqÞ,"lqri.                                                                            .j

  [1¡] 0n enterin6 tonfeder¿:tÍ.on wl-lcir an estinåted. popule,tion of 1?o00C ,.j*niioba Eåìs'gra:r:l:                                      ,

 the suåsidy of Bo/ per Ìread, i.e. tË136CrO-" In ls8g t!¡e estinaied topr¿lrrtíon sas talien

 to be 15O0OC, tl*en by eaeh quinquennial                                     this'8rant
                                                                     i¡tcreased.* tn tgûf b;l
                                                                  ceÌisus                    ir:.rg                                          :

 the reçised 8.'lI:'&.=- tÌ:e limiÈ of ir¡cr*ãse wae wlren'bhe pc¡nrla-ùion of any province


 reashqd ¿¡ìtr)ûrÙtû (againet .400rCI00 ag Lrr the or'íginal                             aet)   anrl then 60/ Ber              Þead              ;

.,go3r'Jn- €æesg of'pcpirlatÍon êser                  thãt },ÍmÍi*             îb'rrs llanitoba vgit'h     íts   inçr.-eq-e.eê.-..goËrr¿"*   :

 latioc ln I91å (461650) reeeived Sgeg*FO+ ott of the
                                                                                       S0y' sulsi-
                                                                                            su.bsidJr"                                       '

           å,llorvance     for   .sovern¡nent and    &egf.uLatåo$l.                                                                          ,

,{*l        0n be'iry creeted a province ì',laniiob.z ¡eeelved a {}50Ot0 grrrnt a.nnually for                                    thnt        :

trmlpose. In 1SBP it w¡¡s lncreased to-50¡000. Sn 1907 a seale raas adopteri by lshfch

provincea etth 200000-400000 po¡nrletlon receiv'ed .$1$OCOC" anõ-"above 400000to B0OCI00 $

$tsoooo.                                                                                                     '    ',

            Besitles these allowanceg received as per 3.¡[,ir.Â, along: 'eith the otheÈ.provi$ces
 of thé            Dominion there 1s thE Allowinee              ÈlieË of Pub_lic f*p$ in the provinè-e over                                  ì

shich lanùs, ],Ernitsba bas bee.n givea                    oc   ieentr'ol whe¡¡ it enteced confederation                                     l

 (4I In the folloigfng aecorant rie foll6ç¡ prof,..S, À"" 8. C}ark in "!'ir:ance                                   and Taxs.tion:
 of 't0e¡ada and Ëts Proç-1¡rces" 1Iû1. Eï, pB ã51-56â.                                                                     'r
                                                                     -   /1,5__


              Then tan¿'r'Je bcu5hb oui; 'çhc
                                      Tei:::itorial righte of th.e Hude¡onrs Bay to- Lt r¡as a- ïF,tu:,:.;
  ass::mption tlie acluired. tevriì;ory :vcukl ïe held. fcr the
                                                                      be*efit of the -¡hole !onl-nÍ.r.:r
  e'¿d' åi; Îjao ;croviceel               that these   ehouLd. :;e'veeted.        in    Li:e t:"ovnu and ¿i<1uÍr:is,8ered -oy      the +ov-
  erå¿eni of trsuld." :iicr ihe pll¡.o{lges of -!i:.e Ðoininicn.
             proviáion cons'bii¿ted. a fi-rì¿:rei¡l grievance ¿cci Tes,soa for
              '3ucir                                                               i:ollrÍcai egít.ation
 iu l,Þ¡ritobl . llius:vhen" in 1333r:=,.hnitoìoerg ler c:r,oi'.g¿:. ¡;rrnt ïrïlg increaged. ¿n enr*al
 subsid.y         of ;þ!5000 ?-is algo gr:r:rt:d to                ire= as an ind.e:anii;y       for her gublle land,g.             ï,= lgg,ã
 'bhst ind'eamiïI ¡¡as raised. to riLÛOr00û' ,ln end.ov¡aeat
                                                             tc the Univerøíuy of l,e..aitoba of
 150'000 ¿lclres or 1¡:nc ïas alsc nade 'lry th.e Ðoninåon Govern:nent. Fr:r,¡her suclr
                                                                                                                              of   flsetrn
 Ï:1¿Ú's as?,eaag $i¡ov:r to'be s-qanÐ le:rd.s to the e:ci;eat cf ?o01pr416 aerc-rs vr€re tra¡rsfe¡red.
  to the provinee etthe rlífferent d.ates. Çe tH*ue tìre prcvlnee solú' g4grz14=fof :iifo].SSrt6e
  pr!øi åo tire enlLr.ger:en'c of L9I,?. By i;he L.irnitol¡a Botrncleries
                                                                               -iutu L?IZe tlre uneaLrl þal_
                     aeres   ,   GV7-99
.iince,..ø;fil, l64sl,1äof sw*.n:¡l land.s lïere retrsnsfer:ect-.û.1 ti:.e 3o::ni.zrion* a.rid e eubrid.¡
'xs;ìæ+lu'i;fon es ^Ðel each iuin,luenlaJ.
                                            'sengus uea irgr'eet upott" Before the war j,.l.+nitols
+eogfvecl accordin6S.y;.1sezseO per ârJtì.im (po¡-utatisrr.4*,,J0o0flû to aÐCS,o4O; ån l;f.el1af pltSÏIr.

                                                       by the Îoninion, $ beÍng                  5l   on   {r}   SEOor000    for
Ëhs-¿rrivereS.ty lands lü6ì2r?69rg5? on,tbe amotulb                                of    seLes   of   svarc3r Iand.s b¡r   the province,
mí-nrç +Ë419Ê11 elærges Qf                   arlair:istratlon anri inspe:Etíoa by the latte:"                      lhfs ïofÈ:the:pr,-
oviriae a ;il4OgoC07                 indernnÍtyfor hee ;ru.bile lsrul"s"
         ,   Ferù eotaes ttre Se4ool           !Énos nq*r 3y the DonÍnÍon Lands ;lo-ü" seetÍon                           !.1 and å9   in
eregF survey'jl tovrnslrip fur Ï.ïanito'!le, S¿rskateìre.lren end. .,i1berta are set aÐart aa aå en¿rn?*.
ne¡¡t fr¡r purposes of Education. lhe nonies reeliøed ere lnçested. f.n sesuritåes of
ae-'b gehool fund',                tl:e ir:terests of nhlch" lees cost of                 narærgeine$t,    are t¡rneü. over to the
ÞdoÎincial             goverr:"uents toward.s      the         su¡rport of gchools org:anized and. eagf.ed. on j.:r acoord-
af,qel       teith the laç¡ of the provirrce, e¡rd for that purpose only.

                                         C       The ?L:iee cf Ta:u,itica cf ;rgricuì.iiri:I               _i,.ln1s


                                                    Iiie   ..regi;er¡r   ?rairie   ?royi¡rceso

                                     tlie fisc¿I s;.'ste:l cf l,'galtoba as resul'bing fron ihe B,lÍ*. ì?e;ìre
                r':cç ths'l; we i-inoü                                                                                                           ,,.,

           r-¿löit€' to see what plaee the ta:catåon of agrieuLtr:rg1
                                                                          lancÌs t¿tgcsin gre 'ii:es.i,er* ?raj.rle,                             ,


                Ï:r Saelai;che:zan {5} l?e find'Li:e f+iLovlr:$ provi:lcieL                    t¿rxss cn li;.nd:
                ;                                                                                                      {s) the   nPu-b]-ie
      ta:c of zfr an to-ba} asses$ed'c. vaLue of all rateable proÞeety i¡. the nuniciparibies,
      ;i                                                                                              and                                    ,,

      Lt' pe= â-cre cn lsnrl Ín tìie Loca.L inp::ovements d.lst:-iets, _--'- l/E' e Ber aor,e upo-n gnaøi*g
                                                                    7   ancl            6?¡-  R
                                                                                    Yv¿           -/   -   "

      Land leetJed from -the crofln,

                                                  {bi   'iì..é "Hi}d. lands T-riz* {si-r;¡ereê,ciu3l           i$ igl8 il:e ;'su.rt,?:t,,         ,

    ' of 6fc                                                                                                                                      l

                Fei'ac3'e on ui'lc'rltiv:rted. Ia::.d in rrrr¡i}.nu::leipali.bias) a ilx of Li/" oa the aaeesssrJ
      iri¿iu.e of u-noccupiecL lai'id {c} the
                                                "Hlrq:.ry?"_H,n' dating of 191?, a tax of rgf                                    ¡rer             ,

      asre Ì?itì: a n!al:,r.:.a tr.rx of :gpb; {¿) t¡""Sopp1-u*g*tg¿ Serre¡r]le,.!?E,, of l;í
                                                                                              ¡ree eere,                          #    po,
      acre oí graziw3 land. Leased. fron il:o Crovrtó                                                                                        :


               Ä.+-+lnrini.Ibertâ [5] we find í:1 ccitreeticn ç¡ith land tax¡tion: (*] 'Tl]g]*jg
                                                                                                   îu_=o'                                    :

      in o;ocration since r9l5r a tirz ;;^kessed. value, hoilesteads being exempted                                                          l

                                           "t                                                {b} the
      'l!'tto?ry9d. rnc.reruggl 3I,"  'þtfng frc:r'Lglrr a ta:c .of 5ß on the increase on the uniniB,rovred.

      velue of the lsnd. over lts las'b praoe.LÍng value                   at the trensfer of lanoo {ci thc
                                                                                end. ievied.

       "Ti*Þt=. rireas- galril a til:'t o'î z;¿t' per aere helü from the Ðonlnion Goverr¡ned, (d)
      i;ior.eù fgE'o¡t land.s outsid-e tbe bo-rr¡ô of organiaed ssh.ooL d.istricts and.
                                                                                              on graøing
      land'e leaËed. from the Goverv¡ment of Ca¡ horaestead land. beir:g exerapted                                for fou:: year.e.     .

      a tas or      Lful Per   ecre on farm
                               ^â-^  . ,- â---
                                                             n '   11 , -
                                                             â4 t"4 before 1915) on said. grazi::g lend, a¡n:m                         :

r   ur"linffift,,:i'hrT'"íi: å:lå. nn' 73-81'
                                                                               - 47-
   t-...r   of 5t;j an p¿irre:LÍJ of             :,,5 l_e¿;s-i: ;oe    :ere      ;ìr:.ù   cf   ;JS,, oi.:. legs   L.l:.:i-rr   cne 3s7'ei {,r) "S.o1S.3-
   Þ9"9¿ åfg9- H," si:ice liiô, i;Í Af i;:re :,tssesIjerj. .¡aiu.e Oî ri'iei:lrie                   ]r,..-lid in ,æ\en
  -u:ii¿¡ At.i ae-: ao:;e i:r rilr,.*i
                             " l:::.t i,C ¡¡e:: ;ìü1'e .r3î.zi;rg i.;nG l:elc. f=c¡¡ tbe

           coiiccr'li:r¿; blic "'lLrblic fcve::¿.>g Tu:i' i-: lì;ls-Ì;ì.iehe,"r,:i:1,
                                                                                         ?ïcf " :" 3o .jl::::lc {?) nrhes
  il:-= follosi:;; rc:Hr'ì;s" ,'3; tj:is     .ri,trlLjc liei,e:nrieg
                                                                     11:,i.:1,, tl:.o :,'ùvir.Ìci:ì1 l;.,i;isl:itÏ.re
                                                                                                                       li¡.s lilâ,de
  il' åecic'erL ii:¿'csd' c$;Ìre Íieiå of reel prcoertT i;n:nt:'.on"
                                                                                     w-hieh l:¿:j- b-ii c*storii coi::c ia be
  rr;5:;id'ei ¡'r:'bi:e 3-zoL113i?e psesJeï'us of bre uiu.nicipellties.
                                                                                         ReaJ. propert;r is:;reenllentlSr
 suit¡-irle far ir¡c¡.ì t'ì-'antiùno'r ì,'iiile                       ;ì.Ér   aìr ad[i:i¡ríst1':iive d.esider:tun.àn* f::o¡¡
                                                                                                                             t]re sta:ld._
 'oùi¡:i c'f sìxi¡¿-lliiii'u;r t¿i:çaiion of rear                     ^oro.cer-by     shoulå irc left exciusi:rety üo the,maÍcip_
 ali'bi'"g      fo::'-   Locai     l?'-u'i3ü$Ðs"   deeirability and s*ita'btii.Èy ney:rsÈ þe the o:]1¡
 in                         rf
      .the ;;oLicy               -t¿:.:i:tion,
            ïIos¡erçr    , a wnt,e::: of ir:isåríbu-tir¡n is                  cresir¿,.Ì:1.e ì:3,. ¡;ìrich   têe o'bjec"bs ¡i:.C d-o:r-aine lf
 teäâtic¡: -for d.cmÍei+:r, previncÌal and nu¡åclpul p".ui:oses
                                                                                                       sìrcr¿ld be       get:ar.*terln For. .bhat
 d.ev+,,-ae1¡,¡}¡a       tire,Þo:.rivrioa i.s tr.ooirln6;
                                                foy sou3ces cf rei¡cnue cther 'tl:¿rn real pîoperi;y;
1*ã¡ri'cobnr". *ore utric'hr;i '$ira:r l.' the
                                                oiiler two pr:ririe provÍnees, ihe principle of Leavir:g
real prope:'ty,ia Èiie trr:icln¡rll.ties furs                ecì.hercd. .bo.
        rn ilenitoï¿r tlro :""''¡iiciÞal cu¡ni:iíseiorir,'is levies for :c.;:lÍnietr:rtivã
                                                                                                                                 p-Lr.r,:coses   a   e,e::.ùain
e:¿c-ur:i    f'ron evpi';;1.u:'íeipalit;r in the ?rovÍ:rce, r$ Lg::4 (g)                                     .ühe ra¿cofi-
                                                                                                                                     levy for *re
uariecl by nnnicÍi:alities.fron !fforwta¡|.                                                                    'í.#*
                                                    lI Z:i" to ouer/@itoo of .i;b,- assessie.j ta:able value
and' for i;Ì:'e lrliole pl'oiri:ice tire lev;r for Llie
                                                        i;iu:rící,as.l tci:::r¡iìqeior.uliËrouu to rLß oi th.c
                                                                                     ner,n c¿c'e io rLí"5                                                   .

                        , . b;' .: .
toinl of levies raised' - sii t-he ru¿lclpalitiee toth rursi
                                                                                 *nrL urban together"
     git" "$
                      +IÈ H" is tire â,rJ.:Í t¿is ttuxh ap,olÍes to resr rro;oerùy in :;líl.t]lL O bâ                                                   E
for prcvincial revenue' ri d'åtes elnee igt9 es :?an
                                                        aet to nr:coui.age producticn by |rovfd;.
irg for a ?a:r on LhoscuBoed ï,rrnrl-
Ët;;*r,rJlf#o{d,/,Gâ*"{:;of;"r{"r                               b;r the .Ì.irrnicÍ.psir cci:r¡¡riegÍoner                 of *he province.
                                          - 18-
                                    CII:lIÎltrR V

                                  C,lo   nc   lus io n
           From this hlstorio€.l survey, msa¿lro and, incompLeta though lt is, the
     writor feols justified. in d.rawing his o!!n conclusions.
          Charles E was right or.wrong; but tho men of noto of the nation
     found' the Chartor valldt for tr¡o oonturles. Thess men might have been

     influenced. by thoir.ow¡.1 social, stancling, might have boon possossed by a
     particular cLass psychology, night havo hacl a trend. of thought ùuo to their
     legal eclucation; ths nation rig-!! havs.doubteci the hoaesty of qomer &r1d.

     ro joeted-   the conesption of ot_he-re; the   iaiaries t henselves , io their

     se1fishnegsnighthaye!one$reat..harmtothenatioa;yetfol1*oce1t-                         l

     uriss Rupert's,Ianð-was wbat_ Rupert ancl his agsooiates.and- theÍr
     wanted lt to b:e, anù all the officors of the natioa, from the.Crolln to the

     Sailiff suppor'ued. then in thetr cl1i.m. The,rlan$,, had. belongod. to the           j

     Crown by vittus of lonquestg, Ðivine Rlght, Might, oF other virtues; the

     aation !ad. fqught by rovolts, petitions, oi1il wars, appeaLs to retlgion,            r

     and other formç  of.struggler To:d?{ the ö5owg ig d"iqourqed. anô èe facto            ;

     d"lvestef of pou¿or civiI,. .military, r€ligious oF other powers. îho H.8.6.:
                                                     I                                     .

    ' ag a gosereign   company wont d.own         into past history.           -.

     into oblivion paying geoooooanit a huge grant or'rroa. the *1,,", ;;;;"r"             :

    insignifioant compareð uith caned.a's ctobts of to-c[ay._
                                                                Th*,revenus that _         ì

    tho ilsw (I) E:l:C. has alroaùy ösrivsd. ,:*nl wllt over cisrivo frora its sales

    of land' is a nogllgibto e{o,ntlty conpared. with ths v¿ in popuLation,          ,

    land-rinstitutions and- rnateriat gooðs of Manitoba, instea¿ of the illgoverned
    and. iLlused fur businosd of Ruportrs Ï.rancl.

     (1) Every tirno we shalL speak of tho       company that bought out anct
                              the ärrartoroa--i:.s,hCË-"i' iüä-u.8.õ., we sñãrrsold. out
.   Ifl"tf:.,,utfi:Ë:åoration                                                                  :
                                          _4t _

         Ïho ;:oopL¿ of l,ianitob¿¡ h,Eve ¿irÐ&t ttr¡ cre.tter of tìrc lanris-fÌ1e
 iìes¡ !{.8.0. o!'Jns in ii{anitoba¡ not bgc¿:usa i.¡¡ tìrin.K tirat such oi-¡gei.íii1i'j lr¿ìs
 ecriuii:3(t b¡ :.) 1",;.t) cènti¡.,:i-:i* olC. r,itrbitrriry fer:dû.I ¿ict of Ch. ïT, but because
 tir; peopLa rne;y in the firtî, Legiferr:.ta conc.srning:1.8.ü. lantls as ovër
 svery i:.umb l, hgraest ead *cquil'ed ¿¿t gri:trt- Irrrson¿.¡l sacrif ic,o.s.

         Ifou lst us oonsidcr a fsç bars fects.          fn Le'¿4 tho ii.B.C" cirerged. to
 sgt t l'3r's Js pat: acrs; in Lt3¡Ìc¿, ?s {i,.1, psl E}cp3. lhs H. B, C, r'esarved. f or
 itsalf 'tila riSirt of traspr:ss over granteci l"aed"s and. right of se¿ireh for
 i L lic i.t t s.
       In sp::lng   1851 th,¡l.j.B,ü. sold to "lnglish investerrs I5ü0OOO âr,efos of
 Land avoraging;i;l.i;g p3r ¿Ìei'ê. in ltjil the
                                                     ".p."1. sold lu.nd. in the SranÕon
tistrict ¡-ind iv+stt of Ít at rjÈ.5O p*r ¿:cr€, r;ith Êi re.bate of .fJ-.Ëu por evùry
acrs brcugÌrt unrler oultlva.tion. In L88P ths c"i).i?. solû 1,,¿üorü<¿a â,eraÊ
o jl siinil¿ir co¡rdit ions.  3y legl bsnrestoad entrios roae¡ed Lâ,liû, Ia 1gg¿
tha jiominion gov;:rEs-3nt rlisposseus+d itsolf by homosteads, ppsgûrptions and
sales of är{i99,L-1,: acrss of l¿:ncl. ,rt l..rst j.n lu8åj the lind bubbles burst.
       Svidsrutfy tìra iî.3'ü. $atrapism of LB'¿,4'18rg diä nothing to e¿russ Ìot
bi'¿rdes of grain to gron r¡hÐre only lO0 haû grovln bofors. ,fhe rise in ths
 prlcø of Land- was du.a to tirs "Hurlan ã¿¿tgrial" willing ¿¿nd ready to cultivate
 the land' a$e,in the ilsw Iì.8.0. eontriï¡utod. with nsthlng in Lggl-IggÈ th¿it
 this vast land th¿it ¡¡a call "the .iest,i Strould beeone ttre ,tçoldon ',ïsst.,7
Àg'ain lt ro¡as ths 'tEu¡ùan ¡rlatorial," und'etrgoing palns, Xt6privations€lnû, in           .

 nnnerous c¿sss' untinely de¡:,th, that prgd.ucocl the ehanga .

      I'et u.s be elo¿¿r- in this mattsr. fhe non¡¿r.rl ocoripios e, pioco ef Lancl,
s+ttlas on lt, claims Jrls prlmi oecupantis;.Vet, that ie only the oirtside
appe¿r¿rncs: it ls jus priml occupantis et Laborerntis;, considoring Ìris
dltions and l=,rays equivalont tc ouF Bsing the{.i jus,prir:iae occupationis
arone without ius r.aborls *our-d bg no jus ht err.
                                                            êt++å- j* fortroris
imBrying ths subdluolng of tire foru¡er occupants, and. naklng them,
                                                                           ono way or.               i

  another, trlbutary contribut¿s ni-th notirin6 to th.a welfers a.ncl pro;-lress of
  those si¿Ìrdued unless it be;ìs a by-proôuct of thE ¡¡oans of securing ti¡e
  tribute. Iilg mastor of ths lanit by jus fortioris clairirs the tributa opetÐ-
 Xf.y a.nd ìronect'- :.,s a result of tire saerificês he and. his rnen bqoughi in
 orúsr to becours t;ie näster. Es clains a eertain d.ue to hÌm. ITow,
 the H.B.t. clalmeil. oæn;rsìrip anð eovsreign rights in tiro lupart1.s land as
 son,rthing transfsit:sd to thgn in tho na¡¡elXÃ XXþ.Ø#¡Æ af a, flet,ian anil
 r1lss. Si-nco, for two hand.rod Seâ,Fs, the,-inglish nation tolEratôù t'i,.a claims
 tirose bscafls quasi teg;itimate by use ãnd,c'rlston,, lha T{ew U,il"t;,,tb¿lt ,,IEt-
 ernation¿L'r ii'inancial ¿ssociation, bought from tlre H"lJ.0. tire,Lsvyitrg triþui
 from tho Rupertrs rand.. -ïb,arefrora dirl tÌre eoasy eoms? !1¡here,to ü1d; the
 monay go? i{oæ rnuch of it remaingd in,-Ilupertts ï*anü asrproeluetive capit'al
 to ra¿¿kg L01 bLaclos gro$ instaad of LOf? the rigirt to låvy tributa Ín ]Tu-
 pertrs ianü' ag lha right to colleat tq?es in a Roman lrovince, reore not!
 the r:sult of oeononnlo fore+s, bnt,.&t its best, doriveû of th¿rt absolui.a              i

 anci unquostionable devine      rigirt of tira tyrant. 'Ihe- 0onfed.eration bought
   arrd paid- for ths l¡'resdon of ?u¡¡'ert 's Land ûearsr th+n an¡l boroïgh in Ðngtand,

  had' âvor paid. to o*{ lnglish üing to be freecl from feudal subjection.
  llhus not the#.1,500,000 that the iIeï? IJ.B.0. paid to the old l[,B,Cn but ths

- Hunnan ifater'lat that th.a Confqderation was eble'to atfract to the now prov-
  ince, the poople seoking for lanit anct, frssdorn macte däñlto¡* what it is.
  fhe 500000 tines ¡1e.eS of Saglish invastors i.n acqglring tlre ownership of
  lanct in ths "rTestn Has'onLy the payment of s subeollesto.r paid to the soll-.
  ector of ta:rÐs, surely not for the benefit of tha tríbuts payerÊ. Set,
 einee tho-loman I,ans maôe thsn ancL- the social-esonomÍe orgenlzation makes
 nois such transactions possiblo and. legal, tho writdi. has to rsoognlse not tÌrc
 legltimate but tbe lagality of the or¡nership of the absenteos ln tho share
 of trlbuts they hold in the Ruport's le,nð.
       rt f.s sonehow rlLfferont wlth ths c.p.R,rs mllrlons of aoroe; a. {reo cleal.
                                     -   1-t -

,wititaat fietl¡;a a¡r.l 'Ð:J tìo i.evi¡i+ -i:LEi:.t. If ,.ri$ticles the Just uoukl have
bs,an a tÍiiiister of tiie j)oninir¡n tÌ:s;t h¡',rouLd have tcld us abr¡ut briboryo
partisanship, and sthor defects of tlts daal, if thero ï{ere süoh.' ¡¡ti the

peo;olo? llley would h¿rvo os*u-:¿rcizeû him. Ilonever, tha¡ ecoaonic nsrvo'u'8
s:fstem of thouse¡rðs of niLes of railway is souetiiing conero'te and- it Y,¡as


producerl aftsrt,he foderal rlovarnnsnt had, danronstratod glaringÌy its iu-'
eápabifity of constructlng it.
 .      ilow muckr of tire mongy obtainod for the over tå niLtion ssrss sold. by
the C.p.l. rðas aftar.,,larcle invostect i$ the ö"?.1.; hor,¡ mueh of 1t uas legit-
imare gain; hov¡ muci: of it was taken as tribute; and. how mu.cþ. llas sqnanilero
rî,r maj;¡ supposs that aot even.å.risti.des i¡¡or¿l-û have been able to aecount for"
.0n tha otirer ha.nðn however, the Confed,erati.on obtaine&o according to the
      eo?1 ceþtieøg
ethical, of tìrs timesr âß aconcnic instrument without v¡hieh thst rapid.d.evel-
opment would bave beon ínrpossibLa.
        Yet, anüthsr countr¡r, just ã.s rleho lîas erapty at that tine. Pooplos
of lurope sent their offshtrts ,thtsË a,Gross the.å.tlantic Ehers l-and anù frés-
 rloü llera offoreci, not whsre 3"e,nct ¿nü tzarclom lrers coup!'eû.
          Ths visisn of I\X gonfoðerat;lon in tha ilest woulrt have soo$ X4tÆ vanis;
FXod, 18¡ tbe enter.pririfg splrtt sf the C.?.T,-tÍorrÐoul-ù. heve soorl been wai*
 sted but for the I$å Uuuaß $âatorial- 'Iha popuLation of 3flanitoba grew from
 t8995 1n l8?t to 63,660 i,n 1Ð8I (Z), .Alt anû ovorything oonsidoroil, it is
 not t'he peopls wl¡o oi'¡e thanks to tbs c.P.l. lt is the c'!.1ì. who sscursil-
not to, sa.y exactsd tributo"'and suroly eacesslva tribute, fron tho ¡roople.

?hs Ðominion ãovernuont d.iit not soem to havs any soãse oi prgportion la

thelq generoslty. l{ot the monop,gly fcr twenty years, not th,r iri-gh ratos,
nor t'hs extenclecl. exsmption fron taxation ¡ssre or &ro the part of the tribut'

that an ^û,ristiils th* Jqst woulcl have rosontðü, but the excessivo stretches
of aholce lanrt, 25rOOO,O0O ¡'¡lthi.n 84 ni on aaoh sicle of tha maln line
 (zl 3.t.,lÄacBeth. a natlvs'of oarly l-[anitoba, in bls ñRomance of l]re Canaðd
Pasiflc Raf.lway" essures us¡ tlu¿t--l-and on the Re{ ancl the Åsslnibolna RLversx
tlê.tra thêrc 5d. an åerê.                                 ':
                                                    ' - f2'-
    ÐT irs r¡r¿¿nc.irgs (C¡"
   - la/a milT r'eP'-aät in t'ilis conitocî ic,r tilat
                                                         in îìrr l,:,t:; €0ies th,: if*n. l¡
$crlthi"igl;tsrn frcin-rlnnipeg, tira,.¿-in. ) ilorti4,iostern fro¡o p{)
                                                                                    I¿¡ i,rairÍc¡
anü oti:er rines iir th+ territorias r.+csivsd Le.nd grants,
                                                                           usualiJ,6dü0 acrss
p+r ni", me'icing ¡-rdditio¡ial '.ì,ilti4 ,û'7rr i'åcî"Js.ç in the
                                                                      hipsl- clseeðe of t^ig.
coni;ur.7 tÌr': 0.r"r'î' ås ihs guücess;û r of tlis :;,pg, gc i-I.i¿.1ì, oa¡ned.rirs¿t
rYayts l¡¿nd gr:int of 3 rL\'¿-,'li)¿i ¡j.c;:s.s. j'rir:
                                                         u.rr*:lo uhen taking oîep tir.;                IIa&"
& llorthEestûTfi lTty anit the i,lorth_ìiest_tentre"l, IT,Jr            .¡r;L¿aii,+ü L¡,nrj   â i,si.¿¿i.s
tc t,;:      L,   Jt6ng00 aoresr
         up to;itarch 5L, rgtä                grants to,ìry üornpanies ii; the.,,ei";t add,sd
up to ;ä11864,O,14.               up to thùrt s&r:r+ dnt.e the rI.ri'.c. r+ceiveå frcn the
ifSl loj-nt ( ti) of     t.he llchedtrLe= to tl¡q--r,Àct* Respoctlng the-
     Ieu.s'rnted rÐ r'gþ- r5'-ieerj i"ooie;ä;                             tan.,Ï,crc,.alty,,
    te' be ¡cade t9-th?.cottpanv" s^halr-te-¡raae  :Jo: s;äã";i, ran¿,-hereïry &sreed ,
    a'et'c$ oaeh est .rnöing *Þà"Ë"¿ã;i. äé*f*r* io-äfîr."iä'ru soct;.ons cf o4t)
    lffnni}eg to Jasþer Éonso in so tar-á,å srroÌÌ    eaoh si¿eìf ths rail$e,Í from
    õovern¡uent'-ths tonpany recoivingìu*î ii           r*nãã-shatrl be vested.:in the
    Ìi""tã,:lv-,it sricìl'-JãåtiJo" shat
    io r s +t t Lsnairt , t hs coni:any *oãËiõi-ü"3.*3**3iiå-*;åËaT3åg'ffi*o-Ai.""fl,
                                              t n*t--uã. ffiüå;ã'îä' ****iva *rãä as part
     of sach g:rant' anè trre ditíliãiãnãy"i¡rui*¡y-ããiJä¿,-uo*
     fleisnçJ{ v¡irio}r ma.''¡ r:,risà rro* iãsär*iãient quantity        any fartir+r nef_
     said portion of ràilway to-cornplete tùe said.å¿j'ooor00o       of Land elone ths
     the Brevalence of rakes ana. *oiãr *t*"àehos in iirs                 e,cres, o¡ frsm
     lakes atrd watsr st*ãrãit"ç shàir-"oî-;;';ñ;*îä¿'î; Äeations granteð lwhich
    sections) sharl i¡-o ma'ds .up f ro¡n oii r""portiJns-iã'-tire åcrease Ðf eucrr
    f ertire bslt, that is io-õ"v-it"-i;;å Ì.ying                      tract knoÐn as thá
    d+grees northern tatitud'e or elsswheru                 ¡ãtwãen-¡:aralrels 49 and ay
                                                      Þt îir.-ápãion or thep4

    grant tharein of si¡rilar-aLtu;ñt;*;"ät¿on*                               corepany, ths
            i,r* of an.y urãnoË- rin" o" rinãJ-åi-"ã:Ë;;:';å"b" bare.ic mi. deep on
    ;ff.i.e                                                             r.o.*ted lry rhg com_
 !*l, sraàt"ã l3-Lååä?r "å.î;å' i],,åå"l" lll': lîI:::::"1 sha* ext insuis h
qr!er "113"*iif ià ;iã";i-ti.*
 'f arl the lancls of trto-ão*p*ny in
ai'a sither sold or oceupiäd ér,árrtäs I{o"t¡-'-îå"t"tufiitories, oni:ii they
lnlon or by &ny Provincä h+reaftJrtä rii"u fr;;-uirãn^taxation by the jlom_
oorporation thsrin for Êo ysarË aftor inu"st*urisr.uo o* l;r an/munÍex.paL
                                                 s";;t-îil;;eof from
        0f further intsrest rËõm-¿ur.;I;'*'BoiËi*is iirä'g."u¡toa the crowa.
stock ancl cthEr. property ior arr-ti*ãJ anä.                        f rorn t¿,"es
                                                  oxeroptionfro¡¡ roguLetioa of on
rates tlrl rolj näa Ënão"eãrnea on-oaprtar inrostaeilt.

;.u.TÏî"o,ilrî#åol-13Ëä:.              *" in Haro!.û r.. ïnnosr rrl Ëistcry or tire cenadr^an
                                                - 5-3*

   in-ion surve,T+d lan,Ls in the.ïast (irnsurvl.y+d area not inel,udsü.) 6r6r:il
   &Of êå].

          iift ¡r tire btirsting of ths lencf i:oon .r,r Ls8g ii 'iook Êcmo i;i*s t:oi'.:îe
  Ð.tL evi'l+nt inlprovonent tooìr pLacs" }rr¿:m
                                                           $Bg3 to lEt4 the 0n?.j¡, l.,,ii:: j-ts
  sulr.birli-¡,r:/ eoiapa,rilo) sotd. LZ,g,l,Í$ sliì¡l qcriåii ácr th.e sr¿ä of
                                                                                 {þ?g rTïù,i¡_.y, Õ¡,
  at'r:n e?Ði:a.Ea for eLl- tl:.s.t ¡)?îicü of ,,iù.¿44 por ¿¡crg, Iluring tiro sêie¡
  the C"lüoÌ" sotd 2,,,-Ezt|,5g å,{.ìi'es ¡:rlt.l bha Íf,;1.ü" sold zr0J7 ,,LÛrl eqt €,s. ¡irg
  â'v'3f$ìi{e ¡rricet ;l,lì.' agÉe of Le¡rt solc b;l all tiros} co;-li'¡-ir;iÈtJ nÐt'ot t-reü6ov{i.Ëå;
  19070':;i6'0å;            1909, i)11.08; i.gLo,SLã.i56; an¿l-gI5, $lã.gJ,, ï,n. r-9].f
                   1"908 o$iìr?8;
  a bad y3lìs fðP Land saLas ln'the prrairiaË0. thrr'ü,p.¡1, sslil ilgav:¿l acre$ i'rr
  ;$OoLeOrlû8 o* *t rìn â,T?ì:egs of $lä.6?. T¡r tg¡.? th.e t.F"Rn stiLt had ,llg,lÐl
  CIñô aeres of egrfcrrLtrt.raÏ, nin,:ral, and."Éir,:ber l,and
                                                               in possossion ae f¡ractlVe
 a'sËetv" F¡:oü th+ ebcle figures no nay roitðhJ,y srrarlqt::sa as folLo6s:
 Up to l"l¿rrch 151,191õ 'the"'Jrot;n'r 3rantori. ariay to :1.:iåivuays in tire ,ïost
                                                                                      an( to th
                                                                       th$ K.B. EE naõZrüt)Oaer
 Of thsm ur¡ irave coll+ct,+ct dat,g âs ss1ü to ths
                                                          s.ncl. of tÌrs Ëar a miniaum of

                                                                              Ig16l.ä10ûO serss"
 iI.Ëntn gr50?,o00 &ers$      *or í¡t3,leg,ooü
 c.P*.ì" 14rü¿õr4ûÐ  I'        ,,
 C,1í.ll   , Er ESå, riûO tt     * ,$14, ?oo;oüo for a ralninum of ;ilL'rgÐBrO0O*
                                    iå96,955;000                   ws v+

  ulu_:",a11 thet ths hundrscts sf tr'roi¿sa,ncts of
                                                          asres fn ilrs inmediate vlainity
  of 'Tinrilpsg whlah trore hr:ntotl up by f,.lsiron+st speaulationwith
                                                                               scsips granteù
  the erpotltionary f,orees an¡l' tc hali'-bresds in
                                                            tt¿e <iays aarl tha pJ rturo
  of misuanagemedt of th'e elearest asset a oouritry posgsÉisos,
                                                                            the lend. aaquireù
  før and by tho peopreo wilr bo harü-ïîaj¡ coürprster
                                                                  .Á.s to tho llew¡
 'f he
       J I,50tr000 thoy lnvostoitr in trtbuto aoLj.satingr_
                                                                    t¿,scoråing to tho above
 figures ancl rsnomberlng: theÉ30co00 ancl whetcvsr
                                                              theår 61ty lots Ln wpg. anrl
 eisowhsre broughfr-Trav'¡ arrca.cry bee¡i raturneri
        Ï'Io¡p l'at lls conpara tho quantlty
                                             od L¿r.ncl. that tho poople obtalned"--ln the
i[oet d.irecti.y from tho Dcruinlon Governusnt,
                                                          fn lBgA the.Ðoninlon        hatL ôl.spog-
                                                       -   3-4-

 Sses::sC    itsslf , b.',¡ honest ead antrits , *ur+emi:t ions end. s¿Les of Z ¡619, l4Sacras
 I¡r,'ri ¿ire:ìt totat tÌra Dcni.nlon had dispossesseù itsslf in the i?estn i;n io
 Uarch JLr 19Lõr b;7 irocrestsa(L pat ents, h.orreste ael purcha,ges, práemptions, spâc-
 iaI sr].,:rs,     h..:11'-þi..:+d.   anil ;rj.lit;rry scrips¡ T..#68,:j44   Ê3fês+
 Scl:ool l¡r,rtl endolül:ent 3n.18ór?È'i å/.r:'-rrl (:rct i¡:ol','.{inS Ensu.rîgJse. a,'tt}i,^i"
 i{anitoî¡Í} *sv¡rs,l: Lanås and. I¡r'i3ei;icn l.arås                  L ,g(},ó 146"ó Êi:ll,es ¡           1

 !h:i-: ::¿ies a tot¿l.l of                                          gi: r,:ì4g r00úi a.ür€G.

 .idd ti!* graut ¡o ïailways                Ij.F.ü,
                                          ¿,.ncl                  frg,tiitrtlclÇi å,rt'Ê$.            {

  i'hc ,,c:-¡iírii;n cti spossosgoû ttcclf of                     84,4t¡ûo0it aci,e.t.

 '3h:".S i.,sft St}rvú;red l¿r.,:rdu i.n ¡:osSessiûn of fire Ðo¡,ri;iicn gC1000r000 aö¡.
                                                                                              ,loor        :

 about Lij?ÛCIÛ hoiaest iia.å. +i.iri¡:; . lå,sn rç,1 Lcoic þack "r';e finrl a fo,: j.r;iu'reuting


 f igni:+n. 3J¡ iÐBl 'iirs niìiabÐr çf i:o¡nsst¿ari ..¡ntr:l-e,s rÐs,ched iÕ?r0" ,-lh.s &{rbs              l

 lmniEration $o',. in i¡r itl?Jç ;¿nC tir: gi-oss cf j-t soi'lLod la l,i¡i¡ri'iri'tlõrn "ririring              :

 th¡           lbct-iiìti ã'í3?'j c;r'i.r'ieg;?ri"s ra*,;ro" r¡l rgro alone ð?Ðyl åri.I in ¡,gI.â f

 rlon,s 5?l-rll entriss vrer.s aeif,,- ff ,c;1,3 î?3,): uontrf, not h¿va¡od ti¡e rnarsÌl i
Or" irnr¡i,gre.iion ag ii; diil,:iT.) åßiry, ill ilr,¡ ].ig.:rt of tirefle figuree , saf+J,y rn*           1

pposír tirat by 1.9åü ello-,;'¡ ari The¿- l.¿*n'l ttr¿a'i; had. be,rn snrvoyed before,Ì,1areh 5L,

                . 6een                                                                              j

 19L3r woni-rL har*¡talr'3n äÞ, i.Ëlr i.r 'ilr-¡ f¡rtj-l-e 'p;lt, îJitiiin rsarlorraþJ..: üis-

teûsa fronr an;'r rail¡'oað, l¡ìnå v¿ofiþ'flt+ p+ins anrl $asrifieÉrs gf .hr,rjie;

r¡ciuld' h;¡ve beavl +xhaus'tod, and ii:cl s;nailer enù larger trtbnis oolleatcrs
                                                                                            afrd.          i

their agents sould havo srrarpoaod. thsfr t.esth.
       Certalnly tire Ðoni; wouLd have cl¡i+nacl new districts; trei¡q gahool lands

'*'souLd hev¿ besn so1,1, nÐ1î speglal salss wouLô have i¡son mader ¡1ð!"ù ìromesteaús

tpould' have bssn availa'bte. ÍIowover, when ws ara abls to shots,&Ér 1¿to cliel
                                                                                   above,                  i
that the Ðqr:¡inlon clispossessod. itsetf of about 86ro0ofggt; asresr                     a,'c1
sotd'-whgt    irye   cou!-d'i4ather from eporerLie
                                              figuros-at loast Lgr000r0o0 acresr ïrô
 rå.ir Qerlslu-de Shat g,H land siq$roå to hoj¿
                                                           ¡q _1_0gå!g,åig gjtr"".Tiïg-
Fs*.s. lf '.it ls be;rond. certaln Limits of ûlstenoe,below osrtaln quarttl"es of

soll, åt a certain stago of gonera!. cl.eveLopnrent of the oou¡try of lnnlgratloa
                                                        - Ó-ê--
     ¿ìi1"1   :if t:rE i'ami-gretir:g hunnn n:¡tsrlal Ìr¿is att¿¿inscl ¿." gsrta:in
                                                                                             ireirr.h.l; of ijul-
      tllro' a cgftein stand'¿ril of ri'ring and has
                                                                                 soüe k'o,",lloclga about ti:.
      eount ':;¡ cf Í:ur1¡î':atioa, .€Íl;iror Traforê
                                                               oi af'üer reacb-'iag i.l, ,jìrar; irj uìrat
      spcc'itlaÏor5, tii*hut'3 colLectors ancl tnsi¡'egents
                                                                            undErst*nd, but n¿:.ì,ì.iy tl¡e a
     and- l¡:,nd-Laws refornars åc nct seere to taj.e
                                                                     tntc aecoiut.
               ;'LJ''ï'' alL tiiis iras t¡lhotr piace æitìiin
                                                                   rem'sinbrance of äåËjr Li'ing,
     'ii'; * lr?'iioI
                          abou{; ii is pcsl5iblo: ns i.}r¡¡wri, uovine
                                                                             rligr.i., 4,: llg;jrt ar tor¡-
               'ßi: roiral'd 1"ct' r'e*liy, no ¡eservii:g fro¡¡ the r,rati,)nn no jìrìc:curi,,.n.t of
                        ¿rus'i, i i;ut:.oilÍJr no Seoul¿rrizatio¡r
                                                                   i i¡t ehort, ilre t{atÍor or s+oirl+
  ' or lita'l*'¡- ealL it v¡hat you'wiil- was in t:ossossion of ths Lands
   mer:iåÍ¿r* g5o
                     'r+si' er¡rr. tire *ock;,r mountaÍns on'y 56 or.5? yeers agó and it                    rirri,ì:i;
   g:reriied' alla;t, üismanâgeåo squanä*red."
                                                       tho process is stilL going.       on tq).
           lircr$ is, hotçgverr ûne strorighoîd of th+ peoplo:
                                                                          the SroLd.ers of Lanit
     holt 'it f¡'om tna poople, not from any fictitious
                                                                  ar¡straotior:. of irietsråeali.y
     non-historicat' intrieacj.esn lhe hold"ar of
                                                          rand. Í,s perona1ry freon ho 1s
    not b¡unti tc tiia ta¡a; in nunei:oîrír c**eg he
                                                            has n,rvsr soû* ¿rnd.',,¡il'. rå.re,i,;¡-
' n'*r¿et" sr': tho !'and'' 'Jhe peo;:to aro not ûescenclents
                                                                      of serfs on the laad;
    lp ¡rirmorous oas€s they have not eÍree over yst to'
                                                                         thelr share in tire
                           of thls countryr ,¡lhose who rryirl sone to tìrls
   ::-'ltr¿tionarrt'1fs                                                                rand
                      bB born i¡¡ ¿r wiil bv ins'laboris,
   :::::_:::_::rr                                                  by rhslr aontriburi.oo*"to
   lrl) .Jhe rrsrgo;..Ïrsssrr arÌnouncad June g, lgtsS-, that
  of a' colieèt'n ir¡ tí¿i¡ritoüo'*u" no.'{otlÃfiog-r,ritú          e TE{r of St. laril,. hoad.
  t'r¡l s8' nI. or. aãoo-uõ*ãu, near--3rl-arafuqguÏa         trrs .t.,oüinion riover.¿r*on,t for c
                                                       on trrä-cl$.R.,_ in e*¿i.tion to tire
  90'oi'ìt ¿ì'crÐrr that ;"ñ;;;"o*oJ-tË;ä'Ër*u*áy.'î¡räî
  vtelcnr rc                                                          our Governmsnt he,ve .no
                 *:d:riur*;;iils'ror á oãt:io,rär-iilä-poiîäv_:., ro be s€an rrs¡r rÌ¡o
  faci tirat tìro-st_, paut tan naa Iri"ñ"ä¿
                                                  "lill¿i-tri.ã"a*ritggg_noo"usçry B,nd
 iiäii:å."if:äii"li:":if'lå¡-iå-ifå"¡å? 6s00 äur*s., À eóõ'c-eãiis
 would ruoîirv-õJ"ãiïi;;': f¡;                                           !àd                  besc
 $u-ppcso ãEo                     'r,ol*'ïi*ll"i'åTr*Ëååä'îli, irå;lF* $îs+itri.
              .äarss {o-á--Ëå*-ustuaûor-it"*;eäläo norruteaeË. - .uhat
 i:5$lååiil  åå$3"flåltt1f.i*T;ffi;, å5 :î;îäeîIlär,äî' *pi¡äi,#ä:;..Íay of tbori

 3í'åå'*tr.'å,ä$   l:,,*i*liå:Ïål;l'åirË;Tn;;{triiä"#ål:Ëöi-ltl l-"iiË,HEå*"
 Ëi ii:¿= i:i'::öiåi lá; lruii* lll i,' ïil ä;åtfu;;;';i:'ff
 rhat in trr': rn{ür;,-iuã'iesoitu"1îi*t"
                                                             , i;"#li.Fiå r?ïi"ff
                                                          *oru r*oo"ãiig.f:i}Ëå"il *å:-;åå-Frã,
sliiãìj*ä"-?iilÍiär:iu't*is'1o          mo'u-ã*i*,.îä     ;ðiîo;'ïä;,î-euroido is           e¡:r
                                          - ó-ê-

  thu advarucç.of tÌtis country wÌrile carrying on thc procrssås of tileir own
'iii: arrii str"uggie for tìreir ov¡n existanc,s, aLl wiII have tì:s samo right to
  sÐ..;r tÉ tne lanclholrlor: trj.a l..Iarritobel, in ti:.e rTest of Canaùa you hol& ttre 1¿¡û

  frni¿ tha peooS.e; wi:.af1;lver$ legat cleims of lntorest you ar': justifieù to
  1n tirs Ian'J w: neeognise¡ but ;'ou hclcl it fron us anù ycu have to satisfy
  s1L charges tî,s irold or shall Legif.:rato ugalnst Lhe lanrl. Ì{hatevCIr bonsfit
  you cteriven rvha.tevar your ability to pa,y bar !'Jr as oollootiva prime ouner of
 the land., lay no ohargo egainst you; btl! iÉ g,oq rqant to holð or to conSlguo
 Sg hotd the larld ln tþs, Ìlàst, thq iregpÅ.9. hsJ.d. q¡1gts, chargss¡ against lnq fuq{
 tllose ehargos åepand.frng npon ont' social nee_-c[s_ antl upon ths exteat to whiah
 'Wö pa,y iå iustios axpeet, the l,and. tq s¿rtlsf,y tiroæ ne_sÊs. If you canrt hold
  ths land baeeuse of ths oonal.iticns lnaposoil l5) tfis X.and raverts 16) io the
 psopLo as prirno oi$nÊr aaå the peopLo has to eloar tlte tranil revorteù of the
 chnrges you âre Justiflsd. to hold e6ainst it.                   . '' .
                                                              u,it nou
          Our original alm has not baon nor 1s our aim *iro th,r unfoltling of
                   inal aln                                                      i     ãL

              Ï¡and Pol1cy. îH.thout proJuüie6 !uâ have tried. to gat hfstorloally
 an ans!ilar to the question: 'riïho sbouLcl by rlght bs regaråed" as tho prlme
 ouner of the'Lanrl +1'thÍs Province of Hanitoba?rr liris questlon bolng s.Írsr?e-
 red" Ìîo tray bl, abLs to ansner the basie questlons of ta¡atlon: ifho anü by
mì¡e.Ë quallfioatlon shoul.d. tax tha peoplo holding the |antls of i¡lanltobs?
  (51 'Ihoughts ars fsthers to tleeils. Van ]Iisse in his book'tlhe ConsoFVå,-
 tloa of our ilatural ?,osources 'r says:'tÀs rapiilly as a ssntimont aan bo iLa-
 volopod for their enforeernsnt latrls'shoulû iro passed whioh wlil prevent tho
 nagLset of ths lanil.n Ee suggoots a políey of publio control ovar private
 forns. ll,I. lly ln an article "Éo11 ¿¡stsrloration and. Publia Lanc ÞoLicy"
 ln tho Journal of ¿rnerùoan f¡ocioty of ,gronomy, I¡'sb. ¡.9t16, quotes Van Hlsse
 antl ls ln agreement with him. Our'Wsfrtt I,aw.s aro Just ono phaso of a lubllc
T,anct Pollcy ln nattr:rs of negLeot of tho ¡.a¡iù. Our unocouþtea Iranå l,aws
 (uncultivatod, ìï1td T,anct Laws) nay ftn¿ their Justlficatioñ in a pollay ag-
ainst ne,gleot of the lani[.
 16} lhs-i,inocoupie{l L¿rncts lsx Aot of Manitobas Seotin ã4, provlclos for tho
sale of ths lanà aftsr two ysars of unpalü taxr¡s, anrL seetion 56 authorlzss
tha_P;IunicípaL Comutsslòner to purohass-suob laacl. A llatlonal Lanô pollog
wculcL only invsrt tho proaess: sush lanð woulcl be toke¡ over by the Mutr..
Comm. s,s lancl roverting to the poopû,e antt ho may keop 1t or soll tt a.s the
law may provlcle.
                                           - f7-
          'llis iristo¿"ical Ëurvey led. ns to tÌre conclusion that tilo growigg ,,peo-
   pL€" of llanitoir¿¿- a growth th¿rt is stiil Ín the infant steta- is tire prias
   o''¡n'ar of t he lancis of thls lrovince" iforïeval. o tiris point hes to bu. üåd.s
   clear and, i:ointad.' :Tiratirer lat:r'çire rn;tis,,'r--:.s í or tbeÍ i,;lreleri
   by their oïvn judgetrant to talr.'iþras; rsirsther the r-:trites pu1.åed. to tÌ1e
   Soutìr or to tìio lasi; ths lg000 .ir;.opIo ç¡er¿ alt in €igresfil3rlt. upon ont
   fundamsntal 1:oint: llhs ruls of 'che H.IJ,ü. ha<l to bs enderl. äei'o 1ay the
   strongth of Confedsratlon, ovon blfore itlîas oreated., as úa.r as tiro iîest
  FJas oonsidsred; herr also lay ths iq,e¡jknsss of the II.B.C.
                                                                            If the aelrly
   areatoð Soiainion ç¡ouliL havø nsg!.oataå t:ris matter, the lg0ü0 psople of th,s
  3o3' Ëettlement and the rËopubllo of Ï¡Iairitoba" woulcl have sh*ksn off tho
  H'5'to sooneF or later irrosistlillyr ån aation l,oacting possib.Ly to b1oo¿-
  siract aniL interrlr-:tional gcmplicetioas" 'fhs et oncâ firn and
                                                                           A.Ì{ä dipLomatfe
  tractics sf th.s Snitish {jovernmsnt both to¡rarðs tha Ðoüinion and tire tîo,:¡
 lI'B'Û' avcideü. sucir eonsoqÉ, ahd brougiit about a coaeotidatlon gf
 ]Jri'tlsh Ïlorth a¡eorrea. Nq,w, tho .llouinion advanoeá & gaoog0ð end assured.
 the Ìl-s¡l g*B"i,'.- of t of the lanct 1¡r îiho.Test* îles tho,¡lastern Ðominion
 6cing r'r sabstitute hsrseLf for ths Ï{ow I[,B.c. 1n trsatl¿g thoså 1g0ûo
 ef tho Rsü:1. settlemant and ths tlRepubtie oj: hfanitoban &s a.tribu.tar¡,
 hiä"ioelauå, oquanclcr t;reir Lanels'th$eh by the nature of ¡r:tngs
                                                                                should gerve
 a's r,orauË'îoürilg thousancls, of 'ùhousand.s emd. aj.iiionle
 noto Tha 0¡'d canaclasr oll their way to lndustrlalization, sonoluùod gooet
 bargain whan, at a oost of{ãooooo, extenÊted thsir astlvltos
                                                                            , beyonrl the
 Great 3akos, to thø Hoekies and" bayonel. ilhe aitrûlnistration
                                                                          of ths natEr¿f
rssourees of the t?est by the nomlnion Government ls; thersfors
                                                                              to be Loo&,srl
uPon as a uatten of truet ancl not of eompulsorÍ
                                                            flght. lhe Hlstory qf the¿t,
Ë'r adm'ini'stration has not Justifigcl the trust sat in them.
                                                                          ïtolv, when the
Ðorqinion 1s on the evo of a nsvJ conssptio¡t trenslaterl
                                                                          into hsr ooüso*
lltlat1on, tho three wsstorn prairie pro¡rÍnooe should olein
                                                                        thslr rlght to
thoir natural resouroos not as an aot of roagnanlnityr but
                                                                       as the result of
al historLo4t faats bl Jus oooupantle ot laborantls of those
                                                                           pneoont e) Jus
                                               - 5',8-

            t! tho;:; still to corïro ancl rasids here arrû of their offsprings.
   Iho elai¡as of Manitoba to her natur¡¿!. resourcas shouLd, not bs bas,sd
   some oecasionaltry gaern to think) on.rrs oharitabla an attltuðe of tho
   inion towarcls the Prairio Srovinces as that of tho ldoth,sr üou.ntry towards
   tha Ðorninlonsn [o, the History is d.ifforsnt, tha sonilitions ar,: othsrg,
   ths concaptions of right havo ehangad. (?).
        Consiil'oring tbe unusstl LancL ln organized. tsrritory in Manitobar âÊ
  far as far as lt stilt ts in the hands of the Ðoninioa Oovernuont, ft may
  bo pointscl out that it has beolx red.ueeû to about xrg8br800 (g). ,rhat means
  that lf the Frovincs tloos not get baak its natural, rosourgeg Eou¡, that much
  lend' ls withhaLd antl wltt bs wlthhslô from hqr Leglslatlon for
                                                                         sor¡râ tims           ;

  yot ; but she exorelses hsr fnll righte of prlne ognsrship over aLt
  othor Lanits in hor organized torritopg, with soürs, rslativexy insignif,ic-
  ant, exogptions.
       Fron aLL tbís lt rosults thet tha f,ictíon nv+steü in tho Crorsan
 regard to the formot':ìupertts ãanûr ås! far as thoy are wlthfn
                                                                      ffianitoba to-
 d'ay uuill sooner or Lator, but in a noa,r fufuro,
                                                       coasÐ Ëyon 1n thls formn
 lhe eÕnsluslon Ls then: tho €ricutt,ural
                                                SânÈg o{ Manltoba Lelong in prine

             to the pesplg .q[ HaFiteba pqg thgse Þeóplo g[ Hanitobq shgu+È be
the o,p,l.v çnes. t,o legislats pnd to tes laqË
                                                lg thrs pqovtr¿csr lo whatovsr
rras proyíd.ed sontrary to the prlme ownsrshl,p of
                 .                                   Hanltoba has, ln faot ¡unj'l
côauEåo;*sly baen uncLer ons f,orm or qnother protesteil
                                                         against by the peopls
of Hanitoba.

