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Introduction to Transportation and Logistics TTL 101


									                                                                                  TTL 101

Professional Truck Driver
Introduction to Trucking and Logistics TTL 101

Participant Workbook
This product was funded by a grant awarded under the President's High Growth Job
Training Initiative, as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment &
Training Administration. The information contained in this product was created by a
grantee organization and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S.
Department of Labor. All references to non-governmental companies or organizations,
their services, products, or resources are offered for informational purposes and should
not be construed as an endorsement by the Department of Labor. This product is
copyrighted by the institution that created it and is intended for individual organizational,
non-commercial use only.

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Table of Contents
  Professional Truck Driver Certification ...................... 1
  Introduction to Trucking and Logistics TTL 101 ........ 1
  Participant Workbook ................................................ 1
  Introduction ............................................................... 8
      Class Outcomes ................................................... 8
  Introductions .............................................................. 9
  Trucking and Logistics Industry ............................... 10
      History of the T & L Industry............................... 10
      History of the T & L Industry............................... 11
      Jobs in the T & L Industry .................................. 14
      Advances in the T & L Industry .......................... 17
      Your Future in the T & L Industry ....................... 18
      Career Pathway Plan ......................................... 21
  Federal and CDL Requirements ............................. 22
      Three Classes of a CDL ..................................... 23
      Additional Qualifications ..................................... 24
      CDL Endorsement Types ................................... 25
      Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements ......... 26
  Warehouse and Vehicle Safety ............................... 27
      Safety Case Scenarios ....................................... 29
  Control Systems and Management ......................... 30
      Dashboard Clusters ........................................... 31

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    Cluster Matching Worksheet .............................. 33
Vehicle Components ............................................... 34
    Proper Entry and Exit from Cab ......................... 37
    Starting/Stopping the Engine ............................. 38
    The Transmission ............................................... 39
Anti-Lock Braking System ....................................... 40
    Jacobs Engine Brake ......................................... 41
    Types of Trailers ................................................ 42
Vehicle Inspections ................................................. 47
    Pre-Trip Inspection Process ............................... 48
    En-Route Inspection Process............................. 51
    Post-Trip Inspection Process ............................. 52
    Official Roadside Inspections ............................. 54
    Daily Vehicle Inspection Report Form ................ 55
    Driver’s Vehicle Inspection Report Example ...... 56
    Shifting Execution Process ................................ 58
    Hints and Tips for Shifting .................................. 59
Backing and Docking .............................................. 60
    Safe Backing Principles ..................................... 61
    ASC Process ...................................................... 62
    Backing Steps .................................................... 63
    Stopping and Parking ......................................... 66
Steering ................................................................... 67
    Alignment Section Elements .............................. 68
    Hints and Tips for Steering ................................. 70

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Coupling and Uncoupling ........................................ 71
    5LL – Landing Gear, Lights and Fifth Wheel...... 72
    LL5 – Landing Gear, Lights, Fifth Wheel............ 73
    Key Safety Issues for Coupling and Uncoupling 75
Visual Search .......................................................... 76
    Hints and Tips for Visual Search ........................ 77
Vehicle Communication .......................................... 78
    Hints and Tips for Communication ..................... 79
    Communication Situations ................................. 80
Speed and Space Management .............................. 81
    Speed and Space Management Tips ................. 86
    Stopping Distance Chart .................................... 88
Night Operations ..................................................... 89
Extreme Driving Conditions ..................................... 91
    Uphill and Downhill Operations .......................... 92
    Uphill and Downhill Operations Hints and Tips .. 93
    Runaway Ramps Hints and Tips ........................ 94
    Rolling Terrain .................................................... 95
    Extreme Adverse Weather Conditions ............... 96
    Cold Weather Driving Tips ................................. 99
    Winter Safe Driving Tips .................................. 100
    Other Driving and Road Hazards ..................... 103
Hazardous Materials ............................................. 104
    Employee Responsibilities ............................... 106
    Hazardous Materials Class .............................. 107

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    Shipping Papers and Manifests ....................... 108
    Loading Hazardous Materials .......................... 110
    General Steps for Loading and Unloading ....... 112
    Placards ........................................................... 113
    Safe Transport on the Road ............................. 115
    In Case of an Accident ..................................... 116
    Hazardous Materials Case Scenarios .............. 117
    Destination Process ......................................... 118
Emergency Maneuvers ......................................... 119
    Skid Control ...................................................... 120
    3 Types of Skids ............................................... 121
    Skid Recovery Strategies ................................. 122
Railroad Crossings ................................................ 123
    Railroad Engineering Considerations............... 124
    Hints and Tips for Railroad Crossings......... 128
Vehicle Checks and Maintenance ......................... 129
    Daily Vehicle Maintenance Checklist ............... 130
    Types of Service Checklist ............................... 135
    Winterizing and Summerizing .......................... 136
Diagnosing and Reporting Malfunctions ............... 137
    Typical Issues Drivers Face ............................. 138
    Malfunction Process Steps............................... 139
Handling, Adjusting and Documenting Cargo and Manifest 140
    Cargo Documentation and Manifest Example.. 143
    Load Differential and Damaged Cargo............. 144

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    Proper Weight Distributions ............................. 148
    Hints and Tips for Proper Weight Distribution and Delivery
    ......................................................................... 150
    Securing the Cargo .......................................... 151
    Map Symbol Descriptions ................................ 153
Fuel Management ................................................. 155
    Economy Driving Techniques .......................... 156
    Fuel Management Scenarios ........................... 158
Hours of Service, Daily Log, Logbook Recap ....... 159
    Interstate and Intrastate Driving Regulations ... 160
    Hours of Service Case Scenarios .................... 162
    Log Books ........................................................ 163
    CAB - Monthly Summary Sheet ....................... 167
    Accident Procedures ........................................ 176
    Accident Packet ............................................... 177
    Accident Reporting Scenarios .......................... 178
Road Life ............................................................... 179
    Time Management Scenarios .......................... 180
    Managing Money .............................................. 181
    Physical Fitness ............................................... 182
    Physical Activities ............................................. 183
    Healthy Eating .................................................. 184
    Food Pyramid ................................................... 185
    When on the road, focus on the following: ....... 187
    Signs of Fatigue ............................................... 188
    Circadian Clock ................................................ 189
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    Methods to Reduce Fatigue ............................. 190
    Running Your Home from the Road ................. 191
    Managing Road Life Action Plan ...................... 192
Trip Planning ......................................................... 193
Driving Behavior .................................................... 195
Body Mechanics .................................................... 196
    Safe and Easy Lifting Tips ............................... 197
    Methods for Movement and Stretch ................. 198
    Types of Activities and Steps ........................... 199
Final Review and Exam ........................................ 200

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The Introduction to Trucking and Logistics course is designed to help you, the
warehouse or driver employee learn about the industry, your career
opportunities, your federal and state requirements along with understanding the
vehicle you will be driving and important safety elements.

The trucking and logistics industry is an exciting place to be right now. The need
for drivers is on the rise now and in the future. In this course, you will learn what
it takes to be a successful driver and your many career opportunities.

Class Outcomes
By the end of this class, you will be able to:

1. Describe the knowledge and skills necessary to operate a commercial
   vehicle safely.

2. Understands the logistics industry.

3. Describe the tasks and duties required of an entry-level trucker and
   warehouse worker.

4. Show the range of skill mastery required by an individual driver.

5. Understands warehouse and loading dock safety.

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Individually complete the following questions.