               E:rro anothor polnt uay be msntionsð' saxse,ane pal,ð
                                                                       by somebotty     aniL
thÊt           sonebotl¡r has his gross ine.ons red.uoeô by so nneh.
                                                                     ars the    taxes   i.
lvl  she attit}tle.of, the Fe$oral oovornnent s.o,lêrds the provlnotal
äåÏt*fl| ii$T:ta-rà-túã-tiñtäi*ä"äËiïåilç "fi    i';l irrà¡r" e'n hu.rrratrns to
(81 -¡osordlng to Proffesors orant anrt uurbhl,o of tlle
                                                           AgrtoulturaL college.
                                           -   3V-
  a chargo agaiast the lanil or egainst the h.sliLsr of tha lanù. il¡hatoÌ/er pror-
 ItTlchoLson lB) alght show to bs true for Englanrl that ,ra1l taxss faLl on
 pÐrsons and- not on things" closs not hold. gooù for agrisultural. Ianå in
 ïfe,nitoba' tho origln of lrold.lngsrtho aaquirlng of ownership the pLaao of
 the land. in the national soonomy, the irind. of t¡!¡es aad. thoir history, tbo
 hunan sid-o, and-- 1n Bany other nayg, everything 1s not only ilissinilar but
 evan oontrary to eonùltLons. 1n past ancl pressnt EBgIan¡ go that u'e are on
 the eafo siaie ln our statement: eharges aro against the lanû to be e*ttlv-
 ated' antl not against 'ihir oultiva,tor. fho aultiva$er pays the taxos. not ba-
 eauso of tho beaefit hs clsrives from their erpeailitufs; all thosa batohelor,
 or batohing                         thslr taxos to the school DístrÍot wlthout
                     honestearlefs pald.
having any ehilcl'rsn at sohoolu iror ilid ho¡nsstçaclerÉi pay Ðceorüing to thslr
abillt.y to pay; ln nunorous eases they hait to,think of bread. iastsad. of
eatlng ft" ìlhy did. they pay taxes? Besause a charge was x.aÍo ug.ainst. the
Lancl as soon as it paeseiL lnto thg hanðs of, a holder. rn eåny
                                                                 v   oãs€s the
homest'ead. uas d'rop,lred. bsfore the s,D. got itg taxes. î?hat
                                                                 happonod.? lhe
mritêr Ïuas teaehing a rural sohool ths budget of whioh wae baso¿ on a cort-
afn nuuber of qqe.rter seotlons hel.d by settlers at the tirce of eaking the
assssemont   ro11' rn the oourÊð of the sehool year a nu¡rT¡er of honrsste¿cls        i

ìflers droppeû anù otìiars or some of the onês d,rop¡incl w6ro tageu
                                                                     on. Bhe bu-
 ügot was ctlsorganized the teacher soulð not bo paiil not even to the
of seeuring his boarel' aloertaln nunbsr of settL,ers coulù not pay taxos
out of the bouLt!.srs thay hatt to elsar. Tet, tho attoadLanes fan 40-44
1n one room with gratles x-8. Ehe Ðpt., of Eðuoation
                                                       saver oß tho reoo6'6n-
clatfon of the rnspoctor, a speclal grant of
                                              $roo, not to help to pay for        :

the tsacherrs bsard, but to bs applÍail on the bonds. ÁE thg_."¡_.Ð"
                                                                     $as in an
unorganized toffitory thers was noboity looally to go to.,
                                                             [hs     Benh. ref.usea
      of Gou.r6e' rhe Ðominlon Mlnletsr of the Interior refused any help
:::111,   ----   i
18) J.s. Brehoxson: Ratss ancl laxos as ¿ffeeÈog agrlourtu.rð, lgoa¡ prgr

to rùsü*/sr tho taxes from the lnprovements on tlessrtecl homesteatls,4nô the
Crown(t¡ ) oanrt possibly ba taxsd.' À privato institution gave a
                                                                    grant to
the S"lJ, i-n reeognition of the goof, voï¡k the teaoher wa{Aoing' Shls helped'
nct o;r¡;r ths tsachgr to pay his boarcl, but also the homesteaclar to boaril the
     tÏas   it, is it rlght 'to rðeover such taxes f ¡lom suah homsstså.ðers         from

their J.nprovamonis thay leave beirlnå? 'ilhe writer has been informect that ls posslblo to-iLay. ït is not t.hs homsetea&er who benofits fron tho
land. baforei ho gets his patont; lt ls ths lancl, tbs Srovlnoe who are benof-
ited. i:y those Lmpnovements procl'noact by sweat anô blood. of tha honestsader.
the patanf ls only a eonpensation for paino, prfvations, ancl saoriflcos.
     he has hi.c patont sn tha land. he may be salå to hold' the lanð against

whicS the taxes ars cbarÐoôô otherwise we tax his brows punishing him for
                                       ¿na.t on ll
tfylng to improve or aotually  ínaproving¡those I.60 acrss btrt a nevt part of
the provfnce by bls üsrs presanes anit hoLfling on to tlra lancl; ws te.s the
houestgaùer beoauss he ho3.ds the land-, not besause          banofit, tror bo-
                                                                of   any
aause of antl aeoorûing to hls ablllty to Þayr for so long as tho Land' iloes
not revart to the paoplo. 8f course, by the ðisorganizatlon of eo mâny
bud.g;ets for yoans encl years in so àt*y Sohoo!. Ðistriots the X.atter sa.w then-
soX.vss f,oroefl   to   d!.o   soaûsthing a¡lå then madlo ho¡neeteaåers/ improvemonts rssp-
onsible for tå¡çâsr Tet, wa nflrst not bs sophiotiaatsõ by suah E$asurss lutê
bslisvlng that taxes wor€r agalnst the holðer antl not ohargoû agalnst the hOld-
                   169 anô l?oof the asssssuent anrl [ax tolleotion -act of l{anÍ,to
 ba, shol!, th,pugh not fülly, the spirlt of onr goneluslorsr 3y Soot. 169o lf
the Land sol.d. fon ta.res iloqs not eelX. f,or the futl, amount of s,rr€tatrs anû eosts
XÍ¡, the su¡û oblalneù shaLL bs aoeepteit a,s fuLl peyment sf suoh errsars arrô
oostsi thorels no ohargo ragalnst the holtler htuselfrbut lf thq üÌrnsr wants
    ffiilTûts ÊËÐEil rBB.V¡¡ilffirûû sÀl*sprîsÈs JTÈii&
                                                        *o *no*ï riq,+ *g ,Ëlx.pü,s1 Éür? d+¡*6
        FT"T$$ ær¡g ogdFçd pttg ÊsIT,t+Ts ßim qr.T* sugdee;{ üE Ë'F €(-l{rÐlir{rg{
                                                                                                *is p$Ëï    6.g+
     ¡16 dçqn;î*îtr¡ïo effig-îd Fq+        at   .Êqö' Twâ,18
                                              ¡ro s¡doæ,r El*, $o +q&î¡ oqt åRüq? uä?B
     fträTg[¡ß$ Ëiït{
                      '.Te¿tsÊüs$ teüoüTÂnrd egaçe.ld eug .r6q$,s sq* ÕS s#Êî ou Ë1d*5m
       ITTH **r¡Ts*s# ñTq+ g's usî+tsÊfiþ stlg o¡ dn #*xp,eæ1 $ac¡slrJ Þr{s ErËåð                        îrÉrË+Ts
 æ4Ë+çræþq     ñ& çr.reFea q+Tß süsTHnTÐBsÐ *Tq Bqlqâ wTÊüå:.xs+i,ãe *q&
                                                                         +sÈî                         +T

                                                                                     .sr¡oç ¿taoçgdug
    sBT qb?ûI *e*sd rrËryry sA Elus#6# cgdomd 6* d$lalqpçT¡ûÐ B
                                                                      Sp *orпe1xe eq4,
    rs? +Ësßæ *.um3a*rÍwç +ßffi &'j{g $sq ðpesi'å 6q Sü q+Ttå¿ë
                                                                 ;iü HLî&J: Fgue çqg. +rrr
    ss Prtal B@e FÌ¡Tffi uç sæçrlerrã $#p*ætt Tç?Ttìð# ss .r¡o1+çËFg5leff fi¡r{$ GS Ãgeæm¡+
   ..iüßrã   Eeæ4    ç{$TåT r}ES$Tr¡qÊF{   ã*                     #s A43_r*g4no ßÏruO #q,B' 8q W(
                                                BÞr{çT ç¡Tiå &##Erå&
rlnËq'ç s¿i+i.i+Exrae d*æsft&ss¡t s#6J:st¡srr$ ËürrrÀû"å1T eri& î{sïq¿r ðq ÊêîÊ,Èq
                                                                                            ïçüË"{ {,î{,1.
     qftie*rqa pncr;n**cT gs.;iî;tês G ÊrË q+Gq t*aruçaeaå sr¡ff
                                                                            {i} GËqûì.î-{5îssí;lâ Èçr¡Tô
   *Ët€ sq{' rãff;l'¿rc¿üÌ.r{$}ii H-i Ëpì¿çg Ëß.ilrã?ïî *.rïårr,lå
                                                                   ÐT&î{ üË-g$SÊrreÞug åXqp.ü",{EÃ{#$
     gü .,ó$+'rË'ti¡j':j Þltrr* (o 'trqsaï$trFf îJT trÞw$T fiGrs *î#q,? ûiÊtBTËrTsF-r3
                                                                                              Fînoqg d+Tgî
  *$*Þf{*û     +sEf+     j*   .t*aært peaguesfu,G qru #€ q¡qs&Tîl}îgË          ðs sÊ$Tr*çr¡ä Ëqt {q     ggqÊSl
 *lrËHs* fiPLT?4 ËqT. gç ;isr¡rå1q æ1*rrË,æqg $g"5ßTr+$sTTsü #Tr ÊË GT Ëqp,å,Trr#gi $n çTd
 *cðd rt¡¡l iT} :$,:tsÏiûð #îì Elr{içr$ll1ðëoû üììt ü*å6ry #q dw: eß
                                                                     #Eîrit:ffif;riÊ oË

                                       l.rargdua¡g E.lti& ,ç#   {}   È+.jJÍi   **ufr;og¡ åsJï Âq pelx;¡fï   Fq

                                  f,{øs Äo gg de*,*1 *{urx rî;1;urí'¡oçrir4;¿ eîi& Ërfr} *f1;;erJ;t
     ÊÞ #t-rsT{'itTåç9 èiriÞTrtl ¿ç
  3 Tt¡tËÏ eqg #4, IIæ*E $,Ë.îTS FTei$$ ïrrFsï iÊqa. 4ær:¿e:iu?TH
                                                                    ;s,j Ë.r¡¡rï €ir{ì. $fr ;¿r¡|;ç ffi
L{r,T'ãd çqå ßî"3qû'STutaH
                            ¡lo aldoed çqa A"srig. fi*iËrr1Ðf3s{} rãne û+ Ënyn*cgrior nÁoî
  *T6g ËËr"r| Tr"¡uoTltìti $ ÞËil {ì{,å gf ç{.'Gir& ;)r;ç
                                                          E¡3 Fs¡¡T $T¡A.ãt eop€agp u*r¡g áun
fgggedyoïwl!:; ÊÎiE €ãg*,¡sïiþ .ã*$Ér[iü;ir1;; c'rl3 *r.¡ûÐB{î fuu ç#* Ë3.úoÐ ljr¡,¿r #rãË*g
ËÈFËsri;€ ^îsti îros,î*qa 61iF ê8n3ffi3Ð {fi.ig r}:1. cïn parcï Ðq:¡, ;#;r Ëiq 6aro lJrlliicinîrniîß
 6¿lê    *¿lù4,ç{)F     [ig
                         "ueçXrïmeFt,r diÐ# ßtïa'ff3r.Tel{ ig¡yn .r*nlre$oe $*.rir-ir] ÌÊî.:?? ßr]?ffir.
   13T B"?Êe*Í'Tt?   J:# +rgrlrffiË TTffor e'q$ Éran T1ËtifÈ ÊTI ËIftiT f.ìTs$ ßTri ti{,epÊrr (,$. LîFi.e


u¡?iversal ln thei't azlent, lrresistlbLs in theÍr førae, basod tn norÐ eor,*
*options, d.lm thor4Sir they may be. foreocl somo goi¡ernaants to ae'tioao åtih6,,:,,
at los,st to thinlilng. ãn tto country, howovor, are tÌ¡oss oLains Soss Jus-
tifieå than Ín Hanitsba and. tìre two slsTsr provlnoos tn the ifest,
J/.o*oZ¿*="     ¿b¿¿/h,al' /i¿ n. lu
             oûn/r*¿".Z //or*n/fu:
u,rz o/u,i¿

        ãrlZ úoÁ)-c"¿l
                                f nsteaù   of f ntroiLucîion
       Th.e Candidato         hunbly presentlng
                                         his thesis on "Tesatlon of agrlcull-
 Xural }and, rlith SpeciaL llof eronce to 1fianltoba'f begs to subnit some polnts
 coneerning hln personalLy, 'Ihey nay be of halp ln judgiag his thesis on
 its usrlts in the 3.igi:1; of lts contents, bnt also tbrowirgi, Lågitt cn v,¡het
 is not contained but-might hes'e been oontainsô ln Ít had ths writor hail b
 better opportunitieso
      Sorn in L8?¿ tn Rounania rrhsre he aoquitreil, hls B.-û.. in Lg.¡4r tîad-
 uatocl in.ê,gronony in Vlanna ln 190ã, bs ramo to this country in l.gtg and.
 has beän sinoe fn thle lrovinoe wlth ths oxceptioffin" year and"
ons half in liaskatchswan. In L9t4 he nas granteù by the ÐeBartrnent of
ãdueation of Sanltoba a Flrst 0Lass Eeacbsrfs certlfieate, Êraåe a., and.
1n LgzS ho iqas Sranted. a 3?.A,.ra$unaunrby the Universåty of þtanítsba.
     ilhllst thls ïras 1n short his aeed.amloal career before he e¡¡ï¡arkad. on
his stud.ios for hfs BIoÅ. spoeiallz,Lng 1n laaå Eoononics, Ìris Braeti.eaL
exSrerienoe as stuelent, teaahern employeo 1n agrleaXtural eoncörns, sheet
mstal worker, in RumauÍ.a, -åustrla,n Bucovlna, Tlonna, lower Austrfa, Tlest-
ern EungerV, trlego {aegrrun} ena Quebee, Manítoba and. SaskatchêHan, taught
hin no.lsss than his nsehoo!.1ngil c[ld. 'nh,rough a].I theso ehanges of ooïrl{-
þtries anet voc¿tions tho d-raan of ñLanrLn guiðad. hl$ al.l,.along aad. the
stud'y of quostlons pertaining to Lanrl was a nercossary eororLary.
steaiting 1n ths-ãest ðid not materiaLLzo in splte of some effort aad" ss,o-
rifloe. Itural., seel'*uFhan ancl. urban toaohlng gavö hlm an opportunlty to
eos the nostls anct Learn tha longings of the peoplo Ìrero. lhis in short
summar"lues hLs      praotiaal    ecLucat   j.oa.
      ¿lntl aow   to the theslg. lbo wnltJr            Houlrt   fsfsr ber to the seoonil
part onLy.        i.r'med.   botb Hlth   Êtomo acatLeml,saX   EohooHng andl soms praotf,oal
eclusatfon through       tlfe   experfonoe antl. observatlon ho hoBeü to bs able to

 aceonpllsh sonething to prosent     ln irfs thosis rosul.'bs vrorth whiLo" S'tep
 by step ho naet ''¡ith d.ifficuttiss in gettin¿ç rotiabLe infornation" First
 there Has the diffioulty of getting at prlntecL souroes as far as i;here
 is eny ptíntsd- naterial accossible to tho pubLic. tho attitud.e
 of "c8,ntt be bothereûr of som,G snd. businsss i.iEe susplolon of oilrors Bero
 rocks against whioh al¡nost all- his attemBts shattered.. Ihe result of
 thsss d"lfffaultíes $Ðre often cala.nltous.
                      to lttustrate tìrls by Juet one exantrrl.e. our rural
       'Ihs v¡ritor begs
 munlcipalltiss lnc1uåe sêE¡i-urban olasters of houses and. not onty clo tbsse
 eontríbuts both by land. and" hsuse assessuront rshLtst fanms aontrlbute Just
 by lands asssssxûent to the speeial school and. rmrnielpaX, levies, but, in
 many Gs,s'ss'   thoÍr contsiïtuttons aro eoneliterabLe. ,Ihe statistÍss glven
out by tho BlunieÍpaL Comnissloner to the pnbtic throu the rural      anel semí-
 urban contrLbutl.oas togother,
      In splts of ell effcrt the griter coulÈl not get infornation to sl,ear
up the mattqr' [ire resul.t rra.s the throving out of ono of tbo nost va¡,-
uabl-e chaptors of his work. Tf,iratever oxanpLes he used. ín the thesls
aoneornlng suôh meterfel imposed. upon hln great restrictlons ln 6.rawlng
conqlusLons and. if 'he d.ld. try tc elo eo there alwayo was a fog
ths   soone.
      å'nothor  clÍffloulty was that the statfseaL materiale offere¿ b¡l
 tho hl'c. antl ths Dpt. of rlgrlculture are not always mattsrs of eaaet fasts"
fho forner lfrfÍfr$ sirakes off the respoaslbility anû the 1attêr e,ssures
lrs that ln splte of tbetr being oonJect'ures of, 1lnttgrt natertal yot they
aro reliabls enough. fhus the uge sf sugh mator.ial. oftsn o&üged. veny
careful end haraL work anct whsn the results wsre obtains& they coulfl onty
be aonsiðereð as a toncloncy but not as a sÉÉg cl,ireotlonn
      unclsr suoh oonctitions and. othor handtloepg the wrltêr f€sx.s that
thesis ls the result of hls bsst sndleavore anil eubnlts lt for
                                                       CTT,\?ffiR       ¡

                                              fulativa Valnatlon of ågrloultureI l¡andl.
Eaas(I ), 1n his lastruotlons f,or far¡e                       Ls.nd,   appralsa1., teBoBinto oonsldøretlon as
SeYon         tlassgs of    I¡antl,                                   Sptl lFeeg (By sttuatf,on la üsuat'y msp).
E        iroöd,s    not pastureds                                    Bplatfr¡s proportlou of eacb t¡r¡n'
                    FÒtentlally tfllable;                            Renarh¡: Bton¡rr flooded., poor ü:ra{ilãget
                                                                     ruu tlöwr eoll, landl lmprovementtrêto.
Il       floocls pastufed:

                    ?otentlally tfll.ablø;
rïr tthgr non-tlllable                  pasture:                     foooçraphE
         Rongh.. ..."'lÍ8t1 ¡ ¡. . $tonY'.       '
Tç       flllablE       Itesturs                                     Tfgla,s (Varfoas orope             fn     usua1'   ügtts per
g        Hlltl     hay Lauit
       (Rsasons        thy not     pLouedL)                          Û[ste,Bce      to ![ørkot
VI       $i̡b.i;.,tfl1ab1e     landL

'iiãiWaste l¿usð         [lts   aatrrre)                              Hods fr.qntaqê; gg!9. g{, EqgÈ,

Ehe !Íanltçba Cq!üússlou {Êþ                  ln lts     t'f¡f,ormation       fol   ass€ssorso        (E) oalls for the

À Hep         of the Eunlolpal,tty         Þy fowurshlp       audL   Ra¡gg sash qlraftef seetloa ÉuþflI.ln-

ldeil lnto ¡[ sEuareE årbrorðo                  andl   glvtag lnfornatton about:                    EopqerepþY     (fletr     ?É11-

fag¡ htlLyr sto)¡ of the dtfferent parts;                               Ë[nd,   of sotl     (blaots loanr loam¡ 6to.

stoay¡          som€   Etûny,   eto)i      Èhü   othsr featnregt            Ë[¡Bh   egr    &eks¡sXowr      r{?err oreelr
tlnbarl tellçêFE,          or slillngs¡ e16yator8. þ                   eao.Þ,   a1b¡o¡ù¡ be fooorltedt

avoragg gü.luå B6f 4o$or
              In   oonneotlon   çlth     esoh  farn f.t eells for¡ FÊture çf sotlr r¡ataf eup¡[y anû
[te ¿1sta,ûoe f,ron houEc¡               dlfetanos of reft"vay¡' tluð of Boaû¡ a¡û the f,otrllst

 lng: Ã Up$t C{gp (shsntr sater barLoy¡ ffer Þoktoss arxå othor hoe orops                                               1!r aöföB

andl buehetrs¡ Érrö.glr f,eecl,            or¡ltlvatcd hey ln.açSs anit to¡rs)                      $urungr.   Sallos'    a'nd[
 (1) O,t.saas¡ rllalE Prlqee eE .a Èasle for Sarn trsnd Appfalsaln t' of Ut!n. AÊÈ.
     Fxlrr Stf BÌr11. 9r ÞÞ. $$rtg.
 (¿) soä "ni,o¡ratrüü'fôF nsso"uössn tEeueit by thð Hanltoba fax ÇounlFglo{û, 1986r
              PP.'8-X.0¡ ld*15'

lFÞ,Fokeqr.pnÈ' aores anrt, value per           aoro.     'Eg¡_rqEaE,      (t"   acrss and. tonE)i ãa.stq4g
(1n aores eniL oattlo); glsbeg {ln aores anå oord.s), aores                      and, vaJ.ue   Þêr aerÊ.
f¡r         i[ataq alrd other ¡tog-gEcduofilgg aczlsa and. value por aero. setalr. of qroBs

are o;ciional but ti:e total &sr€s and, vsLira p6r acfê ln thE
                                                                  thrrao categorlos                     ert,ê FÐ-
euestecl     to gat the tot,ql       êpÉêg€m€nt.

         'lamarks nay be nadE about any authentle lnf,ornet!.on ¡ wouLd, bs                   of assÍsst-
anee     to establish the æIue         of, the ]'ead.
         ¡l'ssessEü taxabre and aon-ta:sable varue         to   bo glven   seBaratelþn"*ers,(ã)
dlsousslng the n8slatlorof Êeasus Land. îalues to prod,uctlvttyn
                                                                   andl prod.uotivlty
f¡¿otors Ésts Eroughlyo(chanberrs osrÊ axpressfon) tÞe fol.10wlng¡
                       r Olaself,lc.atlog: r
                   landL v¿=sÅslrrç.ailogz                            ïield:
g     A6Fss     of ¡npltlÞl¿   usê   laqü'              ;, Flve or ten gaar åvoragð yleld,             of, ma¡or
    A, ¡\orèg teecling dltafnage.                                      oÍopg.
    B,   AotraÉ need.lng   other iryro?€eÉnts.
g     ¡tcres of elngle ugs1a¡1d,,                      Þistenqp.
      A' AorEe of ¡reræueat pasture.        E to 100a1 lEarkets.
       1' Aores potent'tarly nu].tfplê rÉ€r fà Sfste¡eqe of looal uarket to                          çentrer.
          ã. By itralnage.                               uarkÞt.
           b. By olearl,ag.
           o. BY both.                                              Road fifuos
' B. .å of çoodls pasturs.                         E ülLeage of saeh typo        of   road,.
    1, ,lores potsntlally nnltlplo uss.
           a. BJ claariug.
           b. By ûrallaç.
           o.   By both.

                      $asra trerð.
(g)   Clyile B, Chanberg¡ ûRglatfon of, Lantl, I¡roonE to taaú laluen U,s. !6)t. of Agf.,
      8ulll,. LâZd- p, 14.

 (Ei   Shls"tlLesslfieetfon og Boils' ts bassd- net so Eru.ah on gsologioal
 origfn b¿t partlv on olrsmlõal- oompositi;ñ-ãoä"p"Iity       physlaal propðr-
       as they affect tho-grouth cf-6rtr-agriaulturalplanle. Both tho shsn-
 llof cr:nstituents-and. phlsicet propurtiã"              "g
 ics-L                                       u,r'o
 si6lflco-nee     :
 kncuS'aclgo. ?Ì:e groü,.prng antt su¡ðivilills.är-ã"ery-gio*p
   atåons etr6 aeoerfung''to-üessripii;il*gri-". gov"oårî- Fnaatlsoho by not-    *u ehoürir
  icuaås'' 'lsgg" rhe sïrgut                                                                Bcrlen_
                                       leyrã.nqemonts, as- shã*1t-È.o tho ohan6aô s€rqu.enc6
  of: figures rrÍthrn tþg"s*or:p*, anã t¡rs'ãrr*ng*mgnts nqcorillng: to bonanza
  asð thcÍ wríter's. lhe-elaËsiriäät¿on may aì{ b; ãú;i;åil"ft'å*i'oot
  1ðeer j b¡rt ¿t ','rlLl sorvs ihe. por.poãä'-ol äsmonstr*iiõq                                     be
  t ho',r gea1roÐf                                -                           of, the worhings of
                     I = I?luÍ :.1o, yelu"t iãoç iä*i-*v.
           kpranaiigo* z* _Btþ;= Bonanøa o* óioË" of, quar{tE of a sofr;*,,,. '{år)=
  ð¡elaagä,üe06ssary, ¡ drus
                            .ffi ii'ffi:ffi
  y t ;ã õ ;n a-õr' p.- r- ffi
 ln:TaLluvlal d.eposits ana oi
                                                    ** äË: rüi :3åä;t-kfflf g.iå; g "i åoif",'
 Ê-1 rirû qxis; uãuat'l.v in                         iã,¡¡¡ ei"o¿:-Ãtoas fragneÈ,ts of "            ::

                                      "Ít""¿*riìrú-åf,å"tffir*i¡rr9n9a; ,q,eo&sronarly
 slie.:.iiedgect anit the lesult of aocay;-ñ iË
   ! Í'
                       : ln rjffiå; -å3fu ä'

            riulnus 'soLls with 20íå hunus-ard. ov?f
                                                     ffi #ãË i: is :
                                                                       å;"u af*uåå ii i i' i i        ,

                                                            _!tr weight at bofí
Ünd'sr äîrrãrËãT-naCu"ãr"õäoaitiãnJ-äoã'a¿srärunt-freatraants ¡y volune.
                                   -tñe                                              gorLs $r dir;-
 lr'"rl,g bogaryzas. ,Bay ¡J             resutt .
Íu2r2": gr*7,ú'r¿¿¿, Øt o'-ta/'fi,rLarZz--"-t fbzra¿'4i .2,¿ ê-?4t€L.;--r;
                                                                           øa*"oVê u*¿ ¿4-+Zú¿,rr¿.

                                                                                                                                                                     +-.4 -+t
                                                                                                                                                                            .i          :

                                                                                                             L- u.                         __- er7.._-_._-_ - _^__
                                                                                                                                               o.           j         -L.   ¡__..

                                             Se.nd                                                                                                         ;    ïlumus,

                                                                                                                   Clayey                    Lime
                                                                                                                 It'1ar1o                  rieh in
                                                                                                                                           Eurnue ( ?
             va                                                                                ek i3. T,oa,rny
                                                                                               .    l,/la-rlei
                                                                                                                 rlch ln
                                                                                                                 'Humug.                                              cn
             =a                                                                                              :4, loo s
                                                                                                    i l-lke                                                            ê
                                                                                                    i 'trdarlo.
                                                                                               y i CoTûmon

                                                                                               '1tt i5,Loamy'
     '       vo

                                                                                               e i- . ÎÍanlo I                                                        â
             br                                                                                     p. 'sàãoi is. T,Oa:rÍty                                           o
                                                                                                    i G::ave11y' I'tme.
                                                                                                    i :; -- -;*¿                                               ûc'
                                                                                                         ; Stony-                    i
                                                                                                         i Mar"Le.                   i
lr                                                                                           ornnóni
21                                                                        .:
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I                                  1                                                                                                                           P.
Ii                                 i2.      STarly                    Ol                                                                                       É
                                   i       sana lt[tt
                                   Ë                                                                                                                           U)

                                   i5.      L'oa;'nyli,                                                                                                        û
                                   í       Sand.lltl,l'
                                                                                                         I                       i

                                                llt       I       I   \)a                   Severei                              I

                                                lrþ                                                                                                            Êd

                                   i 'ln Eumu                         åÉ
                                                                                            1ay( drl)                            I

                                   i            rUSt
                                                                                                rK   *t

                                   '.þ" Co¡n¡fuon                 i
                                   i sand el{lr il,'i

     :   1T,       Grus   !i                                   :

                  nieh lnj                                        i

                  Eumus, {                                     'j                                                            ¡

                   Loamy I                                     I
                                                                                                                             i4. Sandy&
                  or'          ¡
                   MarLv'ì                                                                                                                 Llme.
                  çraveiJ.ül f                                i
         13;'     çiandt¿.t   i5;.iiuet                 v-\

                                                                                   5, -lïet ¡ oi                                     Ê
                   Ktgs.t!f sano öli);                                                   clay( dr )¡                         I
         14;       Gnus I i6, Drlftir
                        ,¡          inþ                                                              t

                                      ttlt   Sand,l                                3. Pottenfi
                              i                  ,'.!:
                                                                      J                                                              6. llme         {-1

                                       .                      i                             CLaYti                                         .Cha1k.

           ."ri ?vilr,foiìå *f tìra drÐs"¡s sggîoi¡s th{r e¡i.n åfi tii¿it of *ËÈ.isi¡rår4:                                 Ð, &orx*
    rsî'ßrf vaiil.: 1l** trnlt of 1enctr" #üâ ülgfåe
                 3ha   nrfåIí:,"t1"*¡: va3.i:,s;,tåo*1
                                         sf *grlc*åttrrel l¡xt$ ð.aac *rE årg îo fånß
    €I tl.:**ttry vaå:r,a o:f a ¿;åv*n än¡:d u$åånfo :lsrmt L gsaÈterr +r af 3 eefsu år¡
    i¡n;ler'.È    $s åfl é#r rv$rnÊø qf a ¡'luæi;:l' clt- trsngeðÊåilng la                            1,¿m"J   Èurång ü, Íl,rlcåÐ
    b*s +f         !s.l-!Ys y-raggçd,,Jhtl 'rrele,tåy'} ?r,"ÅtistÈ+rr{ t*,åeårlg                     s   æørtej"r¡ ¡*sfÀ     uf
    ffir3.otxÏ.tçgaå åesrt eæ a str;i*¡t¡r"d +g                         åt icf,*ret,* Êiir* ¿;r+;er;år e:l orisr d€l'ås11}.*
    täi'frl' SlLsntF*                     iiro ¡'aÿr¿:i?'g ?¡i1,,.à+ ø.i. a¡¿y otasr ãüåj" å;r g$ï*frs of

    ËilE sta¡rd¿¡rd           Sûlln jtjrls i*ei-+{L*¿it rr*i.l:-r..$ ås u;¡g.J å;¿¡ i¿ i¡e¿CIJ^u f.*r,ftr*t¡:,:r
    r.s*uiËr                                                                                                                               '


                 .'l$ ül¡ åLÏ¡:,atretåen              ';t   htof.rugi ,h*i",E th.,,t r.*åæ€åv.,*   vsåns*   +f    scilåCI   of t!:o        l
                                     {.*;;tnæt toneå*ar.åi:g 6i{ 8s ål.ri ¿rå-?*;.'i*;ir åepth pf

    É,*&s +lgglgl ho;t                     v*få,3ÊJs                                                                                   f
    eÉ¡råenlÈul'a?. ecll" æs Fta.i, ,tth+r g+n#,åtiorig y..ÈJltiì#;år1ån6 ths g*ffi* s*fiåpdifrS
                          I   ---    ! å


    *il;llhfa.rli'i îi:a*r, $*:tslC.op ee 3r¡*re*a.* j,fl fertf.Llt*v veås$3n +f ffÍí fnr                                              ,i

 *'ss:.F 'sê'Såtåçns1 ln*.h *,cisn'"tr.l l;:''                        #-*rrpÈh g+ii-å   tfurln an i¡:sr+åH., rlg åiiå f,tr                 ':


 *?*fF           atãååtå+n¡E1 å¡¡sil #sptia                 gr+ater      trÅË{¡   Ll}:t*
                                                                                           ¡Íåi¡råå.*-.1f å'crs                        1

v¿aïa+ fæltç h;v $,$ fer *r,tpg f.a+Ìi Í,,*s# *iw¡t tis tleEr,irh* ..tÈii+r;¡..:i".. , .,iì
                                                                                            B*å¿lto                                    I,

f*r a 6H feptho Ëhr fetr"etås+¡ sl;Å:r+fr .¡f ¿Érlå$"g ef ÉIga gffi $Ls#g å¡.n¿i #trw                                                  i

+'thc'p srr*i.tåoan but r¡f, rlå$f;ÈFr¡li ¡t.*,rflw rs*,åL þ* ss s"à¡"åü,$Ër ll i

        $sl.l. .il$¡¡tiu                        't.+fuitl,"r,r "fciuct
                                                                       *r= S*åi.s¡
                   (whon åryì
                        ,Bån                                                               gg

                        ,& 'c                                                              42.                                         f

                        1 _

(   rl      ¡-rr f,lcvgg-Þ¿f :$ho iloüonþ:unilo, a[}$s* ,Ð,4g.
         lira  talp-o¡¡ for {$ t+'l*" aro reprsfit¡dfi-þå il-üovusr¿ f,ros¿                                              ïheûr¡        '
          t;ìoÉü for ilI                                                                                          *ä+.
                               ,to tr,s hs.vo tr*::n aånea üi ilrä wr"rËã¡i"
                    8in                                        ,,58

                    9ír                                         6?'

                10 rt                                           66
                -lL "                                           70
                                                                't4   .

                L5                                              '16!¿

                1ú- ir                                          79

               l,õ     rr
                t{i    'r                                       84

       ;lhs valus  of riaptìr J.s nor'ilouoly L Froportåonal quantÍ"ty of unloclced.
dfs*nonible ni¡r¡¡;al m¡¡.-i¡tar, and" not onLy a looseneð soi.t to recsive &o?e
fe*.åiI/ the pla.nts in thsir pushång iLoumrarù* bu't also ¡rst ¿¿ reasa of ast-
                                                        - r'iæ
i"vi.ty for so:ì-l bacterla of various kfn.1s" $¡rch 6actena,r.s nis,sìng in th.-*_.
     IÌslng tlrs tabl,e rf$lasslf,lEatÍon of lioils'r and teklng tho soilu of
"hnnâ.$ua 6?t Ðs stendard with 5G points anü aåtling dn L0 points for o\'erjt
BLess bbówe Ít úp to:þononza L ant. t*hing aw&Jr 1O points for e-¡ery alass
hsiow lt ú.opn to           l¡on¿¿nna   L$ we woulcL hs,vo ths fp}toæÍng tabLe:
       Soll    Bonc+nza                                ?olative Valuo cf Solls
               I                                               1CI0
               t¿                                                90

               5                                                 80
               4                                                 rt

               ,l                                                40
               I                                                5û
              10                                                l0

          rf Bs no"'n taico bonanza and. depth oombinail, then a soil of bonanøa 6
    anã- depth 6'l "oiiL havo ¿s relative vaLuo of 5OI50=ZãQA, wirilst a soiL of
    bcnanua g0 and. d.epth LZ" rnilL have a rsLativg va¡.ue of ti4XgO=g66O, If
   othsr conilitj-oas lsueh as loeation, precÅpi,tation, tonperature, otc. )
   ad'cled would' bal,ance for tira t;so soils then ths ratio of tbsir ra¡.atlve
   valuss for oquaL laneL unfts ìicul,d, be as LÈ.u..\ßß.
         Consiclering tho aln¡ral, constiir¿tion of tha iroed.iate subsoiL we nay
   modi.fiy tho rslativ-q value cf â. soilr 11 ls ti:ue that our grains, anil most
   of o'¡r.agríoal.tural pl,ants have tho bu"tic fi,f thoin roots is the upper 6tr;
   n'everth.a!.ess the lower parl;s aro al,so used not.only a,s a resefi¡oir
  rnoj'stnre but a}so foi pielrt fcoci." 'lho pofnts for consieleration of the
   subsoi-Ï. r.ts.y ho: b5'hou æuah ma¡r the soil be rieoponed.; wilt the graùuaL
   üel:.+onirrg of the sc'il a¡:ri. britrging up of subsoi!. nat&rial impro'r€
                                                                                   or i[s."-
Terigrete the coiL; itlLl subeciL cuttlvatisa i$prove.grraural eonilltions
  or not? .tor ins'Ne,ni3s a narly or sanüy suilscil wlll inprovo a heavy sLayey
  eoii and- a elaye.'y su.bsoii wilL lurprove a sand.y soi¡," ¿ subsoilof tha ¡sä.n€
  r'rÍn¡reL conet:ituticn åË tire soil r¡ili alior,l'ilre.gra&uai. f,.oeponing of tbo
  soåI"; a bri::giE8 up of p¡nil ¡airÍng tire soil sri-ii¿ si¿-i:soil .nat*rial å]sens
 rïestiqg sonae of il"'.,3terial Lifo, In view crf .lllis tJð aa,y eoneiÈLer tho a.ail_
 it:ional I'ncbas of cl.e¡ri'h ih¡tu iaay bo iroquir+d. fsr qre soilr -rithia a roasoõ-
 a-n3'e pariod-' at e pl'opâtrr bonanz¿ a¿r¡l acld. to i'urì aetuaL
                                                                     reX.ative raiuo of
 'ÈnÉi *flil at ths i:ì-:iis of valuatj.on.
                                              ûur'r¡or¡ar¡za'rable lrarelly gonsi,1ors
 tLril¡ jlo int.
        fu:ain, tho ür:ptir of tÌre ¡¡1.rror oi. l;he undsrground r¡ater; its effoats
 Tiilr)n tir'¡ soil ùurlrrg'üha ti¡ne of pi-anr: grolirh nay furthsr
                                                                        ohengtr 1he rel-
 atj'vs.vE,l"uä. If the r;r¿itsr rniFrror i* ¿t a d,epth of 10"-Lär or Loss
soil 1s likeiJ'¡,r to bo cc'ç'.Ðred. by sour hunue prani's anit not givo rr.E, åv€n
good- grå's;s l¿nd' Ïc¡ ei:ange it into a good
                                                       nsaùow we must ùra1n 1t clown
to a depth of Êo'r-14'r. i'i the ô.optli of th.e wa,tsr !ûirror ls at Eon-p4,r
the l¿rnd- nay gÍ-'va åi, so@ nutrirtive gress¡ to ohango it to e fteld.

  for other agrieuLtural plants ïTo have to lor,rer ít by d.ralnaä;eto 5,1-40 in,
  .A.s xe study the c0n,fiti*r're of soil end. subsoiL i;lt.eri dry¡ it is eviùont

   that tire vall:.e obtained. r..iiLl iri¡,ve to be dininislied on acccrr.nt of tos hÍgh
  â î¡¿rtar nit'yor ü-uring tiie 3:ar:-c.ì- c'f plani; Broi:jiil $j: í)^t/Ë)n dn;3.n9'ti;'hor'.¡ T-rte
  in l;roriag. Cr;-r bon¿inã::¿ ta-oie t¿,.¿:s i:;is congicer¿t ian in 'bi:-t ;;at"i l;1,
         f ;r i.flìen$ L'.,e egr.i-cr:lbnre *Ltir lt¡,3. Clover o¡' Lucern; in ':iLs roll+,t j-cn
  plen i!3 ns,y r.lo¡rg-'l.11sr a gr+a.t ås¡rt:l ef tL:.r¡ u¡rciei'grcì;;-rd., e'üên Liì fi.r ,'lôi'¡rt
  as 3!5 f .ta't(*,,r* influence of tb.e #uti lrey sinh. tii¿rt dec;t i-r tlier so:lt) liit
  a,t le¿st tü f't,. i-i b+for+ t.i:ilt 1îi: d.cntt ÌrÍ"'i npon tii+ roelr orhoo higir an
  andiorground- çErltg'r l.svel i¡¡h+re wåì'tsr is not niai:eLy ln oaplllary adirelslcn.
  i'' d.e:i¡¡ u.nriorgro;rnri. ;.i.l.l again aúd. tc 'th,J reî.¿tive v*;.J.lre, Oulr l¡o rratrr.a table
  rioe¡ not consid+r tirj.s point at all.
         ilg:laliing oi'Land units vus must ì:ear in minil. t?r¿r'l a slopirtrg pereal, has
  tq bt¡ reùuced. to t'hs hqrizot¡t'al projection ¿rs far rìs arss is conçi.d.orød
  siÐcr pl.ants grol{ v¿rij.oaL i.êr perpentiieuJ"ar tc t}rs hor.izonta}. A't r}ro
 sane tine a s3.spo offers greÈìt3r d.ÍffÍ.crrlty ín aLt the.egricultursl work
 itepenúiitg u.Ðün 'iirs slope gr'=.üf +r then lo-8o. Tho horiøontaf, posihion of
 ¿ fisla is n,.t th'g nsst d.esirablo! Êinoe lt offers no neturel ruri off for
 the wstern. fhe extreas Lj.¡nit of tlro slcps of 4griciiitur.el L¡¿nd wlth ro*
 6;arù to agricirltrrraJ. wol.k 1à 15o. but l0o alread.y offers eonsiû.orable d.if-
 flc:lt¡i:s" õ:Lnçc lrs havo a louor ancl d.sslrabla ¿¿nd a higirar a,nå sstreme
 ';lø¡'r iirrliti: ex;oorlm.ånts;nay finå sorro k ßt rsûuolng the eaonoulis reLatlve
   tâî\l-ião-ot illustrationr o eeight of, b.orses; {¿ = wetght of iurBlaaont;'
 slhô( = ths hefgþt througb $hieh =           the þõrsss hevs to'llft S+rj-whsn oc ¿'s the-
 gngfg of-the sX.opo; .t4=tire s,ysrags þovler of, thfl þre,os. -.,lr þ= (#@i=slni.
 pâF sseond end a total avsrsgo rrgig4t G óf Eoo:igg; tet a $low bã,¿=60 Eg.
 anü * Qt=600 ã9. .'. \ZO=ÍS0O+60).eXnqr fõr puil.f.n! thr: plow, -
                                                                         pullÍñs '¿he' seocior'
 .' . stnv=64s,slnd =3/r ;" . e= rtf?: frygflf,:f . olnv ' for-
?iiat rseans-tltat,tivo_a.y-6rags hoises w1,lt epond. tl¡elr everago poÌTè.rÐ to llft
 !"ui*iìin aeigÌrt^a¡rct the:¡þ$ or ilro soeri.ãr rrp a s3_opo of,-s,n-*ngiu;i
 or 4¡¿óo'-rospectively. An aild.itlonal pelr of horseu- ¡.toukl bs räqr¡-lreüãõI:;r
       tbo Êlo$Ing or-soedlng ar ths case ma¡r be.                                                    ts
Srom: iohenn Poixlr s lanã.virtsoheftliohs-Betrlebslahro.rteBS, p"lBO.
                                               - 8-

  lalu-e, io;" crf t,:ie aLrs-*"'l;¡ rr:åi;.c:ù t'r. inorlrzontaL afoa of a land. unj-t.
  shoul-l be aLso Psne¡nb+l'ed. th.ri; ti:e card.inaL clireståon of tÌrr¡ sl-o=ro affects
  the growtï:. of i:Lants"
        Ccre+i-'alng sÌra.;ce an,1 síz¿ Ðf
                                         i:arcsl çe aay onlãz uefl'licn r¿itrout corrsid.-
  gi'j'::g tilirt the occnonic valua olo an egricir].tural-
                                                            parcol is ÍÍrf¡:¿enosd. by siø
  låa;)e eni, rl.ili.siotr. fhie.o*int i;¡ not aatu¿¡,l it us eåäegr
                                                        ''              ãs a ruLe, the
  sm+l"leij'i 9e'rcçi tuosti-y eonslùoreå in tnis coirntr;;,- is i¿
                                                                        Íiílriêre            of lå0 ¿l.jr*i'i
  rn *ri'Ð €aõ-rs a rjquar,: of 4u1 arlreË gä?i*s coü.åi-.,-ilera,tion,
      so far w¿ haire consiåei'srl soj.L eondi?Lone otrly: Sonanze
                                                                              of rsoil, ,lopth
 af r;oi.J., ¡usrli and ,lâÞfh of sr¡bsoil, uniter¡Sround_ r;eaier, elope of tj:e
 Thj's is h¡r far ineonpLcto; we.he.vo, f. inst.o oæl-it.$d ,uirs
                                                                           conside:.aticn of
 soåi. d.cfect,s, sucÌr as: al.oal,imity, cieff,tej_sae;r in a eorte,i¡i
                                                                             nutrient" ,fic.rìås
 ovd:rru:ß"Lcg, n31ioh 'c;ou.J.d. eureL;r i:e taken into¿'
                                                                             und.or cçrtain
 eonåitions' ¿TFtrtrl a,il thess artÕ- otFrsr eoniiti-ons yd.s
                                                                   Froposeù thet a rol¿:tlt*
 value of e l-¡l'nd' irlrj"t' ciÐ noll ês a r¿rt;î.o ef ¡:eJ.atirs vali;.es
                                                                            of to,o Lanrl. u*j.ts
 may b+ fouucl-       if î,lie *s¡.:r.¡ror of oti:,*i, +l'-.*entç   be.lanc+.
     ilcTis?er, land. incf,:rde;s ¿:,i.cû urec,,.-pit¿r,çion, hita.t, and.
                                                                           ligitt. çEs oaÍl
 harüi;tr segai'eto iha ilii:se frcrî o¡:¡J E¿r¡.(.rthe-r bafh ån
                                                                   thßir intord-epend_€nce
 anÉ' efr'cc'ù'"t¿poii pl'nn'l.     grolr";i:; Ís'Ï, Bd Çår.¡i Eiilasurùå proeiSrÍtatian b; lteeS.f
 enri i¡+ le¡:'o'¡z tha't precípi'cati¿¡r i¡ea;'riJ orrnrå$q
                                                                          i"ö" Iass li6ht¡ anü ire
 t¿?'l't n''?åsÜ'Ír3 fei'i¡:o.l;Î:-lr'l d",tr.Lng ii:.r peri+t
                                                                 of lleat geowtir aad. liigìr.:i. tgr¡p_
 g:f¡:l'tzfe il¡"raå'3 nost1,7 arore rigirt.
                                                      'rirus 'oy mee,sufing praolpltation a¡.¿c. tonapa'-
8,1-.¡-râ vlitiroüt Eoiüg inic t,iia ir¡:ubla
                                                           tf nr,:asarir"€ d_irectl¡r þ6s¡¡ii cf sunshl.nd
tflo ìnay obtaíntrr¡o terns o¡ eoalpa;'ieon i-lt¡or''t¡-,ni
                                                                       l:roup=-h l;llLc sldflaiantty inply-
ing tìre thircl elenrent i.8, J.lght
      .?e s"r¿¡'li   iliu,stia{-"r th.c i,lss o¿' 'ti:.css cJ.e¡:oni's of   ,,.Lå¡id-,, cong.i,å,r;
cipå-i¿'t:o;l' rt ;;cur'l wr.'on6' þo ai=rrl up ia * lu:.iry su:$r
                                                                        sll tlro pi.ooi¡-itatLàn
'd'ui"irtg the ;¡ü¿àf' :rhai t'o,Yï&nt is ¿¡.
                                              asri-¡¡.'in ,tistriþution duririg ilr$ r.¡cagon
of tii'T'iiig and' that of growtìr curd. baryest. r..ct
                                                               us tako f,or inst*ncs, a fgr

points     oru   l,Íanitob¿   for   ivh.ich we hago avorages       of preeipitati.ö¡r of a Long
rgco rù.
Taarly e.'uarâgr; ítpgtâ'l)zL. XLn3ra¡rðon{50)L6.'l5rffin {ãB)16.88¡?.La ?.(58)i?"';,
J,pr, ìJay, Ju-ne, J¡ti:l t0-1,L                              -9               0.'9               ?-!.i-
,tr€. , Sopt. , Oct,       6-7                               4-f               4-'r)              5-6
Snow f ltl" rain) 4-b                                5-1               5-4                'õ-4
Morc.en('ð6')LT.48¡ Treasbank(zølLl,82,0artwright(5¿)LB.62rÊwanã6)LB.¿4.
                  8-g                              8-9                    g-LO                9-10
                  5-6                              5-6                    5-6                 í'-6
                  6-4                              g-4                    g-4                 5-4
lhe nunbers 1n lrrachsts ind.iaate the           of yðers of whieh the averågs
was obtalnsd., 'Jwo fu.rther polnts nay bø û€ntionetl in thls oonaectigni first
that the apprêeiation of 3rreoipitatlon is to bo oonslõ.are& in eonJunotlon
¡nitìi ths und.orground. natsr in dry sêa-$rrn; seooïråXy, that ãgpioaltutro Ls a
long-year business anû Long-yoar evsragos of preelpitationafB fuJ"i.y just*
      John Maeoun has an            lntärestlng ehapten        en water eon&i'$ionsragrieultur-
at.ty aonsf.üðrtdlr ln the Ê.eú Rlver Tal"l¿y and. soln€ in&srosting reoarks çon*
certiing the once consLilorsù d.esert of tho Scuris i}fstriot.
      Anothsr el.suant        of    l",a,n,J.r   8s far as agiliculturo   is a$fectsil, are 6¿¡1y
anù   lato frosts.
       Bsfor6 sE prúe€eil we tsa,y re&ark thet with the advano€                   of aultivatto¡¡
6f the sol,t of a oertaln il.lstrlct frost eonrtltlons arc a¡netlceatlngr gno
dlstfiet ln }¡Tanltob¿ whioh was suffenlng baÀI.y of Xate frosts in early f,ayÊ
Eas soutb of Rosenfelil anel elou¡n to Gretna beth sast ancl west ûf the Grp.B.
0Lð tånere a¡nCIng lÍenonlta settl,ers of that d.lstriet tolü. the writor that Í
that lasteü way lnto the gothr but stearLiLy tryrov-iËþ. About LgLo late
frost! to tlauage the graln was alnost u¡knownr In twq gastatohOwarr settLe-
ns¡rts about Begtna ln 1910r on$ only sltehtly fefth€r north thar the other,
                                 , -/ o-

 wars sulcftring tf Late frosts; but'ihs roport ran that 1n tha fivo yea,rg
 older settlaurent eonditlcns in this respoct rðßl.a gfoatl;r ahangeù to the
 better. Ths'j?nltor 1s not a'n3-e to stato the rgast locabÍon cf thess sett--
 lsr,lêti;s. :t   ne';rfurthor bo nontlonerl tþat tire acoJ,inatiøation insteaù of
  changs of. sseû-s nÍght havo alss oontributed. to the e^nslior.atlng coad.ittons
 with nogard- tc late t'rssts" J,ong d.ays åui^iug gror,lirig saa,sono a d.ry elimate,
 stoaðy warl¡ anå oLear çoatLer/ a r¿{¿r& soii of mCIdera'ue ¡iet sufficlont fgrt.q
 1Lit"-? ero conrlj-tions 3r-roåucitrg seecls sf short veget¿rtíon terms i.ê. Svitea(
 for l-ato soeê.ing and early naturing
       :'he soil ralght l:.aTe reachtrü. a osftt ln rulnimrrn teæperature Sefore it fs
 fit tc å.oeo!;t'ilLis on theJ seeci fon geruirration. lo ihe minninun soil ts&-
 peraturs thero eorraspotiel* ã- raugê sf Erinånu¡ß airtemporetu-reË (Seo s.ppen-r
 d"ix î ai" Ir¿ atìrlitåon to 'lb^e "soil .nj.ifre tem¡ierai;ure eertain plen{,.s
 an Í1c!'1it1cfla!. aunb+r of å*grees eo¡¡si,*"erlng 'ühe serrsitlvsnÈss of the
Ling to two tonporatËroË Þe!.or¡ LZFtena raw ,rsatìrerr ïlo Éecurs for tho
seed's a gcod stsrt at anrl. after gorniaatåon ùie ney say that
at aLL should- be çaitså $ith untitr thr¡ ten¡'nrs is steaû,y ebor+ tgoc
wh1lo the lowost ton¡1. be 5og" rhe saerllin¡is and. evsn.a.?r'o ¿rdv¡.xrcsd
l'lngs nay be and'angsrocl by a lats frost th¿î is i:y .z fau. of teil¡;eratufo
to Ooc or loner. The farthor aclvancerl the se¿l,son is ihg le¡;s i¡ t]rere
such clangor a¡rd" of tiro ûaueglng foroð. sone plants äre not,at
                                                                           aLl safo
beforo all suoh danger is alL re¡ro¡vsd a¡rd. ha¡e to be lato
                                                                             in tho

              T b gives s,verags frost free pari.od"s of ss.¡eraï. ¡roi.nts in
Ifanitoba' the ër,vorsge cLates of lete s¡ring frosts ar¡cL the averago
of earLy farl" frosts Ê,re e¿lso given. sofire ¿iïerr'€eb ere oysr ê0 year
neoords othel's only of 10 ancl over ana e6aln othsrs
                                                          o-f lsss th¿r,n L0. fh;
yfrar of oonoiusfor ls tgp0 (?)
 Sincs sr¡ch aoncLitions neke agr.ieuitu.¡jr,      loag-year ínåustry, tire consiùer.-

 ation of such e-rãr>iges is:iully        jusiifiod and tìrose of Lon*ger *.st'oi"íis eys
 ¡¡ors conelusive.
      l:iEuirir:s- i¡ito principal eauees d.eisrrei¡iirrg ihe varlatiorrs of d.atss
 of late and' earLy frosts fron placa to place uout c[ be a speeifro oase sf
 ths d-eteruinaiion of tire variatioa of iteri.y and iatc $¿rrirrg a.1d fr¿i.L fron
 pLaee   to piaoe. lhs rati.o of rela'tiva valuee of a. r'init c-f *;no,iist¿tnt ple-
 ces l;L11, ccrrrd-1.'i::i+ns hetng elire, f,e;verifr. U.!ron tire ¡, .aspect1ve Lengtïrs
 of tr:.e grow:ing sê3sc!1r
      Cns factor 'f jrat into sueh d*tsrr*irrati,:n is l"*,i,ij;uðe" Ruggia
 between ths BLaclc õea enå tbo Årof;ic rJcea¡i offsrs an ¡rlurost r¿lri.for¡,r I¿¡n,J.
eon$lguration a1nost üevoid ot' largo intsrior uatrr.¡. &ìf,,sr{6s ¿nd. sovi; k&t;"
ëherson at ths $outl: anü. rlrairaug*:lsk at iho nortir, er*:rírâe,f cf l*tft*
ucl,a of about n*? giving rlh+rson * grcaiilg ssi¿soãr þy ¿ã da;rs fon oa-ts
 1å'days for barl+y J.onger th¿n at .,l,reìrangelsk. *ï,'or 'äl¿,s sa¡ne rså,$on, Cirorç
son h¿is an advantage of sâ flays for nheat ovsr glotrez abouu l4¿t) i;Í,,o:fl
0h'arsoti' ($ortirern tirl.ï.t for eireat 61o, roi. winter i.ys $?rereor: Ìiar: l-n
ferLL 45 iLays S.onger time thaii +rchangoisk. ïatgr¡nerij.e.t,,: pc-ltr.ts ,;rre beàr_
lng or:.t the lseo 'rppendix T e) åeperrûence of rergïr of grr:win¡g sea,$cn u*tn
Lat åtud.e.                 ,

     -á'ncthstrfaetor to be conslûsretl- is aLtituüe. Eithcut hevíng suffialerrt
d'ata to provo it tho çr:iter faa]"s inolinsú to eonsirLer su d.iffc::errco
abo'';t 300 ft" ln artitutle to corrsoponel, ln mattor of growfng
                                                                     sa."sonsr to
10 tatltuåe f $,pBendl* fa) .
     comparing on    å,  of iQxt spriiç fros't zon,es of Ìde¿rítoba Þt¿e l¡oand.arà,.
les of ths zonss: ¿) May P4-5L, ii) iu¡re L-'i, oj i B-L4, sou.[h o-f tire lshes,
we see thoy aro ru-'rning almost ¡,*raLlcl fr"ou âesî Ì'cr;ost
                                                               dL{ sof¿e {a) of
earlisst fr"ost-fr+e period" )(ftÏ bolng the ¡qost southsrn, the øono af
                                  -t,    -


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                                                                fert                      '   .:4
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frost ftae;rerio,l (e) ciose t¡ and. betæosn tire la.kss and. zono f ir1\ betneen
ti:.a oÈi:.ez'tço zorl€ã" irs wÐ go æän't'+ard. ttre rLiff..erenoes of alti"eçÕg u¡¡-
laisï,rila-trly eonbinø eitl* d.lffarances of 3,atj-'tad$. lhe S.i9. ctrnor iras ftÒ
 ía.) ûe...¡.ë¡ tì:e.r ,i'¡g fi¡rii cn3.5 lb) i,.l'ltl lcl ãûnðs. #olng northuests,¡t:,rd- uos.ê
 í;:i :is greert Ly n-arrawed,'rintj.l tt d.isappearrs and. {c} 1s covei'ing aL¡¡ost
.ths qirola of iîos'cern anü northçe$tern.¡:le.nitohâr-Bith regarô to ðcr.rly fali"

frosts ee heve *xcoptionaL spots irev:-ng frosts as early es ¿,u9,.30*P'J" thE
map sb.oes tira oarLy faL1 frost ãoaôs s,r) Aug"?L-g!ú bt) Sept'J.-I0, tr !Ëept"
11 c¿nd. later, It 1s trlgssibls that soma aha.nge of tlne Atvtsfon woulcl
'nring about I EIürg aüoqaate amanãtÊsnt of th'e utnts' Tet evâû È'si i't ls                  i:

srs *ecognirs the ii:ftueneo of the Xats-es anfl úf a}titud.e. It is t'â be:foteú
tir¿l reglon of higher attitnetgs of ¡ssstsrn åBü nsrthisostsf,E H¿¿ni'br¡l¡a nhich
hes:its La'i;est sprlng frosts as lata as June 8*å4 has al.eo lts ê{¿fli6fit
Jlall frçr¡t s.s snri.y as Àug* ?l-5J..
     .iffc$ aLl res h.avo saiù about preeipilai;ioa and" ffosts rso aro jrratiflad.
to ëonelucl*l'that ín not far d.isf;eq'{ tíms seienoa will be abLe to 6ive a
Tnorâ d+ft¡rlts e,nsrÆür as ts ths rolatlon hslt these a,ni[ relatså'f;3'atofs
s,ffsct 'the r-sLative vaÏ.ue of land. a,¡rð. tbs ratid¡s of trto lae.1
unit* in two d.j.ffsrent localitlos.         . ' .
     rt thlr.d. group of oonslcleratlons **y tu eal& to be çf a soaial nature.
.ïe have considereå a) the soll, andt under:groun& b) the atuosphera conpletå
i,ng tlr.e land.. Such cLrcunstarees d-eeld.e Ëpon tha fertility o'f tlre Lanil,
i.3. e¡n what rtr ma¡/ obtein fron the soÍl* In a prÍ-mitite irganization
unctar whlah the s-'rttiva,tor ¡uith hls Ltmiteù æea.ns. e,nit sf;lple r¡t¡tl:oils qf
proclnction wonl,ô try to obtaln his fooð and. housing end fua]- anå clothing
from jÊg,   eg.å-L   a$g h*g EgggS th€ eonslåaratJ.ons      çf fertlLity    would. i¡e   suff*
iciant, the tsrrn 'rphysioal produotivtrtytr st' "f,¡rti-L:.tytt worzlc. coineið.e
itt ; with the tor¡n recononlcal prod.uctívX.tyn. fn our eonplroated-

  ãocls.L    org-i€Iniu at jon uil;ir r¡ur aetiroü-s of egrianltu:.el proåucticn, o';r
  ili;*1;rÍol'3 asoiis ¿rn,l"',;¡nis aeri o-rr.y d.e¡end"onoe rr-pûtl the rqerket bstÌ: for tha
  srals of o-ù'-r lirûçi and.'bi:e S¿iisfaotion gf r)Br requifenents there ls å
  slrarp dÌ.etj.neticn betwðen npirJrsic:¿L ¿:rod.uctivityn ûr,,fs¡bil.:.;;r, ,:,,iå,rgc-
  on.oni.c;:raf.irctivit;zr" go sirartt'a terns ?!s rsår,Jr aåopt tiio t¡::e t,ern's f.ett¿Lit;-*
  end" productir      tty.(l)
     lr                                  l/
       ilcc¡tc;ui,3 g,i'cd.:.c f iv.i t;t'    o   l :,iii;    L.Lii,e,r "1;rcûuil*våty"   i.¡rcluiias t j:.e ,'pbJrsical
  p.rod.'iic.llvity" ot*"f aitiLitJ'                   s¡ii a¡rd. g','rseJ rÊ$i.esonterl bg tl¿e f,ew
                                                  'oc+:1.¡   o-î
  at fLnlsht-)å il+te¡iels t';e obta,in Ì,oV CI'Jr o'*!n ilgù as irelL aÁJ;re get
  far ti:.+¿* .Ln ¿ìr(;]i,rågo on tire ua,¡*et fol, i¡b¡,t ire ù'¿ n+t i¡ss ou.rfielvos of,
  t)-roso ì:l¿¿T;t"f aL$" ¿s e.I! a:r*]¡È.!1ij,î saLü+g iì,r3 s3ïrsÊ,Jod. iu¡¡cletary ani ts
  tl;c cyr:?-e "Èttt:.onic pi'Ð,3.lictirrj.-i;l'r irilJ. cni.J tilen bu c¡snpLe1e,å rshe¡r I .kno.ø
 ghæt ;ll get f.r¡r ouî ¿tcitel¡ se E:ay obt:,in foi¡ tlr-¡ ::esrr-lts of ci:¿r saj.3. a.::.d.
  sFer¿'f" 3=û f*,.'m,s at ùistâ.î¿sss årå Jlcf ?hs, gt'oÉÊ¡,rfe¡tiiil.;,r wiål
  sir:.ff¡r ülffcrgi:.t r'*=rlu.çti"ons ûf 'r.i;oi...1. :cliLti_vc i,ain+s :.flor i¡rstáit,Js oj¡ tìra
 n..:*i:¡br¡i:' of ¡:ilti:l-îio¡:.el $allorfu clf o¡:'ís ho ì-;e fcrl. tt o¡ir horsee jrau-iiog olt¿,

 pio'lucts to tj:.i lii:;rk,t*j, Tj¿,; s{,rJi,:} i;iii b+'lir,t+ c.¡i iiu l:inås of ¡.c¿ü.sr1iËil
 rcad.e or .1i.':ï -å'üaå5. 1rh,g t'gi¿ti.'¿e l¡.rirre lvi-Ll euffel a fu.îtiror rud"uci{i,þir
 if for tli$ iTia¡r;j¡ ;:'$,¡t -ii;+ j:låJ/ sâOit;la 1il c¡laoå.Liåes i¡r ou¡ ¡r¿rget tlrw¡l
n- ofiL.l 9îíi, ¿r:f airat wo aigi:t obtal¡¡ i¡r t'he r¿ark+t town ¡ir et, wirat sasri-f-
 ic+¡r ï',¡û iì]t.J ira.v+ tc brirg ol irrivatlons',1¡ suffsr bccauso;Je eil$ nt¡t wiil:-
in tlra ão:1,; cf î;c:¡u.,r'i. f¡r slicrt eecni.r-¡ic p:rad.ucî.ility d.epen,Js al-so ltps¡l

      'Ihese        chief sociaJ" eLen¡snis eiay'be cr:nsiderod" L'o be a) ti¡s ûiass of
  town ä:o :Ire geographicarry Gûr:.r1åci'er.. uith,b j the äolle (llui, 6 nri, L'i ni
I 7f ,titt ,':'i:i,taÍ.' h.:,: ..r?:rigt lhu:? 1;crarc fro.r äer.iry t. fe¡i.or as he ussÍË thom
  i"n th.e first od..1tj-cn Of his rtÁgricu,r.tuial, geg,rämfes.'
etor )     .*:rc';.nd.   tþat toqn anå tiie naturs of noans of eolmunÍcation e) the
ai'ii cf     x t-,?   s¡t t l.¡r¡tl:r'i c1) È.'ne 'lt irnogi:anìri.e eLosiêflt   c

       À'.r:llt rf lat:d åf           Ð,   Garta:ln bonanza.snú sârtain pbysle¿L an¡i nicrobL-
oiogJ-eeL ssndltlons may be a, grain land" at I5O nt. Ëorth of d-4,3"rÊåÍ u¡Ðkë
e. ..¡:r:*in {}rr}ero-.c¡nd-vsal prod.rrci.r:6; fi-.ta at ?5 EÐå t tt&! bfoa.k u¡l :in ;coia.-toas-
cr,ïa,il-fl.eJ.-purltrJ; farns             at ã5 ml., Ln vegetabLs;end.-porrltrg far:ns a'ü âfta,iÇ
ilrtra ér,rrn.â qifh
.L¿Àv-V,.4-:.¿^        iris'Elf+ çnd fa:rri!_y::utting;ln more wor.i<,znd" alsç west3,ng
J-.:;:e ti-ne irr.p".ï Èê*{,r ti:+ir livtng on 160, 80, 40, 2,O acrss at L5rl, ?f , 35t
r¡û. ?c mù. r+sp. Fhs,t nË,ens the.t frcm the standpolnt of aeoncmlc Srroå-
il,3tiVit¡,r    -'ìL'r.å Ð,ØYe   t¿" Îhat     € nl.asS Of Lnnd- At Í10 nj.. TlilJ- br:l n0ftìl aS

nu+h e.s I r:.*yes:,t lãC rtil+s, lt çllL only r1openr3. c' thsrf; nla.n ls
+1-.:'.s,,1i..;r of:licr:r.+nt f-n ç.L1 fci:.r ty¡ec of pgrieîx1'trirâ. 8g¡: the I'ola.tivg

*¡aîl¿:...'îi.o:r    of r:r:.eir'.lnits cf l-s^ñ.d, i.t i-s i,ndi.f-.ile,:en't who occ',1g,:Lr:r* ur is eble
'fc ore'i.pv tÌ-:*n. lt j.s .in tJle n¡.tr-'i:,; r:f ihs fi,ai-'ia;: ltssLf that fr;rrÍl:¡is
           *Lo                                                                                            (
 iilt+i.;"n l-oo;c for tb+ '¿.ypo .:rtå ,'rÏ.'¿nei affe;"ing hI.nt econûriri.t se*urfty Resoråå
:,li.,S'ir h"ì-s *".r¡? afÍirl-anc;1. ;ì.rå!i't 5:-r,;¡ RoT avincn ths samg de¿;re'e of egs*
l:.*rnj-r: eÍ:lleinn+¡: +n tlte sn1.) ïancl- Jn iirs ftiîïÍtn3 ty::e of. n6rion-l.tur'e unü.êr
Ílie seinë ebj+etl:rn oonil:itlonsi yrt tha *o]-ntiv+ eco;1CI¡rio¿eJ. vr,lir.e +f ths i
Ir.n¡l renains t-h.g r'r:r.nE, ,lgeônr f-f , in*-otead. Of ri'If.nni.peg v+s eü¡tsj.cì.er llû¡:tagç
l-r'. ,'i':.-.i::ic,f i:e eûrrùsprlnd.tng tlletanoos raay bo roilu.ceil. possih tg 7ø/a:50,
;15, 3-2,6¡¡J-, to i:r, thei g¿tno oo(¡nor.rie +ffscrt ln the relative r¡aluatfon
n'i *gr-iclil.'ilr:'ni 1:¡.,1. .tl', ma,y refl.Uce then tO'/¿.
        'ì.." tht phasa of pfod.uctioß ihsre nra,l'T¡e g,d.åeå thi; pìrase of er.rner:rapfj.on
il,s å.l¡'i¡::neçr fr:,n to',ru enal tYze elass of tgwn,pill- Í.¡¡fl.ueirc"ì t¡u piieos of
cormcf,iliiss nct onty by virtrre at dist&ür€ fronr th.+ sholese.ler but also
th,e t,ise of th* merket: selT.jí.rE ncre, sej-].ín$ ebe*pe:" r,ud ga,ini-ng rncra.                            \

         ,-ir':; ì-c:li.'J ]s -t,,1'.:ld ïr,:-ire tr¡ îre fr.,.l..'.rr* hors soc!eL fs.etors i.nflir6nce tbe
ctl1t j.rate  r l¡oth. .*¡l pt.od.E-oerjt'. and" GCnstïtìðt"c aa

     fhe nir: of .r:his eh.e.'pto¡r is not aors ilren suggostl,¡e s:fl tho rola.tivc
:¡ehi¡rti.r¡¡r of sg:nionltu.rel l.anås¡and, not of, going into the of a

syt:tei: baes4 or: th:.i   J:i:elrr'.-r   af   ,:al-:l.tir.'e ve.luatj.on e$ tnd.icate,j .lrr   thi* th.îp-
{ier'    ii¿tu.t".:ii;; E thoror-rgh.      anci s.i}i-onttfle sr,irl,s;;
                                                                   $f the Ðrovj.nce j.n
florû tl:e,r¿ otle reupaci n.ll[ bs n+r:Ð$r;¿ri'Ju in CIrrl-e¡'to lay out ¿¿ cae'l¿¿ster oj
ag'l"ic:-li-i;.¿ra] l¿;nôs esld e'JnÈ "i'o Í; ssi.:r1i:lfic conclusltln as to th+ r'+Lat1z¡g
Tai;-:-¿,'í:-rla of¡raå la¡rd.s in the P.l'o";lncon Onee ¡:s c¿:daí:'tÐî hsi.ry

La:Lri ii¿t any eÌranges Ð,f,e nors.o¡r-s.'Ly foxLowod. up.
     wrfi psurrðrlr nn4;uo"uçrs:iç{s-ria oÉ¡üËË rur:*ü'ii."å*îfr Hä,ä{Ë
     #å*iTå' *"ffii-'ËfuffldilrfflåËTr ir*q                                                       å
                                                        40 eeEöp-"Ëuçpue' ffi*Ë sqå. èuoqË
 -                         wåiå -*.i                                         är,tri ñ$rüilrt,H
 rsi        *¡ ffi :tå,'
   -poe# Ë ðïp.x'**n:lc'# qlrs $ ç * txcri'i:g*q-eorie.{r,"iiiä-[,åä-ìÊ'* å;
                                       ï *.**tl *.9ü,r* Jxs*i ;f aatc eg-n.r*r¡.i                                                                     i
   Ènûâ Ëìil+ ðfi
                    þãït] fl5+ ry ßË{+#î$îtst$ i}ì:re-.€rn*l+r?ì.îrÍïsr:*r+t sugg,r-ru1 tr{¡B ;fËåä
   "'FnTs $rTÊ*r {irïl Èl snp s$BÏa+çrå-æxúgæi6 t'q+ üÈ iÈsÉ,Htr
iiÐnöfi gttsr'u¿l*-u*trs*ùççíotrçp ori"* spxrir,re_1"n*mnl#rtru* Þq} Ërî6 Ëü€ {n*nrr:n
      u8 eäç39 slüÐFeÈÊ sur*rs-t$    $îÞ ¡ *aoqæeasri| un.pd'nr ing qa,?¿*T çïËRLêFe
                                                                    rE+*rç+nl çú¡Ê+rå:rc Gilå,
 üÞsüS$q ê[ËTixriJüo{,GT,*omlid u1 rsrÌtlp                                  Tl cË'T tçÁce ctf
   * q¡*cm *iti'ur ã,üq naifîlp âg s$ r¡riËîr€¡Ë Ë#rt',.ä-Ëf,rtr{1lsé:Jirtì
 eæffi";,{i'"i*;isul+in s,euåT*_-nir$,Jï +î}r.x¡j: + ,rso*t+*-jtåil åF+EÊ,ul*¿-.åtfä
  g{ì sÈrìå+'i6ùr;rrF.r? Hr*r¡rïs *rlæp g11 fe1;t.{"p,ur cr.;up
                                                                 tä,li gne,x$j s}Ëã tr+.oï çÍ;
       ü9".1î¿ {tl} AAmçi Hçßrrç}".{f;r r'-:i ut" -si:,l, iig e+#l;{
  ¡¡çgr-ri&ff fiar¡+åt$ sqÐ- {*S8T iri                                 {-iä*q"Ë# èiuç sn+
                                        *doW*nq*.} +s1.3+sr# ,.tÊT#}.rï¡ffîts,ry sî,î+ ilï
 aüT "då {$6gT '}$qu*rnn:T$s E&r¡*r *êî-!îûg ÐT# i.r*îprrrqÐff Ëu:13¿îg ea drurS¡*fgsr
                                                                               ècj*ËFæpg                       #uiu:*.rç                         rÌE?Tñ#åtU î{e$Êfi                                 .   Þuä           E[Sfr    {rl,
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         Ê $, gi'¡u TT È{¡rrÏ d cT¿:
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 çH  Frt"Tßï 8rrfii og          fË æîÍi1.r c¿.r orîi îtî$ffit$ nå: Èpgilsfi                                                        fl i.r,r,:{rl
                    o{áttÏüj;Ì    tri;TrÈåpg   o.l. B*rË*Õäû,3,r} :ßTfifi-ToÍ}          ¿¡cË   Ëg,îtãT'i uri$Ì,ii-JOu      {,Ët
                                                                               -/'t '
                               cHAs'rER   fJ
                 Uethocls   of i\ppralsal of Starm lanel.
     the present   methorls   of 'Iasation sf            in gonaral neeissate
                                                Rsal Estate
 the uonstary value of tho la¡d. elnoe tbe tasos are oxptrsssecl in nitLs or,
 eents on the cloLLar of the Baflr€t val,ue of the property. $ince only, a
 small fractlon of tha nunbor of rsal proportiss of a ø:-ty ør eountryslete
 1s on sals or has þ-eosnt}y been solil antL bought,a nethoat is neectoit of fiËtt-
ing ind,lreetLy the velneËÊf real properties to be assssseù. $b,is mattqr
offsrs groater tliffioulties in eormunltios whors lenct anð buitclings ape
troetecl soparately. fhe flifflouLttes lncrsasÐ 6nornously whare the valua
of tho unimprovoù qgrlouitutat. lanrt is askocl for.
     thsro ere three naethoùs of appraisal of farm lan¿ sver useå: a) uelng
rsnts (as f,arrn i.neo¡asles a baslsrhavf,ng establlghed. a ratlo of rente to
farn Yalues b) using saLoì.prLeês of, ferns acr a basls in the appraisal sf
lmprovo&   lantl. a) using eêono¡aåc proctuotlvity fas lanrt ineoms) as a d.ireqt
usans of appraisal.lapUa start with the Last sethod, sincs at tho surface
åt glvos the lnprEsslon of ths soundest methoil. Éonsld,erlng tha averago ''
of past nqt Ínoomes foF a periorl of uaay yearg val"¡l a1so f,or tha fu.ture
anü taking a Eertaln Eats of lnoome ln perpetulty anrl neglootlng eåtíelp;,.
atetl fluotuations of suoh rate, ths foruakaY=È wouLel our ê¿ffio-
nlty. wÉen we thlnts, howevor, that the seononle prqauottvity øf a far.n
ls not uonel'y ths rosult of phyeloal foroes brrï to a large extont alsa ðE--
potrdlng uþon tho physloal andl  lntellsotual efftol€nðy of, the f,arnsr, thlq
 üeing true uorð than in any othan i.ndlustry, the imense dLLf,flculty is
 apparent. Ally attenpt at f,lnitlng a etanilertl for net Laeomss oa basls of
 a stanclanct lntsnstty of anltlvatlon for e glvell farm,eveÉ as aB evotrag€t
'fu"t xsry yearsris, by the nature of thfngs, futÍle. ghus ts thie nethoù
                                      -   2i) -'

  Erong at lts promiss of a not lncome (t).
 A'f $ and. a) At tirs basis of procedu¡o 1s the of an avorage ancl
 w€t may Look a littLs more oloseLy at sueh avsragos. 1,ot us have arbro¡

  clrerfi SrhrJí nlns quantltlas 1n lnereaeing orcLer j.n three gror.tpsr of
  thrse. ile nay hava s¡+b+c+d+e+f+gi+-F+J_m of a;i#S¡t, , jÍ#;k¿, g+yt J=k3
  anù SÈåX-E+E' 'Ihs two €tv€tragss aro evleleatþ equal. Sow, lf wã sbtaln
 m    ln the first      manner aûcL pLaoe          1t   1n   lte   plaoo by nagnltuele among tho
 nins quantitles lt is easltry 66nFarer[ wlth ths extrare value$ a and J.-
 ff we sbtaln the group av€rragss ts, ¡ t¿ r E, firet r ,.rr h¿r,ve dro¡ir¡fl. a anil,
 J ae- oxtremss;'and,wg *havE.'oIlntn¡iteð all' klBðÉ of gåEE bftueen thæ.
 Pla'elng n by nagnltuile sl6ng k k , h wo uay shot¿ the tend.enoy
                                    '                                        of thê
 groups tsôrE eloerly than by flnst nethoit,bnt not uors than that: tbe
 trE8eg, thougtr d.noppad., €,ifÐ not $f6ureù   of existâãee; aBð iho gaps,
 arthough overbridgoclo aro Ëti.l] there, she ove.rbriclging of tho gaps
 oftsn clopantL upon the grouplng so as to finfl ths tend.onay nore alearly
       lhd graph shoss evsrags cash rents                    ancl average Lanrl va.Lues
                                                                        per aor6
 of 52 tlíffsrent Snoups, in 56? aountles of B to 9006 tsnant fams to a
 groEp' Fron such a graph.the extremes end. gaps a¡a not visibx.e.
 rhe fisrtls enalosecl 1n reete¡glos uey be sa1ð to lndlaate
                                                                 the teaitenoy.
 1n generar that the hlgh Yaras areas are high rent
                                                          areas anð los valuo
 ar€les are Low rent arsas¡ ïet, 1n ovory flelel thsre
                                                            ls eueh zrg-zaggïute,
$ven wtth stremes Ét!.lrqr¡¡¿1ecl aneL bert gaps overbrldge¿,
                                                               that the eonstal4-
{cy of such tondåncy ls vory obscureð.
     lhls Sraph (the work of, the writer) rsprssonte fablo tr of
                                                                     cty¿e a
                                                                     v-dtB        :\
(1) lhore are othors r6€rsons-as^ue11r                                                             r'ì

                                             Þoto in the oplnioî of the wrlte'-
of mlnor elenlfio*nôã.---õg" prof. Àãi"¡ðåi"-îlåiÏ+äT                nrhe vatuò
                               f,;:ïi* i:;i, q#:it io åi
                                                     "iåi                       "rtlole*äîr f rãnt
;i"   å#å: i,;3+   :   "lii;                                              äí   ue ;"õ ã_


                                            rÊ sÉEEr rs   ric^u rH¡s wav(nontzourar¡.v).   rx¡s MUsr su TOP.
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                                  - þ>"

 Chamb+rrg'  "Bslation cf land. Inaomo to T.,ancl Valuew {Al. Iho uerits af tham
 flborS' strr¿y 1s bere not d.raggod tnto d.isousslon; . on tha øon$rary, it
 I'sads to sons valuable soncluslons. Eowevetr, 1t ¿oss aot Xaaû to ratlos
 of eithsr ttre gross or nat rants to land valuss e?âE wltbln rsasonable
 Limits {[f fluetuatloa, to be of valae for praotisal BüFposss¡ i.ü. ¿ncter
 a oono'rete sst of oonditions. lïe may EnLy saentlon ths fast that tøesing
 ttlo fanns of slniLar oonðlt1one at about the seso tlns nay but ars nst
 llicely to brfng the sana trsnt atthough thoy uay be of the Eå¡né narket
 value or a^ssossed. Ágaln ths ratlo of rost (gross or nst l to lantt vetuoB
 nocsssltates Xantt appf,efsa¡, whsrs ths ta¡rit has not boen reoontþ aeqnlroü
 by aotuaL sal.a. ',There tho lanös unðer oensldsratl,an sÉrro aeqalrort y6a.r$.
 boforo, they sast ba bror:ght itows to a ooilunor¡ ind.oe whlch trensf*reatlan
 uay bo e souree of o.Ff,gf,s¡
     Çonfng ncw  to lantl appraLsa,l. naking nso of, aotuaå sates. lo uso ths
actuaL ctata fon ao¡seluslve v¿srk wouX.fl gurnlee thst the lanfl ¡eerhet has
tt'eftnitt noms to 6o þY, that lanrts of the Ea¡ns eônrilxtlos sf proðnctlvxt¡r '
woultl sstl at the sa¡ne prloe per unit at ths sa¡Ee* tl¡ne rr oËÉr anf, the
sa$6 land uoalil salt for tho sÉtnf, anoant in two oo¡lsqoutivð
                                                                   ¡roarsr. we
know that that ls dot'the s&8ê¡ HoFeeverr ln uany
                                                          08a$s the pr"loe ef,
a unit sf Lanet wf 11 elepancl not only on tho amount but also
                                                                 on ths ktnðe  +

sf iroprovemonts aniL oves on the prefenonoes of the buyerr Åny fsruula,
such as that ef Çrs.Eaas 1n rsale prfsos fer farn lanit
                                                             apBraloala {g} uEy
Ëór"o ¿üs a gnldle ln il¡"awlag gansral oonstrnslons, but f,or the
                                                                    abEva f€sB*,
ons as woll ag fotr uhat tre have sald. about avârag:ss, suoh
                                                              formula oanrt
lsact us to results aç, natter of faet uniter a given
                                                      seú    of
    But   ln rsnt anù sala prlea) Eor$ ãt    1Â   ths latt6¡, tbE åeeeeê oF busr
                        onr' ror the renit
;:i:ï:::l:l^'.T i'*
(e) U.$. Dnt, of_ag_T.,Departuent  Bullettu #Lzz+, Jrure
lgl, ^lliu.,çtÊitv õrEiúgðõi" -a8rloulrural ffi¡rErJ.nontel Itr. LgL4rfléahnfoel
Butlgtrn # g, úovcn¡eF--ipáe.               ffperlmenrel Statlon¡
                                                                        pr ?r

&any eases also        for lmponilsrabllla,,for lnstance for being noaror a oert*
¿¿i;r   s+ttle¡uont   than anotho4 ngar a sartain eb.urah, etcn Itr othsr cas6s
l,and.   r.litb tho   acconnpanylng lmprovements may be oheaper   then slmllar land*
slnilerly lmprovecl beoairso lt 1s ln a cortain sottLement anô not 1n an-
othon. lo separate 'ühs ailtLltional eost of, the losE oausecl by suoh iuponÈ-
erablLla fron the cost of ths lanrl anql, ítÊt. oeonomlo ln¡rrovements offers
somê {tifflaultios, lf lt ls at aLL posolblø.

     In tho above oonsidleratisn we havo nqt haå fn vlsw the ronsat of 'tdl.trt-
vlng priaos upwarrls, H elther by speoul.atton cr by lgnorant corpetltloa,
and, the fol"lowlng "br" il.own of the bg6n.n lhe wrlter ls hsrs aot
eonc€rned. with tho appralsal of lanils an¡moro then to get aB .ar¡suêr to the
questfon: If we arÐ texing land.s by thelr sol,ling valuss appraieal aêc- to ths well-knoisn formal.a ñin pa¡ment of a ju,st d.abt fro¡a a solvrnt
clsbtorr tlees the appraising ass$ssør sBeak ¡rith eny grðater authority
ånsttfieû by his f,aets than oaoh one of the protøntllng or aotual bid.ilers
at an actual sale Justifying for hiasolf his own biê by facts ancL roasons
botb. subJeatlvo anð obJeative knonn to hlmsst;f only? fhe reartor wfll sup-
Þply the ansuer.
                          CHÁPT   TR JTå
                    laxation of   rlarra Proporty.

A; Iaxing SeIIlng llalues: tax basefl on ostimated, seltlng value taxss part of the
valus ineremant b¿fone ft oc€utrs efncs Brosant sell"lag vaXues custonari{y
cliscount future appreclations in fI)
      Census valuatlons {¿) rapregrnting mar.ket value showecl that 1n ten
countlss in tho $o*tlr tsntral. $tatos the ront of tgLg oapital.izsd. at ths
currsnt rate of lnterast on flrst nortgages i,îsro batveen 2g,8ii anû 50"6?/o
of narkst va!.ue or estimaüeit set ting prioe. Iherefors å t o /soî tlrre
assu.msû. taxabte valua bsre tso mors apparent ro!.ation to the inssae fron

slhieh the annu,aX, tax Ëas paiû than the nere passibillty that inep¡nes
night lncrease at Somo future tlnor Sale valas as tha hasis Êf tnx6¡t-
ion is froquoatly justiflsô, on tho ground. that ft taxes ta part land. lngrement¡ t{ow ths iacrement ls Featlzsô on sale¡ Xt uekos no
ad.itltlon to ths aotual. Fovonuê. It ehoulil bs tasecl thenr lf no clssrem*
snt takas plaae moanwhíle.
       r:l) gtrs aulttvstor*or{roÍ of hts farn dtltL not bny tt wlth the al¡a of
sell1ng at a highar prloe tiran bought for. 2! Es öoes not anoftize antl
keep ehanglng hls oapltal fnvsste& ln the lanê. pasaing lt meannhile thr*
ough galn proûuolng shannels, gI He ecquireil, tho lanû 1n s¡.itsr to bs I
abla to gatnfully apply hlg msntal anil physloal powers enû aûùitlonaL
capital¡ thls ts tha o4rlanatton why f,avostmsnts ln l,ar¡tt by oultlvators
are mostly natle wlthout f,lgurtng on hlgh returns fron the trlnsrtn Lnvest-
rqent. 0onsequently a property ta:r on estimateú solling value taxes tbE
                                                     p. â2ãi
{fj Annat.sMorehouso: isXenents of I¡anil Eoonomigs,SoclaL
(?,1          .A.nerloan .á.oatleny for
               of                          3olttlcal. anil  solanoe: illlarss
    ln   Rslatlo4_to.Earnlngs on Farm Rsa¡. Estaten by Cr$r3rennen; Janr f$s
    19¿5    r Þp. 4L44.
                                          4/   _

 cttltlvatorts mental and. physical. po1¡rors to pay a value lnorenont tax bs-
 fora j.t is cluê. As this is repoatod. year after year wlthout any regard.
 to hls lnaome, the olain of the state to tax the sal,tivator-olener s,ocort-
 1ng to hie abllity to pay as reprosontad. by tbe estlmateit seLllng value
 of his lattd !s onl.;r shan fsàson. .E3I thj.s ls eo nach Ðoro evi¿lsnt in
 the caso of {;he hoæostaacler who has not boirght hLs land. but whc has bogn
 rewerÕsí by a patani; of o',?n€Fshlp for tho seorlfioes hs brought, for the
 privatlon he eaclurEd. in opening å, tract of tranql for tho benefit of the
      F-hat$vdrr bethe J"aotlfieatlon oro ttaz.aifoarr¡ the yory esssneo of
tamlng tho solling velua of the Xanit is thereforg absut{[" It restE on
no I'ogf'cel Qrr rio uetter cf fact aacl sdlts forth unJust Fs*sons
  i ust
fornclai¡ns. lhe fae't that the appnalsal of tha selling vaX.uo in tEo
äumsfous eesÊs osseed.s by far tho vehra according to Êuty possl.ble eropo-
uleaL proc.uotlvity bscause of speoulattvq nanhlnatfong of trlrrvostorsÉ or
fgnorant competltlon of cultlvetørs speaka alroafiy srgainst tsrlng, the
oolllng value of tho farm. fn tlre Uo$. Eore thaa 4" af the qlaner f,armee,s
ln 15 aorn antl whaat pnoûnafng statas Xost thslr fams bet'øesn j.ga0 anit
sprlng sf 19â53 ovêr LEti' of tha f,ar¡oere ln that seetion were'teqÞratr*
lly lnso$ent but he}å on throqgh the lonloncy of thstr çreüåtod,s. ' ,o
thoss 15 statos' of ¿50000 farners who lost thoir,pnoBorty 4go0g,Ioet it

å'ci a rssuLt of ¡rurchass iluring boou poríod. Ignorlng the pninciple
                                                                         of         'ì'.
annu¿L J.aaoros   e.r¡d'   ta:slng the eoIIlng valua   of thø f€e¡ ts          thed,snblàttt-

      il'o suçt ednlt th¿rt ali.otirsr.cor¡rlition$ bein¿; sllliLar:, the a¡¿nuaÍ¡
incoreo of a c¿u;rrtcr soetioa ¡uill d.epend. npon ths tnitfvlituaS.lty
                                                                         of the faryn
ËËar llho 1E both tho        aultrvator   and. q?aaagiûr   of his   cun   faru. yet l.f
feotors   indepenrtEnt      of the f,Brners/ orassos dtrlve l,snü pFiços ,nr!n foroing
                                                       a. / 4

  upnard the assessmant of a  first alass faruer on first olass Lancl, alËheug;
  ËX¿U he nevar intenils seLllng it, iiris Stats ftirrougb the local publful
  autirorltias to ithiah ths state delegates ssrtaln poners) bseonesgeilty
 of Qo-Qpsn¿{tgn with speouX.ators and. absantse tand.lorrls strangling suoh
 fara¡er by taxos in a slnllar way as the spaorrlator itoos by hifih lnstalX.-
 mepts anð interest and. the absentee land.lor.å try high nente* !flbat about
 tìross farners who Ðåths¡ throt'gh thoir lnd.Lvlðnal åo¡,*er ctegree of gfflo*
 iency or through our enso:lsnttfle systeus sf lanC- grents toilÌro¡usstéaelersn
 or otber oå,ussÊ Lanàail on oXassss of, lanß fthers elthey cotçled,,vir!: thsir
 low+r üegreo of effl,cieney or j.n cpile                         of   th.eLr hfgh d.egroe     of of:floieney
 tbe          le.ü.d' reclu$es    tir"elr   eoonorul.a     proùuctivf.ty far below the speculativs
 cl-airls of Sta'te, $pecuLators                   a¡rd. l,.:nd.åe::iu-sn   sot' forth   their "solling
 vF J-iLês. tt

              ii:   mäl¡lJl   cåsås ÚeaL1irç veJ-ucsr
                                        of lend in a eg¡ûaunj.ty ucc..or certain
 eond'ttisne *87 ngt sc ntah d.cternined. by t}:e economlc pruðuetivi.+y of the
 l¡an# and s1csat sf alt the f,armsrs t0getharn as by tho speeulative effie*
fg) seo cnop BnlLg[insdf ágçrlculturs enå rrquÈgratlon !,00-1p4*
    . Seo A¡rpãnflix Er
       -svf d'+nt
                  as. 1T*nay. sosn to us the nenessrty of
or-rsglon$i suoh a vaàt territofy aq this provinãã d.tviùiflÈ iflto uongs
a {?e-yoå,rs e$o¡ ovûÌl by- the Ðp_t; of agr.. of bfanç -ana was Ëol-å.õoã untJ,L
                                                             thaf,. fn a tj.ttle
ce,sos eoinelillng  wlth- artiftoläf nunrcipãi úïtnil;iãe.
nap wf-Il" sirow tñat n al.thousþ Ïllq-ðt;i;ioe i* ñ;Ëirä a Ã-gIidä**ät- tn"
oonpanotl wtth' thq ôivlslon-tnto flve Aistrrais-éi-frffi yoärs fgiã-îgåg
e!-u-slve¡ y6t the dlstriots gro nut eontcrùrng-to-any'naturaL feaïu;;; ln-
                     iiål år åiåi i äl ï. :ò ri #n i;*: r. t, lååä;*,i'itîi ttj".å*' -
     *          o1
$f tBS    l3 "r* iråfi
a$ a slholg¡
      lf,of¿ HerFlson of tbe H..å.oc. f,n speaial artleles on rfiragses anit
Clovsrs fon Nanltotrar (Fres, prsssr$ayài eait !üay t0r,l9A5l ei;iG;-the pã0..
vinas lnts eisht øonês which ¿o nrít--ö¿.i óannot:*:Bçåúã-iã *rop
distrlcts but-they too seon to tena iîwaras a aiîisioä'üi;iÏräi": eeils
ancl noicturo.
      John !{e,aoun la hls rl[alrltgba antl. the êroat Hsrth*iïsstn has an lstsr.|"
estl'ns skctoh ar the surraeo
polnt of vtew folloplng natursl ¿fvróloäs. ú"nltoËÃ-iiãä"i¡.u ffiifürtunat
                                  "gá- þ;,ts-ät

  iency of ong d.ozen roal estate agents interested. in Land. arounai that cogr-
  mr:-ttity. A fino lnstanas ts offeroil by the land. valuss ln the Roü River
  Çr'op Ðlstriat '5). lba e"orago prloe of eultLvatetl land. per a,CIrð (51
  was, $+r.30 ¿n LgaL anit it ûroppecl to øît,6t   in Lg32, to 52.10 ån 1g2s,
  to 50.80 in LïîA anü wsnt up egain to 5¿.95      ln L925, [he sorrespondlqg
  pricâs of utLd. lanil per aors Tlrofo 4t.tl5¡ ?0.6O, X.p¿O, X6.I"0r LT,4O' gfv-
  lng itffforsnc€s 1a f,avor of ouLtivaterL lanfl, psr aor6: 2n551 tr?.00¡ L5.00,
  I4'.'lO¡ 14.85¡'f$spr lfnl,sss tbe fl6are of 40._q8 fs wrong belng toe,
  oF 4ã.90 1s !ÐFong belng tos lowrfthe FôÞort agsures irs çf theíf balng ap*
  proxÍmately rçlfablo) the rtlffonenee of, 2.65 betwEan ouLtivated .anû
 wÍLcl" Iand.sf'n l9å1 all.owsl 1n ths wrltsrrs oplnion onÍ.y oao explanatier¿
  and' that is that only or al¡nost exolusively w1lf, land. was for saLs anrl
 that was d.rlvsn as high as to bs sB an avof,age 4o.?b whilst, flue te GoB*
 d-ltions, euLtlvaïeå lanil was retalnett sttbsr hy eultlvatop-ssraor,,Ë qr,¡laS-
 sêegor kept for nstlll bstter tinos+ñ We know that in'fþg. whiXs Bscl-
 ius sizotl horrses rentsit abno]'naïyhlgh lafg;o houses ancl smaLl ûel.apirLe,tad.
 €ott€gds were not f,o¡'ne¡t but for eaLe the agents prefeplag te aLtrow
 thsm stay ünlot. [hat was how many a poor nan b9àae6 8n ewnor paylrs
 pr6t{ hlgh instalX$snts for what bo üboughtl
        ffhen than lantl pFless wsnt dlown, becausa of, low profluoe prloos, wilfl
 Xantl tu¡nblerL first anil tu¡nblert low, frou 4Q,78 to 40.60¡ then, of ooursp
 o¿Ltlvatetl ta¡rct was dl,raggsdl ðown f,oroibly ln ths nselllng value..Í
       [hens are two t.tsns ohiefly reo¡lonsible for ths iliff€rr€noç tE build*
 lngs on the faFm antl ths ooet of brsakxng. It is haril ts sey hou nuoh
 broken landl tbere Eq,s undtsr roultivatefltr at a oortafn price per aora anil
 hô'¡s Euoh   thene was   sttll
                            wtldt but øbarirç ¡evarthaless ln the burilon of,
 the butltl'lngs on th6 farns, slxû what the butlitlngs wo¡o worth in a oertatû
 ûlstnlot. Fe are forscû to leave thls lteu alonå, As to the lten of
 broaklngr    let us oonslðer           pratnte antl aegleot the woofls anô
                                  open grass
 go-lgÞb4  Lagg whioh hait to bo s1Eereü ftrst"   In the R.B.Dtstrtot a,s &
               the Pate beftre.
¿ã¡See {oo1-"'14
                                     -n'lrl\v   -

whoieìo*O i{ooûy aniL sorubby       Lend.õ !¡ÍÐre rÌo'ü   'lhs rîtis"
      Nowlf tlro statlstiss avûrc{fos ars, aniJ. they ars 6J-simêd.
50 to Trs, ûaily ltqgss {4} l.n the iì.Il¡ }isiri6t rq€re 5.9A is Igå1, '3.96
 1n L923,¡ 5.75 J.;r Lgg5r 3"45 in L924, ã"?o la L925. suppose a toes "co
 oonsnne adûitional fsed. at hard. -ïsork, ad,ü.iaE this 'co ths æanrs vJegðs as
tls# tho weges,îtâ naJ¡ sey'that sran asil t+a¡¿ psr ùtr,y wouJ.d, be 5.46, 5.48,
 5.P5, 4.851 5.LE respeotivoly for tha ysars L92L-L9Z5. If fof breekÍng
wa fÍgurs on án evgrags       4 ilays l¡sr s,cre tbelr çost of bnea,kisg aÈ aßr6
cf lanct fn ths R.l. Ðistrlet weuId. hevEl been LZ,Èg, L2.45, 11,&X, XO.B?
ancl 11.65 respeotívely. .å.d.d. this to the prioes sf iufld. lands anrt wo get
4Q"15+ Lî."39:fu!!, fer 192L¡ 20.60+lå.qí=W, for Lgz?.,i I?.!.O*låiBL=
28.9!' for Lg28¡ L6nL0+10.Ê?=Ëê.9T, for L9Z4t L'l.40+1L.65=89.05 fqr t9Ê5,
tonpare thess reilults wfth the avsrage prlcos frr orrlttvate& Xand. and. we
get the foltowing iliffersncos ln favor sf eultívatad. lanås orãr brekea
î-enð:=" 9.î4i+4 .5'l ,+9.L9 ¡rfi nl-t fhls sqrries ãhows tho ano¡nalarrs
conùttlons Ef tr.g¿t       narket anil wa nag wel] inagina what tartag by sqll*
ång val.uës Eû.ã,nt ln that yoar in 'that ðigtrlat.
(4)   Crop   BulLetins   i.00-L04
                                                     J:t -'

                                                .tppend i:c   :r
                                         Yalirg of i¡rarm land.s
                                      (Crop BulLstins 100-104)
                             a)          of Cui,tivatecl land. pêr -ÉtoreÒ
                                      Jiverage Prlae
                    b) Avorago Ïrj.ce of .Híld. lancl psr Acro.
    Ðist rlct           19¿1        L92Z       L92,3        LgP.4 19s5
 1) ssolita                24.54      zõ.va ?, aL.ZO eI.60
 P) Ëillarnoy a-
                  b        lã.90      LZ.T¡O 10.90             10. ?0      L0.40
                           5õ.00     50.90        30.50        7.7.L0 2?,80
                  b        LB,60      16. 60      I5. BO       LL,¡ìO L5.50
 â) Roû River a           45.ã0      3,1.60 62"LO              ã0,80 58.2,b
4) linnipeg
                  b        44.15     30.60        L?.10        16.10 1i;40
                      inposslble to ostirnato; acoorcHng to Reports ói-

                  b Departrnent
5 ) Spning'fls¡.da        41.00      55.90        51. e0      51.10        38.60
                 b        19.00      19.20        15.00       16.50        ]ß,'lt
6) äastern a              l.7,oo     22"tO        L5.60       18,00        ¡.9.00
                 b          'l "'î5    8.40        6.'îO         605A
7 )Yirden                ãL.00       28.90
                 .e                              P5, g0       2v.50       Ê6.00
                 s        Åbo bþ     15.10       15,50
I ) Carilerry                                                 14"50       L5.6t
                     B.  39 rrl1     34.20       31, no       28.60       50.00
^r ueepaBa b
vI               a
                         J,6. Ê5
                                                 I5.90        11. gû
                                                 å6.60        25.LO       eä.50
                                       L9.60        16.40          L5.40    lu.50     Ll.50

Lo)Russel 3                            g4rAA        30.50          å5"90    ¿5r B0    25.YO
                     b                 19. u5       16.40          1ã.90    7ß.40
ll)Ðaqphin           a                 gL,5t        27.4t          90.90    ¿0r ¿0
                     b                 2a,to        L5.LT           9.90     9. go    10.50
L2]   t4 ld.-T,aks   Ð,                Ê1,90        25.9A          L8. BO   fui.50    L6.90
                     b                 8,40         7,80            60 90    6. x.0    6.00
13)SwanRlvor         a                55.50        ¿9.00           26.4A    iA.LT     24.40
                                  .    19.CIo      L6.60           1ß       I5.60     L3.00
14)Ethetbert a                         L7.50       1?, ?0             "20
                                                                   15.go    Lõ.60     14.50
                     b                  8.00         8.80           ?.80     7.70      Y.ïA
                                        -.1 t