   1. Who are you and how long have you been with the company?

   2. Why do you want to be in the trucking and logistics industry?

   3. What do the brochures and documents tell you about the need for
      professionals in the trucking and logistics field?

   4. What is your current level of experience?

   5. What do you want from the class?

   6. What will you contribute to the learning process? (Examples include
      humor, stories, experiences, etc.).

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Trucking and Logistics
The Trucking and Logistics Industry is an exciting place to be right now. There is
a great history that goes along with this industry as well as a great future. The
following information outlines four key areas for consideration as a newcomer
into this field.

     1.   History of the Trucking and Logistics Industry

     2.   Jobs in the Trucking and Logistics Industry

     3.   Advances in the Trucking and Logistics Industry

     4.   Your future in the Trucking and Logistics Industry

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History of the T & L Industry

Construction of the nation’s first transcontinental highway, the Lincoln Highway
(U.S. 30), started in 1912. It took 20 years to complete the 3385-mile road
between New York City and San Francisco. In 1956, the Federal Aid Highway
Act was signed into law, authorizing the 41,000-mile National System of
interstate and defense highways to be completed by 1972.

In 1986, more than 97% of the interstate highway system was open to traffic as
the program entered its 30th year. Currently, there are over 44,700 miles of
interstate highways with 132,000 miles of other arteries in the United States.

In the early 1980’s, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) determined that
a need existed for technical guidance in the area of truck driver training. In 1985,
the FHWA developed the Model Curriculum training for tractor-trailer drivers.
This material includes the minimum standards for training for tractor trailer

The Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986 was intended to improve
highway safety. Its goal was to ensure that drivers of large trucks and buses
possess the knowledge and skills necessary to operate these vehicles safely on
public highways. This act established the commercial driver’s license (CDL)
program and directed the agency to establish minimum Federal standards that
states must meet when licensing drivers.

In 1990, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended to
FHWA that drivers of specialized vehicles, including multiple-trailer vehicles,
receive training in the special handling characteristics and other variables that
influence the controllability and maneuverability of these vehicles.

Eighty percent of all U.S. communities rely exclusively on trucks to deliver their
products and goods. This means that trucks carry over 70% of all domestic
freight tonnage or nearly 11 billion tons annually. There are approximately 3
million truck drivers across the United States.

The trucking industry includes companies engaged in motor freight transportation
and warehousing. These include areas such as local and long distance trucking
or transfer services, establishments engaged in the storage of farm products,
furniture and other household goods, or commercial goods of any kind. This also
includes the operation of terminal facilities for handling freight, both with and
without maintenance facilities.

      Local and long distance trucking without storage

      Local and long distance trucking with storage
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      Courier and moving services

      Farm product warehousing and storage

      Refrigerated warehousing and storage

      General warehousing and storage

      Special warehousing and storage

      Terminal and joint terminal maintenance facilities for motor freight

The trucking and warehouse industry is subject to government regulations which
ensure safety for everyone. Throughout this class, you will learn the various
safety regulations required to be safe. The following terms will also be

Interstate – if you are crossing state lines or furthering interstate commerce, you
are considered to be involved in interstate operations.

Intrastate – if you are not crossing state lines (staying within a state’s borders)
and not furthering interstate commerce, you are considered to be involved in
intrastate operations.

The Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Administration (FMCSA) oversees motor carrier safety. Motor carriers and
drivers operating in interstate commerce must comply with the agency’s
regulations, commonly referred to as the Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Regulations (FMCSRs).

The following safety rules and standards are clearly outlined by the FMCSR.
However, please note that some states vary in its adoption of these regulations
so you must also be familiar with your state compliance rules.

      Hours of service

      Driver qualification

      Driver disqualification

      Physical qualification

      Drug and alcohol testing

      Commercial driver’s license (CDL) standards
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      Vehicle parts and accessories

      Vehicle inspection

The trucking industry is a leader in safety and security. According to the
American Trucking Association’s (ATA) 2007 Facts for Drivers, the rate of fatal
truck crashes dropped 29% between 1993 and 2003. Between 2004 and 2005,
the drop was another 1.7%.

Transportation Organizations

   1. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Ensure responsibility for
      ensuring that America’s roads and highways continue to be the safest and
      most technologically up-to-date.

   2. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), established
      in 1970, provides education, research, safety standards, and enforcement
      activity for the purpose of saving lives, preventing injuries and reducing
      economic costs due to road traffic crashes.

   3. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), created in
      2000 pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999,
      administers the former MCSR now known as the Federal Motor Carrier
      Safety Regulations (FMCSR).

   4. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)’s Office
      of Hazardous Materials Safety. To provide DOT a more focused research
      organization and establish a separate operating administration for pipeline
      and hazardous materials transportation safety operations.

   5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) focus on clean air. Current focus
      is on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel.

   6. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is the federal agency under
      the Department of Homeland Security responsible for protecting the
      nation’s transportation system.

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Jobs in the T & L Industry
The types of jobs in the trucking industry include the following:

      Over-the-road drivers (both long and short-haul)

      Pick-up and delivery (PUD) drivers

      Dispatchers

      Warehouse staff

      Sales and operations

      Safety inspectors and directors

      Office and clerical workers

      Owner-operators

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Types of Truck Drivers

      Long-distance or over-the-road. These drivers operate heavy trucks and
       drive for long periods of time. Some long-haul drivers travel a few hundred
       miles and return the same day; others are away from home overnight, or
       for several days or weeks at a time.
      Local. These drivers operate light, medium or heavy trucks and work in
       route-sales or pick-up-and-delivery operations. These drivers usually
       make more stops each day and often need sales skills in addition to
       driving skills.
      Specialized trucking. Drivers that drive specialized trucks that handle
       unusual, oversized or sensitive loads need extra training to operate this
       equipment. Examples include double or triple trailers, oversize loads and
       auto carriers.
      Hazardous Materials. These drivers also need more extensive training.
       Drivers need to know about the content of the loads they are hauling, how
       to handle the loads safely and what to do in an emergency. Drivers who
       transport hazardous materials must also take a special test when applying
       for the CDL.
      Owner-Operators. An independent driver owns his or her equipment and
       hauls freight on a contractual basis. It is possible to make a good living as
       an owner-operator, but like many businesses, the competition is tight and
       there are many overhead expenses.

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Industry Types

In addition to the types of jobs, there are also varieties of industries that need the
type of work you could provide.

Industry              Description           Type of Jobs          Additional

Moving and            Packing, loading      Warehouse             Opportunity exists
Storage               and unloading         worker, fork lift     to remain in a
                      household goods.      driver, packer,       position, or
                                            loader, driver        broaden skills in
                      Storage of
                                            (local, intrastate    different jobs and
                      household goods.
                                            and interstate),      create a career
                      Pickup, delivery      dispatcher,           path.
                      and/or storage of     customer service
                      manufactured          representative.
                      products, e.g.
                      ATM machines.