 B. laxing .Tfl:"nerrs incçao"
       I& thiû          no ara not spoaking of sehat is genoral"J.y termad illn*
 cons tas" brlt øf taães gonorally that a famer sbaul.ô pay rn his totaJ.
 lncone as ealtlvaior oïrnêr Ðf hls LaniLç lhoee mho elaln that taaing
nselllng valuss" shoulil glve way to the prlnclpLo of the farserfs insone
 ðo not teLl us whsther they rnean ths farmerts absolulie ínoome or bis Ía*
 como in lts rslatlon tø hlg lnrlf.vlttual, total of, 'tnsedsa. A ûo1l-¿r is
 not of tbo sa¡nâ final val,ue eoononLcalty unttl ElI ths üne€ilsç havo bssn
 satisfleit. ls the stanrLarrl of living and, uho shoîrtrd, set Ít? Eow;
 shouLd.1t be sot? 0an 1t bo at all sotn sgpseiaLLy ln this country of
$luetaatlng eonitltlons? Gan it be sst anet settlscl f,or aLX? thess obJ-
 aotione arg not'vaI1d, wtth regartl te Einsone ta:r'r ln the ssnss aceepteel.
beaauss this Ffncomo tes' is suppage& to allow e nargin untæed. whåIst
fon gonoraL taxatåon wø altrgw no suoh uargLnr Yfe say to the auLtåvatoü-
o*"*oruo",f"olf7*Ì#E this¡ rÏou have a fars of, Hselltng valuoo üf Ðc.,thel**

this f6a.f,r   " cl.o                   of L1Ìlng ygu are ua,ktng? If wX-
                             ws car$ what EInc[
thlntwo ytars you nogleat to pay your tagss wo put you. off ycur lanð.e
3Íot¡ cotït6 those sthers wlttr thelr tincou.e prlnaåpLott ?etrsuÊ nsdlllng val*
üesr aad. say: nFridontly the farnrsr has not enough lncons to spare
those $n* r Your pnf.nolple ls eurel,y ilroagi, your valuüs a,ro o"id.entlg
Frongir g/sur proceûurç has no Jugtifleation, Four lnçreasert tasatloË ÊE-
ssoüs the faroerrs ablXftg aooord.lng to hls iasosor$. E$hou1d. thig tenit+.
sney (of tnsreasing tasatl.on)." tLey sonoluùetrbü allowEü ts çontlnue at
thle trato' wåthln a goneratlos sü two aLl the lnaone fron f,arn iana ueul,û
go to the governnont ln tases a¡ret faru lanil valuog souliL faûE awaprr {E)
(ãt Eþ e Horehouss: Elo¡aente of r¡and. EgonoBt€ã. pr ã16r
                                            ' 4ñJ-
                                        -     ^,

          lhs writar eould liks to ask ; lîhai: e.bout il, j.f land. valuss iroulit
   faclo away? The farmsi'Ls v¡ot desirons to sell; hre 1s struggling to &,
   he;:g on; he ls iril.Llag to pey hls share ot'hho comunigf.f s e=i,enses; ;re
   ie onl-y too often d-ri'¡en off the lenû boseuge l.aaô vaLuoe al-e sr h:i.g¡,
   Els aoighbor is oe6'or to be ag ihe land." ?,e uakes a d.sesnt Xtving on it
   and' roesfln for äeserring I'e ; he aaye h,ås riuo sharo aad. hi6-
   seif r.if i'ji1s; ìre is onL;r tco ofien inilueed.'to seLL tlre Lanð becange Land.
  valuss ar6 so high. This foat of ðwind.Ling a land. values 1s abeoLu.t&y
  absuril. As if taxss rJârs tb.o p:iilåry o:¡,ilfir¡s ôf n¡in cf the farnilg åni!.-
  us'li-J¡ Ûr ¿t J.sasi one gf the roaln faets¿.s of Land d.epopuåatåoa. {,s.e
  sb':¡13. oo¡lld hscis to ?hia polnt 3.eto-r oan iiee th.¡
                                                            E; Ë) Ws have to 3ÌD;rït-.
  lcL¡latè oü.rãÐì';¡eg fn egriaullaral .land eaoft,tÈics of ,tha woapitelisation
  of t¿rses netluuing landt valuðs" &s ûn6 of l.Jeitirxg princå¡rles in policy of
 tær¿rt1$no ret Lanf, s*lues þ low¡ tet *uoop3.o get oasy access io ilerrd.;
  lai us sÐð to i't th,st their inesne ilo ane¡b3.s'hiren. to pay high taxes; lst
 us givs ta srery lu.låvid.ael prospoc-llvs bayar trne fasts about evorJ¡ par_
 eel af land' he ie lntares'tocl le¡
                                           "iurlI Laail values fad,e away? Uo, br*
 sau'so the land- wllL not ùåsappofat aflSocär lYt11 Land. va¡iee ssar
highn Eo, or€ will, expoct f,non tbe lerå nrFe than ths La^nd.
 is tsonomåcally able to glve. wE neeil aa agrlcultural landt Bo1tey þased,
 on aatual faots, tsarFatrtoil by egrLouLtarel tsoJ.ens€s anð not on fJ.otlon.
 a natfonal poltoy without fear of hurtfng speculattron, a stead.yisg,Fcligy
 not a uaohLsatlon Ef resl Estato Beßr rf i.t lg trus¡ Enä lt ehÐuLù be X
 besiiles of obtalnlng reYeaus for governmental ex¡pendtttures, that g""r'et
 afad'149 valuesr antt
                  the taxatlon of ileelling valnEer øil1 leai1 us
to our aim. $or wlt 1 ttnastlo aotloa of ptrttlng one cff, hås r"Bt
                                                                    fûr not
           to pay hle tsres fcn two ysars so¡^"e our ¡robtens of ÞaveauE
 16) EIy & lÄorchouee,     Bo gtrB.
                                              _J!   _

 ô hrì   ¡¡ n# q;      ¡f
 a3¡(+   VV¡¿Vl.rl¿a

          ås to taxinA ths   j-ncg¡ira   of the *u-.Lij.vetc.p-,.),.îr1ef,r'r;ould. i'u ac-l bo 9Ðü.*
 sistent to gat no tases if tire;'e j.s ne i.ncoae? ïoutd. it flot bo e pare,l].r3
 to the taelng Ef the EngLlsh r+nt? iÍo ront_no taxas; no ineono*
 no texos' Fhere ts that gotng to lsad. ne? rbs inslnuatåsns of tbs
c{ustrtaL n*gnatos of the åast å,Ét to the w}iy far&e¡.s opposoû" tc¡
                                                                           ths ro-
 peal of the fsd.oral incsms tex is just an inkltnÉi sÆ to what
                                                                    sueh a psliey
 of ta;ratlon woulit ¡qean to Eur coqn,rtnltyn It would. bs üíeastroäs to gr¿r
 harmonl'ous rifs anil espooiatly with rêgar6. to our o'Ëhlneag.y
                                                                    so varlocL a,
C. (*) faxationniinit,of 3anô
   {b ) Ia,xatlon on Rew Proûuoô.

    f   aJÏe¡satJ.on            of }anrl.
                                        por   ¿lÊrÐ
       Ti¡is system of taxation of agrlcrr1.tural lend. ls stll.l i:r vog1l.ê in
soitì? pilrts ¡-f :1i:..io1;t'. TJn¡lsr iðaal Inarkot oon*.ltiong and. use of agrlouX*
trlal l,a¡¡ð.s, tìra lnJustiae of sucir a sys'È+n ney not ì¡e so Çre,ss. ifhsfe
all the farrirers of s. oonrûirnity put theål ,liffevont lanùs to ålffersnt
alrå r*sst saiteblo r¿s€s rs that üÌrey nay obtainfrour evorl e,cru, åj.reet3.y
or inûl¡'ectl;r, approximatalg tha ga^Êa not !n.cor¡.s f¡t the oour$È 0f ,-z gfv&n
nu¡-st¡r                  of yoars aaecråing to            a given pLen, .tesation p+r e,ere wanlil" åis-
trtbute'tha                          Þnl'å6nu åceoì:ðläg    tr tho nrt;nþ$r öf âei*ost ti:.orøf*re alsür as
nearl.y åE pÐ$såbLs aaeorùiag                              to insû¡ßrrso if farlnor ¿", howçver, is utqr{r
efficlcat                        eitr the cthors ¡irú3,$- h,¡tueen th* -iuc, and, a1i
                                tb¿¡n f ;r¡sor .t, anå
have the ,saqs n¡æ { ta0 sa¡} of aaros' then F pa*va tb.o peaaÏ.ty ef his
roLativo inøffioioney bat ¡r gots n+ b+nrfit fraia 1t sJ.nee bÉtb hEive t6
p,ày tha nery Ëe&s û,rûôtrnt f,f t#çs*     5lhø grs+ter the.f,åffêrencês 1n'eff!.*
ei.enoy-å"rs, the stronger wåLl be tiis sft*sst sf illffsregcss of soll..
It Ls'd.lfferent und.en our esnËtftlons 'ffh$r's nat onþ the {tfforenoef, of
solls' anrt lnd"lvlelu¿¡l gfftsiEnclqõ sre dloeÍeliså faetatrs tn obtaialng an
aoon6¿'n but alec our tinÊl,taiL varloty' of egrlcultuïal Froüürtion, ontl qur
              .   ri

narhet aonill.tlons, anit also euE tecbnlcaX gathoðs set llnlte to 'âüf 6ffl-
olona¡1 and. prevont ths fuloal Ës6 of the Affperoat SC.nitsr of lenil' In
?iärt'6f aLl, thoes faots
    .; ;..
                                                      noþud.y   ln thle   eountry wf.trl urge a bagis sf,
taa¿tisn    Bert of a pennaaent taxatlon polioy to-f,ay. We flnd though
             ,'   j
la SasHatehewen lZl lsnð 1a rur-al unniolpelltfee anô tn tbe ten:porarlly
        rt            :
                                losal    lnr¡rroveaent    {llstrlsts to     havE baen tes*d" sn e.n s.olfêagô
l::åf_Ï-1¡lor to 1914 when

                                                                     val,ussñ Eer6 eÂopteit ae baets     df     É.t#
(,vl'!:ai3.clerki,¿þ out|{ng af PnovLaoial. & HlrnLoipa}. Sqxetlon pr
   i         p.r84;              ppi50-54.       19â0
¡niciSral. t,:xationo In ,tl.Ìrerta (?) of prior to L}LZ nrral lan¿ was taxeË
 oþ aå acrsege basj.s; th.onr'ap to 1919r on the basls of tts nnlrrproved"
 va1ue" ancl after L91s, on the'tsalling va1u.o" basis nith tho optiona.I.
 artsrn'.ìtivs of aoree€e e.r e basis" Gensrelly q:eaki!?.g Ee ma;z sgpress
    thls   changa    of
                    eoad.Ltlons as follows: ghs uore an ergrÍoul"tural.
    regioE beeo¡lss, tho aor6 peruanent fts forrns 0f orgaalzatlon"boeoms,
    greater the setlj'ng Y¿rh;.o cf tjr¡ Lanå. T,flietakíng J.noroaeing
    v¿11u"3i:'for tiro sou-rcð of ineome and growing abilfty
                                                             to pay of t?ie settlsre
    th'3 authsrl'ties substitete'rsellirrg val.uesn for aeroågo
                                                                  â.ß ¿'r:asis of ta:r-
 atlon'       -4"s       of Brlor to J"gIr was ¿Lreed.¡i in the rneíu faJ.rly sett-
 I'cd' whiLst the streau of rnm:isretíon ae.s d.irect+¿ to f;ire
                                                                   younrb*r?r Fr'vlnq€s
tc tiie v;sst of her, î.iJe in prarinee ra?o no rs¿son to thå¡r.k r¡f atrsqå€
&s b¿'sis of tastrtíon. ãÕeeYer, if -w,-'hese
                                                   ilrogrËssgd. enough ta recognl.øe
tirs fallaey of tho "soi-ling Y¿=.J"ueÊtr as basfs "ao ¡ril,sr be tookå'g
                                                                            for ano-
ther basis"

f   b)   te.sEs on Êau prsdtuce {g}.
      fh'ere ls.a mctcment In thls Provlnea whfch ts bound ts
 agriculture to a large estent. rt is onry a part of a
                                                                u,nJ.vor,Ëex. uove-
msnt,  rpooltr fng of egricultural pro,luees,
                                                    the faruar sl.oEs nct tose h{s
I'ndfvtdual'ity as a proclueor ancl consumorrhirt pools togethsr
                                                                      as a venclor.
Ïn thls lrovlnce, for tho preseat, tho wheat
                                                    Boot is a,Lreeily a facto* t*.
be rqokoned' vrlth.
                      ".firat wg nooit. ls a oomplete grain pool, a butt"" Buoi
ïi_::::1:_lo"r end the sovernnanr ooar.d easrry keep rraok or rhe o"ro**-
                    Ån 0Êt11Ð8 of ?rovrnois.r ancr rdu:nlelpnr raxaîio.r,
1tl Få:}o:åäïk'                                                               ?.84¡
l8) *Pr.ncLrrLos Fspf+îg gnly are taken._fron ch. Tf-of De.vftl Rtcs,rdors
     rhe titll_rol
                  or Ïolitiõai ¡:ä"liõy'räií p*å[iõä;
    Le'à'r anã ensl"na õi iããi ã'i"iii*îäonoã-*{-rn ffiar,                     or
                                                          fËu ,*o-*eit"'
                                            -J {)-

,Iffural râ,a proåÌrces Ð,nil ta:ç these lastsad of taxlng the lan& and- distri* tc tha nunlcii;aliti."rs aecoriling bo a ðeviseü schamsn [o be s'
tire govern¡¿ent wou-Ld.'not taks aoti¿a!- ptcilu-ees encl ta.k.e thss to tho ma.F:
ket. isuch cases ars known i¡i hlstÐi';ri. Tho pools wor".ld be nad'e re*
sþons:'-blo for the t'aa¿¡s of its mornl¡ers anå etatJ.stlcs woulü give a clue
i'oi     ;he t æLzg   of o'ihers,            of ;6roo1s.
      liro::e 1s rrnLj/ one 6reíìt ,lefect to sü.eh a sys:ton, vín¡ êvon i-f iee sup-
¡iosocl tc e:rable the au'iilrority to h¿va a psrfstt eontrol cf pt:oår?.cês, thore
                                   of proclueïion" Sross reoeipts ere, as
tou.lci i¡e no accou¡l':t o.f the eost

"v$t nü efure sither to tjre lnçone Of
                                       to tha"y to pe"y of the cuJ.tfv-
a:,to   r-Oivilgr.
          ?hough sueir   a syetem of ta-qatlon 1s aot   3.iks3.y   to   ba rsooüäenûså f,sr
tiris li'oviaoø ffi is in vogue ån ssms bacewarðs coün'lrles scch as furtsey,
tho tithe 1n Engtanil ås iristorlcally ü$ a similar aature) yst ths r¿rlter
cn raontioning it has thóught that 1t woulô throw aüditlonal light on tho
principle of incoue as a basís of taxa'tion; Ðhø point 1g this: Ee ¡Bay
hnolr tho groee incomo çf a fatrrer by knowing the quantíty anð prlca of                 {

his ra,$ prt¿lucâ: wo Eay also $åguro out what everagiô oxpqns€s would. na,tse
the oost of thaso procluees;yet thero 1s part of the nee(ls satisfiecl oa                1

the fara a-qc[ an aðd.ltfcnal amount of lebor put lnto it to obtatn that ss.t-
isf'¿ctlonofton of an imponelorabls neture¡ of whioh èvsn the eeosoniaal
vs,Luss ars ¡rot includefl 1n either the gross proaeeå.s oF estfuBate oost of
prod.uetiono lhe little baokyarû vegotable garilsn anù froat-yard. flouor
bo,ts of 'the olty awellarn oantt possfbty bo estimaterl ln ô and. y',wlthoui
                                                                                    '   :''

rovtftirtg ths tend.erest fooi-ings of the ¡ßeE by srrsh nid.lou!.ous pratencs$
cf eatliority. :lfbat about tha farmsr? Eis ocoupatloÌr is not a,s sharply
ctit cff iris onn d.alLy Life ae 1n the cese of the nenuJaßturor, buslnsss
rn¿lnr factofy scrlceF, hlner and otbðro¡ Tou may be a,b1e to f,lgure ooßt              ¡
                                              -.3i -

enð gress lacou.e        of procluees bu-t             ean     tna trul.y alaÍn sÍthcut bcrd-
p,:r'i   îB an ihe rilici:.lcr:-s tii:rt.   h'..   i5   *,bte   'f C' ',rp'i- d-O.¡n in
                                                                                        s and / tha 'ia?-
$êrs ful]. iacoue anel hon         lt   fesuJ.ts?
                                                              - ¿v

                                                       Leðislatio¡r    a¡td.   ?*:t;tion.

                       "r.bou';   ùlie custon duties in .!jre firs-h fcur yeare of t.Ì:e
                                                                                         ifrsvínee :re nentio.ned
                fhe fl¡st' 1e6Íslature of iÞnitoba, 1a?1, before tìre ïrnaÍ.6ratron frûìa
      eae feirLy eúa.rted.-¡ itâsõêit s $ou-nt;r .{,sgeesmeat .tct pro"l-rLira3
                                                                                t-cr the i::elc13q o¿i Os ¿
      g(}ne':I tas roll.b.y the cü]¿ty acsessors of eaeh of the eountiesvcf
                                                                                                             seusirjro Frovenfke,în
      Ldsgar, lÍ:rquette Fagi"and. i,farquette-.;,eøt" flre assessorg neet i.*g
                                                                                at tìre call of the
      clerk of ihe Þeaee at Fsat Gsrry. [hue the cost of ]ocar needs rvag bor¡re dlrectLy
      tÌie    peopLe 'bhel:¡selvee. th'e netirod.            of   assessEent tnprleatecL            a functÍon of the    Gra¡rci Jasy,
      thia     ¡iresenied a statement              to the   cous,t   of   Session.q shorJÍng tho a¡nounts required.
                                                                                                                            in     the
      geveral count;i diatris'ba for nainteru,nce
                                                  of r' bridges, ditches,                              etc, ïhe ererli
         the ¡paee thereu¡ron levled' the enount requir€d rot-           purposes o¿ the basis of the
                                                                   "                                                                        .

      asgess¡l,ent Éo11, aed. the constsble eoL1eeted, ilre ta..¡ee,
                                                                      Besides- tjre County *$sess:reat
      .å.ct was   the Farigh ß,sseseüent ;tet. {It?ll.                    Each eount;l eas sub-C,Ívid.ed. LatÐ palisihee
      for ¡nrrely Losal inprovements' oa the bag ,.a of reeolufåon                            paseed.   at a.publle meetÍng of
     ihe     tread.s   of farniltes" rhe crerk of tlie               p€Êce asgessed.       t¡r" irr¡^¡;-.;;r;;iu         p."iru.
     rn' lBZr     an Á'ct f.or. t'he eetabLishing of a ¡xouínsiat scþool                            systen wâs arso   passed.
     and'    the eeparatíon of            pro$es¿¡:it and.   cathelic,' sehoors wlth oeBarate Ed,ucatÍo¡al

     were eontlnred'             unttl   L8gO rvher¡   the Pu¿blic Schoot.       Ác'b   -sftolÍshe.l ti:e, *eetarÍ@ sshools
     end a Departnent              of Etucaffon      ç¡at   eteateê. ïn                 the leg{.slatr¡re                               '
                                                                               1E?5Íts first                passed.
     general rnaicfpal nøto trtro thir{1*of the free
                    pal       trtrO thir{g*of   freehslders of Pt of age in a¡\y district                                               :

     contaÍning noi; less than 3û freeholders mlght on petltloa to the
4                                                                      [qg_.- Ín C, agk fÊr
     the     ecnstidllßtiÛÞ       of a E'nrnicipallty.        Revevnre     of taxatfotrtne ,.r?âe   tinlted1 to \a" og
      value of real estate. lhe Á,ct rag anrnenqled. ln LBgB, then fn LSB6 tE order ts sult ,
     only the re'¡uÍrements of a nett Brov!.nce bnt arso ihe eoniHttons' of * enarL poBulatÍon
     seattered' over a wftle a¡ea and yet all.owtng a large euourt of dlscentrallzatÍon
     d'elegating a wld'e measure of toeal u*i*rr*"iton to ¡nu¡ricl¡ral authorltiês.
                                                                                                                      At last a .           ,

     raore   lastin6         I'eglelatio¿ for the province outslae of ,.$innlpeg wa.s a¿opted in
     19oe- Roads andt' brldgesl bu,frelifcoura later not be thrawu artogether upon the
    Cipallties    the provinclaL goverment had to grant one half i¡e cost of nore ex¡renolve,,,i
    brid'gese Government aaslata¡cg wao alEo neceffiary to the nai¡rterance of elementary i

 Ð     Conclusion

           ¡lofcre Yte tz^l to      d-raw   û,ty oo¿lcLi¡¡¡ions {ås to tho perfaotaess, porfee.ä
  Jristlfi.catioXì, s'tr1iabiL-rì.ty, anå- acleptlbj.ilty                  of   ¿ùriy   rr   a].1   of the sys-r,onæ
 of tuation of agriaulturaJ. Iancrsn the r¡r-'itsr fsels hin¡self obiigeù "ro
  Js. ì:-)c,.j li,.;; fa:il:r.3' ¡;i:e.i no sysien irr the pelst, ¡:iesoirt, enå futi;re ever
 Ìrar3.n hes cr;rill. h.a'"':r erny right to cãafa sach attribu,tes. il'ot only ðo

 ll'ï¡:¿'"¡1   r+letÍcils   a,n'L i'l"eaJ.s cha;rgao    brii
                                                         naiure eiiap6es thougir fellow-
 -rrflg apparontlyn rÍgid. Iarlsr.:rrr'J. ou.¡'re1r,ilcl: to nal,:;e lu;:iso i1ð6ËlsÈâf*
 liy chaagaaî:-le. Tel; by tb.e trLau çf ínertier,î ísc tu s¡iaakr @.r re preti',y
 consetr?atlvs 6Ten tÌr.,r¡r whca us rocognize tho necesgtty aåå ri6.ììi roiii=sg
 of ed.apfieiion.            irftren ws   firrthsr   <¡onsj.*ei         tjrat ri.tþin        ¡a;¿nkied.   oveiry j.a*
õ"ivlôual anil i.¡"iti:iu nata^re h:ls inåivi-d..ua1 s¡rot &a.tie a roicroraosiüas by tt*
sol!-f l?e ;*lt'li n+'irli: ,':=pec'ï gìåL' is,Íf i;i'¡;u'tiorls 'tc ¡'ea*i perf octioa. fJur e¡¡,-
g'*?-1e Ea.'lufç ís pcasibS"y ta o:rtr sìçrfving temard.s åË Írr spi1 s #î the lfur*
ltatlons inherent ln ourselvorr and. iu¡:cscd. trSoa as'by ineeritEr¿r$ ûä öt¡,s
hs¡dl eìre.nges       of   $urrounfiing natu-re            ay¿.   thcl ¿'üir*r.
         l{ow 'to   the ooilclusLon,
         Ë'a    have s€t€n ln o prô?ious ohrp'cer"                that Teell.irg             vs3.u*sr aÊ a basis
of taxation    have na neanlng:, booause w*,ö no ways of, appralsaJ. fos sg
l-ong s,s å. par.oel of ta¡fl is not actually sold.. we hints6. at it that
 that "sQt!.lng vaLns: tt !Ías Just what tlie btrj.der l¡Ld. for j.t ìFhen bo*suee-
.eeðed- to bscone ths bu¡rer nnûar a given oet of eonåitlous botb snbJootivo
and. oT;Jeetive. firis shourd be s&fflotùn¡* reason for ðroBplng

Y¿Lussft as bræås gf, taxatlpn- W6 are ebaslng a l¡l,aoh çat in a d.apk
            ':                                                                   S4ll*

     Yst wE sero rvilll$g to allpr¿ tho aotion CIf lrselilng yaluoE ts sta[&
svoä if se ooux,ü not get a ütthoil of obtel.lning e sogqhsu
                                                             Juettf,rabtre sü
l*1ng valua.                                                                                                        !,.'

        0n furthgr sonsiclar¿tiong we sÐma to tee aoncl,uslon that ¡rsolllng,n d.ld not reprosent what'¡¡e meant it to Sr, nerruely th+ sor¡-Foe of in*
 eoEI€¡ and. tho abii.fty to pay. there Eas no sat ia the peLlar a¡rd. as to

 the bl-acknass of      E¿hat   thers was tìrsre it was   d.ue   to rhe biaeh d.arkness lt-
      ifa t-oor; o"¡er ';,:/ li:aðitlon¡ a trad.itlon tÌrat has a iristory beglnnlng
 fn Snglanil at a tine wbsn thç moasurs of onete abi¡.lty tc pay Haõ o].eso3y
 oonneetsü with the aereege ou,ltivataô; e traåitl.on that ahanged- as eonil*
 ltions ohangetl supptantlng rsnt f,or acreagÊ ss e ueasËrê êf ahitity to
 pay fn onÐ oe,st*r aB{iL the valne of the larrd. a.Ë a sru.rcs €rf so ¡nuEh, íneons
 a,ndtharefora aSso as a B€aç*rre of abllify to peü ln anothsn oese; g, tra¿*
 ltlon whiab was sTrs¡panttatl l.n now sottleneats ¡¡,$d. reeaXlsd. again ln its
 latest fofin ¡nhgn tha ssttlsnents took gn Botre fiåfinlte shepoe of organfz*
 ation¡ a traùltion cl.eel"ared for Erltlgh a$d. thorefors eontlnu*d. altlrough
ft sorked. havo* in 3Èitaån anð wae Èot and 1s not anú wiIL nävsy be snit*
able unðar naw eond.itl.ons. ',{e are lnsrt¡ that ws shoulú shaks off ouF
rags and. tatters se nnst surselvss bE forsefutty ehairên aue[, sifir the ehartge.
ttüþ of noaentue, the cl.ireotion af the súurse shoulð als{r þ6 6þs}rgod.r
          0n   further observauioa  flail that on beir4g t¿¡xed on tlre basis of
Fselling values'r we ars taxe<j. for slng !Ðo have &g'¡rrr conuLtteö.n
                                                                         not ergn
lntenÉl'ecl to, [åJ, not evðn certaln thaí'ws are srs¿, going to cour¡rit;
for ap¡rroprlating inero@nt v¿ú,uas alue to socioty, before w* got them, b4*
fora' Eq s?sn know nbei;hgr _å, ¡'avêfsed. eufre.nt wou1d. not turn then tq il6ctlg_
*nent yaluesr Bo, aot only wq^s there no eat in the oollarrbut tbere *"{þ,
no oat at all' lhsre or an¡rwtrere around. tlro placao lle aro not huntf'g
Ëráere huate{t, lra ([o not hnor by what.
     srråteù by fear of üFacting lan¿ ?aluosr on one üand. anrL seeing tens
of thor¡s8nüs :forcsù off tha 1qnfl.'ûn the cther, pe f,se1 gar h6arts netttag
 '.   :
         ancl we ses (r11î ta,í     of hope in the Rprinciple of iilccns,r, but ne soojt finrl
         that that ls a strary al the st:-rfs.ce of t]:o gtre.rå in nhich we sìnl--"
                 !Ì:.e 't3rrinúi1>le oÎ iaconr 't i$ jr;si a$l1ttL+ Íjor1nå âr a ï:¿¿sis of t,jfia-
         tioi: of a oultiveton-ownsr as The trprfneipla ef seonorn:'ic protluctivit¡¡n is
         for" the apprelsal of hi.s lencl. In faet fhe relationshlîr betueen the tws
         ilprÍ.ncl.plogtt Is vory el.ossr
                ir're wo to bs bsa-tsn otrt of our Hits bêeause ç¡o d.o not d.aro '[o þrsalc
         asay from traf,Ítional u¡ethods and thsoråes.
         {a} Coupare Prof , .ê.sfoboe ts artfsle Ðentlonoil ch"JI foot noto f l},,

:.   1
                                   -   4t-

                                 C}J,-P'J.}I   ÏT
                     Soclal"   vs. Srlvata Viovlpoint,

                       áa      TlLrrstrations.

         '¡lhers are twoillffsrsnt vlewpoints of oeonomic ].ife ancl actlvity poss-
ii,'l:: iL Éaclal ¿¿nå a privats vlor?point. Stnom the soctraL vloupoÍ-nt, tho
privata ses¡tcmies of lnålvicl.ual ¡nenbers appoar as enoX.osoù Trittrín the
sphera st activities of tìrs soalal bod.y, d"eriving "light and heat'r ftrom
tha l¿ttor, afld moving ln anû along vr¡ the soeial systsm ìrithln whlch
they are freety anð yot forsibly suspend.od. by one thousand. and one visibLe
and. in.visible tios.       iitrou the private víswpoint, ¿i soolety appears to be
nrtrqIy tire tri'iir¡oetieat surs tote,l cf ind.i-víf,ual private econoníc aetivltles
         I¡r the t'ollowing lle shalL il.Lustrate ihe difference betweon'[hs ty¡o
ui   ewBoin'b   s,
           Snitir, (1,) ,llscusslng th.a rÐ1vislon, of Stoekn, starts uíth Flhe

stoeil whicir & man posse*sosn. Su.nnarialng, his ohain of fulgas is founil         ¡

tü be as foLlows. the stock possêssod. by that raaa falls into two parts:
onâ sup*Ðlying his imneiliate cctrsun¡:tfonn e.nð. ong gspseted. to afford. hl¡sa
roYerilio" 'IÏ,ia L¿ri.r;'pe:.t nay be.anple;ted 1n tec wnys fn orclar to yle}d.
a ¡'evsnuo¡ eithol'b;. eo;ttlneallg ehangfn¿¡ bsth shape arrt. master, or a part
of i't suffering sucir cì'ranges a;,d. enother pe.rt baing fíxod ee $achin€lry,
builciings, Lanf,, etc. Onty that Fart of stcck uhioh 1s enployod. tn obtain-
J,nî rsvenuo 1s eaiLeð ca;r.lta.l a¡r& ls oonsêquent ly, accorrling to the way
i'! is   oinpLoyorl, rlistfnguished. ao clreul-ati,l4e gf {i.xert applta_L
        Ihen ire son'üir¿ue$. wfho general gtoek of any oountry or soeloty 1$
tirs   sa¡oe       of al.I j.ts lnhabitants er rnernhers, aad. therofore Eatetr,
               wii;h tira.t
alty ûivitee.itsolf lnto ths sane thrne J:ortlonsr cach of v¡hleh has a
l1) åô8In Selth: üoalth of lfattons Bk.ïT Ch.Î.
                                      "//   2-

  d.istinat functlon or offj.eetf o
                                  äe eons€cluon'il¡.' i-L'¿i.¡r¡:,; the social stocä,
  into thrae parts: Tiie first part is for i_nuneåi_al? consu$pjion aÍforùi;rg
   n'l rsvsnuen suoir as "gtock of food" clothos, houssiloJ.d. frrrnlturoo âte.n
   wrisir hara ireen pureharað by thair prtpsr sonsuqÐrs, but whleh aro nst
   it3t ontiroLy ecrnsutit€år'r anrl rths r¡¿hole stocrk of m,ere år.let"ling$, tøo,
   ,ï::.i;;¡is't1n¿;' at såy otlo tirnof'. lhe socond, portir:n is t¡e fiqg,l capj.,iAl
  tl¡at efforä.* ¿1 r:evrlnus or l¡roflt t¡ithotrt clraulatlng or changÍ.ng mastsrsr
   {a) 3Íaenlr¡as e¡.ù instrumonts, (b} ?rofitabl,o hu.f"J.ctings, f ei inprovemantg
  of 3.¿¡ncL, (eì) qtho aoqrrlfotl anõ, ussful ai¡1lltios of $11 ilre lnha,bitants or
  mor¡bers cf tiitl socieiy.n fire thlrd. of tho three pcrti.ons is th+ ajlgou,L-
 qtirqå qu.¡¡+i,:,l: l&) m$nåy, fb) stoek of provlslons, "froa tb.s sals of shieh
  tì:r:.'¡ {fa¡.'ngt*s, liilte}rors, ete.} aqp+et tc rlorfv.e ø profit" lt}"1,¿ùe Ðt
                                                                                   t      &of€
  or Less nennfe,eturså" materlels, iù) flalshså i,lork not yet d.isposed. of or
  åistribnt*¡d. to tho prorlrr cÕnsua.ers *
             lo sirnplify urattorsrlet us srl.ppos€t that tha' socioiy tither
 eloes ast irngrnrt or 'rxport, or 1t' hss exahe,nged. goods e!.l:oad.y a¡rd.
                                                                                 .nr: furthor
 oxche'nga sitir *-n;r oth.rr soeist¡r wtll taks pLaee for the next threo
 of straerq prod-rre,tlon. Thqn thg eonsr¡roehle+ stock ts ps,rtlJr ln ilre hanits
 of tho pi:opeF consaaers anct pantly in th,+ hanct¡r of their rospactiva ùea:,eËls
 to efforiL thom $a fevsnuÐ onlg b.y olro.,a!.e.tin¡1 oir aìrnrng,l_p¿; n*it,J.rsrr" Wg
 may than ask: From a soolal vlearrol¡rt, what is ths alffer*ns^s $hathsr
 qnentity 0 orrL of good-s 1s 1n tha hanits of tha proper consussrs,or
 or a frr'lL LÐO is not ,yat dl.tsposett of, but is stlll in the hanôs of thoss
¡vhíoh oxpeot to cl-onlve a proftt from the søle. fhat soolety
                                                                             sn & ce*s'nsr
$r1?-1 p:'ofor to loavstho good.s to bs oonsrrmed.
                                                           lat=r ln ths hancl.s of those
hevlng thom fon eale for so long as there is no imrnad,lglte need
                                                                              fsr clronl,-
atåon' on tho oth':r hancl., when tho sele takes Blaoe, uro dlealsrs na,E,e
profits ¡¡t tha oxpeneo of tho aonsumsrsr t1o nattar fn shat for¡n that
ic'obtainecl' ltr reatly Eoney, crsd.trt, of workr shus thts d,lsttastlon

 bstweon road.y for consua-u'tron stcck ânû clreuLating stock. pertalaing to
 society afr a sum of ths corrsspond.1ng siook of 1li'iv¿:l;: acQscl;:ri+ii åoes not
        Fu:'thernoro, the qusstlon ¿IÌ:is+s ¡vÌreth+r from tiis gocj.o-seono¡a1aaL
standpoint aLl, consum¡ltion ls of a Eoil-o&pita3. netun+ in an¿Logy wi'th the
corliriili)ticn ct' t::: inilivid.ual ln, hls p;fi,a'ce esoncnsr ;ïhoro do tt',tirg âo-
qulred. anå usf,fat abllitiss of all tire lnhabltants cr .meÐbaf,s of th€ goclet
Ssns fro:n?      -   o{.so givos   the arr$?ref¡ Iþa acqrrisition of       talants, bï
$!r.e nerinenanee of the s,cqulror äuring l^.is attrr-eation, stucly, or apprsntlos+
sh.lp alueys costs a real esfrÕnse lïhioh 1s capltel" fir"ed. anel rsallzed r &s
it s;sr+ 1n hls poretrl+ Yat" th+ food., olotìres, h,ousobold. firrniture pilr-
cb.;:isad. by th.e proper ûonËucrers arrrl tl:.o nsre d.riel"Liag houses, in short a,

Tolt;y' Ì,nrg+¡ ficil-ÇBpi.ta"L Stoek of tho prlvrito osrÍorg¡r becomas a s+cieL ngap*
i.tai fixoå a¡r& reelløÐil¡f' í'/b,ên the eon of a ¡ueåujfåets.rÐr stuûios êngln-
eåPir.ì?g tbat 'rea!. exponso* which ti.nits hls pr'åvato eapÍtal in tts grouth

by,arldltÍonal ospensoÐ inorsases the eaonomle fercss¡ Hot:svsr,
whan tha wego earåsr 1s palë. a low wage ¿*nd his sc,r æust ovon'tually boeonno
a T{å8Ð Éä,fnsr} E¡oEtO pt'Lvato capital is lnerr¡assù ui:-ilç¡ so+lety 3:cssibty
Ioses tire d.evotopnent ôf an econ@1c force oriuai to' sf t].e m¿inr¿fact*
ufoffs    Êon.
        Fron what no havs saiil  1t 1s oLear '{hsl t]-is soclal;:oint j.s not
 ðriLy difforent, but often ln gotrlls1oa wi'ti¿ tho pri?ats vior;r¡ro:i¡i,t in tbo
 stuåy of ðooRolnlosr Hhen Rtsar¿lo tl.isagroos wlth å,ialuirqs as to iirc ebjaef
 of Polltiaal Baonoqy oppûslng tbor¡dLvlaion of the proûuce¡t to ,,tÌre nature
 anrl ca'us€s of wealtht ho 1s siill treatiag tho subJeot fron a prlvato riew*
pctnt wfth ftoe aonpetttion as a flnely pointef, baser ijothr aB
.A,d-ûIn Sutthr were tho prod.uoo of thsir ti¡re and. Political jlconoroy
lras a pronfsing nane fon the tut¿re ¡ut a Bignoner for that tl¡¡er Elhen
                                            -   _¿/t/_

 Mar:l wrote        hls tapital anð opposed. tiro soeinl viori:1:oiilt of colLsc';ivo faeg
 ory prcdu-ction to tit,¡ eonceritt'a,'i;ion of          ea,pite'.L b7   gath+iiag Ðf   úsur.r3.lis

 veh¡,3'r   r   a.nd.                         soeisty as a rsnt gatheror to ti:,a
                        when HenrSr Goorge apposod.
 aLL gra'obing ïanåLordlsn tirey stll-1 trsatsd soonomical pros€,ssos as priva,te
 actlsltles of lsolated" ind.ivlduals anå sooial soono¡'-ly as the xl.ere sutr of
 tiios,¡ pi:iir¿'¡e eeonr::rÍ..:$. the utople¡s rcad.e atten'pts at slarting r'îcgl sr-
 a1ety 01" a centsin shape anc[ orgaalza];ion anil the'tnûiviü.uais as taøîË e€;anË
 of eueir so$ The ¡sost grand.ioas ì¿as possibly Hertzka in his'f$rôi-
         " Yet thay ?ts!'ê atopianso Fron an *gulcuiturel, pcint of and.
 fronr;rolaË of view of nsv¡ settJ.emonts Frs^a'&z CIppanireiner ln hås                  rrÏ,eJLty',.p-

 tsoh¿ft !.iahe S,ieðLu*gs"6onossenschaft,r              ls   irossJ.bly tbs ü¡ost
 i.n '3ervo,¿ln;i a'i the t1r¡e-c,f her fa.stesi; :l.nctusÈ r1aL1zation he u¡as botb. out of
nJ.ace gnd. at an Lncp.portune t1aa.
               ll.lnstratisü of tho t'uro d.lffe:.'snt vi.erepolnts, soelali i;rrd. prf-
vata, ûf sconotalc llfe anè activlty t* to be soor] in the cteirs ths tnd.iv-
lduaL lays to tho ínao¡ûo 6f the eapttat empl+yod..
      Irring Fisher (e)m hls r?he Sata of fntoresb'r is F.ot so muoh interest*
ëd. 1n tha ortgJ.n end. Ju,etifj.catioa of lntsresli es fn tirs ratÐ of it,          go
tbo proulen rilby d.oss lntereet oxlst?s 8lsher âgrees r¡ith Eel¡n-Baworkrs

answor thatilthe rrorlü 1s so eonetltutsd. that nrst of us prsfor p¡esent goqdg
to fature goof,e of Lihe }rlnù and numbsr.({h]l ,I: ) ,{.
     ¿.t tho very oBening of hls work lüþ. I , I) Flsher sayË t¡at "the rata
of intarest ln any'eomunl,ty le an lrôex of thepnoforenee, lh tirat oo&ü¡l[,*
ity, for a dialLar of prtsunt ovéT e üott&r of fntare lnosüðn. Thas inter-
eet esiste booáusg anü offers at ths sanê tlae an lnüex of that prefereaoe
lnherent !.n hr¡man naturs" Íb1s neither ssplains its orlgLa historLoal1y,
nor justiftes its ssistensa ooolally. Ilo rto hnow hogrever, tha,t j.t was
f¿] . Trvl$s Ffeher: fhs Rats oftgÐ?r
lìslatlcn to Eeononle Phenoroona, Intenost, Its üature. Detarnlnatlqn enil

 recognized as injurious            to socloty by the ù¿¿rl}¡ jsws, l.der'ny tire Hor¿ans,
  $nd 1ri Te;tiirti ÏËrop+ evea as li;tc.,¡:,s aI ti.ei tiuu of ih.e SaÍor.ra¿¿tlcno
 Ea .diso'¿ssss anci Fa;cr:ts e.aä b;l right, a3.i posslbls theorles attenpting
 tc j'u-etify l;hs taicing o'Í'in'[o¿'+st" t,y t]ro owr.rgr of capitel ei.tirer i;y sog¡e
 lnhç¡:'¡nt prcperty ofrprod';cti..títytt of capi.taL or b.seaueo of s,Jns ¡tc6Êtrt
 to f i:,,: oìr.lnÐi' to na¡i¿ caipi.tal. prod-uctlvr¡r witb 3iånn-Bauðrtr ila r+jecis
 ths "sappL¡ a¡lå anrt "r4onðyr thsoL.lee s,s ncru.¡l{¡:r ïhesi.ic¡s, {í.Jce
 clrsptors I; Eî, e Tff).             In tirç $.ise''rlision tlier¿ is one ou'Ðarrasslng no-
 mont: tho thro*iag iog+ihor of "årrtsreot'r an,rL 't¡.ets oi intorgst", 'loto
 the r"olloalr¡E" cancLusions geem to be claar¡ s.i Ca..pit*l-woaittr, i-¡ilc &s,,.
 Elet¿nã of proiluetlcr¡, ånpií+s Iire lnhor.ûn't pro¡:erty of p*orlueinp; inccme-

v+¿r,l-tir *.s a. ;,ihuisic;l i'r:ittiit of prod-nctfu¡ix¡ b j t{aiijrer" t}ie aan,it¿rI xeaLûh
 nol'the insomo ucaLtl:r haçe a d.ofj.ü1to vat,ng, ei'ilrcr oi. lnmsåiatEly
 sft*ì: the process of prod.uction uj-thout a¡'Ày rÈlfsrenee ro th.e future vJ.ø.
ts ths noü,ilnt whon. tho eonsuütrst of thert ineone v¡i}l eojus {:or"ih wfth thetr
donantl. e) 'fbe prosant vaLua bgth of or*.pft¿l *¿ü inco¡se' €¿s expressed.
by sone stanil.arc!. uait cf neaoure, le nrersl,y rlf.scouai;eð¿ vaLue {$F,of gotd,
bu' of whoat) for tha prosent of the va1ue i¡r ihe future,                    ô) Intersst Ls
then the a,nount by which a esrt¿rin vain$ üf ths future is reüucoù to oll*
tain tho valas of tho pressnt. e) Íhs rate of Intsl.sst ls th.e r¿rtio
(per oent or per Eiltj at wblEh that reåaetion of f,utrrre val,ues tahes
plaae at a glven tLms. f) 'Ibs r¿'ie of lntor¡st wili vary wiïli 6e gen-
eral praforence within a glven soaietp at a givon pl,ane and tine f,oF Bre-
sont eYsr faturs gooüs. lo ilLustrate $ei nso the oxa¡.¡¡rf,ss takea
from r'lshørts nRate        of rnterostn "caå*,Igå Iglgg", þ       sev{r',p.oos   sql prqfluce
rqag€g    Iåk9.  0n tha oontrergr lneons value prorLuoos oapitel vaiuer                    It
is not .bscause tho orch.l.rtl le worth $200üt that ths annual orop ui1l bo
worth $f000, but it ls beoanes the snÉué¡. orop 1s $orth          thaÈ thE
                                                                      $fOoO              sr+
e{rd'   will   be notrth   $aoooo* th6    Öaoo00fi   ls the itlsoquntöat value of the

 ÉËpesÈsd,   isco¡to Ðf .Ë1000 anur¡;        e^r¡tlin tirs pr,rçðr¡s of aÍsooü&tiog, e rato
 of interest oî ?;i\ ls iurpl.ieü" {TÏ" ii" ) lha crcli¡:.rù ni;css ple}å of c.pples
 shoi:,.1ù 1¡rcr+¿rse from ffO(;O sroi'tìr tc l1?-CrCÊ worth $orri.d- itsalf eor.reslloncl-
 irir53.y ifißrs¿' in Í¿rl,ue^ff.o* siüi, 6eCCcO to soiaetliing like #¿i;AiC erid. tho cf the {ÈX',{X, irreon:arto ttie capi"taå ralua scu-J.å i.e¡¡ala aga'rrases bef$'1e"
         rr ti"'.ese ilrâ f iLr¡ r':!.ght eon,eLuËiûri$ ¿us to tl¡e rnterpreatic¡. ¿:f ir;'.shst rs
 tl¡eory of "Taterest" aftå "Rate r¡f Inters$t'1 thgso ts¡:¡l.s ara aicäo$lsrs anë-
i{{i siic3Ld. r::, r-is+ til,¡ T',':llic¿ì"g t{rrnls illJiseotiuir'¿¿nci Eaat'g of }-íscoraotn,,
I¡t.¡'¡u tirø r*¿ltole trt¡nct of raq¡,soni¡:g anå iron ocrrilpr+rison cf iho presor:rt anù ecol1org.i.'1 rçLe|;io:rg     in ti,j.s sar]ter, å'i*]rerrs Èìi,oory i.s a prodrct not
 onL; cif i:-li¡,3+,:¡i tìrorrgirt i:iri; al"so sf ¡nd.ürtr l¡r¡e1¡igss ín'tor-coniso, wl:i1st tii€
 ttli"¡rintlog;y oxfii.ðiis*,ri list meroJ,J¡ au e¿riier ti:i,¡¡ oi "b)ri.a;irg. bu.i aiso e.r¡
 aariier soelai üie''i:iiruti.on. Efl¿rr:lrs tlsurpS.u.s s¡r.L'i;.s'r j.s e. ]-a:-,e+ s..l.rlad. on
 ûb¡ilr aiit1 ;¿þsvg tiie cust O-f .pre-sent.proöuction (and. s0 ìj¡es tbg qlg nn.*
 rof ::Íntorest,;';ac[c[od. on to tho princl¡ii.l').          Xtlshert$ {as¿ Bö¡r¡-BanefCs} ,,iq-
  teresttr is a vaLue subtracteil from the value of, frtai's consu.g¡ption. The
  rate elther of the .Ssurþtus'r or of the moclern 'rintsrosfn uep not þe roa1*
  ized to the satisfaction of -t"ho*capital{isf bee¿ue,e oi pgor cogjtlcr.ufes
 end- otinputatlon$ ür'fo;: oth$F rsasons, oftea og a¡¡r¡ount qf u¿ìjoreseen
                                                                                               eve¡rtc    i

-ou't ths
             ear'L,y ruurplasrt might irave rsproÐon'¡eet a åess conrplioateÉ and, thgre*
fora Is$s rlskg bnsrnsss relaiisns tha.n lhose o:.' oü.r orìi1 ü.aye for uhicÌr
¡rlntanastn lrather 'f ûfssoltnt,t) m¿y o5ÞrrrsÉ
                                                             ¡lof;e clonsiy iiro raLaîion Of th,e
fao'ü tirat btre eaptlel valuuålntU* prosent mene¡ri ùtrê ¿openiLing to a fer gr"eat
qÐ extsilt Bpoa the l8ol'rowthan npon the dlay*
                                                                   Iooiring ìrpon tbs v¿¡rioue
thaorlss 8s r'6prss{tnting phases of iristerLo¿}]. ¿ynarn¡is of prod.uetÍ0,¡ î,¿s asy
1'1¡1d tir¡os and. oonöitions when tho iloruilaetn tbeorios,
                                                                           tho protue'rivlt¡r anð
süirt tt¿sorlss of .ri.ntor-setil, roppesent ss,glr in ftg tims anfl
                                                                     ¡r.Lacs ¡K,rs mat-
tsi' of fact than Fisherrs moilsrn nlntercrst'r soulå havo oal¡roËsêd. ft o

         îTÊ¡¡r-n¡r    axpl.o.iil*ri   çl:¿.r:   f.riiotçt'*t¿¡ti:ÉÐ ojl åittsir.rf t$ {and. Boiu¡-Baçreriitg}
 €lrftÊ]:rjlliirri rlr ånt.*r*¡¡t ¡mü hol¡ ile nnay Lgoil                   gtj.rlg tO 1t:"*
                                                                         TrlT6n   ii*   u.g arÈ
 astr¿ii+ åf¿r1.h:ir,åifjlersnûü tratitsa¿r sfl :ln,Låv3å" ¿rri{" goglal vlonpal.nt af
 t+t$si.tåiÏ.íI   *

         ",is              lrk. fl.alr$:
         rli¡s -¡rr*f.lotly Íaet prøilo*åtåor¡ th.*t tl¡o tratror+¡r eì¡st¿ld, roçsår,no t!r*
en'tii"o v¿Låue gf' frle¡ prottuot ne.y b+r uÞiiul'giroû +;$ ir¡.üÍrfi .gå'¡hur È*.gl"* 'ü!:+
h.irtr-t;,'¡r:ho:iJ.rl ¡*'E_ r,?#4t.+.?f tF¿+ ¡rÊ?tlr+;:qgg+r¡ê v.*Itrs 6f iria proû':w'[" t?
Ëi¿or¡ld i¡¡s+åv+ ffi r¡r¡etts l"ilit¿rir ï+tir¡u''õf*ñfã- prudriai ås tirå ä.il.üïÀ;i,.*n ;]¡¿t
Tr¿ib¡lr'*¡:;¡¡;å'iS*.¡o::1.r"1"1:sts eseprltrn.J åi ir"$ lf l,t rueæ¡lt tça¿ tìrc¡ Lxbursrl
shs$Lti ltÊÐ. recsåV+r lhe egtj:rr åqq# veiue of, l'ilss p¡'cüRef tn.I
        l[sf lrs tsu.e iir* *u*mpÍ.s ox th¿r tt',:¡¡¡ ì"¡i,agtrrû ¿¿t iäe flr?.3üFli] e,r $å f+r
l¿r,bgr ¡¿nd. :torth 1"fi t¡¿i¡aa i'*cr¡ty*Íi'¡o JsËurË oi-åo ;r¡;c *-¿r#i åg ri¡,*¿i ths
lehai'er Ð.ã{?,3j.çts çL *;gi:i; È;¡gr* så$i. î1:.r$ i¿È"?-tra p.tall'rixir,b: uf tir;r rl'...1:¡ r,nrt
îi;$ rlg,þj.t¡lll",rt wh¿l ¡rr*à*, tåie labsfi¡x. r'¿j.l.L onj*g qhr lr¡ËSð¿rl3€ çf ,¡¿ria:* çf,
$t   ueheir   ti:+     t¡,+o¡ r,¡àiÀ Þa i-,*ady t'r¡¡, ai:o*
         #ilE ,gflrEtslir,!t tÌ:+grdst ¡.'arïiå si¡¡ån :Lh,*l 'il¡+ åel¡çrcr Þi'{)Íl^r¡cil¡i '}lîa,*.
rr''{;¡rrJ'ilig v¿¡,lu';ln t}Êtl tj':erefors ir* ghoîråíl
                                                          å'a,*e*L-Ít¡ it, ls thJe ;joliui*ïa',¡rru'lç
a¡¡t irisi:¡¡r çou¿e r+påy 'ti:u,t tf thu }absysr "øoul,tt $Iænt tho i'r,++, itc,uì.$.
eot g+t tba p*,y f,+s bl# 1,*Ì:üi', a¡rd x+r¡,I*'#{ååt for;Jl: Jr-ria;Fi} h+ r¡onlrt. -just*
å;i r:ieån'li:c fr¡Iå v'aius üf, lre trer* at å.¡'$ rl¿"raf,it¡.,. iÍin+ë, bnxg".**.r,
uar *ig;ri :.:,ôr$ a¡¡ci üfr.'ri: p*å'J for ¡¡ír l.i:¡g:" by iiro **p.lîaliliÌ ui¿*) b+ug$.t
tir.ç ì¿?¡ø.¡." f::û;n t¡¡+ J":¡,har"'*:'Ii¡r 1:'ht*:' þ:,-';¡ ¡1g i:i¡ii;:i;irsÉ-rlv¿=tr ts 'ih-t t,¡î.r:ø
oi'ilû S,aa:s å+'ä*;l¡ iE b*lc*ç's to tir'l capi;;'-l u;:ì.y tohish Í'*¡ a* in"*
o0îi1,3 i*ilr. er.:in¡g .ilì ti¡¿e;rii.jlíjùs lf iìrs ti'el+ çiiir b$ itUftìrr,|iÈ ; rz*ltär.liigt

af n'üe ;äd ir's{å*ft, ti:tni; 'raåi¡* d.j.sccr¡s't rei" :",;¡ll      tir,*+   ¡::+Ðer¡t   1sc.*Eürl   $l   n6ol t}-åt
uas 6å'u+n t.+ tir,¡ iab*rer         t'cr ptanili:g itc
      üi+;v, Ì+o r,¡BÍö't¡ r¿¡rdot'g-¡snri v¡het Íl ¡å$erng ihæÉ *&Fiïal fuEplfre¡ta*

Ju'et êËt ër É¡ðe{å iuplJ..lle fircÈrbr Herura.iþ u i:rft;rr}$ of proôuatå$o i"ylng
    lcio r)jî i:rr)48ì;r            lÉ¡-'-n¡ar8sci   wirJ. brli:g no ir¡sc&e; tiro s¡ed, too, .,ast .be
    ed' ana irr-lt ul]üe"r :l¿lvoi'aì;io  cc;rriitions; Labor nust be ilcÌ.ri+.. i,: r¡,rl.or
    foiio:lrii4g           Ìjeì::;þqf,'ns:
                                 itsoLf €larì¡odios/,(¿õ a s;icciesrphysicaJ. and i¡¡i;sileot_

    ir¡rL lrÛr'll of ¿;*i:erntions, ai:lrl as ¡rue'¡
                                                            uot oniy net .pE let'i to porish                       i
   1nbc.rto1rorloï93¡.g¡[:'rct.iveofilreone,i3-b¡i.i:'arepultot¿reri6.lrtì?;jei                                        l

   e) it irìlsî r1i:''cc'[ry *rir ånairsctig bo ac'i- cnly psproa*ceö
                                                                      ì.rtii *iso nuitt_                               :

   ti;e "irtpiieati"r:ir +f             i-ncs¡ae      in ii:'e    of caFi-i*,i cr.rouicl ìro fr,¡t snL;î
                                                                 eurplo;nrea;                                      ,,

   tcÏllleded 'b;'Li^ givtln 1'rrl"i i'ocogt'ritài¡ar
                                                          iriolr, tbig has no'f iriug to ùo ...r,itii
   ar:j¡ (itì(lorlssiolrs 'tq iìi+ capihaiísto glnco                                                               l