Product Delivery      Loading and           Local Pickup and
                      unloading trailers    Delivery (route)
                      at shippers and       Driver, Hostling,
                      customers facility.   Shuttle Driver,

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Advances in the T & L Industry
There have been many changes in the Trucking and Logistics Industry over the
past two decades. These changes have ranged from communication devices,
electronics, onboard computers, new designs and aerodynamics (increase fuel-
efficiency) in trucks and better roads. The roads of today are mainly well-lit, drain
water faster and help to keep drivers awake.

Specific electronic advances include satellites that trace a truck’s location,
onboard computers to monitor and record how efficiently a truck is running and
EBS (Electronic Braking System – also called brake-by-wire) that helps balance
air brakes.

Other future advances you can expect to see:

      Lane Departure Warning Systems

      UQM hybrid electric propulsion systems

      Hybrid vehicles with regenerating brakes

      High pressure fuel rail injection

      Advanced combustion solutions

      Fuel cells (auxiliary power)

      Replacement of diesel fuel options

      Aerodynamic drag concepts

      Reducing auxiliary loads

      Lightweight material

      Software technology

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Your Future in the T & L Industry
The future is bright in the Trucking and Logistics Industry. The trucking industry
overall employs more people than any other private industry in the United States.
As mentioned earlier, there are many front and back office support staff in the
industry that ensure supplies and goods move through the system.

According to the American Trucking Association's report, US Truck Driver
Shortage: Analysis and Forecasts, the long-haul segment of the trucking
industry has a national shortage of 20,000 drivers. It predicts the shortage will
increase to 111,000 by the year 2014 given the current demographic trends.

Making things even worse is the HIGH turnover rate reported by large carriers to
be as high as 121%. There are currently 1.3 million long-haul truckers out of 3.4
million truckers nationwide. The industry as a whole has experienced a shortage
of 195,000 in the first quarter of 2005.

This information alone should give you confidence in your ability to move forward
in the trucking and logistics industry.

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Oregon Employment Projections

The first table comes from the Oregon Employment Department and highlights
the past and future changes expected in the state of Oregon for heavy and
tractor-trailer truck drivers.

                            Employment Projections

    Region        Employment      Change      % Change       Annual Openings

                  2004    2014

Oregon           23,143 26,146      3,003        13.0%               717

The second table comes from the Oregon Employment Department and
highlights the past and future changes expected in the state of Oregon for light or
delivery service truck drivers.

                            Employment Projections

    Region        Employment       Change     % Change       Annual Openings

                  2004    2014

Oregon            8,737 10,246      1,509        17.3%               242

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Career Pathway
Clackamas Community College, in conjunction with many partners in the field,
has created a Transportation, Trucking and Logistics Career Pathway tool. This
document will help the reader see the many paths and levels that can be
achieved across this industry.

Take a few minutes to review this document and discuss with one other person.
Record any notes or thoughts about this document below.

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Career Pathway Plan
As you just reviewed, there are many pathways to follow in the Trucking and
Logistics Industry. Let us begin looking at the pathway you would like to follow
going forward. We will review this document again at the end of this course.

Directional Question            Planning Response

1. Where would you like to
   be in 5 years with the

2. What personal and
   professional benefits will
   you gain from this

3. What education classes
   will you need to take to
   get there?

4. What else will you need
   to do to prepare yourself
   for that position?

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Federal and CDL Requirements
Becoming a driver requires that you have met, and will meet, certain Federal and
State CDL mandates.

A CDL is required when you are operating the following vehicles:

      Any single vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR of 26,001
       pounds or more)
      A trailer with GVWR of more than 10,000 pounds if the gross combination
       weight rating (GCWR) is 26,0001 pounds or more
      A vehicle designed to transport 16 or more passengers (including the
      Any size vehicle that is used in the transportation of any material that
       requires hazardous materials placards or any quantity of a material listed
       as a select agent or toxin in 42 CFR 73
      A public mass transit or transportation district vehicle, regardless of size,
       when used to carry passengers for hire, with the exception of taxi drivers
      Any motor home or recreational vehicle that meets the definition above
       and is used for business purposes

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Three Classes of a CDL
The following table outlines the three CDL classes.

License Requirements

      Must be 18 years of age to drive within Oregon or at least 21 years old if
       driving commercial vehicles in interstate commerce
      Must provide evidence of your name, age and identification
      Must provide your social security number and one other document to
       prove your identity
      Must present a valid medical certificate and medical waiver (if needed) at
       the time of issuance and before taking a commercial drive test
      If applying for a Haz Mat endorsement, the Federal Transportation
       Security Administration rules require person to undergo a security
       background check that includes submission of fingerprints for FBI review
      Must be able to speak, read and write English well enough to understand
       traffic signs and signals in English, to respond to officials and to complete
       reports and records

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Additional Qualifications
Most companies enact other requirements over and above the following federally
mandated qualifications.

Age. While many states allow individuals 18 and older to driver trucks within the
state, federal regulations require drivers operating across state lines to be at
least 21. However, many companies require over-the-road drivers to be older
than this (23 or 25).

Physical Condition. The Department of Transportation requires a driver to have
a complete physical examination every two years. A driver must not have lost
any limbs or have any defect or disease likely to interfere with safe driving.
Drivers cannot have diabetes that requires insulin. A driver can get a CDL if they
get a federal waiver, which might require additional testing.

Vision. Qualified drivers must have a minimum of 20/40 vision in each eye, with
or without corrective lenses and have a 70-degree field of vision in each eye.
Drivers cannot be colorblind.

Hearing. All drivers must be capable of hearing a forced whisper in the better ear
at not less than five feet, with or without the use of a hearing aid.

Education. All drivers must be able to read and speak English well enough to
understand traffic signs, prepare reports and speak with law enforcement
authorities and the public.

Safety. Drivers must learn and comply with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety

Substance Abuse. Drivers are subject to drug and alcohol testing by their
employers and by law enforcement officials under four circumstances: pre-
employment (drug testing only); post-accident; reasonable suspicion; and
random testing. Drivers can have no current clinical diagnosis of alcoholism and
must not use any illegal drugs.

Driving Record. A driver must not have been convicted of a felony involving the
use of a motor vehicle; a crime involving drugs; driving under the influence of
drugs or alcohol; or, hit-and-run driving which resulted in injury or death.

Licensing. Every truck driver must have a valid Commercial Driver's License
(CDL) issued by a state. A driver can hold a license from only one state.

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CDL Endorsement Types

Ways to lose your CDL for a year:

      Alcohol use
      Serious traffic violations
      Violation of out of service orders
      Railroad highway grade crossing violations
      Hazardous materials endorsement background check and disqualifications

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Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements
Employers must ensure that each entry-level driver has received the training
required by this subpart no later than July 20, 2004, except as provided in
paragraph (b) of this section. Each employer must ensure that each entry-level
driver who first began operating a CMV in interstate commerce requiring a CDL
between July 20, 2003 and October 18, 2004, has had the required training no
later than October 18, 2004.

Applicability. All entry-level drivers who drive in interstate commerce and are
subject to the CDL requirements of part 383 of this chapter must comply with the
rules of this subpart, except drivers who are subject to the jurisdiction of the
Federal Transit Administration or who are otherwise exempt under 390.3(f) of this
subchapter. Definitions. The definitions in part 383 of this chapter apply to this
part except where otherwise specifically noted.

   1. Entry-level driver is a driver with less than one year of experience
      operating a CMV with a CDL in interstate commerce.