                                                             +apiiiii t.: i:a properr;                                     '

 ' 1>c;:ir:ri+pç'¡6*"'¡                                                                    ';-s*ci, *i.Lr              j
                         of 'tiir¡ aiaii* ana i::nalfeiwer.shi.¡; ¿¡nti [iro persor: gr
                                                                                             trjîrsÐJ'Ð            j

  ti¿e   i-lr'r¿r¿is cif pt'â?stl ¡)'*¡'sêr.g either es ¡uensger$
                                                                    or rsbore'g, rrroin.b.i¿a irr-                 j

  iLi'lit?-r¿:rr *ta...p*i.¡r'ç of tir€
                                            onnsi' or oiïn€rË *rs onptr.oynont çf tl¡e
                                                                                         ca¡;itaå                  j
 oÌjr'119{Ï' t'lrr'y i¡*' rçgti'is'cr:ri
                                         or used. in s$aåaåly w+sisr-u.r s,. sron ir**orro¿
 d'ttr:tion'n if it sti-ií:s tlie rlrn:ssrtÊ
                                                                                              p*ö_                 i

                                                   ín'isreste aS.though it nay Ìre aSeius.N-;;_
 eisi'iern fntsrtlsts' .ris e, whole, hoi,lovn;",                                                                  i

                                                              tire impliea-irern of ceipÌ,u¿¡å ån                  ¡

 tlie sê¡1F€ crs ex3llailrsd' aþcrve shoulü remsfa
                                                              true eysE from -lrl:.s indit¡iclual                  ,

                       "                                                                                           l


        Not so v¡Ìra¡r it is a mattor of lebc¡'.
                                                     From -rlro inriivid.uai staüd.$rint
 o:f tiro eopitalåst buying L¿rbor tho                                                                             l

                                          orily inptrcs'¿.j.on Lebor jras for ¡rim
 th¿;t lt l¡e's tho ¡rroporty of                                         is                              i
                                           tho cepital. he orsns Eo pro(iu"--;;;;,                                 :

'?h'oreforei' it beoour¡s part of bls caplial.
                                               l¿'he $l ho pald, f,o¡. tho
                                                                           r*un"                                   ,
                                  :4 7-
.1n;olanting th€ troa     maC'e     rhat labor hls ü;"¡n projiarrjr in bire sÌ:u,pe oi th.r
  growlng trss, gro,rli:rg a,ccÇr'iing to ths iinplioa'iioa of eapita3", a1z. tìiat
  of prod.uclng ,g3 iaterest. jlisher, 3öirm=*Be:nerk anù hunctrsûs of escnonists
  ropreseiltir:g the j-n¿Jivicl'..zu,L ¡¡tan,lpoin'b$ ågpoo sa '[hls poiat ec;icern:ing labe
  'ibs cccaslonal sentonco th¿¡.t 'ri.abor is not to bs oons.ldereit ¿ comuo',11'r-y
  Ï;o'ugìrt e.fl.d toLt. in th* na¡'ket" 5.s only ir) d-rpe*se sojûê iâaer rapror*ch, bat
  rrrib io La1'lugnco ci¡r sa4:ic eucnomic c?nceFt¡ogs,
         f'et us rrorìify cur eeercpla cf tra+ gro.ling, ;i ,i; T ¿sse pa::înership,
  th*ir Lru.çlness golng io be trse growing, ths com¡ûüßiîy gtving tïr* lanrL and.
  supplyÍ.ng üiro sssd. in,rxah.ange of & c.?f,lain p*rcantags af trses b.econín6
 p'.}.blic *t.TÐ!¡]ftyand. senteí¡r otn*r eon.lítions ,3s to speïa,l uses irf pLant-
  atiln. i¡ror tli* fii'st "?jj ysê.rË thsy hev.$ to p8,"y rÅÐ 'rascs, ilhu.s the mhole
 o;,a;¡ is an Labor' In ih+ Ða¡rrsï oÍr.3 öayts labor with teeü aad. teolg
 costs :${n Ð'r.ring -ilr.* iirst .yr ar :\ wortrs tr de;yo nitirou'i boång p;*Í-cl by any-
 ?roùy for hls rsorl: he thus lr¡ve{rts {$næ i.n t:'re tree groæiag i¡lrsinsssl. B
 itoo-= ngt work ¿¿t this busLnelss, bls ti¡re rea¡ring hÍs oïltli ho gÍ'r,os not a
 thongirt te ths &tfftçu1.ti+4, d"oas not sxÞgsÐ hims+1f to tire cnpr:lsgs of
 waather, tekos not the l.¿ast þodiÏy rish; hspays 0 Ën for n d.ays work.
 shen the work ls ov.or t ts dl-sntsçec^* T.n suoo$€diïg. yeerË occrsicnally
 sonê worh has to bo put into the plantatÅori. Õ doos tb+ luork ancl 1s paid,
frou the ocaaslo¡taL lncone of the plentation itself,                Ietety c is engegoü
&st a pormanent forost¡r and ta paicL fron the lnccme of the pL¿ntation"
At the end of å5 yã&rs tho partnershlp A 8l .B broeks up s,nd. tiro iatsr..ests
a.rd to bo ÈèLd out to A & $*
        Aocord.lng to tire 'r$e¿retity of Contraottt ¡tr.8¡ B sbould.¡iðs ti1e J.n*
cosle avonly; $ l"s expeeteil to pay out 3rs lntereÊtÐ. B clsir-s fQ$ of the
present aapitaL of the plantatlon, brrt C ls not disposed. to pay that enù
this ls his argument: lrns, ha sayE, he uag pald for hle Þorh, but the

   câ'sll uon'g-i Ð "ï'¡vg¡t          e'3"   zl itii:                  bo co¡rgiûereð biy hj.n a. ¡a val,ue
                                                         ¡lar,;rmcnt c,¿arlou
   oqual to :its   -to:k act,;."-rl-1.;;
                                         *:ir.-i :;i i:;¡ .:. it¡,:j-¿ii slru¿lcl ataä fio,'s ti:r;..n #rLx,
   siitc+:r ilaa; lnL;¡,¡r1 .tìro,oìi:.r, br¿i .iìra çirr iro gave rÍere eo:rner.?teçi
   his þ3rson ei:03' iror:-1./ snå B;r'¡i3¡r Cf iris ii¿'o r¡ B investsd.
                                                                                              ecLd. an.å
   llfa]'ess $næ n 0 cL¿si.n¡; if Ì¡i¡ i.s g,.ririg to brry Bre i¿tara*tsi, .lo
  1n hls opinio[i th:r ::igi:t tr¡ cons:i-åer ¿e.i]lei irÀfì¿i;.t (]rrfiseq¡þir;fl ,.irî:.:
                                                'fnt qs
  pi:iet¿ïåon as rri¿eh ¿',s.iiÌs parson¿;,I sh.;,i"ïÇri*"y              11

                                                          , ir¡te.r:.aetj e*nr,_ _r+; ís this
 (ur*y interestj tir';t ii+ 1e :rilt-in6 ta ;;a; L'cr jjrs Íri¿erå, rh.c¡ àrl:l:ì.eulúy
  is ftron hi;.1 str:flip.llnt ir: f:.ii:à:iå iho rti¡rz;Lvaien,; ûf iii* ers{)ss
                                                                                             ef ,i¡s por*
  Ëo¡ìal in'çest¡non'l î's Lai;,o;:. or åtg
                                                  |ìnæ ari¡;ítal" -i¡¡r,e$ù¡ceir:î as çash.*
        À nat::-ra.ily *-;r"Jcys Crs *tar:é¡ali-rt ij¡a,l ti:.r: .$n eirgui$.
                                                                                        nûi b_¿y l¿:bor
 bab b'3 i:l'ihe Êerr::-cg oi" the l¿'r.tGt: ârit-1- ðx¡irår:ting jl¡c¿'e:.;sð j.n
                                                                                          r*lue as        s 9't

 i*rprie'å' $ts Èotsf s¡ argurisnt i¡; th¿rt h.e i.l.vgslaù gn
                                                                                     uådetr t-:iia expoot-
 aacÍ of e 5Cj.{¡ si'i¿:.ri*,g *;i^tì: ¿, :1.:-i '1.;l;,*i ï.* r,ikk.}ð.
                                                                         h.i:ã aapibal inve$tnent
 {as t c tas'Ï s,llrec'lancJ,r, c, hcuc;*r:, is uc i ilouriù iry
                                                                                csn.t ract as¡ o B ¡ s            .ê

 erlleet3.rìcjlr Ìt,J:t r:lc:.; h.+ .uü.3üflj:it¡e lJIs tis;; .ü,,) i¡e
                                                                         o:l F,[ir Iú.¿rrs i:-î;s.ieg.

 kïc   i''3t**-',   L; ç.1,¿;1+:s   tilat n :orr.rcagìr i¡e x,.¡ga¡griiues eepit¿lrg ånplioaîiansç:Í
 eu,i;J.t'e¿i   ås o¡r1;     rli-z:ç.¡_1r.r..*.?   to   J-aboy ¿t¡id   troi;.fJ,ss_vsrsa*       j¡.s   tË tire iunff&
 eetÍoa of øa;¡itar, ,,o ojrri*sss rrre furp3.Í.ce.ticrrrs                                                                    .È:

                                                                                s:Ê   rr.b+r.
          rn  reJ'atlong to -å, g clai-¡rs Ílor l,.imsgïf cert¿is
                                                                       sl"lo,ù.:i,rirr3s fro¡n
Å Í¡rs he d'oes elsa t-ronr liJ for the tlir¿¡ sii.ce
                                                          ire b,:eane Fsrnånr'rii.lJ an-
g'39ðù eld' w¿s t¡re onLy cere*t."ker
                                       ¿inc. br-rsitrr,lgs rra.nager cf ,;5o
whiah pe'xô far iteoif r¿ithout aHy intorveni;ion
                                                          their sld.r¡ o"¿iioi. tlian
To rrana¿1e tbo eàsh ineo'o ancl enjcying
                                            ilre nor bale-nces, gnJ";, crn ii:.g re*
cognition end. a,cceptp¿tion of tho pråncÍ.ploe
                                                  lnvolloil. Leaving the ¡¿r:.iaal
'Se'ïtling in terrus of noney for lstsr noalil t ag.¡,ee to b*y
                                                                  oat Brs Ínleroste
anü gc lnto pan'ünorship Jr tn
                                      furtho;: trso 3lr*^i;l:rg Ìru;:iuo,s,s, uti¡of*
wi$g' 3f üÐ'ii"lJs, ho has no Logal claina agains'ü
                                                     oltl¿or Å or,3 or,choir psFt-
n*i'shiB, $inc* he ha*l r¡oen peid off weohry
                                                et rabo¡r mcrket rafss.
                                   - ó;t'

         llow, tna implications of J.,.rbor is no1; siuply a¡rcl exclusiveLy of ro-
 Bi:orfixcrng r¡seLf. I'or instailce, lf ljf,, tirat a Lahoror of any kind" lln

  the wiilsst sanse of Labor) would. spoad. in supporting sr d-t"aing.r,
  aompleto yÊar, bo'åivideù by n d-ayt, ås irlany ttrays as'clrero is on an â,vei:-
  a6e work p6r ysar in'r?rot partieul¿r.r trad"e; wÉl &it,v obtain a ðail-y wage to
 hoop iri¡¡ or hor Ln goori oonåitions of bealth Ín to roprod.uee nLaboîn,
 Ep to a oertain age'i'he l"abor of $ Þerson ui!.I þa ¡aore than reprod.ucecl
 clay by day or waek by wee"k; from a oerTain age on labor rqil!. iie just EiTl-
 st&ined. in a status Çüo, both as to quantlty and, qual,ity, unti-1 Ð. pgin't
 silL be reaeìred. when it wiLl quantitur*f.vei.y anü ofien also qual.i"f;¿-¡.tlvøIy
 ileersr¡ss. Ts sueh a Labor roprofloclng wage, and. tirat ls v¡hat a l.aboro.r
 in uany casês ge'cs, i$ sush a iabor supporting !l¿tg'6 the onl¡r implloatlon
 or' labor? Even eapitalists olaln a wlilor iuplíoation sf labor elthougb.,
 they quite of'ren refuse to cLs their shs,ro to ru,ahs tha r¿icler fuoplicatlo¡r
possible, Y'Iz. ttre ¡nui.tlplloation of Lairor goneration by goneratÍoa.
        'råftor ms tire fl,oocl'r seens to ire thsår'watohword. for so lo,ng ae they
aan sbtain Lebor enough to lnerease their capital wee,l,th ln to in-
suro a greater iaoorae-valus. Suppesr & most Liboral, trostnent of sl.avery
woultl, wltbout barsh treatment of the slave, suffiae to bring about the
reBrorS-uotion antL mu!.t:lpLioetioa of labor; shorrlcl wo return to it?       Sappose
frzrther that ¡re i"úouliL aLloiv our elaves to interehango their mastors {fret-
elom of eontrast and. of movenent) ant[, b.y tlre LLberality of the me,stsrs,

to sectire evsn so¡ile refinonent of llfe; wonld. alt fnpl.ieatlons of ï.aba¡
be ful.fiLled?    SirrsLy   aot; those      trn posoesslonof all klnd.F of ¡:sntal
and- pbysloal J.abor form tiro Larger-Larg:e bod.y of the soelal foundation
ri,ricr yr"rü e¿}rìnot d.obE¿so saolety tq a foruula of fnnfín ¡shlah l be the
of enployees of capitaL, a aumber of, d.s,,ys from pay-day to pey_üay ana$
the ùalry Eege' $ot onry dooe the lnd.lvtitual laberÐr to-alay trofnse to
                                    -3 L'

 treatoù as an equivalont of $næ of aapftal r¡ealth l¡ut the labor.'vtorlú fee}
 tìrlt ti:''o inplicatioâ;s of iab*¡r' ars th.¡ intrr1.ica'tions of socioty es a r;Lo].s.
 I'fo-æ, the tìreory of eqpianation of "surplus vaLì:e" r3¿ìy be urûngo lt is cesi-

 aitiiy instdfiei+nt tf ts.[ien by i1;sel-f ; bu? the thaory of ruaitiqg ågË 5gjl:
 iuatj.o¡¡ o:Í,liggguql,anù olai.ning fer ti:s capí1'¡ilist fr an er¿aal- r*itb
----in '¡;hs ro¿llzerl cliscoun'ï, nttiro-:rlÍng the
 ¡I                                                  ¡r'li.sorial c¡uaLity of .Le.b'o .c, enÕ-
 ü.ismissing t as pæ-9 É€'ts not only,jtrCIr'rg in ti:.a fnd.ivid.uatl rc.L¿¡tiong -Ðut
 ls nÐ t'onEor tonab}a slnae it d.oes floî so¡1ÊÍdsr tire irnpJ.ici:tlons cf åaÏ:oe.
 Ðs fur¡úamental inpllc¿tions of soclety. rtapitalistc atre Bo rob-uo¡.s of
 L¿bor', buit'brokors wÏ¡o bu¡ worh at snÊ tiar+ ¿lnå st;ll ite protluats
whj-eir is iriteresij) is d-ue to ti:..s timc eJ.a¿rslng betçi'aon ths Labor aad its iio t'ire capitaL'1 (Ufr- IiÏ s T). rihis ls.gisnqlrrs ansïter to tha
soeåaLis'i'st"srzrpiüs vi¿luttr. llre 3.attÊi' Ëia;/ be urrongJ if thoy eiaLm s+me¡.
thíng i¡umetlia'lely that' nã.,t €Gne aftar y,3ä.¿'s, but witir qJira"Í r.1ght he c'lelns
for the c$,pítalist wira.t ls cl.rra to ilïfn,qtr*$batevsr tìrat abstr¿ìotion nÐy
ooatrii¡nte-hs ltr¿-ues unoxpl"eined.r
       the writsrls ai;n is not to settls or $ra.n to ad.'Jus$. on argnnent bo-
twoen tap-ltaL of 3 and" ls"bor of å and. Cn i[hat the wrltsr alns at- is to
sh'èËt that the lnpl"laatj.sqs of socle'iy b.rtng br¡sleally oolneidlng
                                                                         'nith ln-
plications of laì¡or-inelu,ling eapital" as a spocies of, pest Labor;ln tle
v¡iùsst stüso o:f th.¡ ãorù* our loo.l¡ upon ocoaonlcs j.s Aoeegsaf.J,ly [lff,orerlt
tìran r¡hen   ræefoiget tire inplioations of sociaty anù took uporl saosomles
â.e ã. su¡¡ of Á,L,8:t,Ck elc---ind.1vtôua1 J.ntarestsr ,Ijrrr nrlter betleves
b¿Lvs d"eilo¡rstr¿toil his stancipoiat and. -also ohor¡n ite

                           1i'e,ìt in¿ ;lg ricirJ- irrlrzi Ccinrnuilit i os
                                 ¿nt1 -¿;   ric';l'i; u¡.¡:!   .Lanå.

       0e,n   fis      uo cli.ssr-rss ta¡raticn of agiri€ultureJ. lanf, uithout as.y
                    anri- may

 rgferencs to the tæratlon of urban anil saml-arbaü lanrt? Semi-urban is
 not nseÊssariLy suburben. üa¡i ws and may n.a åeal wtth a6rioultaraL êoür-
 nu.'ritiss without any reference to urban anrt semi-urban comnÊunitiss? lb.e
 ansuor   ls ryos'r.             natlonally consiclereä, be no sharp Limits,
                            'Jhere E¡ay,
 tto ole'tr cut ssparaiion, but for all pracr;ical purposes tho rure.l Bunieip-
 ality, f. inst.,                 unit to-day çith irc ov¡n, asê.cls snå its gurn
                         shouLil i¡o:a
 cls$aad.s upcn i'þs msnber'îaað th.a very nams tells îÌrat et the i:aso there
 shol¡lù be tbe taoålft" tilt"lag. lïe Bå1, E,e even nhcu-1d., e¡..inína.ts thoee
 semi-urbelt eiustsrs of boÈses r'rLth thefr nssd.s ü.nd d.emand.s s,s fan as tax*
 ã,rion ie eottcgrneå, Socialty the.y are slgniftoant cgnters, small as thoy
may be¡ öecnoilleal1y they are irsef,nL lnstrunant's; yrlt they ars d1ffarent
from tas rural communlty sineo'ihey aro econouícally not based, on th.s prc-
ilæatisity qf tira lanet d.irecti,y.
      Iiro.¡f¡anc'nito vii.i.ago 01. Eåtiier haalet as îrr hnoT
                                                         1t in the Rhlnelaud.
IÍ,unicipalityn snch as hes stíil prôËorved. LtÊ erfginal charec,ter¡ iras or_

lginatecr   in the social needs of the farr¿ing aopnrîtnnity,                 bas grouped. tiro
cultivator-ownðf8 around. schooL, ohurah, entertainnen,t, nutua1 holp,
sic. i{ot so &i'tl tha trl}nglishn banlst in },{anitoba, often grown to E villpge
a trader, en elevator, a pool roomr a barher ìflas the start of the iltoyunn.

'ihs ¡rÍensnlte vlU.age starteð an¡rhere, tire esnter belng ohosen bqth fron
a gocial and. rural ecorronlcal vler,tpoint. 'Iire lrÌfulglish,, Ftor,¡n,, ,flas oiro*å
wit'h a tPe.ùin$ viiì1i,point and. by a t'raclor, usual,Iy at theostationrr. ghe
Hononite auLtiveú&r*ovJnetr d.rives to hts wfield.t gstting up a ll"tt1e rarLlqr!
couing home a  l.lttt'e later; hls ohllclrer¡ are elose to sehool, to ahusü¡,,
to o'thor chÍlðren¡ tire aûul.ts ere oloee to churoh, to athcr J.nstLtu6.ons,
to adult soolety et any tlne of lelsaro. lhÊ FEngltsbn ohlfil wal,ks t0
                                 - l1-
 seho'îL ofton farther, winter ¿nrl suü¡¡ner, than the &[saonits ad.alt to his
 fielå 1n sunt¡aer; after sciroo!. the¡''e Ís E0 soeial Life aeong ohild.ran fsr
 the iünglfsh ohitd.; aftor uork. ancL a'c any tluo of Loisure the,,Englis¡o
 aiLrrlt has to overqomê r¡É1r:J¡ a d.i.fficulty to got aûr¿Lt society.
       ?hs ''orritðrts ai¡n in clescribing tiiere oondåtlons l,s to poiat out tbai
 in i;reating taxat¿on of agrloultural. Lanå ¡¡o æoulå not ha;re to tes tiro
 Manonito villagsf of sueh vii"iage, a ürnlf ruraL vltlago, tb.ere being a
 pâ.rooT-   of lat¡cl in tiie neighborhood. belong;lng to ''r;iris ¿ad that anil every
 house in tire v:ilX"age. tiro "EngilsÌr" +ríitago, hont3vor, $onrl-urbaË in ohar-
 asEor. Trased. ü.irec'¡I.y or i¡rclireeiy on tratlo anil of-;en increasad by retireÕ
 fax'usrs anû- tlot on soeial J.if,¡ cf c¡¡.ll;íve;ior-oänÉrs, must bt¡ exclrrd-ed frsu
 ouì' eoni:idor'¿f ians of t¿a¿¡.tion of ag::ieu.L'curaL le,i:.t1-.
        li:.e coiûrlün iei¡orern ti:e ieeaher, tes pastor*rnostLy a ctr-J.ti.¡*tor hin-
g'rlf¡¿are f.n tire ìÍeno¡:itc viliage eeonomlc or sobÍal eompletr.ënts of the
field-s Ûr t'b.+ co;rururity of tiie'ívotarsn Ïabo* end its inplÍc,.¿tiens
tС¡e io thoir rÍgÌrte ts $$E¡e saient" Ehe üoüü:logr Leborçr, th.e teachef,
tire ,:iiais'6or in tbs E¡r€lLi$å vi3.3.age fa À{anitoba are onl,y ind.iroctly and.
oflly ocsasio¡¿alJ"; oor:Irlorlted. ç¡ita tbo co¡aniunfiy of c'*Lttva$or$ aac. it¡ na*-
ber$ a'--1 aultive'lors. so, froa t'bis angio, t'oo, B6j ¿¿ro;ustifiea -io êlin-
füate the ta,xatÍoa of sueh eoni-urba¡r sûEaunities froa oEtr coåsldarrrtårns
oj'= ta^xation of agricuL'tural le¡rils, uhilst thos,3 rural, tru).y
                                                                          rural vrlla*fes
sffer no diffåcultlea sron nhera thars b+ a trad.osuaa, a trsndor, e laborer,
      lho conclusion ïse arrive at is then that wo can, E&J¡, anil shoulô treat
 about taxation of egrlonlturaL ianü;¿lthour irns rafêrefl,co sïê*:to the tas-
aiion of tlrose seni-u.rbün oo:nmunitles intorsper.seil anong agricultural lan$s.
ths refsrsnce to slrch courrntrnitlcs nay be nad.o roÄoornlng thoir lnfruenee
llpon ths faotors c[oto¡'r¡1ni::g tbo taxatlon of agrlou1tura¡. lanúe.
                                                                           If a for-
tlorl rssults thc¿t wo ee,n, Ersx aail shou].tt have e polls¡¡ of, ta.xatton of
agrioulturel lancl's fnrlopond.ent of tbe taxatlon of nrbaa eonnutltlosr
                                         -5r -
       lhsre ls yot another point to bs eluclclatscl ancl reaetoil upon:                 -Âs we
 are socio-poLitiaalLy organi.zoù îo-cLay, anil as the iliverse ag:ricultural.
eonmu""¡itiss witirin this p::ovince are sconomically situatecl f,s-ùa.y, a,rrl as
tìre Lands aro distribnteù by tbsir fert¿lity anil. proctuetlvity, geograph-
toa.lly and by ocot¿Bs,Itoy to-ttay, ürù a,fr lra hope to grcw in
                                                                               "r:opuS.atlon fron
ethnographically se varlecl sourcrês, is it s-r sounð pollcy of taxation,of
agriaultu.raL l,and. to Lot overy llttts oonrär'unltj¡ singls Ìianråeö, ln ilie st¡-
irggle fcr the a,ttair¡iu¿nt of sociat alrcs?
      A favl lnstanog¡ã wllL nake thls polnt cLoaf. rJe,,n üi;e îri¡¿rr:ì.toi;¿ Eyclre
e:rpa,n,l thrrro l¡ìrare;it itoulct ha.¡e tc¡ f¿.i,t.sls in qrtler io srrvg t,Þu
 fou-rth? Ths Ìri¿nitoì¡a Hyrlro to-d.ay is feli tc Ìrs satisfying a socíal neeð.,
 lt is not rt€roly an eeononàcal appliarice to-ð.ay. tt¡ø Ëê.,.¡¡ê is trüe of
 tel-epLrono tã) to.òÕfl.,y u.nd. lt rtill betrue of raúio to-morrou. fs that
 PÛssibls with our,sþå,Fe end in aran.y Baris ai¡lsst stairving poprrtation ?
       Iio';levsrr thsse u+i,y be looksd upon as soclal 1uxuries &nü, tlisuafore,
 not æel.ghty onough for some agrlonLturaL Eon¡nunttiss of thls pro.rinee to
 be thrown in as heavfer ta-x payers rlith cthor egrieultural comraunftlss of
this prorlnco as i¡eaker tar peyêrs ia Ercler to satlsfy goneral soole.L Ã66dls*
?Ìris eannqt bo seld.' çf rgads, hospj.tals, å,nû schooLs. Iíow lnterwovea tþ
int'lrasts of oltlsens of'e''provlnoe ar? ean be saon fron tiro folloìr?itrg
stntsnco: "Thoy (th+ ineg.ualåtlas of the preserit eystem sf eohool. suppor{
of rural distrlats) ara in part r+spo^nsiÌ¿lç for tÌrs novoment to the towng
of ps'ronts ähp are anxlous about th+ e.iLusatlon of their ohilÕren anil in
ti:[a thoy ullt Öeprivo the ohililron of Less prosperons parts sf the ]ror-
inco of tbsir nights to the ûrrpol'turlty of ¡¡¿ oðuoatlon," 14). can we
(g) rn sasiiateir,ei,ån ths farm ts taxett for ths telephono, rlo."
    at a cortlrtt.,listå.,r.ce, even tlroush ths ;ra¡uor -rräJ not ta.ken it 1'r by
(+) lopcrt of tho Jðusafíonaf co¡¡¡rfìsióo,tg¿rr pt 3€,.
                                                      *ó 6'

      as a soclsty afford' to proðuce "oarriars of water and howers of EçÐd.'?
            lirs Coruûission, from v¡hose ropüttvle liave quoroil tho abevs sentËå,
      roeomrnand-s {'1) a gene:al levy throughout alt the rrlral
                                                                    mrnJ.clpatities in
      orcter to reLiovo tlie edueationa]- sJ,tr¿at:-snß la s¿lme pert of tbe province,
     tho corcüission treÊoütt¡end's not to ostend. tho gensral. lovy beyond. the rure,L
     to urban naunictpallties. rL'.:,t ma&ns theri'fiê utê.$ conslder llio tc'taL of
     rurai nuaicipaj.itiae s.ît soif coat¿in)ü riot iatorf ering aith anci not L:ê*
     ing intnrr':r¿J- 'c;l urber:, nuni¿iÞ ri,.is j.s Ér;l lnp+rte.nt conolusiån
    !r3 irave rlauh+å,
              ?ì:'.1 û'er,3'i.s   of hcrpit:-.1 facili.':ies   and,æe,1ier,J. ex.einlnnti-on anå c¡   of
    Pui'al" schocL chiråi'en ere aleo
                                           "sry 3rae,t enå vory much neglected egôn ln
   weiL t<l d'o J:ilr¿li- connuníties ¿n'å sm¿1rl t¡easn ,rhr:s.- Çer¡fiot'
                                                                               bo tr,Ltogethor
    x'*ft tc inrll-vj-dull *ui-tiçatcrs anJ¡ raars then ue re¿.;pe oåircatÍon to
   3t tìle o¿:iuion of the ¡lr:Lter_b¿sed on aetual ôspû*i.eneo for many yee.rlF
   L¡r d'lffei'e¡it ¡iarts cf tlio Ï;t'ovinse* tiris ¡¡attàr shoulcl
                                                                        be atten¿eù to by
   tir* Ïr:r'r¡ir¡ca a^s a' part of lur s;stan of IÍero, toor
                                                                                  ì1ie canno!
   leii,vç ea.cli sr.ri¿lL ccr:munlt;r struc;gie he3"p3"eosl-;,
                                                                      by itserf.
         ?oad's, good' road.s, and" oti:.¡r hev+ ia la.ttsr yoårÊ
                                                                                been given
  mcrÊ racogüition uad a'Iso ¡'rlor,ê etteniLod tç b;r the
                                                                r.rotinco ¿¿nñ nunicipaå*
  ities aild' thiil sÌio¡s exactly v;hat viÐ nsah llh¡n æE¡ ¿lain tho.t
                                                                              wo neod                  a
piovinelaL widc¡ systsü of taxation of agrieurtur¿rr
                                                           l¿inds arid. not let e,lefy
11t'ile farnlng câas¡n'nity strugg3.c hotpiossly for ths attelJ.nmant
                                                                           of eoclal
ai¡ns' ilo¿ld's â'rs not rne.rr*ly mo¿r¡s of tr*nsportation of gral-'
                                                                         to elsvators;
they have grout socLaL sl,gniflcÐ.aei r;s ir;all, anù n;t
                                                             fcr fa¡.¡rors alone
but for ci.ty fclks as orell.
               of social ¿iins of rural municlpali.ties the urltor d_oes
e,Lm *t a standarû.izsti.on of -v¡h.¿¡t is to
                                              bg çc¡nslrioreù as erush and. uhat not.
{5}           Report þp. B8-5g.
                                          -f   7-

   Foi" inst {)'nt6:   ¿¡  rilìj; ;l:.; bo ¿ì ur.r¿nÐ .¡f socíaä.il;!-ty, cf antertainsent }rring.-
   ir:if; lrlu'\ peû¡;t3 'ioú¡t.icr., I;lr'i :t 1S l-t_:lrtsC_ bO.ïi:. in SCCp6 and. inpçf.lie4co;
   a hosl-r'it¿.t, Ì:oilevcr, í* â,¡t abscluîc n¿ld End., rii'tirc¿t ¿itt¿:cÌ ii-.,iire
  g:iri(ì: oJ: elierit;rt :!.1 is ir,r= a r:id+ slr:ci ¿:L ric;BÉ1. 1Ì-e n¿,et of
,                                                                                     a. ccinnurti iy
  h¿'"iI ir:. ti:e c;cntrr of aajoinLit6'ri;ral sci:ccl rllsïric'is i:açi of L,rte rae,_ie '
  i'üs¡ìt:l f ãLt f,tc¡re anú nore ii:. c. ¿;rcriing nuî:ì;ci. r,.f Flscasr'b11t its Í.npari-.:nce
  and scop{e is no-l to bc cro.Èeieci rii.iì:. thct cl a high echc¡ol iri ti:.e F¿ìna
  pli'acos. L'iro:leÍoi:t',thotl'.:e sr:.;l that ï,te ¡teec. *r p:rovi¡ciai cyrrtsü,3f ta.x¿-
  tli¡n tf egrÌ-cu.L';Yur J,anc.s'l'hos¡ ir¡t,.¡rostod ej.:1 ¡¿Lso ì:.ei¡e tc il,aeide eh.iah
  scciaJ' anå soclc-6colionic*1 nseis r, herr i'o l;e corisicLeisd. 1ri¡rr;ilre;rt
  etioigh' ånd ç¡r''e enougir scoËs to be pr.evlded" for r;nöl1y or parti;r
  sueh t,tx.ation.
        Tc t¿ko but cne irl¡rteÊcü af ihe latt+r irind,. i.n the n$r+:ii eountry
  ls ] geri:'rrt Hheat (if reports rà.îe .:auth¿rntical ¿rrd. t¡'i:.ei *cr:Ld. ,gire
  rosults th¿ln üåpgr4is. sh"suld- eaeh ferut:r flnd. thsrh cut +¡t his oçn ðron*
 oaicaL risk tchere a.nð ill:ich ac,ßd.i.tlans 'bhat bs ttls sase
                                                                         or shouLcl
 thj.s b+ dr;ne by the col,laboratlcn of the rure!. u&it l$.Ð. or
 etc') nith the iniliYj.iLua"l. oxnsr-cultlvato.e es a soci¿:,1.-eocrnoni.cai ¿¡.ffai.r?
 Br¿o or $sr6 cthor ¡cfl,ttero nay be oonrläcteð with thj-s
                                                               eßo; for lnsiltnee tþe
 rtral school, ths d-istributlcn of seode, ۓto* [he hls toaohfng
cåre€r ln this r)t'ovinse had- saos, the infl¡:onco of the nrral
                                                                       schoo]. in the
fcllcn!'ng linos: (a) ilirlîe Leghorns orr'í; scrab po¡Ltr¡: an¿. noxt
being åriren o¡¡t by whlte orpirrgton es a $oç.t-&nd--ogg foml;
                                                                      barred, rociç ì
not tab.tng root, bolng a heavy feeàor; (b) asu teetí.ng and crofr:i
eneouraging tbe ¡reople to teka c. intsr.:st
                                                           ln ths ereeûory lû-r5
ai' eir¿ryl f e) $rcrth of crovers and. gress-elo?er mixtnros
                                                                     ronslng tbe
hcpes of uany e f arnor recognlø th*t count
                                                     rSr tc be a mlxod. fermlng
16) Ïn 4pril-- 1936 tt was Ee,tlo .knowa from ottarne that g000
whøc't was-to ue ãisirrüäioo         t;   aooö
                                                                     bu. of ßarnet
                                                    fãi**ru, r.õ. ã-bo. per ferrnor ancr at
$3 per bu.

 ûí'C1i  i;:p':îi3iit; ;'cr ili:ol¡ {.}C,i'lí.i]-:¡i-ti,rS ti:.e;i grlt ¡1, ð,J(:tiol f¿',î]rêl-'tl:.a¿ inoiV-
iåc¿¿i år;pil+ f .           -, Jo?tL'rlnoat çåici'i bç,.: ç ä g gt:,Þ' frûm 'i exat i+ir, ì:;t
r¡;;-iiìl: i:ü.,",r.r.'.1 ¿ ioc^f oùr to bne ilile r¡datìts o.f i::i¿oli¡ f tlr.åL cû'rTìÍ.ìtilll.tiss.1, ir3,
La'iì'ie,:;]j.nictt üt ti:.e;r:.ter', nr',: gü iåuc.h gulilly of 'the focrih eùaon. of
ts-x¿iicri { t,:J:i,lg 0iiî ¿rÌ:å j:3e,cl-:ig ðiii +f the 'i:,ocroi; ,tf 'L!:e p¡¡;;Lê å$ iitt J-e
í;t:1-'csslil,:i ,'iìj g;.;,It; of :Lgaoråiåcts åiírd at adgteet or it$ Ðocla[ rtntlos
tri';¿¡r1.s t hcs¡    rural. cürmilniïi es.
          'Jh.e ccn,*-l:sio1.1..s w3   d'l:æ ?"rr tll'3..1 es   fallol¡s: rì) a rnr+I    +onû¡nnitg eåV¡
Í:*currC.ln¿3   tc its sosio-Ðoofìcmleri- tsnf, inr¡t1t::ticna:1. rlçerls, be r+garrled aff
 Íì:1 e:r{;i.t.7; bi :Li rtreì. eonanniriss of tha .Ðro'¡inos a.s a ïshole may elso
b'e 3ci:.3j.ú¡;rFe;l fi-s ?-n cn'lity in;lrl-,:eRf,od. if urban ntd $$inL-,r¿¡þsn etql6¡ì¡.nttiee¡
c i .th.r Ílöi!'1c -'4?.:r'1.:l;;rlaL Ð.tÌitr sorris.l- ne¡ûs o-f gr.el:t 1m;i;ot't-3.äott ÐilC. ï{id.e soop6

tf rÌ¿.:'r:1 cr)¡'tri:rti.t Le:; tìrc.rrLü na't be trft 'tc 1h.'¡ elngle hsnd.sð. LocaI ru.râ,L
ecr.nn:i!ty,b::t sh.o'.rl,l" be ss.tlof.!.-^,J orrt of iì,:rrrJtlneiel ÞystsE of taratlon
of rgï:"eu-1'';ulr:1 L:-ûrIs lir tho prcv:lapa; d.) tnterpretlnE the fcurth sanon
!..i-b+rs,iiy ei:'3 *ccirLIy Pct lndivi-rltralty a.n ôner.gÐFey ôr rÉssyvo fu¡d. shoîlLd.
b+ aec'*n'¿l*.te'l in vletï of our gro:ølng rural
                                                                  "pÐpulatturi bct'i: by netu-r.a!-
i;rc:eas+ and- lunnt.-ar*tlon anf, in vi-ea of oul conplie¿ted. anrl tnirarra.ûnioì¡.g
fisceL sysion a-n'.: prin:rt'y oønsrship of n*:t,;.;:al rssorl-ì.ess groïulng out of
th'¡ rol-o,tions of ti:i"s Provlnes) to th* Feclere,l Gct¡ern¡nsnt.
                                     _ €7_

                          C.   $ocial Aspeot of taxation of Agrieultural     T.andls.

        [ha question t¡hother originally lnrltvlcluals aEsoci¿teil themselves wl.tÞ.
 onis ¿nother for rnutual help anrt tirus gava rlse to human soeisty, of, 1n-
 ilivid.u.als eet'e born into csrtain sorriaL øonüitions, howovðr prinitiive,
".Liice woLves into tho paok (bono homini J.upuo) is ldLe r*gr us to-i[aJ,r, We
 ar€r aLl anö Ev€ryon6t.,mombefs of soß¡o sooiety havlag boen borr¡ inüe it.
 Ilowsver oppased one E¡ay bs to evol.utioa of tho aninal kl.ngêon iron aninal-
 euLe   to   ¡ea¡r   'i
                                             evolutloH of, hunan sociot¡r' sow'
 society efea'tes^othare to ðestroy then       in turn,   êflÉ wlth evsry nair pbase
se€ures oa ont hanû the growing freerltæ} irael-fare anri sefeiy     uf tire iaðlv¿. -
 id.ual meubars anü on ths other tightens by thouea,nðs of favisiblo'üies
 ths sooi¿l bontlsr so tha't ii¡¿tvieual lrenbers feol so:,ü)r¿eh fraer, happler
ant sa,fer as they'fael tiremselyes utoi'B d.i"awrl lai;o anå rastoned. by tiro
sociai web. 'fhs qusstir¡n ivjrsther the ind.ivid.uaL existe t'or eooiety or
eocisty for tÌ:ro inû.ivid-ual is absolurely Í.ale ¡alJ¡.. ör¡clety ls not the
s'¿¡n of itrBrtir ¡tc. ßtr å.re tiro ne¿,Xs of a certaln sseiei¡r'tiro su¡r of thô

ne'3rls of "nr3rürete . togetlrer. Soeir:ty oreates sooial negùsr aorsov€rr
it eoeialiøas üire rnriivid.ual needs nnzlii¡rlyfng and, inreasifyi¿g ihern ÞBEt-
foki, a¡rd. sÊcu-r¡s ind.ivii.ual in soeial boadage.

         lÍigration, eni3ra.t.lon and innlgrsrti.Ìn sr."y be of great si;irrifiÇiâ¡roe
in¡ tþs shspiilü, gxtsrr¡1o¡t e,ni.l restrtetlcn of a ca:t¿rin s.rêÍety, bu,.i aßy
scciety has tvo chiaf esset¡: Land- (tncLuding.rhat is airove its sir¡:jiase
Ri) [o ?reavens, ralì.d belou lts surface aorn to the ,¡e,l.t]¡rs oentar) arrrl labo¡.
 lia tha u¡i'iest sansg). üa ma,y well i;leurlnll a socioty not only c1-.11mlng
t-ee Er:LqElrl
                  -?JågiS4¿¿ of all thet,! to iaad. hrrb atso corl,¡o'Èlve,
i-''rr¡d'¿ctlt'e ol';nqls$¡rp by onploJ¡ tts l¡;bor of lts monbers boilr i.ho
ox;lio':.itlo-{ 'ì.n'':- e=ploi'fetion of tha l¿nd to prcåneo reyJ prõd.ucts a¿rj. thea
   ln tile transfor:mation ancl transÞortatlon of ths raw tc finlshecl ¡lrod.uot^s,
   unT-Li'r:,.+;r rJJcll tì:s congtrrnêr. lhg nams of soeLal:,sm eloes aot ffi.ghta*
   anÍcne to-dl-y and ÌTe El€.y Y¡ell aaeept the posslbllity of sugh a socie,cy
  though tre may noi acce¡rt it as equåtable. Io*ilay, our oun sccioty reoo$-
  nlzos ìäli1lg -p-ro^ügg!¿lg gr'i¡rerghlp enrl eaforcas oertaln roEtricticns both
  I'n tis explor¿ticir ¿nå +xrLoit¿tion, Ln trensforsation a¡å tro..nsperte¿tisnr
  By x:r:,t virtu:: üooe soctety C.o thst? It'goos eTen fa.rthor than tiie,t:
  lt oi:¡i'lçs the rlgbt sf connpulscr:;r sc¡rvlco of persone, anå of sgn$encreefi¿g
  of 'lo::,ith, anf. â'!itn of cc¡:f':;iclitlon of prila,te property and ragrelating
  oGl'i'llrJpt í]t7t lsi:io¡:if anJ/ sitcij. nec¡;ssLt;r arise i¡: tTre Lif
                                                                                c of th¿r.f gøsretï.
 irlh-:i dc::s ¿rl-i- tii'.t Ëi,r¡:u1 'ro-ùriy if ,rof trra cr,...;r"¡¡ of
                                                                           gqsgl prip¿¡ry- gråå.Ë-
 sh,i-ì 'e'r,:sr,-s, -LåÈ!eå?ii_gË ,tii;j:t,¡-
                                                 fgglgtiljg. ou*eip.Þ;þ_ and, the proteetio¡r
 of :¡cii,,i -#-
       ¿cez,.:.i'. ir¡uiiu.l1i,
                                     Ë lí1r?.1 vütsîì:.s ebu,,.s¡;il of c.r3:Ltãl gjåIg|igË, þÞO,1,
 3S g jg1.Ë.,-êt q.irr+Juqlitg e.n,t ercL;.ving sf i¡¿:.n h; nalr or spri",'i.t1g labor frem
 it e scci;;L iùr,¡:Lic..-r,tionc?
        "titì'ju:.s;ting ti:-+ chat:.ges c¿rr¿Írit'ig xrl.grs.tÍ.cn arid. cac,seC. by       ft, ìreellng
 oveil,i;ìre L"v.ijü.lts oÍ   eni.¿groi- j-.J¡1,
                                               ¡t;reir¡lllatii:g sc,eie.lty the add"itlen ir.y fmur_
1¿;lec-lon, e, {ir} t'r,¿,i-n soci-e-t;¡ cc'i:ì.trï.Ðs ltc coË.ri}en n¿intains
                                                                                  *.ù +voLvrs
lts in¡":'{"i';uti-o,t's ¿$rL crt¡¿it*s nsl; ones ¿rn,L e'lrangthe¡rs lts cl.elng to
P¡:i&;'ì:J' oürncrrj'iii o:f l¿'nù ¿;:d. d.iÊjûo;;iticlr an.l uroi-cction to soclal, j-np11þ
Gùt.{.CrrS O:'   Lei;Or¡                                                                ,

     ''¡laxetion finels its justifis€rticn 1r¡ ¡¡od.orrl doyË, ¡]ot
                                                                  in r;iis ni":-1¡,, of
a King-Ðrqner of 'rb'e ãand anit 1'yrant of thc ifarrion (in t¡ig n&m,s of th.r nation)
Eçr In Ðny otiror sou':aej of subserzlonse, but
                                                  i¡r ¡aoùsrn soelot¡r itsa:ljl¡ irit
lts primar'v'siaims to i;ho L¿¡ad a¡rÈ eoej.aL ioplica';lons
                                                              of i¿ii:or. or1 ofi,e heail
and' Ln fRlfilLing its otrn prouiso'by
                                         its oï¿a goqlar funùt:Lons o* tÌra ot'sr.
[he indivicl'uar using lauù or labor, or both ¿ssets
                                                         of sooiety ¡r:st, by tasos
oontributs to tire moans aeeossary to sooletyrs
                                                    f,utJil.rnent. ì.îe mti,y be iî,...o
                                          - 6t-
 nnJust both          la the estimation    and.tlistribution of the bu,rilen,¡ nd. nay enpLoy
 our taxes wronglyi ws nay not agrso as to what f,haso funettoas beå 'ðe mqy
 {lisa,groe as to ths oontinaaace ancl evolution, or abolltion of old. eoclal
 institutions anci oreation of nev¡ oneÍr; aLL tb.ese ancl sinilar roasoas åo
 not affeat the soaial justification of tn=es ln goneral anû ib.s taxation
 of ag:ricultural laacl 1n partieular.
         Iho w-r:iter, tak:ÈrÀE tjris visr¡¿ of t',ir¡ eoalai as¡iec't of tr:xa'¡ion,           lJi

 see any good teascß for' lrrs ;i.iingio 'Jax ofl l¿¡,lid.. '        Á itaflufaÛt u¡oêrr úegf a$es
 the iai¡r:r of 2OO r¡er; a lanù holosr actu¿i.l,v sitii.i¿oids ¿tiÛil aüros frsm
llroåu-cl;iotr; wh;t sirout,l thg Jo¡:gl+f Éjo frse ¿nù tii.r ir¿'p.,',;,'euclr ¡enalty
¿lü t'¡ '..'llii'c:L3 scci::iy tc I:'¿ tira forr-i+r go fi:ea. rÌv6rt tkrough Õn€ iuÈy troga
thei uir;i¡natel¡l i.'I. Gn trantt r¡ilt îiriir¿¡ baoir ihs laa.l to'ì;he priln$ry oiflBer
i.+. 'io soci.oty; Êîoå i.f such scclai orgreni, y,atl.:çn o:f L¡;rrrc or¡ner.siiip anû
i;:'od.i.rctiou may ite oirtotg i,.ieal; even if onr¡ ru¿n heLiavsg lirat &çärr¡.-ratioa
Ðf lahcr ..¡il!. t:î.r.)ú oo i,r¡ios:iì:J.a; lrìr¿t abori'! ilograri*tion af J,al,lor cf te_
ù:.¡, of th'-r ü$ti'i iirty "v,åg,r.'s i¿tomr¡iliaticn oi wealin d.ue to ai*,l.ogerrö. of
t¿a linplicelt-'i c¡1,Ð rJ,"

       'Ic iLlusti¿ts tìre orthotlox vior,c of ta¡cation ôon¡in¿r¡r'[ '¿o-Cr:.-,¡ ¡e âsk
olj.fscl"i¡s: tJr¡'.'lhe."r; is basod, tire rli"L'ision ot' onarsus ¿nù bsnsficial taxee? froui t:i.+ inciivid¡r¿.ll st*ucj1.,oi-ni; ¿nd. no.ü ffom tire sOcial point or.View.
Iirrr t'i,:cî,      , ifi tirut ovilfi t jrç¡s;+¡ b.lna:.:ic:i.aJ. t e{eg $.s rrtl:s provi.siOn

of 83r,3re'sü, tile lig,il;i-ngr of otreete , cr thsr removiiJ. of housø r6fì;r;.rs,..
i¡iricì: ¡lct oi:1y bortst'i.'l iiin ( 'r h¡ t tlxpa,;zay J tìi r.+et i.¡7 but úr.r.., Ervos provld_ed,
at iess cost tii¡ if ]¡e ir¿:c to sr:.pply thea frora his oî1¡1 Feso*'""*l]Le-thE
Y)Öf  rasul't o:i soci¿,i,I i'orsos to satist'y sociirl::-oed,$ €-r¡d aot r¡i+;h ¿r view
{'¡) iieilor:'i of ;i-ier Ro.val Comm:ission on loc¡.1 :*<atioa,
Ûl-:' seoig; ì.iulry i.iiì,1 lir ìr}d ll.miltoa,leirnirrg,roilsrcug'¡ 190l-,beuefícial
                                                                             1rr ,!';n¡:t-ani1¡
rrj":os. iuotÌd by liir l]l:.c:rrs*s ì,'hittalr+r !n "õ1,;nersJiip, 'Jenuro;-;*ã lax-
¿tion of l*nC." lgl+.                                             ''
                                                    -   62   -
. of benofitting this oae aaô tlrat on€ of tÌra lnd.lvidual tax paysrs¡ e1.ther
   tbru ths serviee as sueh or by rts choripnoes. 'Jhe history rrf, the llght-
   lng of stroats for euarapLe is a briltiant inet&frcÊ¡ lho trc¡nd ôf t¡ougbt
  of all' scon<¡nists (Loalin¿l l¡ith thls roatter antt ad.opting this ctlvis1on ¡as
  i¡¿ tlio baelqrou*nd. ihis question: d.oos a eertatn tax caus¡r a rlss or a åo_
  pt'ossion in th+ value of lnnova.blo .trroÞort,.r¡? ltor Lnst¡l¡col a school !.r¡as
  built in i: cori-úluri1;.y; f.f it Esre not for taat sshool ûlå.[\J/:-;oulc h.a''e loft
  tlic p.'Ltctl; prcp{irty wou,id. have Foao dor¡n; tho ta.x.gË ïjêro boaeficiai;- a
  thir''it ís no.t;t nsij+?flsrã¡"_y; adüj-tiolfaJ. t¡¡zes ¿t:,ÉJ ¡Js¿¡;il_ foi:; tÌ;¡ e¡,y
 j-s: 'rll;r¡'l''':n   :l¡{311   i lacit,:tt q j.ti:. $ore pu-ti 1$n cgt tla :l;oacþ,¡r",ü   g.,rl_¿ì,i,aÍa¡i
 t¿':e¡s f,lr si'iiresrf-;-on,?.re onsr{rìlã; in c¿se of sele tbs ûapitarizatj.on of, thc
 te':"os wlll' c&llsa a cleprassitrn l-¿r t¡e valu.e of t;hs pro¡icrty.n ïire
                                                                                                       fact ip
 tlti't ocuaation is tllo:e,-¡strlt of sceial forees a¡ð. for tho'oeriefrr or" sooi,åty
 l-ni:ri¡,stcù tilí,it trtir'l aequirerl a.rcl asef,ul abiLltles of a,t-I the in¡rabitar¡ts
 or ji'riliillrsî3s of ti'l soe:Laty" sb,¡ul.d ba a,s grea.t a.s pgssíble snû shoulil..gnøbLe
 thes io Ìre sel'f-sustalning F.nd, thronsh thslr labor, to oontributs to
afg tir.r iu--*licetirr:¡t o1'Labor encl of sceiet¡r (as exTrlerinerl abovo). Taseg
to-1a.7 ärð not noeãsils-rtI.1z Lsried tc su.ppross the Lûùivielual ;.nd hio
p't:ty ficr Èrâ tlre¡r l:r+a.r,t to hsnç"fl.t aaû. his property a'ü the åHpênãø
 t¡'' sccl¿'l bot;2. .iny syert;n of texntl-cr¡r of agrlculttrral. Land ire.ving that
bracrgrcurtcl o:î tr'ÈJ-g-.,'sf j;roì)eriy ts :,',¡rtiscciriln f¡r o:lr d.ays,
                                                                                      heL.e Ìn Ì,lan-
j"tobåfrçe uul,rt irry:r socf.*l h*si:,
                                                e.¡rd,:¡ie "r sÐci¿.1 ìraelcqjc,o¡.rnd to our systern
o:f ti:'l¿r.i' j'on. itì:.i¡ lll'i.t:r th--refcre, cennot ece ep.i; the djvi¡iee of ,rbenefip-
i='L" {rnd- tto:1cl'ot:s'f t;:Eeg r¡hlch in:-:y {cr mrry not ) another iicriy r}Gçnomlc
r;nci pc litic.      He lli i-L cûrisoqìicni ty a,t t arn:i: t tc, ¡rnt th$ t¿rsetie.n cf
ulturr,ri l-enit i* i{r.ürtc'br. cn er söcle,i.:¡.at1 nct oi:r ¡i proporf:¡ veLc.e -n¿lglg.
                                      "   t3-
                 A Soaial. .SoonomicaL Bass of 'Iaxation of
                           AgriculturaL land.s.