   2. Entry-level driver training is training the CDL driver receives in driver
      qualification requirements, hours of service of drivers, driver wellness, and
      whistle blower protection as appropriate to the entry-level driver’s current
      position in addition to passing the CDL test.

   3. Entry-level driver training requirements. Entry-level driver training
      must include instruction addressing the following four areas:

             Driver qualification requirements. The Federal rules on medical
              certification, medical examination procedures, general
              qualifications, responsibilities, and disqualifications based on
              various offenses, orders and loss of driving privileges.

             Hours of service of drivers. The limitations on driving hours, the
              requirement to be off-duty for a certain period of time, record of
              duty status preparation and exceptions. Fatigue countermeasures
              as a means to avoid crashes.

             Driver wellness. Basic health maintenance including diet and
              exercise. The importance of avoiding excessive use of alcohol.

             Whistleblower protection. The right of an employee to question
              the safety practices of an employer without the employee’s risk of
              losing a job or being subject to reprisals simply fro stating a safety

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    War ehouse and Vehicle Safety
    The most important aspect of being in the trucking and logistics industry is safety.
    Safety is a key to success as a warehouse employee or driver. In either position,
    your main function is to continuously look for ways to be safe on the job. Throughout
    this class, we will focus on specific ways to be safe in all ways.

    Safety Requirements for Warehouse and Driver

Warehouse Safety Requirements                  Driver Safety Requirements
1. All warehouse and transportation            1. Comply with the U.S. Department of
   associates who routinely work in or visit      Transportation Federal Motor Carrier
   the warehouse area are required to             Safety Rules.
   wear protective footwear which meets        2. Adhere to the posted state speed limits,
   or exceeds the ANSI Z41 standard for           or at reduced speeds, if conditions
   impact, compression, slip resistance           require slower speed.
   and resisting puncture.                     3. In the event of an accident, the driver
                                                  involved will first attend to the scene,
2. Tennis shoes, sandals, hiking boots,           doing everything possible to direct
   deck shoes or other types of casual            traffic, attend to any injured, protect the
   footwear or waffle-soled shoes are not         company’s equipment and cargo, and
   permitted while performing warehouse           then notify the company as quickly as
   or distribution work (unless there is a        possible. Do not move the company’s
   medical condition to discuss).                 equipment from the scene until you
                                                  receive approval from your supervisor
3. Wear gloves to protect your hands.             (unless law enforcement personnel tells.
                                                  you otherwise for traffic clearance).
4. Use eye protection such as safety           4. No driver is permitted to consume any
   glasses and goggles.                           alcoholic beverage within 8 hours of
                                                  going on duty, nor while on duty. Use of
5. Use hearing protection devices.
                                                  illegal drugs is forbidden. If you are
6. Use protective hardhat.                        taking a prescription drug under a
                                                  doctor’s orders, notify the company prior
7. Know where your medical emergency              to driving. Any violation of the
   kits are at all times.                         drug/alcohol policy may be grounds for
8. Follow proper procedures when using         5. No passengers are allowed in any
   equipment in the warehouse.                    company vehicle without written
                                                  permission from an officer of the
9. Follow procedures when using a pallet          company. The only exception to this
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Warehouse Safety Requirements                     Driver Safety Requirements
   jack and forklift in the warehouse – use           rule is in the case of an emergency
   the checklist (parking, starting, in action,       requiring transportation where no other
   positioning, shutting down).                       help is available.
                                                  6. The driver is responsible for securing all
10. Be aware of equipment or unsafe                   loads prior to departure. The load
    practices around you. Not paying                  should be secured in such a way that
    attention to your surroundings can lead           prevents damage to our cargo and
    to an accident.                                   spilling on the road. The load and the
                                                      equipment should be checked every two
11. Incorporate a stretching routine at the           hours while in transit.
    start of every shift to prevent injuries      7. The driver must prepare a vehicle
    while on the job.                                 inspection report at the end of each day
                                                      that you drive. If you determine items
12. Ensure you are following safe lifting and         that need repair, particularly safety
    turning procedures to avoid strains.              items, bring these to the attention of the
                                                      office before you leave.
13. Do not use shortcuts when operating
                                                  8. The driver is required to review the
    any type of equipment.
                                                      previous trip’s vehicle inspection report
14. Avoid improper loading and unloading,             prior to starting each trip. This review
    not being aware of shifting loads and             should be done in conjunction with your
    clearances, and not keeping your eyes             pre-trip inspection.
    ahead of your work because it can lead        9. Drivers are required to report to the
    to serious injury from falling objects.           company any conviction of traffic laws.
                                                  10. Drivers are required to prepare a duty
15. Do not be careless with cutting edges,            status report for each 24-hour period.
    be on the alert for sharp objects, focus          They will be prepared in compliance
    on what you are doing and do not be               with the FMCSR, and will be turned in at
    careless with your knife because they             the end of each trip.
    can all cause serious cuts.                   11. Drivers are expected to utilize defensive
                                                      driving skills when operating company
16. Use your horn properly.                           equipment, always being considerate of
                                                      others on the highway. Tailgating,
                                                      failure to signal, unnecessary lane
                                                      changes and speeding will not be

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Safety Case Scenarios

Review the following case scenarios and identify what safety violations you believe
the individuals violated. Identify specific safety actions you believe they should have
followed that would have prevented the situations from happening.

Case Scenario                             Safety Violations      Safety Actions

1. You just got to work and missed
   the pre-shift meeting. You go
   straight to your area and begin

2. You are ready to drive your
   vehicle to the customer site.
   The items have been loaded
   and your buddy tells you
   everything is secure and ready
   to go.

3. You get tired of having to wear
   your goggles non-stop. You
   decide to take them off when
   you are working on something
   other than loading.

4. You are heading to a client site
   and one of your friends has
   always wanted to ride in a big
   rig. Since it is only a 5 mile trip,
   you let them come along for the

5. You have been working in the
   warehouse long enough to have
   learned a few tricks along the
   way. You decide that it is
   quicker to follow another
   process when using your pallet
   jack and begin to share this
   process with others.

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Control Systems and
This section focuses on control systems and management of the components on
the dashboard and other parts of the vehicle. Review of this section will help you
to identify these different parts.

There are a few areas to separate in order for us to fully understand control

   1. Engine controls – used to start and shut down the vehicle’s engine. It
      includes the switch and starter button.

   2. Primary controls – includes components such as steering wheel,
      accelerator pedal, clutch pedal, transmission controls, brake controls,
      antilock brakes, auxiliary brakes and retarders and interaxle differential

   3. Secondary controls – include components that help you see,
      communicate, adjust climate and comfort controls and ensure safety.

Let us break this down more and review the four dashboard houses:

1. Gauges

2. Warning Lights

3. Switches

4. Controls

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Dashboard Clusters
There are seven types of clusters located on the dashboard. The following table
lists these clusters and a brief description.