       Jn Ch. TT B. ws conclutted that with regard.  to tases we ooulrlrmight, ancL
 should. trsat the total of rural uunieipalities ln this Trovlnoe as a self
 contalnecl entity. tTe shon].cl have no invlnolblo tliffleulty in taying down
 in thsÍr relative valuation our a"ssrts of agricuLtural lancts i.n prlvate
 ownersirip and' of labor poïusrs d.isponible in the ctlfforent rural communlties
 throughout ths Province' iTe shoatd also be ab!.e to flncl out the social
 (inaluding soolo& economiaal) nseùg of thoss comrnunitÍes. i(e couLci esti-
 mats tho amount nocessary to enabls the lrovinco as a whols to proviðe evsry
 rural oor¡munlty illth the means of satlsfytng those need.s. Ihe eitimateö..
 a¡nount tryoul-cl then be d.istrfbutsü on those rural land. assets in the provface.

      At first this   methotl woultt seem       to be a eopy of the nethoel. rscommenclorl
as Equalizetl Assessment of the Rural Munialpalltles by the Erlueational Com-
mlssion 1n its Report of Lgzg alreacly montionecl. Eowover, before showiag
that our d.lstributloa of   Leuy on   rural               is not the sano as equal
                                                  le,nd assets
 åize¿ asEessment¡wo must meet somo possibt.e obJections. gne fs that that
 woultl mean that part. of the uonles levlerl. ln oliLor antt bstter off rural
 sottlemsnts of the Province bs ex¡lentled. fn ne¡eê¿" antl. poorer rural settle-
ments. 'Ihat i-s exactly what 1t may oone to. The Ed.ucational Comnission
 tlltl not shrtnk back fro¡n thisl on the oontrary, it polateð to the clty of
frinnipeg whers all her 40000 ohilrtren get eqnol orluoational opport'nitles,
the rats of levy'being the sane ln tho poorer as in tbs rloher parts of the
clty. In oaee of rura!. conmunitles lt ls not so oesy to sse that they
make one entlty, that they have oosmon lnterests ln splte. of tha
lcal tllsporslon anil cl.lvsrslty of posslbll.lties of procluetion. 1.ot, wbat
ws salð abou't ex¡rerimentlng ulth garnet wheat f,n the north
                                                                  nay be applled

 to   sugar beet,    for inst.,    1n the souttr; the fecloration of sreaneries   anrl.
 cheossrios, the pooling of uheat, the rural cred,its anct farmerrs jhnsnrance,
 tho fraight question, the establishing of oxporl¡aental stationso â truly
 agrücultural eciucation, and yet lead"iag to any faaulty, not nêeossarlty to
 tha M.o:ü. ollly, a farmer?s party, Leglst"atlon ln tho interosts of the ag-
 ricultqraL ind.ustry, and måny other m€ans ancl ways will cement those öis-
 perseiL   rural   oomnnunities   into ons .Rural Manitoba.
 ths wrftsr is absolutely against the ourtalting of loeal ar¿tono4f; on the
 eontrary, hs s€tos in the ontlty that wo may oall Rura1 Maaltoba a possibil-
lty and- l[oans of wirLoning of looa1 al,ttonomy. The LoeaL authoritles wllt
stil.l have to eolLest ancL er¡renrl tho money; they mill stlll bs the ones
knowing best their own nsecLs and thelr Xoeal aonÉlitions; vfctnity will not
cctass to be a potent fastor in cementing tlrem Locall-y, Ín giving Local eoLor
to their insti.tutlons¡ but ovory losa1 oonmunS.ty, even of the on€s better
offr witl feeL that it can be baelrett up by a provlnce-Tclcle Bure1 Eanitoba
in noments when its social neecls exeoecl its means, in whloh oase even ths
poorest local aonmunity shares, with all its rural äand. assets, tìre ro'¡mon
responsibility. tïaturally, svory !.ocal conm¡nity has to convlnce Bural
Manltoba of the aatual neecl, of the social anil soolo-ooonomloal lnportanoo
and- wld'th of soope of that aeecl, whan appoaLlng to the Consol"lctaterl Funùs
of Rural trEanitoba. fTill thet rrean a ourtalting of their present loea1
      another objection yot may be that of playlng onê seotlon of population
against anot'hsr.
      lhat entlty ofIlural, [ta¡ritoba has, accor.d.lng to its popu].ation a share
ln the "Bø per oapita subsltly'. rn this regarel R.M. ls an equal partnon
with all the other seotions of popuLation of this provlnoe. rt arso hae
                                  -lt î-

 equal claims concsrning the "Debt rillowanoo", and. that ls also tire ease.
 rogardÍn8 tìre ;illowanco for Government a.nd. IeglsLation. Thess SnbsiiLles
 ancl A].lowancos psr B.II.A.A, given by Canatla to Manitoba clo¿rly uake a con-
 sollilatecl fun¿ in nhich overy soction, ovory ind.ivlüuaL of ÌIanÍtobars pop-
 ulation has an equal intersst. sinco, however, v¡g ape ôealing especla1ly
 with                  ths raraL poputatlon may clraw false oonclusiotrs oop-
        Rura!. tr{anitoba,
 eernlng tha intsrasts of the other ssctions of populatlon in tho ag:rlanl-
 turel lands, occuplsct or unoceuoÍecl, sultlvatect, rlesortecl, or wilcl. lhe
 interests of the populatlon of the ProvlneoræB'a¡lrhole in tho Lanùs of thls
 Provlnoe as a whole Genrt be cl.oubted.i    Flrst, the provlncs a.s a whoLe (es
  cl.o aLso Saskatohorfan anù Alberta) gets a ûeflnito lnterest in the rsohool

 lanôs Stund-'t ntowarcLs the support of sohooLs organizeiL anÈl earriocl on in
 aceortlanoe with ths law of the Provlneo a¡¡d. for that pÌrr?ose o¡1ytr. Ssoonri
 thosa publio Lancls of this Provinee shleh rrysre aJrA those ehieh sti11 arê¡
 whethor Jr¡stly on unJustIy, nanagecl. by Canaôd for Manitoba Urrnf yoanly
 lnde¡¡nlty to the ?rovinoe for ths benefit of the $hole poputatlon. [hose
 tuo grants ars the outeou¡e of that f¿et the,t tho lancts vuhiah wer' bonght
 out together wlth territorlal rights becamo oommoa proporty of a socio_
politlcal bocty i.n lts lnfaney aJrcl wers placerL ln trust of -ïohat Bas Just the
prospeetivs Dominion of Cenacta of to-ôay. !hus, when we speak
                                                                       of RuraL
i{aaitoba as an entity nith oonmon soaiaL ancl eeonomioal neeclg anct ai.msr
cLo  not play ono seatlon against another; on the aontrary, r?e always havo
 before ouF oyss the genoral lnterssts of the population of uanitotfisa
'as the prime ownsF of the lantl upon whÍoh Rura! L{anltoba is
 ì{lthout cl.estroyíng Local {ìr{tonomy, wÍt}rout ðenying tb,e faet of the
 of Ïlura1 [lanltoba, rlithout unã.uly lrrtsrfsring wtth the Ín¿ivld.ual cuttivator
oultfvator-oFrnor, enel or]nor 1n the r,ranegement of his share in the
tural proouotlon, in so far as lt Ls oompatåb1e r¡rith the wolfare of others
ancl   of ths     oommunity, has the prlru¿1ry oÌsnor
                                                  of {s-c[sy.r,1ro. the proï\in1e
       '                                                                               i.
as orgenizori' to-cLay¡to find a s;lst.o o* ta-xingr thoso lancls in
plexlty, wi.thln tìrc Lir¿its of J.ts-eeonomic prod.uetivlty uncler a glven sot
of conùitions, 1û orcLer to enable Rural Manltoba as a wholo aaö fts,more

or lesÊ, eutonoaoug compononts in part to satlsfy thslr neo¡ls,
       iVhat s,rs   nos¿   tio dlffererces    betÌseen   the system of tqualizatlon of
   Taxatlon as recorunendeÈ by the EcLuoatlonal Commisslon ancl tha,t of Dls-
   trib¡rtíon on tho reLatlvo valu.os of the RuraL Ðand Assats as aflvoeatect
   by t l:.e rl rit er?
     üonsiåeratlons                  Equ¿lizatlon Systola          Ðlstrlbntlon System
   'Ihe 3laao of the               "á. T¡sglslator of [a;Eation Ïrlnary Owner of lasablo
  Provinco, O¡" ¡i.gìit                                        Lanàs and. treg,ÍsJ.ator of
  tc       Teir                                                'ilaxation
  3asi.s of       'Iaxation        RoaL properties as T¡'ans; trand.s as a $ooial Eaon_
                                   ferable 0bjects          omÍ,o "å.sset in prlvate
                                                               procluct   ive &rnershi¡r
  Easis of YaLuation conJsatureel setllng Va- Reletive Eeonomie
                     rue of Every rnûivlal**r ctivity of the r.anås
                                   Roal Proporty               heLù by a    prlvate   ûwner
                                                         ln.lerns of Relatlve Va_
                                                         luatlon ln tho land. Com_
                                                         pler of the provlnae
4 lhe Private ftunsr               a Srospeotive vend.on an Aatual or possrbre
 Harctshtp of taxatlon Red.uelng sell.tng value a BuritEn
                                                          on cuLtivato'
                       of lroperty by Capitali- both as producsr and. Con_
                               zecl   Taxes                   sumor
                                   -   1, ..!   -

ir L*¡r.'tr? trr bc fi:recl bl tiis üorsuission by diüidirrg the a¡aount requðsteð by
ti:e iru.tget af the i,Íunlcipal Cornnissiongr by tho tataL assossnont value
thror-rgirout tìrs Srovincoo Ìhis essuÌî;)s Îìral a}l" real ;oroperty has to cotì-
tributs to tire ad¡oinistration of raugicipai. affaírs lncliscrininately r,lhether
cne muniaiBaS.ity requlres Loss or úore ûå,r'6-taking'hhan anothi:r on tho sid.o
' tJf the adrninistraÏion. Iro'.,Tùr,'3rr thet mei¿ns that Ít may ofton occitr tbat
p;ert of tir,s monÊy of ono municiiraliiy may be a contribuiion 'úo tìrg ad.ninl-
stration sf anothor, Íiris Comnission, 1;oo, seems to mak,s thg ¿ìssueÉltloÍI
thr:t it takes al,I ownensr-fsrners, farmland. speculators t al-ty land.tcrd.s ãns
cottegers alike..¿ecord.lng to their abf L1ty to pay starting from tiie presuErp-
{flt:.on that val.ue of ounersi:ip is a aritÐrlon ûf ability'bo þal, $o d.ces
nLso tlr.s Ed.ucationai tonamission assnrTrÐ'fsr the general tas:ation of ail
furaL mnt:laipetities of the Srovince for a oonsri.f d.ateå supplomentary funð
for   rur¿¿l. school-s.
             tha tsr;r rscoromând.ed by tirs EåucationaL Comm.isslon be stytad, ff
ironefieiaS. or onËrous in tho eyÐs of orthoclox esonorsists? ,4s far a,s Rural
''fanitoba  niIl reeclvo its monoyre wor'!h it wlII suroly be benefieial, ês-
oociaLLy in those parts of Rnral Ïåanitoba which wíIt at times, or for a
:srteln Length of tims tlerlve e prôportlonatel¡r greatstr bonofít than the
.ã,mo1lnt of thglr oontrlbution. .ås far ag tliose, wilo ever thiuk of ,rsoll-

Ittg" at a prioe roducsil by eapltalizod taxes, sor in e].L ta-:<ation sonething
           that tax v¡iIL osrtainlSl ba on.arouË. Å fortlorl the taxes for the
,Sìrnloipal Comnlssioner as seoured by the 'Ies Coqnission are abootuteX.y
)nê.röus. [ha [ex Commissisn ha.s nothlng to f,o wlth LoEal or munieipal
¡eods of any k1nil, but 'rsfnply taxes tho people glving nottring in return'r,
lut rtreilucing tho valus of proportyu. From the soolaS. aspoot of the natter
,l¡ö aPs not oonoerneat $l'th any suoh questfon of benofÍolal" or oneroüsr If

        scnoolii:g,   QTL::a   of   gooð, good. ros,d.s4cause ìu.rat içlanitoba
                                                                                    to p¡c3.r¿ce
  t¡o i¡l¿des '¡i:.gre onâ ÐilLy useè to .i'rü',.r, befor.e; Íf f cr i?te s¿,-Lo of sehooling
  3ood irea.Ith, a.nd. bi'eao. end. buîtet, ¿o?;1,3r ¡;¡QU,Ldd.rop tÌia lancl ¿¿nd. s,,ïell tiro
  e.LtV.population anrì its tabcr ur¿l.rrst or s;:eculative compatltion; if nì:etter
  farming't ',Tot¿Id be abla t,r of.f ;::' norê ettractiv,¡ einploynont at Ìïåges
 end sanltary roorain¿3 aail s. irrily sociel--noi nec,:ssarlly seni-urba:-¡--onvi-
 ronrnent; tire economic prod-uctivit"y of tire land iro¿rldbe raisecl- by far fiors
 [iran tha tsäos conngctoå v¡itÌi tiie proeesË v¿ol:ld. anrount to.
                                                                               "¿rre ue Eoing
 ;o seperais tha tasês which eovsr the "gstting of benofftsr frem thcse

 ;hich eovor tire adninistratÌon of tiie'gotting"? lossibty for the hooicireop:
 "flËr 'nut not for the m,¿rtter itself*
 ,      0f ti:.e L"l6 r*unicipelities in L?EL thsre 1,-rere 4 clties, gü tovrng, ZL
 ll ii-a#es; ic €n Eõ urÌran inco rltorat'e*" mu.nici:Ðaliti           Åt& to thes e the
                                                               -.s "
 lub-u.rT¡an ¡:o'b incorprratêd. coninturítiaso ¿$rs*? rì¿ra[ j,janif oba
                                                                                of the Semi_
 ¡rban also coqpgnåtios anrL get a lrral Hanitoï¡a relying oo ths econonåc
                                                                       _ v ù./ ¿.¡Þ   vt4   r,¡\J
 irodue tivity of ils !"and-sr not on miserallLe hu'cs aer
                                                                     on palatiat congtr*ê---
  Íons on tha farn" Figrro out tha total of units of v¿i,iue
                                                                                         of soe-
 rilomi'e prod-n'cti-,rity; figure
                                    oat the emounts roqulreú for g..tting the ben-
 ficiaL things of gisat imSrort anae enil u¡iùe soopð ancl- aLso the share to the

''cts budgot that nould be Justifiabls to bo oxpectsd. for tlre general
 lnistratioa of Rurat ivíanltobâ. i,dü the last two anil dlvid.e by the flrst*
.ou       urilL   soCIn   find" sut whethor and. ho¡,t fer.bha agriouLturaL lndustry as e,
,hole and' oommunities ancl lnctlvlduals tn part aaa+rdlng to the eeonomlo
 noðuctivlty of their l.ands ean bsar it op rotr
           tret ns attain inportant soclal ains by a taæatÍon'baseù or real êoo'-
nie facts           anÖ   ilreir rsLatlonsLlp.
           In our explanatlons of relatlve valuation                 ¡ue   pointod, out             thet lt   was
                                            _ | I J^

not a monetary valuation; consaquently ít is not ùopondlng on manlpuLations
olo Lancl" s¡:eeu-I*tion but on r: aI fa.e',;s not rn tra-r¡sitor changss but on moro
pet':nanent oonü"itions. SucÌr r,-'l¿rti"¿s val-ugs nusi' nêcgssårily 1:e iåore
et¿rble tiran any mOretary           valua'Iicn.uritsr ¡nogs oÍ' agríegf.tura.l
tr'ancts in this Srovince ;rhich suÍ'fsred a d.rop in monet ery príca or nrarket

,val-ue i¡ecauss the.Îty ad"minis'fratir¡n renovod. the Stati,rn agent a¡¡d..reåugeù
the statlon to a more naiting rooln; yêt the sconomie p::odrr-ctivÍty f¡.j.d. not
su.ffsr ln the Lsast, ágain hs ki:ows of lancls whioh r¡e¡rt up in price on
ls       ås âvefo The saso of the üi:¿:.Ltrarts farm qf 346 aores ti¡ken into

LÌrir limlts af tìro öity oc- Srandon wi'th the a¡rtíeipation of high rrrarket
¡¡'icês of la¡rd-'             tiien raleaserl    -uy
                        and.                                   to ós't out of that city   and.    joía
:h.+ Üorn'naÏ'Iis ruraL nunicipa3-åty             is   i'JelL know¡r./8/'¡tt" important pofnt
a'bout th'e   e&,s¡â   is tirat tir,s econo¡nic prod.aeti'rity of that         L¿¿n&   ciLd   not eha-
    naither by tirE s'p3eulative oxpeetaiion nor by the d.isappointarent.

'11 tÌrs ehang:a tirere '',îas oonçorned. the groat êJlûÐïrnt of talros ovsr                  {$fCI0û0
Luríns ths l':st ten yoars paid for ths sake of speculation and^ the rsl,isf
rf the high,os to abcut {iifsO 'par year wiien the d.lsappoLntnent brouglrt
'    Ths oasê of the'/pS. lluburban Conrnuniri-es may offer en onîanglod. pro-
 lsn* Tet orre pcint is clsar as far es we â,rs here eonserned.. 'rïhiLo
iarkot prÍcos of the agricuL'tural land.s ln thoss eonmunitles, fnany aores
Ìrould ltavo stayecl as ag|iaulturaL Lancl instgad. of bsing pareolloil for
Eulatlon), soarscl trlgh anû taxes t¡ent still highor the mills being kept
ciî, thon when tand priaos rsent itown ¿ncl taxos and mills ruent hig,h to meot
btigations gono lnto bgfore, the scononio prortuctivlty of ths agrlouLtural
an¿Is contgrned' folloïeecl its olîn corìfse¡ CItrr in nany casÐsf i'jss wretcheilly
f)See "FraB pl:ssÊ'f l,{arch p4, LgZ6.

 ûest royads
     In alt theso antl many o'tii:i'tas,3s the roLat1v,e valuation of agricuL-
'Laral lanüs âs explaineå in tlh. Ï ulr:.Iù have ron:ainad. anaffocteù.
        ûn tho othar Ìrand., shoul¿ ou-r inilu.strializing   Tn¿tùness   ler:d 'io d.efor-
 ostatitrn of        tr"acts of this provinco anà tha fear of sona tha"t lt

ri;ou1* cåff sct physicrrlly ti¿s nsigitboring agl'icultural Lands
                                                                   around the Laicss
i¡scone true, the rslative value of such }anûs ma,y bs raùtrasd on th¿¡,t aceoun
by nore tiran the social clsments may contribute to ths r:ising of the eaoÃAri
üüie prorluctivity of ihos+ lands" *tgain ths favorai:le sosial, elements
rßaybo transitorJ/ îîirila ths physieeS. d.amag+ nay ireoone p.+rmanent for rlsead.o
aftgr. ¿tire pool;Le about Sowsma.n Rivsr Ín ii-Lern. r[i<l not go that mad. a'oout
tho             thsre :rno.:yíng ìror',r ilig River, $r:,sk., end.erL aftor the d-eforos_
       saw mii.L*

'tat.icn* "iL3. the soæring'¡f lanf, pricos wil-l not profent the¡].etion
of tc¡¡ reletive valu.+ of tlie agricrrl.tural lanÕs e^ffecteiL.

                     of pricing ,l.a¡rd. ís by roat. l{oï,0 ront Bey gû l¿p or d.owno
       årlotÌ rlay
the rsl-ativo va3.u.e is alrnost inðependant of it unLess tha eirai¡¡nstances
affoating it a-ffeat tastingly econornis produotlvity of iire lancl. iîe knoir
t;i:,at Íf tenant ¡' kegps inereasing tho sconomic produ.ctivity of his J.ease&
farm, tho ownêr 0 asks for an sver Íncroasing rent thus snoroeehing upon
Its porsonaL eehÍovensnts elther ln prod.uoticn or cl-lsposa1 of the procluoes.
lhen tha aation of tne land,lord. 1s followeú by othorg around.. 'fhe rsLatlve
'¡aLuo of a cartaÍn Lanò woulcl not go up with Fts succoss CIF irith hls
iail"ure; lt rvoalö bs inðepenil.ont of rise anð falt of rent, ûf conpetttlon
betrryosn   n' and. othsr aonpotitors.
      lhus ths relative valuatlon of ogrlcultural land,s on' ¿l truLy scientlfic
rasls offsrs & mors oonstant guid,e for any d.lstríbutlon of bur¿sns of tax-
Itio¡r upon agricultural land.s than olther nerkat prioos of Lari,ls or rents.
                                      .--   r'; -

', singo eTary lenrl unii:i"is its orîn relatÍv,.) valaa judgod. on iis o,",jr'
morite ariel :iÊ not jurlgetl l¡;t ¿ìî/.3r:j,ã$s of a¿¿r.kst pricos of af ronts
                                                                                 of a
h'azerdous nirnber of se'leç üT L;asas ilr a coi;.¡rt
                                                           ¿/ ty inunícipality, sueh Fe-
l¡ti";e veri¿atign is rlcre reiiairls a,s to i¡irere a certeir¿ nr¡it of
     is to l:e ptacoå aironEl t-ìre L-s.trl¡:s of tira burd.ans of ts¡x¿r,iion
                                                                               of agri-
eulturaL land's than wiren jrrdgeù by soll.:ing vaL*sn
                                                              *{, system of rerarive
vaLrretion baseal on rala,-i;ivs economic val*os doss
                                                      not alior¡¡ unüer,valua.tlon
and biding of faats in a osrtaln ¡nuniaipality in
                                                      orcLer      tc   reùuce   its   share
of tire ganoral rÐsponsibÍtiby'wirllst it is possi'Ðla 1n the
                                                              asssssment sys-
terû to solling va,Lu,ss.
                                    _,1   j"-
       äxpi.anations:* Uneler 'rJe-xabIg Àssessnent" ths large a¡oount fs on real
Proporty, tho smalLor on Ðêr,sonal orooerty, llhe torm-ttraal pyoporty'¡ for
Sttu.pirrpóso of assessmantl in
                                   ^!l"a                       Informatión ,ieËpãäiing the-
Sfunicipalitiss in tho ?rovineo oi 'irste.'¿isiioal
                                         ì,i¿¡¡i''¿,rì:arr issued" b;f tiro Iú.C. in LgáÐ,
 ap¡:arently eovars as fslloxs: a) the r,såt,l ¿rroperty in the hamlets and. u¡r-
 incorlorato(t.v1Lt?gos, lands at futL valuo ãnù-buiidlngs a¡¿ótk¿oir valuei
onc3 for nunici;leii, 1"evy, ti:en fcr spociaL school Levy ãnÕ Last for lí.tlrs
 lgny" b) fa.rm buittllngs (residencol etc.), for i,I.ùtå lovy onfy, at-Z¿,-ai
tireir valus i a J farrn land.s at full vaLue for levies as uäder äj ;u* Ãs the
'arlter couLil not sooure any_d..ata eoncerning tbe somi-urba¡r real property,
the asssssnents per a,cre onq_14 braotion arÐ n-sçsssarlly hlgh sfncä-lñ nu¡a-
oroìls eãåses a semi-urban brrllðiag Lot plus the resiil.encs áre assêssed. as
 þigr, as'/çs of Lancl and often higher.**€ For thro så.ürs reeson
 tion of the taxes for rsai F-ropgriy-por_e,cro and. per S s¡ tsthe d.istribu-
 itieþ:    3he correctaess of the-totàI-elncl spooifisd- raies given in the "Éta-
 tlsties" is Ín many casos quosti.onabls. ine ratos in tirls tãUrã çrors
figurod out_from ths anorinfs. .frs farm bn1lùings are also assãssed. besirles
farm Land-s for the I¡f-C!s l?yy-thg_ averaga.t,ataL"tãx per *orã ;"ù ã seetion
ls to be eonsiiLer+rl as if it*is the resirlt of a aistiibution of **tot*L
tex on a contínuous arsa of lanri-plus all Þgild.ings on thenû. Ilowevorr Bê
lcnoa that sorno tax paying Land.s hãve no buildinge-at aL1" to lg¡,e as a't
instanct ìre may mentión the unusocl land.s in the"hands-of-tn"-Ë.È;r in ffie
faral tnuniaåpaLities ln Lg26r in ErlcicscLals 10400 aerê$; in gtànpbùrg--I6ö0
åsres;_14-la Broquerio 640 aeres; in,stBertburn t00SO aåres;-in ne $ala-
berry 1?q0 aers$; in IirtLs 7lo nóno*'r'**#_'Iho-figuring or ávårae,o-À*"u"ge
¡ror.rasiúent fan¡ne,r also effors somê d.iffleult/in sõnie casas. 'Ihs länds
of the $'s'3. (sot¿ierr$ settLament Soard) pár"no t**äs                   ã *old.ier
farmer be resid.ent' Tbe nunrber of resid.ent iarners-incfuaãs E""it farmers
but tiro nrmnber of ta.qablo acres cloos not lnoLuae ti,reir ].anf,s. -'ltrere rïere
#:19^3hs_unussil land.s ln g in 52 Broquerfo. S.S, l¡¡nås in-nricrs¿afe;
                                       quarters of                                -
þ-ä gualTors in*.KrsnzþPrg'-   19?6
up in L924? Ilhe EriteF has no inforúatfon about tút: of the¡n wãreriguräs
                                    La              Eom many --Ág;in,lñå tafsn
usecl for unusecl Lands ars of Lgz6 and. not of Lgz4.
     Conoernlng L,a            90000 aoros Bstre sutrrtrasted. from the tex pay-
lng^lands as thoss Qroqusrle,
                    form an eÉtato ancl. are not distri¡utã¡fã-r*oog.-tLJ-eõã"
resiilsnt farmersr
                                                                                                                                          r J.--

         , .l . i                       Ill.ustrat,ions of t¿¡xation. (fzq)
                               * ,
         lp.r.L                .. i                               ¡¡.Xt

                                              .x,t(ij       _                                                                                                                                                           :Rgð"Éflr)hrri                      t/    ( rlzú¡ ,,
                                  il  ¿u*rnont ij           [axes"                                                                                                                      M.c,s ,ra:c                     ¡,ïäîs ss¡,                     ,! ".¿t.J,e¿,L. -í-a=,. ¿L
         ia!f, i [axableÀeres j
                  - -ry           rlao" i                  ,                                                                                                                                                              Av.                           ...-!        ,t-'
         lË*i                                                                                   ;ås.                     i ?1, lotal                           ås.                     ¡¡"r¡rt.              l,"o       ,rä*åu¡1.1s,

           =!rc j
                                                                        i                       i

     iE"lü*956940'                                       .$r.oeoo"¡-ö¡             4P.                                       42.gE            40gg5.gc         45.Íi0 -âzlz.Tb                          -,ô,e,¿ r,-¿;43                                "/r. . i9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       /o;/ tr(,
     i¡d _                                                                                                                                                                                                                          "58                 ¿'!
     i#{                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               7'4,boo
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      .:-   ¿,-!. tÞt        .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       l3 2'îz
     rl                        iUo L4}OZ,\.r.rr¡¡ri                           r.....           r....rr,                  ,..i..¡         .o.rr...oo             ..o.t            r.¡-r....         .ê..o.               Ào-g4:            i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ,/'9 x,   3.7,

         'a                r
                           ¡       $-4668?O,             $r+ose .: -ãno4                       -486r24¡,BSr?5                                 99L00.ä6         40"?0                  -5û90.68                                                              //-      .8.                  / boô
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      .i.<t-¿-,L.i -                      4z40
    ,i   äi*
         t¡-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a-t¿.                       ¡' ot0
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              ar                                                                               :,r

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  .or.r.                3.c1,88,
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                                                         ôlu¿e.'rl-1. so                       -1¿-40.CIol.å1.06
                                                                                                                                                     "36 ng.a5                                         10.16 I,1LLtO 0                                      /¿f'.4.                      /¿ogo
                                                                                                            ii                                                                                                                                          ,":'1,,'t'r. ('.                    /éÒ
      $-,.'                                                         i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ríî 'D t
     tl).: Ao 2l15tj0
                                                   at    ai.a'rra            .a.aaaa          'aa+rartl             'f.arat.ra                                                                                                                              e/ ¡'(''tt                  / 1a//o
                                                                                                                                        taaaale          co   ....oaa       traoûoaaa             .r.rr.:Ácl-?5
    iÞ'                ;
    llr                        $øoooBeo,                 $a+aot. L,9.L2                       5L49.eOi                             58?S4. Ð0 61,                                                                                                       lt..5.                       raO/t
    l-o            .                                                    :ii                                                                                             Ð? ', -99EZ.rl} -3,äO ¡.'-3ãg                           i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ..,+c.r           L               /it4o
ld                                                                      .;l

                                                                                                                                                                                                   ,ll                                                                                 l¿foo
              r:               As      LE'ï2,66 e:i'. b¡-r't'¡               .'l'r'a.   ¡ l¡r a"f .aç,1 a....

                                                                                                                                   ¡ß   r!..1O.,o.a           ol-ora
                                                                                                                                                                                                  r;¡..o.                                              ,./¿'(."          r'i           ,1.3 /   20
fra                                                                     :1
                                                                                                                                                                           r,.aaa,ôara¡                                 ACä96
                               $rozlrao, $ote+0.,

                                                                            L6.Og',aåQÐoAAi 29.,1O

                                                                                                                                         89?4ti.68 ?L"45 i,LÊ69I..51                                                                T                   t./' . .J.
                                                                                          itl                                                                                                          -4,'2A ¡$-460            ;

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                                                                                          ,,i                                                                                                                                                           !CTH.                            ¿-ó I tt
                                       zOLOOO     rl'rl.'.'. . ¡         aalaa.               aaa.a,a-¡a             .rlaaar            rirre'¡.,¡.¡¡.        ......r      .¡irr.....o            ..r. ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      /r.-¿¡.¿                           ó 32.o

                                              -74 -
                         I   llust   rat ions_ o{ lros.snt   r!'¿xczt,''¿Lôrt   cf
                                     åS_ricultliral   ].,qndË.

       It    i:e intarosti:rg to illustrate our presant system of taxation
of agricuS.turaL Land.s Ily a fou instences fron tho year L924 I"e¿ whon mat-
ters havo bagun'to Look more iropoful in thls Provincer &s the year L92,5
nay be l-ookad upon as a, lov¡esi ¡nark year aftor the war Ò                          ,

                                                                                     i'F   731
     In spito of alL tho shortaomlngs of tho d.ata ln the tab'Le lt roay bo
accepted. as givlng a fair, though blurrod plcture of concl.itloas 1n gonoral
rogarðlng asssssmgnt aRü taxation¿
     The Erteksttale municipallty shoøed. in LgZâ an average assessmont of
taxablo land. of {ì6.42 par acre or 10¿?.ã6 por -å seatlon ancl a tas rats of
                                       in e-tudi ng
4?.!t6';Io   ar         ä section, all-nuniaipat taxos espocial schoðtr levy
                  43"50 per
 anå also tha Munj.clpa$ Coremlsslonorts levy of 3,441o". on1y one of lts
 sehools figurod among ths 18 sahooLs oLosoil ln the Intsrlaks District ån
 Lgal., :fhe fotlowing may throw sonro tight upon the oond.itions thers to-
 c!.ay. 0n July 2nd 1946, a eooresponctont of the Freo Press related. that
 g0il of the sottlsrs wou1d. Leave If they aould go, that cLozoas cf far¡oers
]ned hail no crops for fivo succssslvo years, that vaoant homosteaðs ï¡ere
solling $eOO to $;Oô in the looallty, [ho oorresponclont asked. v¡hettreil
tboy'as goocl sottlers anct goocl aitizens are lcorth savlng't. It ts a mat-
ter of 543 rosii!.ant fsrmors.
       0n July 10th, 19¿6, another corrsspond.ont of ths sane nunloipality,
tryiËtg to effaoe tho lmpresslon of tho former oorresponclent rather seeuel
to taciiiy corroborate the'rfow clrav¡baoks' of ths distrlot than to oontra-
d.1ot. Howsver, thers 1s one valuable hint ln the seconrl oorrssponcLence
ln favor of cattle raislng. üothing nsw¡ we havo known that befors, rlur-
ing anti after the Ea!:¡ but we l.eft that rounloipality and other munLclpal-
lties and. portions of the unorganizecl terrLtory struggle single-hanelecl,
starve or clesert, or being throwa off the farm. $45.50 nay not moan any
 tiring   ç¡hon   a   ÇLC00 fe"rnr   ls       but it rirrc.ns st¿:,rvation whon a,ip$g-
 0i500-faru asänË but mârÐLÍ a forcså haï]lta'ïlon" luring Lgz4 new ç3415
Ì?9r3 ¿:il"d.ed t'o tìre .srroars of -r,'â:i3s, ta:r saLas o:(ponsss not 1ncLud,ed.. ¡,et
us nenti-on in adrlition the Ðeberrturee of "p92B6g.,lL for good. road.s.
      Ànotiror installoo from tho fntar-Lake Crop Ðlstrict ls tha l(reuzburg
Sfunicipatity uitn g'l'î resl¿lont fermors. [ho averagê assassment per acre
Ea^s;¡3'0tr9 ana $+SO.P4 per * section of Lanct. 'Ihis necsssitatec1 as high
a rate ss 83"7'al'tro or 1p40.?O per r¿ seotion for aLL klnðs of taxos
speclal seaool lovy anil ]¡[.Cts levy of 6.6*i1r". ]Iearfy $ffOOO of arrear            ,

taxes rroro rocovered but the wf"iter canri tolL to what sales costs that
 rocovory    Led. uir,
      In                ifunlclpal.ity hað 6 or ,l sch.ooLs c1osscl, In Lg?,1
           Lg2'3 Kronzburgl
the ìlun. Commlssionar a-nnounoed. before ths 1".4.. tìrat Krautzburg had been
throun baek lnto uaorganiøed. terrltory.      If we only realiøo tha.t
Kre[zburg ìÍunioi;oality is not ari unorganizocl. but a: Èl.isorganiøeil terrltoryl
to-iLay. rhen it had. baen part of tiis unorganiøed" territory poÐple had set
great hopos in tÌro organization of a munlclpaLi.ty; and. noe, they are d,is-
     Last January a.ðolagatlon the reevo, aot¡tei.L and. other röprg-
sentatives of the Stuartburn Muniolpality, South Eastern ¡{anitoba, statecL
to tils Hunleipal                that sottLsrs withln their nruniclpallty had"
oxperlenoeil suocossivs crop failures and. thoy coulcl not finance the costs
of maintalning tholr mrnlcLpal organlzatlon, and. thsrefors they raquested,
that tire uunicipallty of stuartbura be illsorganizecl. Thls sounds so muoh
the saclder as lt involves the eslstsnoo of IILo resld.ont farmers. six
of their sohools tters olosed 1n Lg25, rn Lgp4 the land. was asssssoð at
{f1.50 per a,ere or qie+O por å seotlon. lhe sorew of texatlon hacL to go up
                                              - 7ú-
 to   lPLnOÜ;i.   to                    ¡er:lr soetion ia LgZ4 lncLuûing speciaL
                       a"-âragù ;'J:'1,,?l;
 scirool Levy ancl tha:'f,Cls Levy of LO,L1y/ro , Ðuring tire ysä,r rver
 L)1?00 of aYt,-;-;.r ta;Kos .roi'a al-so d.riven in; th.a statistics at tÌro.uriterrs
 d.isposaL do not Tev')al at sìrat cost anrS 'rlith i.lh¿rt resu.Lts.

       "To pess to anotheiltyi;e of cond.ltions: a sparoly sottlad. municipatlty-
onLy 202 resirl-gnt settLers uíîh one school closod. in Lg?,ö* get attracting
capitaL' iïe have al.rentl,y mentioned. (Seo Sart E Ctt. Ï tootnoto (4J about
the 90000 ãcrÐs arouncl i4archand. ownect by St. Pau]. capltal anct nogotiatlons
for the additlonal 6400 acres to be aequiroil, all to forn one ðairy entor-
prise. If alL the lanils bs Ín T,a Sroquarle }iunicipality, a,s tho writor
tirinirs to bs the c$,ss, that woulfl aoan a̡out '/t af the mnniclpality. rhe
writer has no pêrsonel knorzlodge of that part of tbe irovj.nse. Ilowover
 I?-L8 ysarÊ back ho had. been lnforaeû by ono who heô personal,
to tlre affset that 520 aoros to a ssttler with suffieient maans to go into
grazing, cattLo raisingn and milk dairylng couLd, support the man anit his
fa¡aily wei-l. There uas' in that manrs opirrion only ona d.iffieulty: went.:
of itrainå$êr He spoke in sitnllar torns of oortain parts of the Sprð.gu€.
It is intsresting nom to know the oondj.ilons of taxationt 1n that nunicip-
al1ty ln 1934. å.n acre of Lanit avoragoil. an asuassmont of lþã.Oös, brlnging
å seetion to $488.80. [he rate of a].L taxation, inclurling also speeial
solrool lovy antl tho I'{.crs J.evy of 4. Lffoo, was 6o.,lf/o" meking
                                                                       $gg.?o per
quarter. It may be worth noting thet ln Kronzburg with an asssssment of
4668'10, ancL in I,a Broquorio ulth an a,ssess¡nent of 415?60, the M.Crs
was $tr0g0.68 at a rato of 6"64o" 1n the former agalnst
                                                                6nzsln"urd. L.L1l/ao
rosp. in the Latter*
     Again, comparlng the M.Crs levy of la BroquorJ.e, nanely
                                                                 ölr¿g.40 at
a rate of 4.L5r,6o on aÌr assossmeat of ügfgrgO, wlth that of Stua¡tburn
namoty $SZZ+.0Ê at a rate of *.0. L6f[" on an assossment of 5L,|ZZí the chaos

of our systosr of assessmont   anð   of ta:cation, and tho ad¡oinistraîion of both
is exenpLifioC".
      The o.çla,nation lies not in discrimination, favoritisrn, o-r se$Leet on
tire part of the authoritios oonsârnod. brri in tha systom i'csslf ant 1n the
complication of its appllcation anú aðministratioa' the basis of assess-
ment is possibLy the si:nplost innaginabløl 'rrlhat d.o Êhey seLl a quarter in
tirat part of tiro couatry?'r T¡ith that as a basis ancl ln aüðition eonsitler-
ing advaata6os ancl clisad-vantoges of Loaation, ths quality of the soÍl, the
annual Senta} vaLue, anil sueh other oonslðoratj.ons as the tax eominission
nay dlreot, tire assêssor eomos to some oonclusion. Then, of oourset thsre
are other eoneiùeratíons posslble uhieh tha ?aæ toror¡ission ma¡r not direet,
for instaßcs: ln oso nunieipalÍty for the shirlring of too
high a lovy of the i[.C* ovsr-assessinent in another for the saks of kaeping
both the Land. price of high anö the ulLnate low. Again past yearst ass-
essaents holp along, andt the ooraing 1n of ttÐr¡l se'ttLars or tha leaving'of
olit onos or both are moclj.fyíng feators along wlth others ocoåslonal or per-
manent   a

      Ehe matter beoonss nore oomplíeatotl when the'l]ax Conroisslon   is rrto apt
Ð.s a boartl of oquattzatfon"\ho eqnalizo j-n a faln end oqultable manner tho
valuatlon ancl assessment of all proporty liabte to tasatÍon inthe geveral
nounloipalitiss in eaeh of the Juåioial distriets in the provinos; ancl as
botçoen Juitloial distrietsr'as roquiroct by the lax Corumissi.on Aot, 1940,
Sectlon 82, cl.auso n. Esre are La Broquerie ancl Stuartbllrlt Xøo aùioinlng
munloipalities, ancl I,a Broquerlo a¡¡tl. Kenzburg ons 1n tbs Mid.lðke Distrlot,
ths other Ín the south-os,stern dlstrict. 'vlhat is the mðaas of doxrparison
for that equatløatfont Is the'Iax Cornmisslon going to revorss the pollcy
of the Loca1 eounoÍI anð the assossment of the Looal assessor? [ho'll.C.
rnay moitlfy the assossment for ths pÌrf,posls of tho M.Cts lovy anrl let the
                                                          * t1a,3'-

  j?sí',?iietlrr'Ìü $::: î,.::l i-.¿:;ti     nïtilì.r.*iü::::t¡rrJ*,tn ..iï::.:',;:t;-1fl:.ltlic
           ji:.¡,lt nn¡ir 'r."i ï:;t i'ic-i.{¡" .'i}t i}ûrivãåc*î;i+n *:i J,ïit *,1;r;åi;*i:åocr än,i,
  :ldÐi¡"¡ i¿i::':¿.ia* j,t i* îl1J ti:¿"r;j'oIü. ,tæ¡; ;,:,u? j:ü:.i';.i,.1t3: *j üÐ ü¿ìfijr
 sf :}oìueL i¿:I}Jt1'+'"Jt oi:'ir o.*gr¡tliiLi:it,J u*lio+3 ?;qr*a:úo for r¡;*cìi-tl s+lio€ll
 3-':t';l* i.;1Ì }i.i'cìi ru:.rnåalp*.i.:'î;r; ili til¡ "r:uuåe¡å::rrl i:agncå!o .fü¿' '¿j:s å*v;r- S*r
 ntr¡. ågj.ilc.L 3¡u.l'1:tl{iiíJ; t} ti:.n JE**l i,}as:crJ.u*i,ùn f,3* ? jl+ ì,í.ql¡g 1+uyu
                                                                                                i.i+c,¡ oftgeì
 ilo;¡a i:9r.,fl';l:,+ coilpL*år:t t3¡ri{ Èii,r ntr¿tåcl;.;*å rJûïtq.xrdå }$ iîoîi:åri¡r¡ hi;t a üsI-
 l"s*tin¡q q3:ar:c;¡ 'Ê** ii;* g,;iroals *$d. ti¡e }i,qì".1
          ig åa *o'ç ii:.r pl,rmr il;¡tr$ "¿o #l:¡eLå rli¡ürì tii.l* E:stt"Tr i¡r sl*taJi"i iruÊ
 åä gi:seråil hg $ili.d tir*'e ei*l pu'riå* +iLu*r+tågn å¡r iï*ln.',ieibg str¿$çrÌ'Ð"s eaot*
 sfå*Æå *S Í'[ ],i]ï,]t" bsç:æ,t¡o ililåJ.íE5t-1¡3!,; *.$ ¿l¿rah *çiu¡ol esr¡*r*..å ,eg ]:o i::her]"å.;;
 d.*;:'o31s*l.3t   tì.llsÌl ?.og*,å fi#î-lrd.:üti? l:ltiî   ti:,..g i,.ttr¡:ågå;:,*äåtp ¡r*,1   tSrl   ¿re,.rvån*åpä,   gol-*
 *rrg¿"t+f}t $it{#}    å*    ;}.   ilFûî¡1nË .--i.$l:ilììi*ã Èr¡   åtn ,Tupiioeti #¿¡fi'ä f*g* the +ffåcåeårt;i
 $g ',lil;l 'r*agc'"tå+fi¡rä rx¿';3i:i$g :ì,n r':*et¿; #{t¡lüs #,är¿sÕ}.3.t1¡,rt.3.o:t pnovg¿t fto*eeF¡åì:;r
 $çt,rf :rEÏ.go¿lol tlisl-il å:: slo julritff,cs¡ïi,on toiAay fså' tl¿at te5¡år+S
                                                                                                 hr*û,y, çrg
bsng$      of   ste*oo*      1,,*¿1{,.1,r},Ër   rin åt utirøl;r
                                                            åfl il-re p*.ret *f,.Ðår:l* å,rsvårre$¡
å'A baeCIsù''Ís l,:i:* :;*nú Luce rtå¿t ÏrsEraÐn¿¡ r*tti¡ tira lü,¿re¿¡.tJ.*n¿¡l iiå*rtarg of
sP&vånêñ!?o ün ÊÌìu clì¡¡r¿* iraslå åf t*.¡ fu:4 6å fiiry*I" î,-:;i¿ËÍ?r¡l:*,:*n Ër¡ s¡rtlty gît
pn+l:+*tråê lv+tråü b+'*bl"a* lry naana ol3 TirCI r*å¿ri'f"ve ve¡hrp¡üåsr¡ bæclod,
                                                                                             sf,i rô*
å¿rtlva         pi'celuo'tåvlty of, tis.* L,*-relu, tg ss-ordår¡;*t* tlre tct,,*,tåon of,

tho ååffsl's$t manåeåixrlåtles e&d e¿¡,,&È tìrø +aspa¡rctåtr¡-ros äIrr*n Rs$ðs af r:íüa
üoclp.s wlthe-i¿t o:rgwuårg ony                 p*r't of      ou¿n    soslel     horlp   to guffs¡' ån a Ëårg1o*
h*rr¿T¿   {3 Otyug:g3.eo
          'ãÞlü Ër"ufo}.åsË* msstçgl 69 tçæetåon                      for      $*Êtsnrï   uduse¿¡å      of e**h
groat fl*Èåo¡rn$ lnr¡lortrulÕs *3€!F bo rooågÊårll#r bes$* ån ç¿slÌ, to åo
l¡u€ 5't åe ÊÍ¿"TlEirå*g ån peoånrlr åiatråot** iìüe åri
                                                          Jrætåeo ts our trefgrxa-us
g$ûtan l^,t m¡rst b,s sæåô tiiq¡t Êi¡te                  le   ilgï; ths esnr*a trt¡t         ,3t¡e¡t   tile   oompl.etLor¡
of th'Ð ogå¡. ån co¡rgÍ'rtsrr¡þlr¡ ¡lot'tåons of                      tFrÍe åisüvånsg,r ,åho sr,åt l:øs na
                                                                                                                        .{rÈTtsûTF #S
   ççr¡ s*üäé: ÃÞ ür¡T}êüftne¡q                   TJ pr¡rs g1ËËq            lnçþoe î? BE¡q îrüTlËrsîts sç           rusgeËn     Ë     î.:o1t6
       s8r¡$06q AaE sî$e rffir{4 Girffi                    ug   s,tguTlFT¡T Têr?t}?Tnoï.rft *nO               dltr¡ FTtl€O ffi
   *rrrm- Eå-r--+i-Fãã"f           'ãffiTffi $T sf)usï
                                                       lrertraÏÊsg.r$r+                      #r{+ Jir HsJÀ-çre'î,j:6õ'd? pTrfis$sÐs
       9Àl+f4ïÉå*i         Fr{1    uâpsfi*qri$T+æffil.Feu:e¿æÉegï{BTAt¡oTlÐt¡ütt¡êÐü¡Tffi
            TE?-mH     Ë sr?q$     ÊåGTTtq        #tm*ç;l       {Ì6:ût} ú}di     l.üq Éçeoeffird çr;      ffr¡-rl &Tç*î.iss s¡{ff,
                                                                                      tê4s   roÐ&ç nçlqcp ,r'a*l ¿î'üd r3ler; e$.
       $ßÞet1çå,                 *BTr}å ê& [rogEr,rl]çr*'*g;rF¡F
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  *sÊ1$¡ iîTÐ'riå
                         #Ð $sîåÍ?gî:m.i'*r*pis               rïõ Èrûs ðTqTouoqïeg* &F*H bq far¡s ilî,.*                             ¿ËiúT
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      t''*,qlq q.Élîíßt     #iïrrfffië *Bßr.{¡          "rs$ Elfi''${iilfr{Tme.r dg{,;T$r¡Þ üËRifi *g eï#{}od or¡¿ uæg
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  -{æåTE                                  Úl*olt+1ää.Ë#
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  älçE:l #3 SXSr{iétxûTî.ï.$fi *Têli#, Éîç fJrJfrT++sûËfçF e,îiå'{# t{ **.ry11*."".tmg*Tú[]utio +riri
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  *R"Til* €'i.iê t4 gç figËt¡sBoïsJTs.iÞ {ï înp*Îrg$e åcG:;å #Ð $}.i.:îcii ÊÊì;iïí+ r.iÐîìUË.r¿ 6+
    È¿uJslî8. iut ö* *itiiÌTÏ;3.icrî cq ft;;:; ?.T l.i;            enuçiiscliSnr l.:r,i:::'r:ru ,ttji l:+Iürìrè1Ê
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      ËûIift:.f).).i tTr.í? f,'Ë¿)ií?,r1ff qt)'iri:,          ;-t   É';€ítî*ì{:rt¡i:ç{Jr¡c* €'îll r;{ij: tcT iî.}s:i}i:1ri tscilrl't-i:i':
      feì :¿lrjü:üTi?riG .îf            $i:;Gì:iÇ;Í,! { Til1ßî.,c{i.o-.1{.:.;.;r:   B*i'r:'1.iuc'ï[]{;riìt Gi:':- î.t,Ìîr.: çT) ü:l Êi:çìT
                                                                            ^   br'
      Åftor the ebov:l J)-igrsÉi;:icn ils como back'co oirr illusiratíons of ta:r-
ation, '.!a ara going to tÌre Ðe õalai¡srry liunicipallty.:,. lhis
arlnici,oaLiiy aith Ðufrost as a centsr {59 mi, ii. of r,Tinnipog) end. the
eo,L¡rtries borili¡ring on it lronadiatei.y to the north, around illvErvilloo and.
to tire south" arounil;lrnaucl, in the 3eå iìlver l)istriet, os the ltr¡+rsoYr
ünPol. lino, s&ït in tiis soÐ, of Lg3,*-2,6 6reat ohanges of ownqr"hii atld..
great infLu:c of peoplo on to tiie land., 4L famlLies for Ðufrost alone, wi'Lb-
in raùlus of 6 mi" 'lhe proaoss ls. generalLy as foLlorss. trlnvestorsrr anð
lanct tompanios from aöross thg bounùary-Minnesota, Ioua, êter-buy larga
tractsltnoosroa* anð ten ttlousrnosþcres of tanil on this slcle an& se].] than
att'ractlvo farrrrs to seektng farmors. fn L9ã,4 there ì¿îero 1n the Ðe saLa-
berry lflunlcíp+tity only 559 rssÍclent farmers with an ev',3rage of 596 acres
of taxable l"anð en eaah farrner, but' in this municipatity alono sone Ë51P0

texabla ¿:crss rçsro usü.sed. anËL all brrt about LAL aot'es 1n the hanûs of abs-
ontsðs ia 19e6. lhe Bunieipality and the Dominåon had. botween them soËe
5O0O   acr6s and. the S.S,B* hed. mohs.
       llor'¿ what uors the sonditions cf taxationþ?   lhe   assegsment por asrÐ
 avoragod. çlto.1å nakíng ¡:. å sectron $51+9.P0.   ¿s the rate of the totaL of
 aLl- taxef¡ was L9.íü%,oftho taxsË psr å anounted to Ë6L.5?.lnelu.,ling tho spo-
oíal ¡choot tax and. the 1[.Crs Levy. lho rats of the M.trs levy wes 5.\Afi,
naklng a levy ot q$OOee: ?0 for the wb.ole De Salaborry Uu.nlolpallty; that 1s
at a somewhat louer rate than half that for Krettzbatg anet a levy somei'¡hat
ovsr three tlmos XIÉU that in ths lattqr ¡slth a llttle lovler taxable acr.oa€]t
of an asssssment per aere of '/ó of that ln the formsr.
       Oa furthor oomparison we flntL that of the taxabLe aeroage 1n the Kret{z-

#burg nrunlclpality only 1I9e0 aoros r0orê in L9?6 unuseil anð ?68O of them
(1noLuû1ng 1600 of I{.B.C. } 1n the hanels of abssntees, lhe srltor ventures
the guess-*ot e sclentlflo mothort-that a oonsLd.erable part of the taxils on
thoso unuseil lanËLs nay bê or w11!. be wrltten offas rclublous rlebtsn. gtr
                                                 - 8/'-

  the othor Ìrend'¡a are iiuite safe to erpoct that tÌ:e Ða SaLabêrry munioip-
  aLity can pLedgo t;ro texss on titø 25Lza acrss of un'.¿sad tand.s r'¿tthin 1ts
  bord'ors' rhe 5ä quartors of s"s"3" in Kreuzbu-r:g rror.ô subtracted. fron
  lraylng thoir         sr,rareo
         l{oiv   nirile in Kronzburg tho        qf8g?89.46     srrâar taxss of   LgzS çrero r.eclueed.
  to   ',ì'1LB'¿5.L?,   io€}. by about   .,$t'iOoO   in
                                                     the Ðe Salaberry nunielpalliy
 recluced for s$ne d-ates fron 63'1ti5.67 to 5ag24.o5 inê, only by
       '?rom arl tlris l'¿e Gaft plerini.y see th¿¿t uhite tho taxes aaay not bs the,
 origin'al caueo of the d.igorganl¡ation of Krevtzburgo but und.or tho givon,
 aond'itions that ì,'IunloipaLiiy with its g?? farners eouj.ct not keep
 to sava it¡ vrhira Ðo lJa1al¡arry Eith its only 3i59 faruers found their
 number  benefleial as t''axes for about Ê5000 acrÐs
                                                      ',ïÐrs sure to eomfl in froa
 outslde. It is aot paractoxal..
       Hollever, es nai¡ ask: '€hat right trls 339 reslelent farmers
                                                                      of Ðo saLa-
 borry havo to tho monles eora-ing from ths ¿3000 &ores that thoso
                                                                       sf Krer,u-
 lrurg shoulit not ]ravo? IÏero ara 359 farraçrs with ãg6
                                                                          aeres eueh in ths
Broiluctivo 1'â" Ðistrict.    lhere are alnost threo times as nanJ¡ f,armers
ssith less than half that numbsr of acros each of ress productive
                                                                         la.rd.                  :"
lhat moans that by the numbor of aores and. quali.ty of rand.
                                                                  omneù by resi-
d'ent farnors tho Ðs sa!'absrry rnunloipai.lty
                                               stxould. alroarly be tïûice bottsr
off than tho Kronzburg sÍunlolpatity ?rith a threefolfl population¿
                                                                            11, tirere
was a llural Manltoba enttty wlth s, oons.oliÕatsd.
                                                     fund. for the satlsfaotion
of its nost lnportant soolal ancl sooio-oootrogrLoal, nee¿s thsre
                                                                     rmoulil, bs no
nseil of disorganizing ona munioipallty arlowtng
                                                     anothor to ctevelop a Lazy
       Anothor     $unioipality    we havs shosen 1s Blrttèfru*J)+t itefsrs          in   more
than one respeet but illustrat€s- ln ths opinion
                                                   of ths rqrltsr nore thrlft,
hlgher organlzation, ln sptte of lts ¿trawbaeks,when
                                                     oompared wlth De sala-
berry Munlolpality. By topography andr. sorr.,
                                                by artltud.s anil ratituûe

  {gOo   to   1000 ft.
                     higiror and ily about 10 lat" furtber north) , b,¡ ebout one
  "¡eeii Later frosts in spring and s¿¡rl-ior. frosts in fall , ity iis greaier. d.j_s-
  tances fton first cLass nrarket cenires anú fron tire iroundary, the former
  is at a d.isad.vantage --izhen ooiû}r:.ret witir -¡;hs l.¿¡.ttern it had 46O residant.
  fermers in L9'¿4 witi:. äbout 425 å.cres on an evorage per farmer, i,o. about
  Ê? aeres mors than thosa     of    $alaberr$"' Howevsrr aot in the numbor but
    in tho proper use of those asres and. 1n tho general spirlt and. nsthod.s of
   going etrtsr their business lies the success of, the Blrtle farmers.
   i,Thilst }s Salaberry has (tg¿g) e¿ggO unused. asres in hand.s of abssntees
   and. 1040 in Ìrand.s of loceL pooptenBirtle (Rurat) has only b6g0 unused^ aetros
   in hantls of al¡sentoss anct 640 in hantls of loea]. pooplo; that means that
   the farryç oi" BlrtLo gei; a far smalLer aontributlon frora outsiðs to the
  'total of its taxes. îhere ls no mors reason uhy thoy sbould, ¡'ecoive ovon
  that Littla than wh;r thoss of Ðe ËaLaberry shoulcl roceive that mr¡,ch es
  tìrey clo. Yat, here we wfsh to ind.ioate another point.
         Ths farmers of 3irt1e evid.ently orqe their suacess to themse1ves to a
 greater d-egreå than thoss of Ðe SaLaberuy do to their own splrit and of¡*
Ti'Gisnoy. d.ccord'lng to the rsLative valuation of rolative eoonomlc proä.-
ductivity an avsrags aoret at 3Írtle a lowor a,vârage tax for a
 eertain purpose, f" rnst. for levy, than an averago aorê of Ðo sal,a-
 berry. The ftguFos resulting in thls caso aro; Birtte L2,6gL.g1*201000=
 63tup   , De sat aberry g9pp. 7o?L5tz6æ é;la7,r-p ,   T{e   know (See erplanatfons
 to table) ttrat speatclng ag lts do hone r of avorago aore andl a-yera€:e
                                                                              .per aere
 is qult€r ooerse, yet the tllfferenoo of.00Hbfper eore is Éetgo?¡ onough to
 justlfy our conçlusion that. the,.relatíve vul,.afíoï ff rds h.ere na u(prlessioyt.
      Eowevsr oonsiderlng     the two assêssrrents (of land anû bulLrllngs on     tÞe
farms plus those of solsglrth ln Birtle Rural, anct lantt aarl buj.lcllngs on
tho farus plus thoso of Dufrost ln De salaberry) the respective ratee

 ths l,;i,Cts Lovy a,?a 4,I,'' anð, Z,.5,ii  o Ás tiro rlifference is oonsiùerab]-a
 1t ma.y safoly ba tek¡n as &n inilex of d.irectlon sho',ring that in tìris par-
 ticuLar câ{ls tÌrere is a d.i.soond. betr¡e,,rn the assessment and ia^sation from
 ¡runicipalitl to munieipality and. fron juf,lcíal d.is1¡'ict to ju¿ioiaJ.
  rict on one irand- and tho'evid.en'c raLative values by the rei.ative oeonomic
 prod-uctivlty ön the othero lo rrso a nruch abHsed. r¡¡orc!. fls;tray say that,
 lli:'ils in fact tsirtLe is 'ûVor ls4sù according to the nature of their
 natural econoni'o conctitions, to alt appêã¿ranr,e they sssm to be penallzed,
 for their suecoss acoorrting to tire assessmont by solling valuos.
         Thether i-t Ls a shaotia systoul or a s¡røi.esratlsed chans ons thing 6ûarss
 out eLear of thase illustratlons: thai our systorn as it ls is not lrasect
on facts anil ratios betwoen aotually oxisting anrl oomparable na¿;nituclos
but on fiation and. acciilencer

     îfe oannot a,loss thÍs part witilout mentioning tho S.S.B. J.aads as to
thsir taxation*
       :l   good' meny    quarters hadl been taxabLe before thsy passocl the
s'S'B.               of
                 tlrose were not brlnging the expecte& ta¡(ss aå,d..¡¡ould" have
been ooming on the slauglrter-Iist. Soma of ihe Lanüs rroro simBly not
worth bothoring ulth. 0thers, howevor, ïusrs econonLeal.Iy sound. anct a roal
assot to $.Ð' as i,rsll ås to uunialpallty. In sons oasos the egtablishad.
soLdisrs on Land prevlously honestsaclerl by others ttroppert the !-anùs for the
sa¡0e ro&sons as the honesteaders hail (lono befors thamr yet,
                                                                  the olvilian
honostsacl'srs, thetrue soldlors of the ooil, haå been prossert for taxos
anð ofton palcl then, too; but tho passing of that lanA uniler tire
an¿tthsn to a soJ.üier of the front brought no taxes: the neg*ounêrr uncl.or
the proteotion of ths s.s.B. bece¡ûo a burcl.on to the aomrnunlty. ,Io a munl-
etpallty 11Êo Erloksdals ã2 suoh br¡ntlens are surory little enooureging.
rn nnany Gas6s sueh burûens uncler the protootlve wings of tho s.$r3. E€rre
placerl on bought lanils.   In   '3 oui   of          t,re ostablished soliLler
                                               tQ,h ç¿*o*
bec¿,ne a bu-rd.en to hinnself and uas orushad undsr his oün 'Ihe roa-
son is not far to seex: tha price of the lanå ilas not justifiod.           'fhe

community lost a sc'¿nrl tax-peyer aad. got a burðsn, or is waiting to get a
burd.en, Tho dsr,¡and. for revalr4ation Ênd" the insistancs of the l,Iunicipalitle
for eonsiùeration is lot¿rl enough as a resulto 'ihis is, ho'Hevsr, aftor aLi.
a tenporary d.ifficuttyr r?e ars up against¡ ..\. sounð SuraL l,fanitoba aith
a sound systen of taxati.on wouicl havo hard.i.y felt it.
                                    I <:-


                     Conesrning Inprovomcrnt s.
       Ïire inprovements connoctaú wiih ths farm may bo f,iviùed. into four
 groilps: the first group ooncorns pêrsonal eonfortrthe other threo ¿re òf
 ¿j,s   econonie charactsr.
        a) lersonal tomfo-r!; ütnsLling houson vegetablo ¡çarclon, otc,;
      b) ¡lr.rxiLþr¿ i.nrrovggs3tsi. barns, nilk room, f enoss, etc.;
             'Is,mpo-rar"Y soil.
       .c)                       inproveqent; subsoil eultivation, manuring, eto.;
        ü) Pernanent soiL inpro-uemsnt: breajringn tlraínage, s.,ue.
         '-ilhoro is no sharp Llnit of d.ivision¡ .å. wei.L nay be for ;rersonaL
confort, or auxiS.iary tc cattLo raising ancl ¡nílk roorr¡r but it may a!.so be
both fsi' horlsahoLd" anû ar¡siliary io farniùng. Subsoil, cultivation may
Ittà',¡s a teraporÐry or a Lasting ofe*eat. a d.iteh nay inprovs the gariLen

as '¡eLl â-s tlro noighboring fielcl.          In spito of aLL that the division may
bs oonsld.ereù welt found.ecl for our consicLorations.
         1?q ar5 Soing to conslder tiiose improvou,snts from th.e stanèr¡oint
ts-r¿t ioa.
       r) Improvenents fo:' porsonaL oornfort¡
          SuiLd'lngs wiLl not aany with nor improva the econoroie proiLuetlvt.tÍ
          of thg lend. uith whleh'wo are primariLy eonoernerl.
          À dwelling houso as lt satísfios or sìrrpassos tha e,ctual noeû.,
          4ay show ablllty to pay whieh nay be reðuced. as the faarily iner-
          oaseÊ* 'Ihe laad. thougih on wh.ieh the house is may bo taken along
          with The lancl.
Å vbgetabLe gard-on nay bo larger than aotual nosô ruouldl roquire and. bs an
oetra souree of income. At tho tiue by ohanging the parael svery
year or overy two ysars it improves the fleLdl husbaattry to some extent.
'rhus lts üey agafn Judge whether the garcLon bolongs to th,¡
                                                               satlsfactlo¿ of
an actuaL porsonal noetl or not, ln othor worcls whether lt shoulð be inolueted
                                       -'g (, -
  in tìre Lancl at ltlrgig ûr ¿s ð, sorire(: of          e:rt'r¿r,   inco¡¡s   and.   so it¡prtln¿in$ tìrs
  abiiii,; to iray.
         {' ir'rÌt"go -fot'T.:ôi}rso,i;l r:.utontbils
         iL ó úÀ  .r4                                             is ag'iitr: ¿irio¡¡ol:!le itsel-f J.
  ': *¡r ¡'î I'ir'ì !if, y lÐ l?¿tJr t li,a i¡:l'icì. L;;Ì:. on ';¡i:.ich it is st ern, ne-y bo

  t.i.son aiotrg'litìr tìre 1i¿8ri"
          ,i.';isii is ån i¡,'l:soluto neoassitJ toi'an.-'l ilr?me-n belng s,ndr fiitoilt"d by
  :'Io ïûril.ils b+ i,a:ced llrcq,-;h ii nay inciås¡ri*l-Iy seryo for other purposÊ€i than
  di"inliing ard. Ìrousoho ldL.
         lÍ i;reae tÌrings ara 1n a rur*l ,not selri-urban/viLLage whicli serves
  å.s a sociaL centrn: for cutti.v¿-".|9.î*û1,,IitÊIiJ of tiro sui,rounding la,nås
   tl:ele siro:;l'1 bo tl:satotl ss if ti:e f.iu-r,J., ü,oofr'".;hioh i;itoy arÊJ,1î{}¡'e pårî
   o-f iirã i.a.nd far¡nsån If the;7 aro nct connec'tsû s¡ltii eJt$ tanc. hl¡.sbandry
   ti:ey åre not r\o bs coasicl'rred" es p¿rrt of süah end- shoui-d be jrr-dgert índ.iv*
   idually as ihe easð nay ilesofvçãr
 bi +Es+-ii+4'-,g, improvar¡oniqr ln a goorl nany iãsr,ys these nery show ther alrltitg
  to pa-y. tire Lanü on whieh i;Ìrey bì:.1ït är€ part +f th.e lancl es a whole
  Srine.riLy though ar¡x1LÍary impnovemCInis errr a Bacsssary cÐerp!-ament of çeo
         ' aecard.lng to ths hlnd. of husbonitr¡, ea'itle raísing, 6tso
  fo tirs auailiany improveme¡¡ts uoulil also belong ðwollings for han¿s on
  ths farra¡ aLso the portion of tand. ellotted to then for thotr use. Slho
  Land shonlil" be lnel,uclert within tho land as a uhoro,
o) ?emporary soil. lmproveroent: sacir Lnaprovemeåts eannot al.ilays be inus.e,å-
iatel"y shown¡ fiIaY lead- to evaslonlft,isinfot'rÂation an¿ Litigation. aj.though
tire man with ablt'ity to pay 1s abl.srto ðo that than the nar wlthout
abil'lty¡ antt altlrough onors ab1l1ty to pay io, by suoh inprovernent, lnorea-
  sod' by øbtainlng better crops, the ta¡ratLon of suoh tenporary soi3. imprctv-
omsnt 1s   not     edlvLsabLe.
d.) Permanent      soil   inprovsrûent:
         Soí1 ouLtlvatlon as roqnlreð by the farnlng lnd.ustry, if salentlflo,,.
   alLy carried' out, Ís not mÐrê Lï a ì<eeping of the Lanå in fertil,1ty, but
   its sieaúy im;oro';inE in its-.physical-,chernic;r,l and" nriorcbioLogical properti+
   Y:rt* Ès tlr-¿r'i is supposed. tc be ulcng yeer aiter yÕar, season a^ftsr ssason!
   ii::i:+li3inF' v.T)(rn ths s;rsten of aç;rj-culture and the trse of the land in tha.t
   s;7õtêìlr andn furt í,zr, as that d.epends so much an tho knoirledger'efficiâncy,
  ¿;ncì lle.lits of t3:.e culii'¡aio i'-må,ns.gsr, !r$ seLdom h-og,r that e11Ltir,,atiorl4ecatt"sA

  b; tì:o naix'9 o'¡" "itnpi'cvoliejlt'" tìhe're is r¿noilrgr rgason r;lhy ve d-o nci spd.ak
  of it as sn:!.nnprovorr¡ent, nurasly j:ecause it, is onL;¡ graeì.u+l ancl oiiee lrot
  sÔ apparentn or boceuse of its tenpor¿ìfy char¿rctel. if nogl-ected. a ysar or
  t:îo. lr*ns¿rctions of sels lrill ,¿:ål{e those ecnciitj.cns into eonsid.sraLiOn;
  ¿'rssrsõors çiiL lilieLy not negLec'c t-h,am. r:ltogerhor; yet'fhej¡ aill not be
  spoksn of aG improvg¡au'nts ï¡ut ¿)s soil ernf,itlonsr
           'lhat ars tiren pern¿r,nent soir Ínrprovorienis? ,rhgy aro such as to ea&s"ô
  a' raaicaL ehange of cond'itions anå malc,ç a eÐrtain uso of the Larrd" possibl"e.
 o!'oar'åi:g cff a:=¡oco stand frora a i:arcol of land. is only then
                                                                              an inprovonrent
 wiren t.r¡;¡oiL is suitabte for agricuLtur'.o after having beon
                                                                             cLearo¿e the
 'kintl of agriculture to ho d.etsrnineù b.z tho natur+ of îhe soiL and. other
 condíticns' If the soii. is not ag.::iaritturalT.y suitable then not oat"y is
 cLoaring not an improvomont but of wasting üf land..
          Ðrafnagc of soae klncl in to Low,sr the r¡at+r Lever ovor parcoL
 of land^ frorn ths surfaci¡ to say åo"below the surfacs 1¡¡ orrler to obtain
 a Proper growth of nütriti.vs greì,ss.)s for hay or pasture is en iuprovonrrlti             ',

 a fui'than lorolering of levol r¡iLL bo a further lmprovonsnt if tha
                                                                                    soi.l ü,ilL
than be rnad's sultabrs foi'growth of agriculturaL plarrts on
satisfaetory eond"itÍons. rf that be not the case we tvasts the
                                                                                  flrst in-
provament lf irs try the second.
         lÍaturatty laprove¡ronts roqairo car6r a cultivated. land. nay get
lnfsstod' wíth westls that ws bo foroeet to iuprove it
                                                                  riñorro rt nay after
some yoars of nogrect get a $rowth of bush enð
                                                            sorub that ney ¡.equlre

ele*"ring. Á d.rain rûaJi bo fillsd by vlasto ûirt and former cond,itlons of
.rratsr l.:vel rosto?ido Yet tha.t spocial" earÐ that improvemsnts reqniro
belon:3r to tl:;: rè1--lLrlilí i-loÍ'lc yeåt' by y+ar, sêascn afte'r ssaso$ a,nrl t!:.oir'3ir
t.':.:::t c.Ìit';r has an ecüuflnL::i'tive efi'act in firrther improving the land^ ',"'ie eon-
siû.,rr cilIy t:re Si'at,,' úr cOnûit'ion cf .¡it¿ l¿lnð just as i.n t,he tÈ-ßa 0f so¿L
      .!Ilr.:is d.o such inpror-eãrents ccilis in cÐÍrcerûinã taxai:Lon? tr'irst of a,LL
 t¡o musi notias tÌlai such ini:i:orleaents aro not nsrs outsi{e $1¡3ns of abiLity
 'co ÞaJ, thoy are ¡rot mr*::ely au-siliary in the asr.iúuliural inrì.usiry, es fa.r'
 âs the uso of lanci is concernecl. i'he;'r si¡iply givo the J.e.nù ns",r eccnortrísai.
 possibilitias anri eantt be Í]spû.rÉùteù fro¡ir Í'i, t¡n taxing land. r¡aLuos thera
 &,Po ti:¡o'rrâys possibte in d"*rr.ling rqith agricultri-rai !,encts aapublo of impir.ö-

 ve¡nents" One irtay ís te:<íng it on çhat its Frarke'i .¡r¿Lrr.o oì" prico
 is in the trni.Elp¿'ovad co¡:.ciítion; wiren inrprovomont is marlo EÌnð thereforo its
 v¿l,lue 1s increased. it is taseil'on the novú value. gnother wag is to figri.r"e
 out uhat the land. çrould. t¡s trJortir if it r'¡sre inaprovecL; subtraot then the .i
possÍble ooet of improving it; tax ihe clifforonee. tvtðontly the soecnd
mothod. will glvo a iri"gher assâssrûent, becauee¡ the value of the improverl
 lancl is LiÌ<ely to riss by more than tho cost of inprovoment, iYhil"st it
ls true that'ths iuprovenrent maås only possfbLe tha.t the land should. eona
to its trus protluotive valrre rniricÌr was in lt in a latent stater so to spoako
bsfore being inrproverl, it ls nsverihoJ.ass truo that the possiblo rslative
eoonouic proùuativity as it ls at the tims of c¿sssssment eå,n bo fiEur.ed. on
as a positlvo quantlty' ìühen tirai¡ the oul"tivator-owner flnrts it to hls
aùvantago to brlng about that improvomant, end. he el.oas improve his laað by
it aftsr havfng givea fliro notlas of his Lnteatlon Ð,nd reeoÍved. the aoe6ssary
tech¡rlcaL aonsid"eretfon ancl, snsourug'enrnt ancL approvA.l 1f sueh be nscqsss,ry
by tho naturs of tho pLannsrl. fmprovemont, the lancl may be ã,ssossecl â,t tts
                                     _ j.-,
 nel¡ rei-:rtivo .gtonorilic "¡elu-e tl:o Lr,¡ìr, jl¡t a natter of enccìr.râdomånt , it nay
 noî h: t:::<o,J. ìi:l1lir+:r than "¡o:fo::.: f¡I J.litl 7iric'fo cofiåo
          lhilî: '.:ln iailrc-¡?n'iåt '.:oii13. b+ i;, golieclivo ïo'f.i( for r¡oi-g -!;it¿:11 onù Ðro*
 p:'*ty, e'ii,2:tJ ons j.rji:o;lert;, ,¡OLIl-d. in naitsrs CIf 'l¿¿*ratj.on st:Lll ho trea'ç.oi[
 es bcfor+ :',¡ith tre ¡r¡r,tür.el î,g th.¡t an arl.eqrrate sjiaro ef the
                     b*o paicl by tiio oiriri.s: rcecrding'to tire nwobof of ¿ìtres improved-
by ths colleetf ie r¡ioflî,
         l'¡h¡,it if th+ rel¿ti-r'¡ ùeonoinic ¡rrod.r-tctir¡ity of É pareeL of lanil is
hi$'her tì'iur rìÐctssary fcr ti:e ";sa put to? It is the uË€r.ts loss a¡rd the
tocirnicel- ¡ritLvi"s,-lrs of Ìirret.lIsnitoba sh,orrLd ad.visr¡ tire usor ebourt it.
lhe tezes go T:;r what t?r¡ Lancl :Ls rel"¿iivcty uortn"
         Tt naturaLl"y foLlo'.çs tirat¡ es a uattsr of sociaL Gû-opsys,tion of the
tæl pe;le:rs of lur¿I låeao, watcir r¡ill bs kapt as to the d.eterioration of
the Ls.nû" to thet extent as to cailss an avld.ent s}:ifting of texation
on to ottiers end. uright al-so causr? h¿rm to the prod.uatlvity of othor lanils.
                         ìliore *bout tì:ís in the no:ct clrapter.

      'Ihore irapro'loinents cf the .re3.ative eco¡roaic proåuctivitf porrsfb&a
sÏ¡ieh at+ naf ccnnecteü v¡:t?h la.nd- inprovomonL but ï¡hieh nay force a c¡ange
of clirøctÍou ín our farming husban¿lry not onJ.y private but of t]ie whoLs
cornmunity. Iiuch in¡lrovenronts ¿¿rtr of a social nature ü.ue to social forcos
wÍth oiltulthout our ct-opor;.itiÒn. 'Io i*Ks an inst¿Lncs of ManitoUt;oast.
If ths original plan for the L:.y cutof CanadatE¡ firet tr¡ìnseontinontal
would hævs been fo1lowod., the LittLe town of Selhirk of to-ûay wou1il have
possiÏrly been the "City" of }[anltoba enð tlinnipeg uoulcl have beon a rtep-
snd.êil'cy of selkirÌ< on a T¡raneh to Emerson or to êretna. l.i;he,t rvould. hava
bean the le.nds worth relatlveLy arouncl $ollclrk anrl eround 't?innl'og? Can
one tell vrhat The P¿s mery beoome 1n a fon yoars ancl ¡rhat agrloultufal t.anrL
may clevelop thoro? 'j]he hlstory of every nook of this provÍno6 nay
                                               () ..

   lllusi'tatø tha influonee of sociaL forcos upon tho rei.ative aeononle pro-
  ðuetivlty of ihe Lencls of -Þfarti'i;Ði:a, anc'r ç;e aro just at ths beginning and
  'íte ùolrtt .icno¡¡ 73t        ehaugas rnay take pJ-ace, aspocial.J.y uncLer tire inftu-
  êncÊ of lnmigfaiion"
        :rs yet ou.r Litorairrr,o itr this domain is young and" r'lhat conclusioas
 i?e reay arrivo ät to-ciay nay bocon.l just his;tor,v to-mol,fÐlTr lÍhen fil,innipeg
 Tlìs exi:octing its ittd.ustriaLlzation to supp3.y t¡e ;Iest, i-ts n¿¿tgra1 mar-
ket, :litir ¡eatir¿facturod. al"tici-es, o.-1r su'burî:an nunicipaLiüies ip íïreater
l"'pg" gavê ?¿p ttrsir qricu!.ture hoping to beaone rssld.entia1 q*arters
tirei si0alL ltâ.i?" .ì, g'*eat iinprove¡uent in the r¡se of Lencl, from ag:rLcrrltura,l
Lan'J to sociaL la.nri, toolc pla.Ë-oo Ja;cation,k--pt ¡:ace and by right $o¡
iThen ""',pgts d"rea¡n c¡¿ìs not reaLizerl", ths improvemsntí; in tho suburbs turned
ori-t a *astii:g of goerl agriau3.iura3. Land.s. iïhy so? Thare               no Ðrgea-
iø+å Ru¡'aL ivianitoi:¿¡ to;oui a stop to uasting valuable ûistriets by parool.-
ling for the salre of specuJ.ation' ThÍs spøeu1at'ion poLicy of pa,sto of
agrieulturaL lancts ùid also groai harm to the tity of -ïtípg. :lhs ¡rboo&r
d.fove the psopte out cf the cir'y anå tg:râs gpsl¡¡ to gst the noçe,ssary i¡g-
provexx€nts passlng by vacant Loi;s, beyond nâosss&ry
                                                                 J.imits, re-
duoing size             of   3-ots, carrsing åmong worklng ¡¡eopi"e and- in,
xûs.ny Ðí¿ys. "
         lloË   r.r'3   shou-lc sobor     tip: Let fictltlous   land. yalues e.t tìre periphery
cf the     suburban ¡runieioal"ities fad.s and. liuprove           the   Lend"s baek   to agrieu-
ltu're es for s.s only possfbLe; wri-t.e off the arree,rs as bad. debts; go rtown
wÍth taxes o'ï1 sueh lmproved' i.ancls; foree out specuLatÍon by sober noasures.
      Hare is another pieture of Ìroø cond.rtions me.y ohenge (t).
(f ) ÅnnaLs of 'r*-'^i-                                                  þ'^''7',.-
                -¿¡aerican ¡is¿rclE'ïllg for jloliiical and. soolal sclence:nFF145-51.
     'f'rho 'Ìrend           in   ïand values 'anù i"ãá-utiriãafloo;-¡yîrõiËã"',.îãtrruain,
                                             ':'! -
         iüei'u                              in farms in LB50 l-lith Z?t'i, of farm
                  Ílngland- had' l"B rniLLion acros
  lend-s improve'J; in 1880, 2L nillion âcres in fai"ms ïrlth of î.ands inproved_
  i¡z L¿t'¿Lt iess tha"t 1? nillion acres ln ferns r¡1th br¿t Ll,üii of le,ntis ia-
       Tii¡ I'Iiiiclis -rilentlc si:ir'cü ligri elnost 6,1 rníIlion ¿lcros in fa,r'as in
  L8Ð0 nith ii;'õ;ij lnproved- lanå; ¿n Liì8ü tire figu;:es !ïers 46 and 5J""fii
 3:ecti'.teL;r; in 19¿0 , 40i¿ and. ¿lL.5f-1 resi:octiveLy"
        rïhet bacame of the lancls? The forost arsä of, Neil lìng}and. laas
  Lnrg'er in L9¡5 th¿n 1n L86i" In j.B?g ¡ of iire in¡:roved. land. in
                                                                         fïer",¡ En_
 glend' mas ha¡l 3-and,       in   L920   5UÅ, ûn the other   harrð   the bsst l.enü pesseil
  tc lnt+nsLve .:6;riculture: potatoes, vegetables, tobacco.
        ïwo factc'es ìnac' chisfty contrir¡uted. to brlng æ.hoat sr¿ch changos¡ tho
 oponing of inL¡**q'å land-s to e.gricrr-lturo enr]" inproveå corurnunist¿tionn
 such cr oti:4,1" soeiel forces at worlr the n¿..tu.ral tend.ency of naräet
 vaJ'u-as of I¿-nr]- isl tc soer fer sooner and- hlgh*r Ìhen the
                                                                     ehanges w¿:,ryant
 atlc. to fai't $orð sloruly and. not so åe,:ply and not lc,:eping
                                                                       ¡ÐaeÊ r";itir the
 s,dverse change. ff this naturaL tend.enay tou.ehss speculetive
                                                                             interosts     ,

 on bring's eonfusion into tha nlnd.s of the J.erge nulnbers lps have r,þoomsÉ
 e"nd' rb:;rËts".     iTs cantt, vie rsp,st not base our ta¡cnTíon policies
                                                                                on suclz
 vel':esr liïê in liÍanitoba to-day sê4 vtaT'e rrs,ve golng by and
                                                                               on to the
uest of u-s' I{oïeverr sone s} r.s d-ug for thrs }rov:inc+.
                                                                                   î¡r,e e,rÊ
 etil-L ¿rbL{} to thinir, to ei:.ernge, tc consolid.r,rte, ts reetlf;:" r¿ith tens
of tiror-rsand-s of aeros cf tmused re.ncls on hancts, partly pri.,,aie o.';nership,
pertly riomini'Ónr Provineial, a.nd- iíunåcipe,J., ìTe stiLt h*,vo
                                                             to offer
to tirose comi'ng '',vithin ths bounclariés of thi,-,* s¡novlnso. some
                                                                            of the lar.d.s
ã'rÇ not et all su:ltahre for agrj-cultu*o; Let us irnprove
                                                                   the¡n to fo¡.este.
0thars neotl permensnt lnprovements, 1f they should" hc agr.iaulturalry
able' 'å'ro we     j-n a posltÍon to iuprove them
                                                      sfng.ty or oo-o'sratlvely?
others are reacty fon 11s6c tret us not Erlcksüarosr
                                                                    Kro4uburgs ancl
 Stnartrlrurns ropeatad.; üe clontt ovon',vant Ðo Salaberrys, llo earry on our
 çoc1:,I" ILf s in :6riauLtr:-rel sc'æ:r'nnLtiesn to satisfy social sJìù soßIt-econ-
 cnieaL n+eds; lle ¡rç¡d a son¡r¡l bas-is for i,:r-xatiûfl not fictitions sol-lÍng va
 v:,11:-:-csi and te uant ¿ìn organizat'ion to conpriza ailt er6ricultaral con'nu¡rj.t-

 içs in t.bis ïro'¡-inc,Jo
       iÏou, 'if ao sirorrlil ìravs a, strong basis for ta¡retlon slroulil re teko ln
 sucir lnprovements ss of tha fÍrst iruo ðr$u?s thrown togethar undor tire
 rtaao  of 'rbuild_ings',?
        In view of e'h¿t wo have sald al;ou.t p$r;xanont im¡;rovoment¡; ¿ìrid. eborrt,
  soeieL lnpravernents, ths wri'ter eantt see hoç i.'¡e couLd anü. vlhy'rio slioulð.
  Ia his teaehinE csroer hs saiv nunarous instancss'øhen,$ îI+re d.eaeig-
 *iing as tc ability to paJr, À Canad.lan farmor,¡+itir a gooû haLf soetion
 uas Living in a ;Ðoor litt te hui i,¡ith h1r: larg,s fenrlly for yss,r's nevar in-
 ereasing the hnt io keep pãcê uith tho Ercnth of t:h+ f¿16illr, Ëis texes
 TÍera a}most aLL fov ths Lend. aLone; aIL he earned. he spLit j"nto two: for
 ths farnr,irlgbuslnsss and. ts the benk. ¿ftsr inåäy yearË of iarproving hls
 farn business Ín sYüry respeet brrt buitd.lngs and- of saviflg ln thg bank,
 one surmsr iro got irasy and. buíl,'¿ a teo story honso on the farm, anü bougþt
 f¡rrnfture as'tlsll.-     Á.nother farmsr, a Scotchrn¿¡1, for tens of years on
 his faru, hað a hovol frrll of shilcLren ane $ ssetion of poor lanð noeiLlng
 sone pðrHs$ônt inprovð¡astrt. A:.1 hls neattb sufflooiL tc kaep sou1
 anal bcdy r,"ogother.- A youtg ieiv put trp on tha fe,rrn a fins ù for
his young wlfe, but haetr nothing left to se,rry on irls farrning business with.
i'nother Jêw, f¡rther of 10, thsn 11" then IÊ, ltved. in somothing of a ¡rood.a4
but no far¡nor has âvor shown ÈÉSIq ksoffl.interÉist in fnrming than he, H{s
vsgotabLe gandenl his ineubator, hls experfunonts in growth of fod"ùsr anù
his ehÍl"d.ron and,, last but not loast, his r,li-fe îiore a1l parts of ìrls farm
anù his lifots clream ancl. passlon. []roug]r novor hungry, tirey hacL never
enough to ftght thefr wey through on that farm par.t stony and. part
                                         /'.   -

 Th,? Tit:lter.eorrld- taLL xneny    a ta.J.,s ho"+ f¿r,rmers (aspeairrlly Jeras) novod- aÐEJ/
 froa tl:oj.i fÐ,l^rn beceuse t:rli:: cì:.:LLC¡'cn erstL,T nct get tiro pro;oer eu.ueatj-on,
 i:c'¡ otìr,lrs st'rck to tì:.eir f.¿rn in spite cf i;i¡e.'i;; bu'f the irui or paLaco
 çonld not batra;r the conüitionso He coulrl. iell i:or,¡ cllsappointeù farmors
 iesl:eeialL-7 Junerj-c¿¿¡ts) 1e:it iirr:i-r irrii oL' ili:ì,lâse af-,;,1i. Ìravin.t Iosi ¿r.ll tÌrey
had. antl r+,ai.;ize,l snough to l.sav.e fyc¡n tire sal+ of vlha'i tìrey neicL lefi;"
åno'ij:,:r othnlcaL grÐuj) hoLds teneciously on ?o iire l-enù. i,¡irieh is to tìreua
a,Li. that lijle rer;uires: I ns¿ìn iiie ,Buthenians,

        --let let rrs a,s ii.nnnestioneåle that bu-j-.Ï-díngs ere a sign of abiã'.
it:,y tû pali it is cgrtain "chat tì-re d.çal"ting horrse is not Èvsn an ind.irect
econor'ric factor in 'the hus-band.ry; st*bLeso Êr.ailarie-c and. other builålngs
4t".9 a'¡xfllar.;r i;l th+ fa,rming btsin+ss, buj they as uielL a,s the tesg and.
ploY,r â,ro to natce the trsé of ths lsnd a¡ed. th: Land. prod.uces possiì:Le. Tu
texing tho land. iEe sorâr sll thei maheg thç'use of tirs Lanå ano its prod.-
uct.s possible.
      TJnless q'leülstinguisl¿'ilre egricul'curaL use of tenü frorlhe uss of
Land" as a ¡',$tanèIqg ancl I'oa.mlng'r pl:;Cor -r,,¡s rnajr Caryfoertd_ the fol]. Of
Lsnd- e'nd- builüings ôn it anti. thinc then'i'h.e taxing of buiid.ipgs justified.
ìånder   Ð,ßy   j.onsi                                                        _

      Hsre  is en lnstancs" By "Àct Resp. .¿issorjs.r* LgE4, 38, (6): if rlth.€
 lnccne f ro¡n sneh lan,:ts is the onnÕrtg, tenant ts, Leggoers 0r' occupatrtrs
chief souree of incoråo", S0 a,cres of land. in a rura.i uunlcipaiity uesd fur
stoch raisin-g purþoses a farm end. the orditraf.y fern resid.eoce anù buitd.-
lng:s are oxeruptså from taxation. lirere is no objeation to this if ite tÌurs
v¡anf to encour"s"8o food" proåucri,oÐ.,or ca'it'i.e o$port, or paohing ind.u-stry.
Yet ''¡e rÂust say tìret w8o acrÐs of useù for stock raisÍng pu.rposss
rnust not nscessal.itly be 'tagricutt-uraL lsnd.,r.
     Tfo roay   very    vell
                         iraaglno 80 acros of Land. forming a, Srevelly rfdge
coveroå r¡ith but soå,nty short and v¡orthloss gress, but offoríngr at some
¡nodorato d'epthr pt'onty of water for å, aôrtaj.n nunber of oattlo aneL

larger wa.ter su;opLy at a grêrìtar öepth. .io may aLso ima6ine another type
of   B0 acresof Level- Iand" coverocl niÌh sancl.d.rifting in tì.ry mldsummor a,nd.
too wet in sSrrlng and fatL, "i:ut offorlng in pLacos somo LittS.e grazlng
possiililitÍes and. offering at any tims plont y of water for stock,. The
flrst t.ype may be found. between the T,a.lcosn the saconð in tho Sprague accoÉ-
ding to information obtainoô.
     AlL that suah land offors to the stock is wator anù' and.
roaning'r room. Figurlng 5 aoros of gootl pasturo pêF heacl, llithout atxy
othsr adùitlonal¡ oF 2-2â acres of fatr pasture, rrith sonê adült-
 Íonal fsed.1ng, pÐp heaûror L-1å acres of uoagre, with strong aü¿L-
itionaL faedlng¡ pêr head, wÐ ms,y figure å to I aore of ancl roam-
1ng" plaee per heaå lcapt on ftilrJ¡ ratlûns". Bolng close to llpg., vib.5-ch
off ers botb a suppl"y enal sals markst, such a rtf arlofr of 80 aeres for stoch
raising," tì:era Ís plenty aEð easiLy proerarabla hater for nan ancL
beast, wonLcl give enployment to a rfarnortr and. two to four hetping'hancls
anti woul.Õ support them and their v¡lves ancL tbolr chiLdren. Yst, such
land 1e not egrieultural lenå by any mâans; the ent.erprlse ls not an ag-
ricultural sntorprise ln the truo sense. On the 80 aoros you nlght as
sss1l. have an autonoblle faotory anrl a testlng traok for Ít, usrlt€ the tanü
as a 'rstanding anct roamingtt plaoe.
       Á spoa,king the best ruay to improvo saoh lanð woultl be
through afforostatlon . Ås an agrlaultural land. 1t woukL have only 8,. riortr-
inaL value anong waste lanits. ifhat shoulô there be taxott 1n that n80
acres stoak-ralslng farnrt? Ehat rfarmF falls out of the writers prosant
ilomain. Probably the lnvostment ln eattle, ln stablee and other batklings
and in thetrstancllng aficl rosmìngtt slte and. other larger aaÉl enaller lnvest-
msnts Í¡Txoh a$ foecl, fonoes, Eagos etc. w111 glve to the experlenoeel. &ssogs-
or e vLe¡u into the businsss anct ho wllL treat tt EE hs treatg f. lnst..e
        gensral store in th,¡ ¡riûåle of the prairlo eloso io a station" lho land.
        having agric,:.Lt tra.Ll1r no Iûore ',rorth than that mcrcl:e,ntts bu1ld.lng. Loi,
        wÌry sìroul,ôntt'lhs îruilüings be ta:rad.? It is clifferent uhere you have
        .30-40 heads on B0 acrâs pasture. :lhe Land. is mors than a "stand.lng and.
        roanaingil pLace; it is agrioultural land. t¡hich ghoni.d. be ia:red. no mattor
        on what l¡asis. lhe stabLss and other buÍlûings are au:rlllary as erylain-
        ad. ebovs and. should. not bs taxsd..

             liro eonci.usion of this chapier is simplen lïhers tþe farusrrs ohief
        soureo of lncome 1s based. on a&rioullura1 lancL the 1a{r9' alone shoa.ld. be
        taxq{ but not, ths imÐqgv?ments on ths Lanc[- no mattor for what purpose the
        lsvy.    There is no rÐason uhy ths $f.Grs tevy should. be both on land     and-

    ,    bulldings agriealturalLy employecl. If the stand.point of unlfornity with
                          and. ssml-urban ta;ratlon Ís takant Eê sasrlffce facts to
    i    "*banlsu.burban
         ttetion, 6ss€ne'e to outv¿ard. appsarafieêr If ths roeson is a broacler bagis
i        ot taxation for the Ïi{.0rs pïrrpossr HÐ only ocrnplioate our systee¡ ïrnnsooss-
i        *tily anü dsaeive oursöLves. The farner who has to pay lt and the farm-
         ing comuni.ty rrhich Ís nad.o rosponsibla for it taks this levy from the
         s4mo sour€6 a,s far tho other levias; from the LancL anû. not from the buitd.-
         i.ngs. Ihls ls plain. It fs also pLatn that, if esonomíaally unprod,u{t-

        ivs or only auxfllary values â,rs'also taxoù v¿here the taxes have to be
        'lrorkscl out from tho land, whloh is ohlefty ta.recl, thoee lantls havlng littte
        or no building lmprovement and paylng only for ¡tlandn aro taxecl.
        iVhy' let us havs a. more rsstrlatef, unifomrity: all Levies for Hural {¿qric-
        qlturat ). ffanitoba coü6 lrou the land anå should. be levl.eit on the tanit
        only for a1L Þtlrþososr
                                    -   ît-
                        citiPi'   T.1   YT'

                 Unocaupied- land. Iã:r.              I

       It   may be proper   to    ¡nake ourselves eocluaintsd.   with tha ¡naln partsof
 r3ba Unoccupied. iand   la;r ået t'          f   irst,
           act to encourago produ.ction by provld,ing for a ta4 on unoccupied.
 Land";  this is tbe avosrãd. áin of ths Act-or rathãr of ths tax as we ars
 tolù at tha very outset.
       In Sootion 5_(1| ire aro macle clearer about tho purposo of the lap,
i,'of the purposo of aùd.ínþ to or suppLemonting the roìrsnîres of tbe Crown
a ta^s to be oalled. a te:r on unoccupled. Iantts-of one balf of one por eont
of ths assesged- valu€..rr.shaIl bs annuaLly asgsssscl, leviecL anü-exoauted
on all Land r¿åthln the provinasr r n rpfovid.ed., however, that , in the event
of 14o taq payable undei thts sestíõn on any tot or fraotión of, a Lot or
seotion of lancl being less than one tlollar tae tax to be entoretl cn ilre
go1l ag pg,Vab1e unåsr this ¡\ct shall be one ðoLlar¡ and further that no
l"anð shaLl þs taxså unclar thls å,ct at ths rate hlgùer than SOy' per a,Gro¡n
       0f aLL tho oxemptlons the follo'wíng are of lãtersst to u's.ä¡ trShe
Ï"n{q exenpt fron t+æation uatler tha prõvlsion of this "tet} bon:
(as fer âs ïro ¿ìre at present intonastèd.)
(n) "À11 Lanf, used.{o!' paËturitrgrr...hors"s or eattlo...8t Least onð, or
sheep...- &,t Loast Í;hree, for ovár tsn aøres tharoof..,.for four months
 åuring,tho previous ealanclar S6aro
          {'Ihs }funicipaL tomnisslo}isr
  (o) "Land in the-ocaapation of a may modtfy the roquirements}
                                         faFnen or-tenani á"iú"tit-rásraing on
 9on9_portlon      of ths saryo!n,.rrlot to ex.cesù one hunrlraù an-ð sixty aeros
 in the a€;gro$ateonoounltss the d.istrlctf is almost uholly given õver to
 gi.gek raising.|1 nhich case tha exeuption shalt be threã Énnd,rod anù iwêr,r-
 ,Ë*t.y_acres wltirin the radius of four-mfles from ths bome of the fàrmsr -'
  (Pl-" Evory seallon or portisn sf lanù ¡qhish has one fourth of itg aro¡jr _;
 under cultlvation or érop, incX,uciLng vriId. hay, tf harvãsteå...oã oi -i'
 the ftrst tlay of august õf the year of assssåment.,.wlthin raclius
 fsur-mfles and 1n¡ne nunloi¡rallty.rrôfro for¡.rth of thsaBr;a of of   alt
 portions uniler caltÍvatlon or erass
 {q}" lane. unfit for cultlvatlonj         '      2

 f r) "J.ant[ fn the unorganlu"$'terrltory
 ln afly_organfzecl sehool d.lstrlct unaei of tn-bltç $obool .É,otil:
                                                   the provinee not oomprløedl wlth-
 -seo l+.g¡about lanrls betor:glng to rural nunloipafrtfãã, infra
9. lantl shall be assesseit at lts-aoîual
ln p_ayugnt of a iust d.sbt from a solsentaash valu,s aË it irõui*-[ã'ãppratss¿
                                                  tLsbtor exelrrslve ot,tAã-vaiäe of      '

any bulldlngs srectoû thereon or of a¡y gtþ-or .inareasa in value caüãõa tS
?ly.ttttgl erpendÍture of 1abor or oaptial thàrsoá.
z,â.(z,l The collootor shall not reosi.îe'Baynsnt of any 0f thq _tgxos l.evleè
uncler-"Îhq dssossüsnt .å.etr urtnõui -Át-tËe-ea,me tinà ieoelvtrig'ihe"tËätÏ
lavie¿ uneletr thts Aot.
94. the tr*asuror of dne ffiurrlelpalÍty shall not allo¡r ôr Bsrnit more than
tog-yoars_ of-ths spgcig.t lax inoþ_ose€l-by thls "rtot to ue ouisieuaiãà-wiiüou¡ - --i
eolllng ihe lanrls liable for snêh arreärs.
55. "fn thg event of the sa1e...a suff,iolent anount of the procoárls.r,
shall firet he the palct speolal tax tn arreurË, nótwftUsta¡1ð-  '*"1-
lqe [he ]funicipal be othsr arreels for nhtah tnà: gÁrü-1"¡ta-**;-#ii.
96,    !lt"t _there nayCom¡nisslonsr
                                      may beoomo the putrohaser of any-t"i sale
                              *.   L1 /--

of e^y Lands taxablo ¿rndsr this ¿ct and solcl for arroä,rs of any ta'=oso
Ihe follo'¡ling principl,ts ¿ro involvod. in tire'ð land. ?a.x ¿st?':
a)        Tire provinco has a righ'c to imposs ta.xss in ordsr to encourago
production lrtitls of the,ict) fronn agrieuliuraL lanð (Iand. unfit for cul-
tivation being oxonpt, äs per 4. (q).
b) SÍnae the iaonj-ss aacluirscl arç usscl for the "purpose of adding to or
slrpplenenting the rsvenrles of the Crown'r las por å5,{t}, the taxes imposed
ars not n6oessårlIy employecl 1n any connection whetover ulth agriculturg,
the Fenacuregemontn 1s rathor of an esolusively pulitivo charaoter against
an orryngr of agrieultural lancl for keoping ii from pro{luctlve üsêr
ai 0nty tirs lancl shall bs asssssoct for the purpose of this Act; lmprove-
ments of any natura shoui-tl bo exempt (as por g.).
d.) 'Iho revenue for tlro Cror¡n has the privilego of prefsrenco over any
othor tasss to bo paid for a parcel of lanclr any other arrsars of tases
for whiah a pareel, of lanil uay be sotd.. (as por 35.2, f{ 95. },
o) the Province (through the M.C, ) may beeome the purchaser of Lanrl taã-
able unclor this,tct and solcl for arrsars of any tstcos

   a) The right of the ProvLnae of lnposlng tanes for the enqoursgement
of agrioultural proil.uctlon ls only a spaclal oase of the rights"of the      ,

State to oncou.ragå any l1ns of proctuotlon using monies obtainscl from any
soures of taxation tllroct or lndlreot.       Bhe employ of emþêrgoâs, proteet-
ive tariffs and. aaklng spocla!. rsiLuotlons and even $rants tn favor of cgfF
\aln lndustrles tlay be euanples in ths oå,seo Ì,Ye may, bg the sa!ûe prin.r
oipto, expeet onoouraganont of agrloultural proeluetlon from general funf,s.
Aû b) Yilnen, hor'-lsverr Ho ask how suoh a tax woulct encourEfe agrloultnral
procluetion ¡vhen not ono oent of it ts ear marked to be spent on agricul-
turaL natters'!us aro assured. that those punlsbeil by this tax w111 attend
to 1t that tho unueod lanil they holð shonLil be employed. to useful encls
                                                                    -    /'!-
    oilitoìtld. ralinr.laísìr tìreir i:olcl on iìrose lanclg, lho i,?rirer is not so cêr-
    tain oftho sincr¡rity of some of thcso niio askeci fcr such Lawn but ìro sure..
    Ly doubts tha certainty of their su,ccssßr It roainðs us of the eenturies
    Long strugglas against th,e "åecay of irouseg and to'Fns" in iüngl¿rnü.
         Thoso claiming that such a t¿ux would. j.nd-uco the hold.ors to rolinquish
tì:.slr grlp u.con tho l¿r,ncL are cither d.eceiving thousel,vos or trying to ¿e-
eeive otirers. Betwoen L919 anil 19å5 hund.racls of fair, moro or less inpro-
vei!. farrts vtore for sale, often at J"ess than reassnablo prioes, but thens
rú3ro no buyors. lhe question thon arlsos: In whose favor should thosrt
    lands bs reLinquished,?
               llo taìre one lnstancs,                     in that part of the
                                                            1!o üay unt¡.sed land.
Red ltvor Crop Ðistrict that is ï'?est of, the Red. and South of tho ¡tssini-
           *lilunicipality H.3"{)" losal Absnt fotal *rho figures of
                                                                      unused. Lend.s
                                                      are fro¡o the sufvey of, un-
          g   stanley                 Ðì'ro.            .ce or ó..rÐ .ro."               lls6d lanilg by profis Êrant
                                                                                         & Slurchlan
              Rhinelana               l.ó     e ô ç I   aaoaa    rtaat          raaaÇ
              };tontealn#                       166 ,     .... P¿60 Z4E6 *Some of it East of the
us Ë
    -.        Thompson                         480         4BO 2,400 356Q
         þ    no   land               a.r r a a     D   aataa    orlra          attat
         Q Morrls*                    o   |   .. r.      1I¿O ?040 8160                 *Soms of   1t east of the Reel.
         ,i¡uff ertn                           ßz,O     . r r.. 11.040 11560
              erey                            rtao         240 24540 25900
*   lË Maalona!-cl ......                                  960 å4800 25760
         \ rorr. rå p$(RË) 1B4o 4O0O L466O Ê0¿00 On both
         a                                                                                        s1ùos   of tho .å.sslniboine
         I carttsr      t t t'u'n', ... f. 1¿40 le40
              Sthern          total                      1600*1L?00             tß946   1600   ls lå.0ã;l of lt?00+   1600=
                          '                                                             LâgOO
              $t hern to t       al         ã8,80       520A?-'f5980            84460 5200 ls 6,4fo of ?õ980+ 5200=
              Srenù Total                   6gE6        6800 87680 98406
                                    -   /'
                                        L/t/   -

        liro âlffsrones botøeen tho sonthern and northorn portj.ons is so stri-
 i<ing thet','lo cantt help looking for an e:rillanation, lhe d.ifferenee of
 tesable acroãgs canrt axp}ain it.        lho '¡ritgr d.oes oot know enough abor¿t
 ihe condltlons-,'¡irich eouLc!. h¿va brerugirt airout this d.ifference; yet he witrl
 by r'lay of attompt, suggest tl¡o factors v¡hich ap¡rear to ìrino neighty enough
 to bs taken into sonsidaration: (f ) the liienonlts inf j.usnce in the Southern, (Z) the uore attractive, financially uore promising for
 speoulatorsr strstch of land. betweon two such csntros as ìTlnnlpeg aacL por-
tage La PralrLs. Ths el,oso to 4000 s,erssr of the H.B.C. ls for gooù roa.-
sons to he Loft out of aecount.
       Hor=revern this bs as it ÐâF, the wrlter cantt see r¡¡hat this pumitlve
tas cotr3.û or did. changa 1n either of the tr,lo seotione of the rogion oon-
s1d-ers¿[; either in hetplng tire south to restraLn the going of Lan¿ out of
irsa aad- to retaln a Largo part of the unussd lanit in Loca!. hand.e; or in                    ,

stopping in tho north the lanit fron falling lnto the hand.s of abseatees
and belng held by   thetrû.