Cluster                 Description

1. Engine Cluster          Voltmeter – charge condition of the battery
                           Engine oil pressure gauge – tells you the oil pressure in
                            the engine
                           Engine temperature gauge (including water temperature
                            gauge which shows the engine cooling system
                            temperature – normal range is between 165-185 degrees
                           Pyrometer – tells you the engine exhaust temperature
2. Unit Temperature        Temperature gauges for the transmission
   Cluster                 The forward rear axle differential
                           The rear axle differential
3. Lights Cluster          A left and right hand turn signal
                           Lights for high water temperature
                           Low water level
                           Low oil pressure
                           Low air pressure
                           High beam
                           Differential lock
                           Toggle switches, rocker switches, push/pull buttons – for
                            the headlights, clearance lights, parking lights and fog
                            lights, dome light, emergency flashers, panel lights and
                            working/utility lights
4. Steering Wheel          Tachometer – shows engine crankshaft revolution and
   Cluster                  tells you when to shift gears
                           Speedometer/odometer – shows truck speed in miles per
                            hour and keeps track of the total miles
                           Ignition switch
                           Hand throttle
                           Cruise control
5. Fuel Cluster            Fuel gauge – indicates the fuel level
                           Fuel filter gauge – indicates the condition of the fuel filter
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Cluster                 Description

6. Brake Cluster           Air pressure gauge – tells you how many psi are
                            available in the reservoirs for braking power. Normal
                            pressure is 100 to 120 psi
                           Low air pressure warning device – warns you when air
                            pressure in the reservoirs is low. Don’t drive a truck with
                            air brakes until the gauge reads at least 100 psi. Stop
                            immediately if it drops below 90 psi
                           Air brake application gauge – amount of pressure applied
                            to the brakes
                           Engine air filter gauge – indicates the condition of the air
                           Auxiliary brake or engine retarder – helps the service
                            brakes slow the truck
                           Trailer air supply valve knob – controls the trailer air
                            supply valve which supplies air to the trailer
                           Parking brake valve – applies the parking brakes for both
                            the tractor and the trailer
                           Tractor parking brake valve – applies the tractor parking
                            brakes only
7. Controls Cluster        Fifth wheel lock – locks a sliding fifth wheel in position
                           Inter-axle differential
                           Windshield wipers
                           Air conditioning controls

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Cluster Matching Worksheet
A = Engine, B = Unit Temperature, C = Lights, D = Steering Wheel, E = Fuel,
                         F = Brake, G = Controls

Matching Letter    Cluster Description

                   Trailer supply knob
                   Tractor protection knob
                   Air suspension
                   The rear axle differential
                   Fifth-wheel lock
                   Low oil pressure
                   Engine air filter gauge
                   Fuel gauge
                   Low water level
                   Parking break valve
                   High beam
                   Temperature gauges
                   The forward rear axle differential
                   Hand throttle
                   Cruise control
                   Low air pressure warning device
                   Ignition switch

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Vehicle Components
Now that you are familiar with the clusters and major system elements, let us
review the rest of the vehicle.

Equipment         Description

Chassis              Frame – the vehicle foundation
                     Suspension system - springs, including spring shackles, U
                      bolts, helper springs and set pins, air bag suspension and
                      shock absorbers
                     Driver line; clutch, transmission, drive shaft and universal
                      joints, differential and rear axle

Body and Cab         Fenders
                     Hood
                     Cab (gauges, hand controls located inside the cab,
                      including the operation of the seat adjustment controls)

Wheels and           Tires (tread, type, stud versus hub piloted, inflation)
                     Hub, gear oil check areas
                     Wheels and rims
                     Lug nuts
                     Wheel bearings
                     Axles – connect the wheels to the rest of the vehicle (front
                      and rear)

Under the            Engine
                     Fuel pump
                     Fuel lines and injectors
                     Fuel filters
                     Air cleaner (intake, exhaust, turbocharger, after cooler and
                     Clutch, transmission, drive shaft, universal joints, differential

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Equipment         Description
                     Electrical system, ammeter, voltmeter, voltage regulator,
                      alternator, drive belts and fuse panel areas, battery,
                      lubrication points of front suspension and location of wires
                     Ignition circuit and lighting and accessory circuits
                     Cooling system, radiator and fill spout, lower and upper
                      hoses and clamps, water pump and belts and drain cock
                     Lubrication system

Steering             Steering column, wheel, shaft, arm
                     Steering gear box
                     Pitman arm
                     Drag link and tie rods
                     Wheel alignment – caster and camber, toe-in and toe-out
                     Power steering

Interior of Cab      Controls in the cab
                     Ignition switch and starter button
                     Clutch pedal and clutch brake operation
                     Transmission and gear shifting positions
                     Instruments and air brake warning devices
                     Oil pressure
                     Ammeter – rate of charge
                     Temperature gauge
                     Tachometer
                     Dimmer switch
                     Accelerator pedal
                     Transmission control levers
                     Power take-off lever
                     Air conditioning vents

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Equipment      Description

Brakes            Brake pedal
                  Drum brakes
                  Service brakes
                  Parking brakes
                  Emergency brakes
                  Low air warning devices
                  Trailer brake hand control valve
                  Antilock brake system
                  Air brake system

Emergency         Emergency warning devices – red reflector box
                  Fire extinguisher
                  Fuse panel and spares

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Proper Entry and Exit from Cab
The tractor is designed for the comfort of the driver. Improperly climbing in and
out of the cab and climbing around the equipment is an injury waiting to happen.
It is recommended that drivers use the “Three Point Method” for entering and
exiting the cab.

The “Three Point System” recommends drivers have a strong foothold
while he or she has a firm handgrip on hand holds or steering wheel with both
hands. When entering the cab of a tractor, use all the steps and hand rails. Do
not jump up or down from the cab.

Most cabs will be equipped with air ride seats that are designed to add as much
comfort as possible to the driver and at the same time, to support the driver
during the long miles and hours spent on the road. Make sure you are in a
position at all times to control vehicle. To do this, be at the right angle of the
steering wheel and the hand controls. The seat is typically equipped with four
different control settings that if adjusted properly, will put the driver in a safe and
comfortable position.

All tractors come equipped with seatbelts. It is the driver’s responsibility to make
sure they are safe and in good working order. They should be checked each day
before the vehicle is moved as part of the driver’s vehicle inspection. Any
seatbelt found to have a tear or worn area should be replaced


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Starting/Stopping the Engine
Before starting the engine, ensure that you have completed your driver’s vehicle
inspection. The following lists the steps to starting the engine:

   1. Ensure the parking brake(s) is/are set.

   2. The “switch key” must always be turned “on” before starting the engine.
      This is necessary on engines with electric starters so that current will flow
      to the starting motor. It should be made a matter of driving habit on
      vehicles with air starts because the key controls the charging circuit. If it is
      not turned “on,” current ignition switch will not go to the battery and the
      battery will be discharged. Some vehicles must go through a system
      check prior to being able to start.

   3. Clutch pedal must be depressed to relieve starting motor of transmission
      drag. This operation is very important in cold weather, and may mean the
      difference between getting the tractor started or not!

   4. Electrical starting motors must not be operated continuously for more than
      ten seconds at a time. At least forty-five to sixty seconds should pass
      prior to trying to start an engine that fails to fire up on the first try. This will
      allow time for the starter to “cool” down.

   5. When the engine starts up, driver must not rev up the engine more than
      1000 rpms.

   6. As soon as the engine has started, the driver should now check all gauges
      on the dash to ascertain if sufficient oil pressure is showing. Make sure
      that all dash lights and safety warning buzzers are in full operation.