     .Aga:ln" rçhsn iro conslûer   that            81"9YÅ   of prfvatøly   held. unaseal land
fH.B.c.ùot in tha southern portlon, anil g5.6 in the nofthern
porti-on are ln the iranðs of absontees thsre ls still Less probabillty of
ths effootlvsness of tbe ta,x.
     [he ¡urtter ho].ils no brisf for speouLatorsç yet he wouliL, t?er6 he
a spoeulatorr._pui up thls plea: rto justify the taæ against our $ffiff en-
grosslng and¡ the Êovernnsnt nust provo: ll that there was a scarolty of land.
to satisfy the d.emanel anil we ditl not relinquish iti S] that vlsr as & elass,
or as lnðlvld'uals, askedL uniler sueh pr6sslng conüitLons unr6asonably mÒre
than the relatlve eoonomlo proôuotlvlty wouLil have Justif,f.ecl.n Surely
a stutty of condl'ltlons would easlly show that not onLy Ìsss there no pross-
Íng dena¡d 6n masse but ln rnany ceËss a cLessrtlon sn masse elther actualLy
                                    _- ,/,).^ _

took place or fiãs roacly to ùo so in several parts in this Proïinco d.irring
tho enforcing of tiris â.et, anrL espeoially *:lt"-r tlre drcp in lrhsat priee
of   LgZ?.
     Ilow, if that justifieatton, nhiclr mlght hoLd. good. uncler othor ao$d.i-
tioas, is icanting forthat ¡:r:.mi'iivo Act our sond"ltions, thare remain
the   rev-snqg   roâsotlr   Why   simply  o unusetl. land for extra revsnus and

not choose overusecl, mi.sused, and. ebusotl Labor is nút o].ear. Elhyr ths So-
vornnont has ¿ln appars.tus to eontrol the uso of i.abor for tbe purpose of ,
the Compensation ¿ct, andl. i.t ls ln a ltorkable shape. lïhy not tas tbose
using ancl often unclerpayfng this labor asset of the pro'rlaoe for adåitåoaa
ravenue? 0r is it just by traditlon whieh says that Lanct oanft t¡e hÍdlðon'
You oan stiLt J.oss hlds workmen if the goverruaent is exerelsing an honest
an<l effeetivs controL, Eho working people wilt soe to lt that that re-
vsnuo sìroul-d. not como from ttrelr Tlsgos, nor should the Provlnce be frus-
trateil, provlüsd the üovernuent ls bonest in its aím of uslng that rovsnlre
f,or the fulfil,llng of the innplieations of labor. the Xogical conolusioþ
1s that tiro rêvênlro reason is also absuriL'
      $peaking of fevenue ìiro may uentlon bors what thls Àat has brought fror
üov;30, 19LB ttlt Aprll^ 50th, L925.
      Year enüing llov. 5O, 1919..o.........r...'..rr.          85ãg0.g8
        n       n t ã0, 1940....Ò.....o.1......ü..LL4655r15
        rl      tt   n ã0r I9¿           91898.9?
      g mo. s Ätrg. 7L, L9ZZ.¡iir.....o.....'.....å06??9.95
      Tgaf      n    ll 3L, LgZg...Òr.r.Õr'...'.......âI11X4r24
      B no. tr       't 30, 19¿5. r .. ô. r. .... ' r... '.. o. 494L5.L2
      tlot that all   was   paiit, but lt ls a nlse littlo   suBplement   gf   revsnue
to the Cromn svon lf lts eolteotlon must havs reituoeð it by no snall peri.
oontegê. Eowevor, evon lf, by oolleotlpg aLJ. that sould, havo been expeote
 tsï;lu# ffig og¡ ñe1d €soË                                   ptnn aq eraq¡ TTÊF Ëæt{l rT+Hn ssü€EB n$ ËpBBï
       sr{t +sf ß9T{} Futt $BffirË+sïp ïü GHËJ¡ Srwû fm{t t{çr¡s*suråü stuç +eg op Aet¡¡,
   år     *pþï$üar^rtr dorou .ra¡
                                  sËe.¡*+r¡T $HTlgoF .la Þî¡æI ¡io rrgqe*ç,ilë,o o+r¡î guproo
A€qBTs so         fse
                  ÈËo sT ËTqq. suÊ st¡ûTseÞÐo TTr! r¡o puBT ¡n ffi{6 r¡$ur
                                                                                    IlçGrs $o
 rrs{FnË     $ sr FûI$qü reli                   åÞü€T sq+ qåuÊå             r}} pesgÏqo Ê¡tçffiríËrndr* s-rl} sr
           Ë 6HsoÞq dam ¿o gFÊT *t¡¡                    &rx;as,SprrÊ      øg ã1Xtradçeçnnn: sr{+                     Ë}#c¡Êå$s Tgng: fiË
    E$HUI ltlq+ uea's +1Ë$årÐ +tËt ßrrüt) r,.rËßeqcttrrtro $tJ+ seriÐ uT "+ËqS sê,€ry3 SËTE+
    *ffisfr d1qler*Od F$B ûGHlã+ JcÌü.¡,ìg .slg{Ì, e¿lÞ<l ,,rlr*u.t:¡¡¡¡¿ç¡S* Sçtg¡i: r$}uçnæepO* eA,
 stl#l* srJÊ+gËB*l sTlâ.gIrfiqç ÊËnçTs                         Ëffi#s q+T& ¿irrÐË€r{fifincï*           u ax pTôË ßT sT Fûü
ir'xæslî Ê&tg ;Ëði äT        us   rå*såÌ ssËrs& lm.ræ¡:          o"4¡ å#{¿Êrp û3. Ê€q #gdmçs é{s*irrså Éqü, íg,
 fr¿rtiÏtlff¡,   .rs$   *gr¿Strcq,,   tg   F[ls]T   6qü         fËT{ÈÊ} l}ÉrÐütdt        u 8uçat+11e             gRetÌAT¿.{ dsATFè+rs
       ÉEg $â ¿m*w$;d wg f.f äç.LesT *rö s"r*gqeafr pffi'T tr B+ ürÌrTÌJt #1i& gTTËs Jcm*Ëü!
         sq,f*    l#I
                  t$ttSæ*tr¡: puequçv.oB ûqfiå 3,t"rfi**.,*Tt'rÞÞeîß,, upgc *îe
                                                                                ¡iËJ,rrJàÐÊau?ü é:+
     BFüçJt{     sï{+    È&FJT   üåEir   #ïil   s$'t¡;¿c. TrsAJÊs ffir*Þïsti *å1i$g;ioo fiq üTËffi geoJËd                              {î}
 ng.qçr¡ Ì.rsçäÉã:Fïp        Ë*;tlg    üçT3,îrç,r.,d   dr¡tï   {¡;,;    åï}e?ffi!u1l   È}r"¿   clg ?rr-;-tr.; Ë$]GÐ sF        r,ìÐi:
                                                                             åf;1ç1e,d1*iîrnrj         .?.*-rl   X   to eütrlTnol*&s
st{& tü$ årrT*T#B*ouç g.ûîÍ ËTî{g Ëi                           oss$     látäfiTr? srf{   ea     #.^fil EF+ srï.:riï,îsJ: Èä13e#.tr3
     Êiå+:þË-ET,F       *+TOA;*g iln         f;ËlË:eo Ej,rdJ: pË'B$frÉrÐFt3              ãr        oBr;-1,dc**æ         *q   Á,em silñs-JÞ
  fgçxæffÏ*Træffr ç{îã rrÀû$*q pE"ed c'q +fiËE¿ ås*f ËTri& rieJr fièrff}$ Frîs +a.rsû
                                                                                      {s Þî
                                      'or.rci? st.;u Í.3n5p3* ü,TiS
                                                     õo $.ü¡oÉì [rea+] sìË$Ð suü uT püe Bsr.sp
 *TJ?¿;i                    r$*qee* po          po<ìcïT-rårï
           FEl? Ê+16âF                                           ççfift$q ffä"r6p pÉ:ï,rsËÊF uo råÐ&,rG.lïËÌia eqrî
      'e$*çpXçRq dög 6rd? f1çtlgar¡rIoe' $l l.rlTt+ Fl.tË fç$R +tû;: pr",Jüo r uû lig-dt rä"¿Ë$
     PÊ+.reüðÞ 1ì üç f!ffietf,-$ €:*îüÎit tt# nt*F $uT:î *çrç Sû Eigrlr*r*;åoii.Js;1 tre ueTgæJöT
-,lf;AÊÞ AîlT¿+ Fwf$ ûi. Ëneg f;¡e¿ #--Tii+ :î_eü åtË;sì) +T ro*& rifEceçæ ÉSitif,
     ËTliå 5o *e'rodrrerl eql +:o{T pægrJmu:le ri"r* o"ln:.ç* fuu *îc çJ:ì.LJ{:ïn.*.c;cïg;¡ {s Ë:"
"*tr*t$lri+*I $eeati o¿.tu1p;(3{}#q-j {iiii)Crí¡i¡ ATìr-i *i úi.jflT -T$#:r$;ç pr¡ç}? Bcid*acornr lÐìí,.
 *[îif àsë Ëî;.9 i*."?r{?. Î]cî}îJcE fs:i; r,i': fci Îv'¡Ër.:riET uI   ocîfi-i.r{.¡çi ie e::i:. il{uîülÌeèì Éìf5îrr.l
 TTT9ß PTRÐ'¡ TTTq           #îif J* soï+[rsïJ:ilßng üq[ 'pa-'1e¿nnp ußüq {,rrîii3. plTirií,J; Ðns sTîA
                                                                       _/ €,/ -
 but   some    protty eruoLly,
         In   nany casês land.s sold.   to   'rpurchaserË" remain unusod.. our laurnail*
 ors L1kely Enolr a good. d.oal nore of lt than tho'.lrriîor when ïhoy pass Lai,r¡s
 d.eal-ing t,llth anå a8ricuLturaL lanä.. lhey must recognize that
 if tha'tpurchå,sor" is not obtigad. to farm by hirasolf or through a Lessee
 the land. purchased-rwe encourâgs inctirectly tho.lreoplng of J.anü out of usei
 Ëfe prosent a lal.t under a false pretense for so mroh por aore. In the othor.

 two oasss of unused. lanils mentionocl abovs it is plain that tha cond,i'tione
 unclsr whlch and the purpose      for   whish ownsrship was aoqu-lrecl foree   ln   uany
 oases tho idlonoss of the Lanü, tax oF no tax.
      ú?he eùßoÀi providecl for the coropa!.sory
                                                    distributlon of dosertecl
anrl uncuLtivated Land. among thoss who hold. estat'ss Tbat aro still tn ouJ.-
tive,ti"o¡l. Tt is enacted. that if anybod.y takss upón himself to manage a
farn rshich has Ìrosn Lsft by the fornsr ounor and asstrmes the payrnent of
ta,xes for lt' svon tho oecupatlon of a couple of ye¿àrs wiLl oarry the right
of possesslon v¡ith it.rr (1) (Btunenstock; Entstehung ttes IlmobtLiar Eigen_
thr¡ms im Rtimischsn Relch¡ Seeck: Sohatøungsord.nung Ðlooletlans). lhis
nay bo ealled. a provision to nencourage procluction¡! and. tho resuLts Jr¡st-
1flsd. the     uoasrltsoo

   Âd.   e) nxparienoo taught that npurchasers' woro not thero alweys anf, no$
always vrero they off,erlng satlsfactloa to ths uuntcipal authoritles taking
out land-s for sale because of arrsars of tâxosr lhe simplost solutlon was
to authorlze municipalitits to beaome pnrohasers. lhe Ast hsre u¡cler rlis-
cussion exempts fro¡r tha nunocoupleð lanü tex't {by a. J) rraX.l Land. belong*
lng to any city, town, vlllage, or rural nunlcfpaLlty ancl usEù for the pur-
pose thereoft. 0n reprosêatations uaôs by rural reprosentatlves to the
Munlalpa1 0onnlssloner whether lands rpuroha.seiln by rurat muafoipalitles
l1) Q,uotoü by Prof. Paul Vinograttoff: 'rthe Growth of the Manornr pr?F.

 wero.,  if ]runusod", subJoct,to "unoceupied- lantl taxrr. 'jlhoy wsre assured.
 of iht libi¡r¿L irr,i:rp::erå?ioo of ihe Act th:ì.t such lantls ïToro free until
 sold. 'Iiris is quite llbsralrbut how thls uoul-d enaouragô procluction is
 not q.uite e lsar.
       I{ow, to the:,j.í1. a.s a F¡urcÌrassr'r. ifo havs seen that one purpose
 land.s bolonging to a rural nurrietpality are sêrving is rrsale" i Lt ls poss-
 lbly tb.s llost oo&non lf not the o:<clusj-vo prrrposer It ls not quita elea¡
 bow  tho M.Cts beoon:ing a npurehasêrtÎ wi1L sncourÐge proðuction.
       Both Ïltunlcipallties snd ?rovinae are orqners of lancl, How d"o they
 encourage production? lhoy get rid of .',.thsir.'Îåsa.dn assets as soon as tlpV
 b.ave an opportunit;r to, their Lancts lie lðLe moanqhileo Sdmo ob-
  Jeet to tha municipalltiest and. Provinaars beconlng purch&sors¡ Sbey tea-
 son as fo].Lowing: priv;ete peoplo pay texos; nuniclpaLltits asil Provlncs d.p
'not ; ðrgo, a loss of 'üaads f ron Lands by then; osnsequent ly a ùistribution
 of aûellti.ona!. burrlen oñ taqrayors follo'¡s. As it ås they are right, since
 those assetg are åeað'beeauss they ar€ pìrt'itt no proðuatlv€ îrsê¡
          fs not a erltiaisn offerael aither to ths Aet âs saoh or to any
of the autirorities nsntlonodt or to aßy eLass of peoplo tonooraecl, but a
oloser conslf,eratlon qf ths prinolplos lnvolvstL ln the ect as the r¡ritor
sêes them, [hat the Act 1s not eff,eatlvo ls cot¡t!ùon knowlerlge. A, few
worðs nust be said. about tho   posltive        anct negatlve meane   ths ¿et   eupl,oys
to acooupllsh lts task eoncernlng eneourageüent of proüuctÍon,
   ( 1) 'nhe first n€ens ls enoouragfng, pasturång by ðeo].aFing lanð whore no

farmer or tenant ls resldlng as belng neeil, aacl therefere exenBt from the
Ìrnoccupled. landt tar, lf t horee, or I hsad. of cattle, or thres of sheep
for every ton aerss Eers pasturlrg for four monthe in the ysar prevfous
to the yoar of assossuont,
   (z) [ext is not to be untluly harð on th,e farner living on the farn 160
                                     -   /,'î-/   -

 acres   of crop land" o" 52O aorss in sattle raising ùietrlat, thougb, unused.e
aro :frÐe of u.noceupiåd land- ta^N,
  (3).â.t last by, if th.e farnsr or tena¡rt be not J.iving on the
1anr3., that only å of it Bay ba und-er crop or wilcL hay harvestoô, in ord.or
to be a.11 exempt fron the extra tex.
      -Ye oalL theso exenptlons posltLve msans not beoause of possible aff-

ectlven6s6 but bscause they ars clirootLy oonnootecL with agrloulturoo    Sorr,q-

ono 1s   stilL                         wlth the Lanct, and that sonnectlofr,
                 oonnectacl econonioatly
hotsover slenûsr lt may be, shoulcl not be savereal by the harshness of a law"
It 1s the wri.terrs aonviotion that strictness of, suoh an ¡Ietn not na^f,ing
such exemptions but strlotly aðberlng to the tsrm qaqgee woirlð ûo great
harn to many farmers on the farn on boplng to retu.rn to 1t anrl leavlng ]r-ts
fern Ín sorneboclyls eÐ,ra nsamrbile to euploy lt Ðne way or another.
       In a fevr easÊs tho owner or his ageat Soâs lnio a bargain wlth an acL-
Joinlng farmer the lattor to pay a1!. or a part of, the ta;r unüerthis Ast
anil ¡nako of the land the best use he ean for hay or pasturing ff there ls
not sr¡fflclent to axoupt lt"     [hts ls how the punltlvs or nogatlve nêans
ls sonstlme.s rolateô to proil.uatÍon. Eouevsr, takea all togother the .å.ot
is nsÍther prevontivs nor surative ln tho mattor of improving ooeTtps.ncy
anû use of agrlcuLtural Lancls.
                                 *  t,f*

                            tLr,f'I3iì ffi

                    Ìlnoccupief, traad. ?a,e ff.

       In the L1ght of what i?å saicl in prevlous chapters øo fesl Justlfied.,
 to instituts a special llnoecuptod. land. îax unctor qortaLn eonil.itions ancl w,e
 aro not justiflod uniler others.
      lhe buyer öf land. mast unctorstand that land. is not a pair of boots,
 a loaf of broad, or a booþ or an eleatrlo motor that be nay use if be
 ohoosas tc do so, or may f,estroy them 1f he elses not caro for then, or mey
 neithor uso then nor destroy theu but lst them get d.eteriorateel as the
 eonåÍtions may affect thoa. [he buyer of lanå must kno¡s that thore is Eì
trprinary ownorrr a soelal organizatÍ.on LookÍng upon l,ancl. as a sooiaL
of raE.nateria!.s, of food, clothing and. sheLtoro as tha seens anel bearer'
of oommunicatica anå trpnsnortatíon¡ &6 ono of the most sig.nífioapt faotors
in moul'd.1ng the natlonaS, etbioaL anù re}iglous eharaeter of its peop!.e.
fn spito of Our connersial re!.ations of land buying encl seLllng just as He
bqy and' soLl boots, braað, booksn u.ototrs, this rrprímory runoru, who is
oomlng to hls soclal rlghts moro and. nore, cloes not a1low Land. to be fleprír
Êxea from lts essentíalty social slgnlfisanse. lanrl. Ls atrsc,,rsod. ln pro-
d.uetion but that nprimary o'Èner" nouLiL not pernit one to think that ùno
nay throw lt on the Jurrk hoap as on6 Eray do with any old. neteri¿L. Ihere
1s a soaial aspeot about lancl as there is about no other materi¿I obJect.
ï[e nust bo ed.ucated. about J.t.
       lhe buyer must know that whsn ono aoguires *ownershlp* fn lanf, hs Ìras
acqulreil certain privlleges in the Lanð llnitert by aertaln d.uties anrt d.lreot
lln1tatlons¡ he has the rlght to uso brrt not to abusö, Ërhen a buyer knows
this, hø fesLs that he is but a partner ln that prfmary ownorshtp. anù
tlraws tho oongequenoâ that if ho oantt rnanage his acquirort ownershtp loitft
a¡'l lts privf't'eges u,nüsr oontlitlons lnpose& hs wLlt hav6 to be oorreatecli
he slll' be heltt responsf.blo ln sodo ¡!a.y or gtúother wfthout befngl neeessariþ
                                     -/t /'-
 rogaråeð. as a naLefactor. :.rhat is trus for a bnyer is aLso tru.s for cns
 uìro is grented. S-*nr}, as rrel.l as for ons nho h¿s coae lntorro'anarship" of
 Land. by inheritence or any other irey, .¡1 lessee, one who for soüe consid--
  erati-on ha"s aaquired. the temporary privilega af using the land, must aLso
  unclerstanå  the retation betr¡o-ân rhe lesso¡ and. ths "prlnary otJnsr". 'Ihe
 lossee, too, is e member of that social. partnetshiì1. 'Fe are el"I intersstoà
 in ths Land ounership anù d.o not earCI to foLLow rlp a stock. of boots after
 a firo or wator gaLe"
        Natu-ralLy wo reoogniza the linitatlons of one ind.ivld"ual-, the effieiea¡;
 of another oäêo T{e also know that sonilltlons often lncroase tho Llnitation
 anil ileerea,se tho abllitios" lto have also learnecl t]rat co-oprration ðs-
 croases tho limitations of everyono å.nð snhanres the efficl,enoy of etveryoqe
 of those êû-çpsrating.     l'fe ¡çantto å0 Justioo to those ind"ivif,ualttles wbo
 can do bost 'r,'¡hen they worh alone, u.nhanpsred. by others, L'onsoqusntly our
 laws anü their lntorpretation for aerteåE eoncrats easos nust bo supplo
 &nd. eppLied 1n the tfght of given cond.ítions. Only thsn thêy: &tê sèciaS.

       trrarmorrl is foreecl by a sot of subjeetive anrt objoetivs eonåitÍons to
  step off hÍs farm. B aoqulres 1t. ile expeet 3 to taEe care of that farm
  that 1t shorrld. not ilotorlorate anil lt shoulð oontrii¡u.te to the genaral wel-
  fare ln tqo 'raJrs: a) 1t sirouLf, boar a share of ths burcLen to lts
  re!.ative aoonomlc prod.uetivity, b) ít shoul.d contrlbuts to the proåactlon
  of ths coun*úry, un,Ler tho applleation of labor linoluùtng capltat-) e¡cl. eon-
  mensuratç to his abllitles.      If hs does clevote hls erorgy aäå ablLity too,
  ancl omploys his labor anô oapltal in another Logltinate onterprise, we clo t
  not see sny rêeson why oar Lanct elæuld. lie trûIq anit clsteriorate. It. is not
  sufficlsnt that as e of land. he satisfles or¡r flrst ola,in by paylng,
  as taxos' patrt of the burilsn aocordlng to the rolative econonio proûuotivlty
;(or, a,s we havs it, to the setltn$ value) tf the taniL he holðs from ae, the
  peopler ê8 prinoownsFs¡ fie rathsr appears to h¿ve bought lt f,or te,tsf,ng
                                             _/o   v
 trlbute from tho one who wii.l be 1n naod. of it.
     Te hav¿ e I¿w againsi alLolring land t o bs overrun by somo kincLs of
 isoeds, Th*t'though ls from anothar angLe, nemely to prevent,,*ho infectio:,
 of cther l-ancls.        Our wsait inspectors uoulct not        intorfaro lf a farm          izoulù
 be ovsrr¡rn with wll,d rosos, ciogwood, miLLow ssnrb; woulcl ihøy? ,ãs uant
 to provont any d-sterloratlon of srsn ons quartor of agrleultural lanct, an<l
 not only clo me -=vant to prevent cLetorloratlon, but we want to keep u.p pro-
 duation and. ovsn aclvanao it if we Gâ,Ír¡ and. lf B neglocts ts d.o thatn 1t
 ls tha prirnary      ownerts buelness      to protect soclaL intorests in            some way
 ör other.
      $ngrosslng, l"rs. grabbing at as muoh lanit as pos$ibLe, ts
d'ifferent fron negl'eeting ihe grabbod. lancl ancN. Letting it Lie iü]e, anil
has to be d'eal't r¡itir separately. Against engrossing for lnstatrçe !Ðe
1¡oltata Hsu lloaLauð (1') setting a l.fuqit for Lal¡fuL onnorship of agrlcult-
nral Lantl. He may have somo cl.lffieulttes uith the Ë.8.c. and. the railuays
or the nominion Gover"nnent rnay ctecLare ft tLtra oåres, but by sone speelal
clauso'fTs !ßay oxtricate oarsolves out of thet. This ls not what wê
concsrnsd tlith at present. By eM mas,inr¡n pör aare .,ïe shå.ll sure{¡l
ooEo any further tiran u,e B,F€r other ¡rûoans ars possi.bly nessõsary to brsa6
llp engrossing. For ns the questlon ls: Can vle enforce the preveatLon
d'eterloration and' idlstress of our lancts by the punltlve tax of a maxlmr¡m
of 80y' per aore? ïile i<noï{ by now that r¡rê çannot.                     '

        llor ls the question of retlnquishrng or holeting for rtogrs ttays the
sa.neas negJ-eoting the Land'. One nay not went to sell aow but he may be
able naanwhile to lsase the lantl at so¡ns 6asy oondJ.tlons a.nd keep
                                                                      the la$d.
from ôeterioratlon anð idlerossr 0tiror neasures than en s01
                                                             mnrrtnun per
acro punitlve tax is noees$ery agalnst hotrtlag land for dog
                                                                              itays. lhe
        Ëil úi Ë' Ëi'öïü4i, iËiå äï í i' r i B{e î"ðiå i, I "o i.$. ffi ä'u I ååå, if
                                                                                        ooo           t rr
        raæatLon of Länd. valuel-fgfä,'p:i9                                                   " ¡xf
                                                 -/08 -
tong anù h¿a.ra strrrggle and the liitls head.r.l¡ ay of Australasla (S) ls wor{;}r
reûamirerir:$. ilaving stuô.ied. and. mapS;ed. our lanf,s and. ouf oaclaster lald'
out for the ss^P-o of cllstrlbution of ta-qatlon accord"lng to the rslatj-ve
oeononie proclrrctivity of the lands lïe shall srrreLy claim to be able to sey
in oas,s of app+al to a.Soard- of Referonce what r¡axlmum an{l ninXElus 8,9€f-
tain parce} sironld be pald. for, 3o rnay prev+nt pillaga ln J.and. speoal-
ation. lho writer Ís, for ollf eond.itlcns in 3[anitoba, aot in favor of
foreing the brea-klng up of engrossing through the means of tand. increment
value taxatlcn, tlrorigh it uas rlght both for Gornany and.0ngLantl. Tf. a'
TúanltoTran,   an imnr-igrant aoning fro¡e Srltai.n,or $ermany, or Russia/or enyone
oLse rr€re chargeü $5SOO for å s" of l"and. vlorth only ¿o0O whet gooð woulel.
it d.o to bín if the venclor paiå a high tas os the value lncre¡¡aent? If
¡ee Bou3.d"                               in agrioultural lanå to he entored.
              tÌren force rvÐry tiransa,otÍon
for rgfÕt,oncs hofore consiåering i'ð il, fi¡rite and. binåtng we may usll iLo
vllthou-t the fow d.ollars for an act of treaehery to ourselves. We repeat
again a3.I thsso nattsrs havs nothing to d.o wlth allor,llng the cLetsrioratlqr.t
and. iåleness of our lantls by rinvestorgtt whether tn&lvtd^uals or oompanles.
       3.aaord,lng to fÍgures given to the Tublio 4549å89 a,er€s of Lanè in tþe
organÍzod. temitory of l[anltoba are unuse¿l i.€r. not enoloseð in any D&Ì1-
agsd farm anù not produclng anything. 0f this num^ber 7.1f0 or 554895 asþes
vJaf,g farnetl at one tlme or anothsr. Exoluðing Ðonlnlon êov. ¡E.B.C. rattð
Provlnclal Gov. landts thege remafn 2012,6I aores unuseü la the Land.s of
ths S.S.3., MunloipalLtles, anrl Prlvate cnnerg whiah threo groups nay be
safely eonslüereù to take 1n about all those lantls whlch wsre onoe farmecl,
aniL whlch make ovsr Lffo of Xlne rrnusecl land 1n the ownership of these three
c   lagseg.
        Shose 554895 &ores nay woll. be oovored             bJt   the lnstenco glven above
(zI     n8axation       of   traniL   VaLue'r: Chrs IÏ    TII     trIanû Ta,xes   la Australiatr
        Dþ.   19-t¿0.
                                                 _/o7    _

             1i] !+*ec*. *ff t;:r fs*rr';lhå,eir Èûns# lnia tJle ,Jïini?i-*iråp *f Tlo .i
  î'I:1sÌ:1 ..i
  na.,l ï¡a a rxurlisip.1tåry::o'rgnischtrøíli:*I sf tffË g¿iåa å¿1ncl, ¿¡ å.gc$l fts¿t lfarn
  inêii¡riilià:f,l   tr   i¡:sitfl;l¿lcrå eq¡+nË, l"oea}. ¡tr+el.etr ¡t?ü.   J oi: *et &bge¡1tae 1åv¡og
  in   åia¿:.Lt*b*o r;an:i¡Ìæ *f ¿:.i¡i*$¿:clo         Tt ,jt¿råtìlilti tfttL,l
                                                                     $ Lno        tf.llo         .;,j"$, .f;im

  paoplo o:f T$e¡rit*T¡a c*s s t¡i:r Iç as prlm*n;f #itn$F hs,çq g¡ rÈ6ht to                     au.r   eLs*-Hå:
  r-rti $'tsrt,*sl sb*ve*

                         ås rtråg'f,orsr¡t wåtl¡ th,c oth+{, edï$ o*'tha unu*a$ l¿:¡lÈo
          Ëh,e såTtru'ti¿n
  that i.s::i;ir tìng'*.qiråslr årsiü *ct b*+rr¡ fltrun+rl þ*f+¡"s. Ilbç LanS Í.e tb+r*o,
  çåi.* ¡*s 1t itås #rütr be,l*nn herång ünl$ o'itr+qg'rd h*¡.¡'r*gn i.,tþat çle¡åa #åìn                     Eä,-1

  Ï.ay' l* lh**a s¿TS th's fe#t thn$ 6f th+ #ff4åÌä9 6å6îr*ã Ðf *n#t,,,f¿¿rsiexl Lçiisg{r
  n+t a *;,*ellr par:t:+*,m d,*tvråse$ät4rl B+*r'fr þ*pfs.un+ ås:^$ €,nd Êþå $rrsÈåf$"*etå*c:
- of ti:--+ ttTiü*':üt¿*,:1,t# jrenß'frig ii*t'? #?s$ Srgrr Ëii.l r¡ioi,[,],Tts viitæprrånt,]t**
 Srs'5,i i"g mÏ:i:r"u:k' .f :r 'äi¡o ílæ¡rn ;ïåv',ïÐ ËE{$tå"{ëÊ f l:r?rrs üp h1}*ræt t¡mirå+i*s ûfrså
 ilP+iiÈra irg the ¿r*,o:.+ i{rr-ï tnv#r+å çf^tir .vffË!,}€i w+*d, f#f
                                                                          o:tfi¿str*slgå{ e*åtlern FúíHT
 Xll'*et *rct tu th* i.:råt+g w¡l*n tir.lrs thr,** Srf#rs *Srr* ,ãirs lpncl h+],*ngæ t*
 e {!tFåI}E}ny an:$,tång for åtø åog dnyao ??}w{i esr¿å,S. tr* cåej.s* frsm t&+¡r?                               fËìÐ

 a*;t b* qh!.s to *tn*,pp+,å*t thsn in 1;irr+åe:'rbrÍr* f¡*ç* gr**å af påÍ,leryrnr btrt
 $s hå1*+ tl*i $ugt .rÞ{*t} *ç appLg punåt$ve Ëa;rqrg bse$Ése th*g lr..asË¡ tîæao }.m*
 ÉeîLs$r].¿ l*+t g pr$**tng              ûet{{ÈnËï   e,råefi   fcr tï¡rõ+ Í"¿¡**g t+tlrl. Lqs e*r,n e,ppãg thgu:
 ellt th* l+äeå f*rg,s a pa*pL* hsn fer's$ng th+se Ï,endg lrrto Es#r acå s"t Êl
 rq$"s*naþln r*'Fç nt rþrstr Íf ¡r mulm bought Ï-a*r3, **.y, twont¡i y**,r* agÈ et
 å¡ec p*$r + soståoil ansl *øpt lt tåll oo*l *o tì:* lmp* ef guttån6 åo0o p+r
 å sestlun 8,$e' s* Ête*"t*, 6åvåttg alÎ, r,s*g*nn wlqy" fll¡nt, ln sgåte ef prçeEåÊïtr
 f,ema*ô* tbe aus{rym u*I-us              cf   sus}r qüs$t{rr 5"F Ë$0CI to*fiæy efifi th&t sossfil*
 lr'ryly u€ eh*åå n*t el,lgw hln               to r+wlåa* håe *sg¡estEtåons*               ds w* bra*k f*.ttb
 sith hån or êqes þs ünËeequø hf*e**lf eÐ &R l**r*rne,te gh$r'Ef r.ra we f,qetros
 the ssr¡sç es ae*uråty uf, *nvsetmort $.* thlç pr"rvåneu hy ê+l,ngi t¡lfrtr
 n't elL ÈJhat rr+ al.s et le tlÐt the *oourlt¡r of that J.nsafitnsut of the
Pa'6t shð$Lû not deetFag tlre gfloafåfg ofl hnrú, honøEt, pr*ö*ïstlvo [*þsp pf

     to-d.ay by preyinß upon  i.t d.eLiberatoly. ile d.o not confiscats and. we Ìrave
     nothi-ng for wirich to compensato, Ile simpJ.y protect our interests
     against ancroe,ehments of tribtte soskers.

          SckooL   Ðistrictso i,lunlcrpalitiee   ¿nf,. aven tire Provinco uhon they are
,    ii: the s¿rÍe sltr¿atlon as a ptÍ--,'ate oitaer ars iìr+y bouncl by any mora.Ls?
           Tts havs aentionerL in the precoclÍng chaptor abcut the liÌ:eral i.ntor-
     pretation of ths ¿ct hsrs unùoi' d.iscusslon phsn the mrlaicipallty is the
     "purehasor" of the J.and.s brorgilt by it to saLe for arreerp taxes. tho
     mrrni.eipalities in i,lanitoba wero fou¡rd. to oun 1.E?LL? aoros of unuse& Iand.s,
,    ifs r,e hava in ilanitoba about I30 municipalities with i!ôrâ or less agri#-
    cuttural Land.s thers comos to 1200-15@G..ecrâs of unused" lanû. per rurnicip-
     a.3.ity, though-as Ìre heva sseíl-sone of then o'''tn no unnsect land" at alL
    *" e€rse on that: tho nunicipaJ.lty sirould pãy no tnoecupied^ land. taxl the
    **icipal.ity has rro intsntlon to speeuLate in roal estate. Teto the wr,ii;
i   *ould. ask: what d.o ths Ïfrunieipal-Xties ä.o ts further prorluction? fi"ay d.o
    they allow Thiiir'l.and.s to clstoriorato and^ be idl"e? What havs they {one
I   o" tried to clo that somebcd.y, iR ïrhosó favor the other oÐners of unuseù
    lancl are penall.zecl, shouJ.d. eryX.oy hls labor ancl suall meens, shoulil take
    cars of sr¡eh land. in muniaipal onnership anù nìsko lt ptod,uotlvo? '#as
    thore ä.onú of the surrounûlng faftners wllLlng to ront the Land. for ths
    anount of taxes Srer year? Woulû it not þe s, good. pol,lcy to lay d.omn mu-
    nlclpal moad.o$s for hay anct pastures for young stoclr anat so help soüs
,   f"raers aLong by letting then süsh lanùs at a cdrtain aost per X.oarl or per
    Aeact resp.? ifould thoy Bossibly grant to ths sehool nearest to sush
    Land.s 1n ths munioÍpallty, the fråe use of so må,ny aores for rlemonstratlon
    pÏlrpoess or for experincontatlon ln one.tlne or another that woultl tre of
    value to the people of the S.D?
          i{hat has tbe Provl.noe clone to lneluae ancl enoourage the nunLolpatities
                                       - /,,.   -

 tO put to $oA? Fr0rì.p-çXir¡e u-se aS ra¿ìlty Of tnotte j.F: il:onsanfr acr_es es po5
 ¡¿s1i¡l¿? :r'rå if tìre Srctince pun';si:ocL th.l pri';at'e cãnsr for allc-uia6 thei_
 I¿rnd.s to Lia iå1+, hou nuch of the r-€v?:l'rs of that te,Jr hr!.s it å+'¡oteå la
 oråer to red-uce ths id.lene¡¡s cf sou¡e of its c"rún zagLLLecrss of rinuso,l^ Lanú.,
 ln tho organizså pori' of i'he pro.,,,i-ncê? .Iho writer res,lizss that noli
 all iir+ L'lnd- 'lvould- giv+   ìsfactory results; î:lrt c1iù r.*ire proviac,s ancr
 iu¿nioipeU-ties C"c anytlii;ig tc bo" preud. of s,n îho very'i:sst of iheir l.rni,s?
 l?ìrat w€râ tho ::asrihs of tìr¡rj-r gncLoel¡o;:s? ljroir" onty
                                                                 end"ge'¿or geerls ta
 Ì¡e to got rirl of L*nd."
        llhe æo.:' of u"rsoLcl lend. 1n i,lanitobe tc tÏ:.e serv+r.nment en-
 or-rnterL at tho clor:e of iire fiseal :Jeay 1"925-:.gä6 to n4'¿6Li6
                                                                         acros. ,.¡lhs
 u;:åter doss not iinou wh¡¡.t portion of 'tiren -.olas r,ut of ¡re organired. terrå-
 tor;r of tire Îror,'L[ GoneraLty s¡ieeking, tìre report ffeys, ti:.e Lend.s ¿¿rs
 YÐry fevorably locats¿{. as regt;.rfls goocl roe.åso sc}¡ool-s æ.nd.
                                                                      shippi¡s facil-
 fties'     Ûhls tseans thet ln spite of theÍ.r rery favorabLs Location or¡er
 e}fr of the land-s of the 1:rovLncial ffovelnnea-i of .it{anirobe lie ld"le in tire
 organiuffd. parts of the pro'¡ince,

      i't Lest thsre re&elins tìro question of ihe &[.tts beeontng aupurchasorrf"
Tfo have touehocl 1lpôn this point in the forogoing
                                                        ehopter. ila viant to
Ioots at it fro¡r tha vrriterrs stantlpoint agarn.
      0n othsr 0ccaslons ìÐe said. that Íf wo haü a land. anrt t¡esatisn polioy
basecl on ths social aspoc"i of Land" anrl tuxation, the
                                                            Land. of tiro man in
ttefault wouLd' rovert to tha nprirae oilË,,rr'r, ths peoplo of ths
                                                                     lrovince as
rspr.sontecr by tbe d.uly appolnteö        and-     organized. roproeentatlvos anü autir-
çrltles'     Tha rand. ¡courd"
                            rsvort to the nunl.oipallty or ts tho ?rovlnes
as the oÐ's6 may be. 'rho orïEar d.oprlve,l of his ownershlpr-ç¿het
                                                                     thE writor
aalled' eoonomlo ownonshr"p in d.istinotlon to primary or¡nershlp
                                                                  of tho soolal
boûy..- 1f he oan prov6 a bona fide gase of lnablLity                                   .:.:

                                                       to pay has a rlght tå
bo oonpensatsd' for the lntorest he stlll has a rfght to¡
                                                              A¡lother potnt
                                  *//þ -

that $e aa.y gather 1s that instead. of tÌre Provinclal authorltiss tÌrere
ïoulcl be a RuraL i,{anitoba organisation to d.aaL uith all nattors Goltcgrrl-
lng egricuLture agricultural lancls and. thoso enrptoyad. in the agrioulturaL
ind.ustry. l',riratever the organization may'ihough ber âs it is at prosent
with a trefoliats taxatlon or otheruise, if the'¡riterrs vieYJ bo accopteÔ
t¡e wprimary o'rÍnÐr,r',!iLl como into ihe rights of, ownerehLp not as wpurob'-
asern by blðåing" but by e prigfy Justification ðs iure. ths Èprirnary
o',rnër" mey retaín tbo lancl. or n¡ay soll, lt. äe may rotain it as en orün4r
to çphom The property reverteiL; ho may sslL it 1n eeonomic ownership to
anoth.ei" person who takes ovsr ell the obligations a,s explaine(l. suSrra and.
renains the economic or¡,ÍnsÏ' Ðs Long as he ls fulftLllng his obl.igatisns
rqith 1;ìre right of transforring his intergsts Ìry sal.e uniler pöfn{,s
of controJ.r
      Thegs ere 1n short the points that cFmê up horo end. there as far as&
we are inter.esteû J.n. 'Ihe fottowing obJoctions to this conooption aro
l:osslb   1e,:

itirst: fhat if the SoÐ, l{un"r or },to0nn r6spo, hacl a right to lake possess-
Íon of tho land" tLÍrectJ.y anå lilis rlght would. be oxsrcised. there be
a, Loss 1n ta¡res anù a grolTÍr6 burtten Ëpon tho other taxpayors. lo tbis
ÌîÐ utü.;r reply: (Ii fhis eonclirsion i.s noi nsoossaríly true slncs such lanð
rnay be put to gooiL aso to bensfii,i;r ïroi:c then ons $ay,tho farning cot!Ê
mruity ooncernecl; tz| If thera IX Usff:ona f:.fl.e cass of inabiLity to pay
ctue elthçr to indivif,ual airsu¡rstanesu or to gðn€¡ra} condlti.ons lt woulcl.
be lnhu¡san to ss1l tha land. uniter him at a d.lsadvantage anil yet' be nust
know that being in tlef,ault tho aonsunfty tbor:gh eserelzing lts rights ls
itsslrirqg to help hln¡ (.Í-'t should sither in case of aeoesslty, or beoanse
of bsttsr mÐ.rhet oonjeetrrro a saX,e bo eLeslrabl.e, that can bo tlone withoat
harq and. to biåd.ersof ahoice who uould. tho obllgatlons as explalnéð
suprår (4) In aase of pledgfng for a Loan it 1s safor if the communlty
                                  ¿//: -

has a reaL instoad. of   Ð, psrsonel pLed.g:e, to give J.and. as seourity thaa the
te*=as r¡Ì:.ich sonetines may be hard. to colieot, ?hat if ths taapayers woulil feel that in case of üefault to pay
their taxes tire primeowner    would.    stitL ol,lo tho clefaulter sometiring tirey
noulrl soon abuse tìre oonmrn;!.ty. Ío tirj.s TTe rfl€¿y ansvrsr: {t) If 1i be a
natter of e si-ne bona fid.e case tÌ:.e eom¡rr¡nity'"lould.,rasily know 1t (fr) In
cass of ¡r.:.cÌ:. fcrced, sa]-es nosti-y the poryest ars hit atrd.- ¿s aLready ex-
pLeined* i¡idd.ars of shoulð. be rsatl"v to r+p1aoe any üan, tìrey uust
offer ror¿sonably enorrEh to jnduee ths oornmunity to sause sueh e change
to replace an ole-l- by a rrðw oîtêr
     Thus if t:rs æisfortunÕ of a land. saLe beco¡eers neeessary it shoul& be
a soeial concern and. nct a :rore applicaîion of seetlons end. €Laugos of
this or thet Act.

                            CH.åT?   ÍR TÏTT

                            Conc   lusi.on

        ?hs ûnitgd" $tatss have proåu.cocl'rProgress antt Povotty" endthe'pro-
 phet of St' FranciseoÌt as oarLy ss lBeO in spito of ths millions of acres
 of fres procluctive Lanil. Llanitoba, a ni].d., empty, stretoh of land only
 half a eontury ago has ruraL probleros of ¡oisery enù lnacl.aquate piovlsion
 for education to-day anct yet two nllli.on aerss of proeluctlve but unuserl
 land. 1n organizod Ìsanitoba in hand.s of prlvate non-users of lend. in Man-
 ltoba, CanaeLa, ancl" foreign countråes. Henr¡r Seorge bail a visiono rrJo ra-
 Jeat it ¡ and yat .ro proteniL to rencourage proilactionn by such e ¡nakeshift
 as an Bunoccuplod" lanå texil.          Ife slmply are d.evotd. of syrnpathy end   have
 no vlsion.
       Ehe trProvinee   of Ilanitobaú 1s onLy a oonple of years older than the
 sriter 1.e. 1ts hlatorie phllogeny, to uss a blologioal terro, to reprolü.-
c{uce Englarid. and. ihs Unitsd. States eo¡abinad. has required. Just a littLe
 shorter porlod. thaa the Lifetine of & n&tr, fhfs thought led. the writer
 to go baek to history to study this phllogeny. [hls 1s the erplanatlon
 of part E of the prosent thesls. The v¡rlter J-ooked. for the alalnant of
 tho prlv1lege to tax anil for the Justifloatlon of his c1al.m. Ee
 coverec[ the nPrlme osnsr' of the land. to bo the looplo of, Manitoba aot
the   Ðo¡oLnlon   of   Canaûal   tn the tp.:ratlon of    aot aot by åelegatêð
                                                        lanet wo clo
powers but by foroeo lnheront 1n the Pnirnary 0wner who ls yet tn hfs
stages of dovo!-opment. [hat Snlmary owner 1s a soolal organlsin eaè
rlancln ancl wlabor" &re his assete; anil great
                                                and nan¡rfo¡l are and grow to
be hls neecl's; antl 1n those neoðs ts the JustlflcatLon of all taxattos
              of tand- ln particular. saxes are pald. by tba indllvlcl.ual
goneralS'y antt
not bosause of servÍces renûorecl to hlm, and at a oheap rate at that, but
bscausE of the soclal requlreøents of the FeoBLe of whLah boily he
                                                                   is büt
                                      - / /'J-=-
 a Bart
      0nee the ownor and. his      clain baing found. in the phiLogenetic history,
   tire lrrltôr Ì?as abl.e to cteaL with taxation. This ls the task åealt with
   1n Part E.      It struck ths uriter that he had. not only to rovise his ac-
  cepteil vle'fis aborrt iaany sconomic thooretical points, but also about prs.c-
  tiaal queetlons as to v¡hat sho:Lct be assessed and ho'.r it should. be done
  whon it 1s a matter of taxlng a6ricaltural Las¿Ì. I¡o first resul.t rflas
  the ,Relatlve Yaluation of ¿g_rlcultgrgl, tancts B?ged on thg Relatå:g
f uotlvlt;r foltoweü Lv RsLativa Ðlstribatloå{!g4çes.         If he hart not been
  able to work that out to the extent as he d.ld.,ho "¡souJ.d. habe been foreecl
  to rejeot tho presont oystems anel offor nothing instea¿ anð eoneLusiveLy
  aecept as;iof aoeessity Just that what he rajeatad. 'Ibis psint ce,ussd
 him, another   trouble.  tsvld.sntly such RelatLvs Taluatlon of I.ancl Þased. on
 lts Relativa Proctuotlvlty woulil not apply to urban taaation genorally and.
 ha had' to,cLLvorce for ta^xatlon pnrpeses raraL J.and fron urban,Iancl be*      i::

 eauso of the clifferenae of their emplo¡nnont. A parallel result though
was Rural Manitoba becauss of the d.lfferenoes of reratLoÄ
                                                                 to the prlnary
Ownsr in uattsr of Laniþ hold.lng anil applleation of Labor. lhs
Íurer eloos not apply. the labor he employs to tha Land hls factory is st*
antllng on; hls profit oonos from the enploy of l,ai:or Ln at"t phas€,s (in-
cludlng capltal). the aultl.vator-owner oouples tand. and labor. fbis
1s a sotlre6 'of d'lffsrsnt.leays sf l,lvlng, of variorl need.s, eÂd often
of, ilivergent thoughte.
     Ås   ln all thls ths soolal       of ta:ratlon and. the iupllcatxçns of
Labor, besiilos the slgalfioanee ef lanit, oalûo to the front at
                                                                  every pace,
these matters had to be glvon sone spocLal attention anù
                                                           rlegresslons be-
eane nÖctssary to bring the lnto furl
                                                      reltef, often ovo¡'-
shatlowing tha tople   of taxatlon.      rcrlter ls f,utty aware of thle €a-
ounbranoE of his thssts, but he f,el,t thet by not
                                                    forlowing eueh oourso
                                  -/"li -
 his standpoint lrouló l¡e obscursd anü tirs juetifieaiion of many polnts ln
 his trs¿itment of tho suì:Ject i:oulð bo uissing.
        Åt last, conaerning utany points irs baroJ.y touehod. and. stb.ers ho
 not dgaL tlith at alLr his only excuse is that for the present conclitions
of tfanltoba and. evsn for somo tiu.q to come,eithor they havs no signiflo-
 ârloe1 of,¡ 1n the opinlon of the wrlter, wo oould. empLoy better and. safer

mÐang to reach our almg, ûno lnstanoe ts tbs nunoarnsû Lanå lncrsment
ts:.ñ so popular wlth othors ln Ftrestern Canad.a,but out of place and. tine
lrith usç lïe are not ln that aondltion as Çormany uas after the $raneo-
PrussLas war of LB?û-?L wben suah law r,las fuLLy justtfied. (r),        Nor are
ou.r conditions sinllar to those of Sngland. wirioh adopts& sieilâr noås-tlrêso
le should not rejeet Ã-f,åÍs beeause thoy aro F¡naËle fn Germanyrt, but ue
ilo aot want to be rayecl lf ¡¡s clsnrt need. it (ZI.

     In conoluslon tho writer    hunbly bogs the rea&er     to ovÐrlook whatsver
souncls   as'rtoo sure'r antt pretentious ln this thesls.     .t[heraver
                                                                           he appears
to orltlciøs anil reJeot ho was also encloavoring to recognize Ìshat he
thought to be right anil, to offsr sonethlng for what he rejeateù. I{hat
he has nom to offer a,r6: la) social vorsus lnôivid.ual. aspect of taxation;
fb) tho rooognltloti for a n3rlme Owner" (ol organlzation df a RuraL l[an-
itoba (d) rel.atlve valuatlon of agricul.tural lanrls basecl on thelr rolatlvo
eooaomlo prod.uotivíty and tho baeing of taxatlon on suoh valuatlon (e) pro
testlon for our lantts a6;ainst cleterloratlon and. i.d.3.onoss (f) proteotlon
agalnst land' trlbuts ssekors by oonBuleory reforsnoe before any rileal in
agrtcultural taael 1s enterecl as dsflnlte ln the ìi[fght of the relatlve
valuatlon basoù on facts.
11)- let not before 1.894 was suoh tax levieü_ln aay cit¡r in Germany anct the
    la¡r for the whole Reich was not passecl befôre-fãfi. -see soheftãfî.fÀã-
(21 T?s nnst +ot-{grytt that John stuart M111 harl theorlzed on land valuo
    lncrensnt In L8?0, a quarter century befora tr'rankfòrt on iri"ïãio'Iãîi"¿
    guch tpr.
                                 anÌ Yorlcs
                   ifeati.ongd- in the Thesis

 Aoreboe: The VaLu-oof land.ed- ?roperty.
         (gutte.tin of ÀgricuLturaL lnteli-igence etc. ; Ifov., l-9I¿. )
Brannen¡ C.0.! 'Iaxos in Relation to larnings on Far¡c Real Estate (ÅnnaLs
         of Ar¡erice¡r .tcad.emy for PoLitÍcal and. SociaL Sciences; Jan.,
              L9?,5.     )

Blumenstoek: Entstehung fmmobiliar Eigenthums im Rönischen Reicþ
              (   Quot   eù by . )
Bryce, George: lr Eistory of &fanitoba
Caesar: Gai.Lic l{ar
che^rnbers, c.B.: ReLation of rand. Tncome to land. values lunited states
          Department of J,griculture, BuJ-. LZ?,4)
C]-ark, A.B.: (I) Fina¡ce and- laxation (in: Canada ano its provinces. )
               (2) Àn OutLine of lrovinciaL and. i;Iunicipal- laxation etco
Dafoe, J.H.i Economic tlistory of the ?rairlo ?rovinces (in: 0anad.a and.
          iis ?rovinees)
Dower, stephen: Eistor;; cf laxation ancl Taxes in Eng].and.
ELy & Morehouso: Elenents of trand..Economics.
Fisher, Irving: The Rate of Interest.             ,

Gonner¡ N.C,K. i Comrnon land. and. Tncl_osuro.
Green, John Richard: short Eistory of BngLish ?eop3.e.
Eaas, G.c.! saLe Pricss a,s a Basis for Farm land.,appraisal (university
         of lylinnosota,techn. BuL. g. )
Harrisson (Professor Ïí.3..0. flpg.): Grasses         and. CLovers   for Ma¡iitoba (tr,reo
            Press, May 5, lO, lg25.          )

Ilasbaoh,   w.: .a ilistory of tho Engj.ish agricuj-tural laboror.
                                             --   t'tE   -

     Innis,         ¿..: .{ History of tilo Canaclian lacific Railtlay.

     Johnson, Arthur E.: The Ðisappoarance of the SraaLl landor,lner.
     Iaut, J,gnes C.: îhe Conquest of the Èreat lÏorth 'ïest.
     llberal land. Com¡rittoo: Land, and. the Î'Tation (LS23-25)
     ti.opert, Julius: Ðeutsche Sittengeschichto.
     ÌIacoun, John: Manitoba anö the Oreat lfest.
     ${acBeth¡        R.C.i   Roaaace   of the Canadian ?acific       B,ailway.
     ldai-t hus   .

,,   Manitoba ågriculturaL Survay: Progress Report  , L}ZL
     L{anitoba Ðepartment of Âgriculture: Crop Bulletins L00-104
     Maaitoba EducationaL Couilrission: Inforaation for .å.ssessors                LgZ6


r    Mill,    John Stuart.
     idunicipal Ccnrnissioner: Statistics, L924
I    ¡Ayers, Oustave: Eistory of Canaåian ì{ealths
     i:fichol-son¡ J.5.: Rates and- Iaxes as Affecting i.griculture.
     Eovacki¡ A. i Sraktische Bod-enkuntLe
     OppenheíHlor, Franz: tranöwirt schaft l-iche Sieü1,ungs-Êeno ssonschaf t
     Pohl, Johann: land.virtschaft Liche Betriebsl-ohr-o
     Ricard-o, David.: ?rinciplos          of PoLÍticaL        Economy and. Taxation.
i    Royal Cornnission on Iocai. 'Iaxation, Engl-ancl, Report, ].901 (in Hhittakor:
              O'wnersbip, Tenure and. Taxation of land.. )
     Scheftol, Yetta: The laxation of land. VaLuo
,    Schincllor, Eîanz: Ðie lehre von 3f lanzenbau"
     Scott, FfaLter S.: The Canaùian Constitution
     Seeck: Schatzungsortlnung Ðiooletians (Quoteö by                 )

     Smith,   Ada^m:     lfoal-th of lTatlons.
     faylor, Eenry C.; Agrlcultural                Economics
     Thaer, .4,. ( in: Ilovaeki )
                              I   :   '   ---

venn¡ J.a. : Found-etions of .r$ricul-tural- Econonics.
Vinograd-off , ?aul-: (L) Villainago in EngS.and_
                     (2) The Gro:¡th of the lianor
                     (5) English Socie'Ly in the Ej-eventh Century
-qehrwein, GeorEe: The Srend-         in        I,ancl Talues   etc. (in: i\nnals of   ¿merican
          Åcacleny etc., Jan. Lg?b.)
ïfhÍttaker, Ihooas : 0r,'raarship etc.
ïliLson, Beckles: The Great Cocrl:any
rl'oto: Ja ad.d.ition to tha above we nay rcention Ðr. llaigrs nrhe Exeuption
of Improve¡nents fro¡n îaxatlon in Canad.a and_ United Statgsn which was of
Sreat he]-p to the writer, atthoughr ås a good- nrany other books o¡ritted-
fron the list, r^las not mentionod. in the thesis.

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