   7. With a manual transmission vehicle, partly engage the clutch before you
      take your right foot off the brake. Put on the parking brake whenever
      necessary to keep from rolling back. Release the parking brake when you
      have applied enough engine power to keep from rolling back.

   8. Speed up smoothly and gradually so the vehicle does not jerk. Rough
      acceleration can cause mechanical damage (such as damaging the

   9. Set parking brake(s).

   10. When shutting down the engine, depress the clutch and move the
       gearshift to neutral. Cool the engine down by letting it idle for a few
       minutes. Turn the engine off.

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The Transmission
It is important for you to understand the transmission and is purpose. A
transmission transmits the power from the engine to the wheels and does with a
wide range of speed.

The essential parts of a heavy truck transmission include:

      Multiple countershafts

      Compound transmissions

      Auxiliary transmissions

      Ranges

      Splitters

Truck transmissions use compound transmissions, which increase the number
of gear ratios and improve engine efficiency. The first compound transmission
was the auxiliary transmission.

Range control offers a high and low range of gears under the same shifting
pattern Range control is found on nine-speed transmissions, 10 speed
transmissions and 13 speed transmissions. The splitter offers overdrive to each
of the higher gears and is found in 13 speed transmissions and newer 18 speed

There are two elements to understand specifically,force and gear ratio. When a
small gear turns a larger gear, a lesser speed is produced. The difference in size
between one gear and another gear is called gear ratio and results in faster and
slower speeds.

      A higher gear ratio of 17:1 will put a truck in low speed

      An even ration of 1:1 is idea for highway driving

Advantages of Automatic                    Disadvantages of Automatic
Transmissions                              Transmissions

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Anti-Lock Braking System
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) is a computerized system that keeps your
wheels from locking up during hard brake applications. This is an additional
feature that goes along with your normal braking capacity. The system only
activities when your wheels are about to lock up. These are required on truck
tractors with air brakes built on or after March 1, 1997 and other air brake
vehicles (trucks, buses, trailers, and converter dollies built on or after March 1,
1998. In addition, hydraulically braked trucks and buses with a gross vehicle
weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more built on or after March 1, 1999.

You will know if your truck has one because it will have a yellow ABS malfunction
lamp on the instrument panel. As a system check on newer vehicles, the
malfunction lamp comes on when starting the vehicle for a bulb check and then
goes out quickly.

You may or may not be able to stop faster with ABS but you may be able to steer
around an obstacle while braking and possibly avoid a skid. Keep in mind the
following elements:

      Use the braking force necessary to stop safely and stay in control

      Brake the same way

      Drive so you never need to use your ABS

      The device will not allow you to drive faster, follow more closely or drive
       less carefully

      The device will not compensate for bad brakes or poor brake maintenance

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Jacobs Engine Brake
The Jacobs Engine Brake is a diesel engine retarder that uses the engine to aid
in slowing and controlling the vehicle. When activated, the engine brake alters
the operation of the engine’s exhaust valves so that the engine works as a
power-absorbing air compressor. This provides a retarding, or slowing, action to
the vehicle’s drive wheels, enabling you to have improved vehicle control without
using the service brakes. This results in reduced service brake maintenance and
lower overall operating costs.

Key information about Jake Brake:

   1. A driver can turn the engine brake on and off and select a level of braking
      (low – two cylinders, medium – four cylinders, and high – six cylinders).

   2. Additional controls are activated by the position of the clutch pedal and
      position of the throttle.

   3. Allow the engine to reach full operating temperature before switching on
      the engine brake (it depends on the free flow of engine oil for operation).

   4. When your foot is off the clutch and you remove your foot completely from
      the throttle, the engine brake is automatically activated.

   5. When you apply pressure to the throttle, the Jacobs Engine Brake is

   6. Be sure to turn off the engine brake dashboard switch when you shut the
      engine down to prevent the switch from being in the “on” position at
      engine cold start.

   7. Use the lowest possible gear without exceeding the recommended engine
      speed for engine braking.

   8. Do not use the Jacobs Engine Brake when bobtailing or pulling an empty
      trailer on wet or slippery pavement.

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Types of Trailers
During this class, our main concentration will be focused on single trailers.
However, it is helpful to understand the other types of trailers you may come in
contact with going forward. Your company will provide you with specific training
on how to maneuver and manage the types of trailers they operate.

Listed below are the types of trailers:

   1. A Train Double - this is a traditional trailer and can be hard to back due to
      several pivot points connecting the trailers

   2. B Train Double – again a traditional trailer. Found mostly in the northern
      states and Canada. Common configuration is flatbeds.

   3. C Train Double – this is similar to the A Train Double and is also found
      mostly in the northern states and Canada as well.

   4. Rocky Mountain Double – this configuration is found on most highway
      systems in the Northwest.

   5. Turnpike Double – this trailer type is mainly found on the East Coast

   6. Triple Trailers – only legal in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana,
      Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
      Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota and Utah.

In the following table, we will list what is legal in each state. The left number is
the maximum cargo–carrying length measured in feet from the front of the first
cargo unit to the rear of the last cargo unit. This distance is not to include length
exclusive devices which have been approved by the Secretary of Transportation
or by any State. Devices excluded from length determination shall only include
items whose function is related to the safe and efficient operation of the semi-
trailer or trailer. No device excluded from length determination shall be designed
or used for carrying cargo. The right number is the maximum gross weight in
thousands of pounds that type of vehicle can carry when operating as an LCV on
the Interstate System. For every State where there is a length or weight number
in the table that follows, additional information is provided.

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                   Truck tractor    Truck tractor
                   and 2 trailing   and 3 trailing   Other
STATE              units            units            configuration
Alabama            NO               NO               NO
Alaska             95'              110'             83'
Arizona            95' 129K         95' 129K         (1)
Arkansas           NO               NO               NO
California         NO               NO               NO
Colorado           111' 110K        115.5' 110K      78'
Connecticut        NO               NO               NO
Delaware           NO               NO               NO
Dist of Columbia   NO               NO               NO
Florida            106' (2)         NO               NO
Georgia            NO               NO               NO
Hawaii             65' (2)          NO               NO
Idaho              95' 105.5K       95' 105.5K       (1)
Illinois           NO               NO               NO
Indiana            106' 127.4K      104.5' 127.4K    58'
Iowa               100' 129K        100' 129K        78'
Kansas             109' 120K        109' 120K        NO
Kentucky           NO               NO               NO
Louisiana          NO               NO               NO
Maine              NO               NO               NO
Maryland           NO               NO               NO
Massachusetts      104' 127.4K      NO               NO
Michigan           58' 164K         NO               NO
Minnesota          NO               NO               NO
Mississippi        65' (2)          NO               NO
Missouri           110' 120K        109' 120K        NO
Montana            93' 137.8K       100' 131.06K     (1)
Nebraska           95' 95K          95' (2)          68'
Nevada             95' 129K         95' 129K         98'
New Hampshire      NO               NO               NO
New Jersey         NO               NO               NO
New Mexico         86.4K (3)        NO               NO
New York           102' 143K        NO               NO
North Carolina     NO               NO               NO

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                    Truck tractor       Truck tractor
                    and 2 trailing      and 3 trailing       Other
STATE               units               units                configuration
North Dakota        103' 105K           100' 105.5K          103'
Ohio                102' 127.4K         95' 115K             NO
Oklahoma            110' 90K            95' 90K              NO
Oregon              68' 105.5K          96' 105.5K           70' 5"
Pennsylvania        NO                  NO                   NO
Puerto Rico         NO                  NO                   NO
Rhode Island        NO                  NO                   NO
South Carolina      NO                  NO                   NO
South Dakota        100' 129K           100' 129K            (1)
Tennessee           NO                  NO                   NO
Texas               NO                  NO                   NO
Utah                95' 129K            95' 129K             (1)
Vermont             NO                  NO                   NO
Virginia            NO                  NO                   NO
Washington          68' 105.5K          NO                   68'
West Virginia       NO                  NO                   NO
Wisconsin           NO                  NO                   NO
Wyoming             81' 117K            NO                   (1)

 a. State submission includes multiple vehicles in this category – see individual State

 b. No maximum weight is established as this vehicle combination is not considered a
    “Long Combination Vehicle (LCV)” per the Intermodal Surface Transportation
    Efficiency Act (ISTEA) definition. Florida’s combination is not allowed to operate
    on the Interstate System, and the combinations for Hawaii, Mississippi and
    Nebraska are not allowed to exceed 80K gross weight.

 c. No maximum cargo-carrying length is established for this combination. Because
    State law limits each trailing unit to not more than 28.5 feet in length, this
    combination is allowed to operate on all NN routes under the authority of the
    Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982, regardless of actual cargo-
    carrying length. The maximum weight listed in New Mexico’s maximum allowable
    gross weight on the Interstate System under the grandfather authority of 23 U.S.C.

 d. These dimensions do not apply to the same combinations. The 110-foot length is
    limited to vehicle entering from Oklahoma, also limited to 90K gross weight. The
    120K gross weight is limited to vehicles entering from Kansas, also limited to a
    cargo-carrying length of 109 feet.
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Trailer Page One

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Trailer Page Two

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Vehicle Inspections
Vehicle inspections are important because they keep you and others safe on the
road. They are required by law and must be performed accurately. A truck that
is in good running order is a safe truck. If your vehicle is inspected and a federal
and/or state inspector finds it unsafe, they will put your vehicle “out of service.”
There are four major types of inspection categories:

   1. Pre-trip

   2. En-route

   3. Post-trip

   4. Official roadside inspection

Part 396 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations covers the vehicle
inspections required by the Department of Transportation. The laws are
guidelines to protect the carrier, the client, the public and YOU, the driver.

The carrier is charged with seeing that vehicles are inspected and accurate
records are kept. The driver is responsible for performing the inspection and
filling out the reports. This includes a vehicle inspection before and after your
run, reporting any repairs and verifying that necessary repairs have been made.

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Pre-Trip Inspection Process
Prior to leaving for a trip, it is CRITICAL that you complete the following
inspection steps. Not following these procedures could result in an accident,
mechanical issues and overall trip challenges.

The pre-trip inspection involves a complete circle check inside and outside the
tractor and trailer.

Specific areas of routine inspection should include:

Inspection        Description

Overview             Ensure proper paperwork is available and accurate –
                      logbooks, DVIR, placards, proper documentation
                     Make sure the vehicle is not leaning to one side
                     Wet spots mean something is leaking
                     Review the last vehicle inspection report
Engine               Check fluid levels (oil, coolant level in radiator, power
Compartment           steering, windshield washer, automatic transmission)
                     Hose conditions
                     Check the belts
                     Look for fluid leaks
                     At the battery, check the connections, battery box, fluid
                      level, look for worn wiring insulation, broken wires and
                      make sure the vent caps are in place
                     Check the compressor oil supply
                     Suspension system – anything broken or faulty, cracked,
                      loose or leaking
                     Frame
Inside the Cab       Start the engine (make sure parking brake is on and put
                      gearshift in neutral (or park if automatic)
                     Listen for unusual noises
                     Check all the gauges for normal readings
                     Air pressure should build from 50 to 90 psi within 3 minutes
                     Test all switches and controls and adjust your mirrors
                     Check for cracks
                     Check the steering wheel – setting or excessive play in

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Inspection     Description
                   steering wheel (defects, missing parts, etc.)
                  Test the horn(s)
                  Check the supply of windshield washer fluid
                  Only stickers and decals required by law should be on the
                  Properly charged and rated fire extinguisher
                  Three reflective triangles
                  Fuses and other emergency equipment
                  Chains (where winter conditions require)
                  Tire changing equipment
                  List of emergency phone numbers
                  Accident reporting kit/packet
                  Check seats and seat belts
                  Extra paper towels and window cleaner
Check the         Make sure the headlights and four-ways are working
Lights            Check both high and low beams
                  Turn on parking, clearance, side marker and identification
                  Check the left and right turn signals
                  Make sure the stop lights and front and rear signals are
Walk-Around       Start at the left front side and move in the front
Inspection        Clean any windows or mirrors along the way
                  Go to the right side, to the back and finally to the left side
                  Tires - Check the tread depth and the tire pressure and
                   check for tire size and type mixed on the same axle
                  Wheels – check the lug nuts and hub oil level
                  Suspension - check for cracked or broken leaves, and
                   overall defect issues
                  Markings – proper placarding, license plate visibility and
                  Brakes – brake linings
                  Axles – check for leaks
                  Sliders – make sure the locking pins and locking devices
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Inspection     Description
                   are in place
                  Air system – listen for leaks, search for the source of leak,
                   check the condition of hoses, drain air tanks and overall
                   pressure – pump up air system and associated gauges
                  Coupling – inspect the dolly and make sure air and
                   electrical coupling connections are made properly
                  Fuel tanks – double check fuel level, leaks, frame, hose
                  Fifth wheel – see that the coupling is secure at the fifth
                   wheel and inspect the dolly
                  Landing gear – should be up and the handle stowed away
                  Spare tire(s) – if you have one, make sure it is in good
                   condition and mounted securely
                  Exhaust system – parts are not rubbing against other parts
                   and check for leaks
                  Steering system – level of power steering fluid, leaks, free
                   play should be no more than two inches on each side,
                   shake the steering arm, tie rod and drag link at each wheel
                   to see they are not loose
                  Cargo securement – make sure there are the required
                   number of tie downs for the load, all bindings and chains
                   should be in good condition, check blocking and bracing,
                   cargo seals and tarp must be tied down
Brakes            Check the brakes by moving forward in low gear. If the
                   trailer brakes are working and the coupling is secure, they
                   should hold you back
                  Test the foot brake’s power to stop the truck from moving
                   forward. Test the parking brake and see if it holds as you
                   try to move forward (parking and service)
                  Check brake pads for signs of wear

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En-Route Inspection Process
While en-route (or in-transit), it is important to check a variety of elements to
ensure your trip is smooth and accident free. Malfunctions can happen en-route
but with a little prevention, you can avoid such issues.

The Oregon Commercial Motor Vehicle, Driver Motor Vehicle Services workbook,
there are items you should pay attention to during a trip. These include:

      Keep an eye on your gauges for signs of trouble (air, engine, pressure,
       ammeter, voltmeter)

      Use your senses to check for problems (look, listen, smell and feel)

      Check certain items when you stop; tires, wheels and rims, brakes, lights
       and reflectors, brakes and electrical connections to the trailer, trailer
       coupling devices and cargo securement devices

      After you have driven for 3 hours or 150 miles, stop and re-check the
       cargo and securing devices

      Re-check after every break you take during your trip

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Post-Trip Inspection Process
Once you complete your trip, it is important to ensure your vehicle is in good
order for the next trip. A report of the vehicle’s condition must be made at the
end of each day’s work and must be signed to certify repairs have been made.

Just as before leaving for your trip, it is important to check the vehicle once your
trip is completed. The following lists items to check for during this post-trip

Area to Inspect       Description

Tire Problems            Too much or too little air pressure
                         Bad wear. You need at least 4/32 inch tread depth in
                          every major groove on front tires. You need 2/32 inch
                          on other tires. No fabric should show through the tread
                          or sidewall
                         Cuts or other damage
                         Tread separation
                         Dual tires that come in contact with each other or parts
                          of the vehicle
                         Mismatched sizes
                         Radial and bias-ply tires used together
                         Cut or cracked valve stems
Wheel and Rim            Damaged rims
Problems                 Rust around wheel nuts may mean the nuts are loose
                         Missing clamps, spacers, studs or lugs means danger
                         Mismatched, bent or cracked lock rings are dangerous
                         Wheels or rims that have had welding repairs are not
Bad Brake Drums          Cracked drums
or Shoes                 Shoes or pads with oil, grease, or brake fluid on them
                         Shoes worn dangerously thin, missing, or broken
Steering Systems         Missing nuts, bolts, cotter keys or other parts
Defects                  Bent, loose or broken parts such as steering column,
                          steering gear box or tie rods
                         If power steering equipped, check hoses, pumps and
                          fluid level – check for leaks
                         Steering wheel play of more than 10 degrees

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Area to Inspect      Description

Suspension              Spring hangers that allow movement of axle from proper
System Defects           position
                        Cracked or broken spring hangers
                        Missing or broken leaves in any leaf spring
                        Broken leaves in a multi-leaf spring or leaves that have
                         shifted so they might hit a tire or other part
                        Leaking shock absorbers
                        Torque rod or control arm, spring hangers, or other axle
                         positioning parts that are cracked, damaged or missing
                        Air suspension systems that are damaged and/or
                        Any loose cracked, broken, or missing frame members
Exhaust System          Loose, broke, or missing exhaust pipes, mufflers,
Defects                  tailpipes or vertical stacks
                        Loose, broken, or missing mounting brackets, clamps,
                         bolts or nuts
                        Exhaust system parts rubbing against fuel system parts,
                         tires, or other moving parts of vehicle
                        Exhaust system parts that are leaking
Emergency               Fire extinguisher(s)
Equipment               Spare electrical fuses
                        Warning devices – three reflective warning triangles
Lighting Devices        Lights
and Reflectors          Flashers
                        Mirrors

                   Ensure you fill out your DVIR accurately!

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Official Roadside Inspections
The Department of Transportation safety regulations authorize a special agent of
the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to stop and inspect your vehicle.
This could also happen at border crossings or at other types of stops such as
weigh stations. Your vehicle can be declared out of service if it fails the
inspection. The driver is also subject to inspection at that time. The agent will
also check to see if you are keeping your logs up to date.

If you pass the Critical Item Inspection, you will most likely not be subject to
another roadside inspection for 90 days.

The Critical Items that will be inspected during this time could include:

      Brakes

      Tires and wheels

      Drawbars

      Steering

      Fifth wheel

      Suspension

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Daily Vehicle Inspection Report Form
The Daily Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR) Form is a checklist of all the items
which must be inspected and which must be in safe operating condition before
the vehicle may be driven.

The vehicle inspection report form is often combined in the same book with the
driver’s daily log. The report must list any and all problems that could hamper
the safe operation of the vehicle in question. It must also identify the motor
vehicle and must be signed by the driver. Any report defects must be promptly
communicated to the carrier so that it is taken care of immediately.

Important DVIR reminders:

   1. DVIR’s are to be completed at the start and end of every day
   2. DVIR’s can typically be found between passenger and driver seat
   3. The DVIR should be signed off by last driver and current driver indicating
      whether the vehicle is safe to drive after completing your pre-trip
   4. Document defects/damage on DVIR and obtain witness verification from
      on-duty mechanic or other company employee
   5. If vehicle defect has not been repaired by a mechanic and is unsafe to
      drive, see mechanic on duty
   6. If the vehicle is considered “red tag out of service” it is not safe for driving

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Driver’s Vehicle Inspection Report Example

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Shifting Execution
Shifting gears is one of the more difficult skills you will learn in becoming a
professional driver. The process takes coordination and precise timing.
Improper timing or lack of coordination can cause over-revving and gear grinding.

There are 3 shifting controls used in a manual transmission:

   1. accelerator – controls the flow of fuel to the engine

   2. shifting lever – controls what gear the transmission is in

   3. clutch – transfers power from the engine to the transmission

There are three types of gears to learn as well in the transmission:

      Sliding Gears

       In the sliding gear transmission, different sized gears slide along the
       output shaft. Only one pair of gears are in mesh at any time.

      Sliding Clutch

       All the gear sets are in mesh at the same time but only one is working. In
       the sliding clutch transmission, the gears in the output shaft are floating.

      Reverse Idler Shaft Gear

       The reverse idler shaft gear allows the truck to reverse.

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Shifting Execution Process
There are key process steps to ensure you utilize proper and safe shifting
execution. This also includes the proper use of the clutch. According to the
Oregon Commercial Motor Vehicle Manual, the following steps should be
followed when shifting gears.

Shifting Element        Description

Basic Method for           Release accelerator, push in clutch and shift to
Shifting Up                 neutral at the same time
                           Release clutch
                           Let engine and gears slow down to the rpm required
                            for the next gear
                           Push in clutch and shift to the higher gear at the
                            same time
                           Release clutch and press accelerator at the same
Using Engine Speed         Watch your tachometer, and shift up when your
(rpm) to Shift Up           engine reaches the top of the range (some newer
                            vehicles use progressive shift – shift becomes higher
                            as you move up in the gears)
Use Road Speed             Using the speedometer to know when to shift
(mph) to shift Up

Basic Procedures for       Release accelerator, push in clutch and shift to
Shifting Down               neutral at the same time
                           Release clutch
                           Press accelerator, increase engine and gear speed
                            to the rpm required in the lower gear
                           Push in clutch and shift to lower gear at the same
                           Release clutch and press accelerator at the same
                           Use tachometer or speedometer and downshift at
                            the right rpm or road speed

 Remember…skip shifting is an unsafe and controversial process – it can
 save fuel but must be used with caution – please discuss in your class!

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Hints and Tips for Shifting
      Before starting down a hill, slow down and shift down to a speed that you
       can control without using the brakes hard. They can overheat and lose
       their braking power

      Downshift before starting down the hill. Ensure you are in a low enough

      Before entering a curve, slow down to a safe speed and downshift to the
       right gear before entering

      Know when you should use your retarders (either exhaust, engine,
       hydraulic and electric) – in some places, they are not permitted by law
       because of the noise level so be sure you know how to turn them on and

      Practice the ability to multi-task while shifting (checking mirrors, doing
       visual searches, etc.)

      Avoid riding the clutch – this can cause damage and should never be

      Be sure to select the proper gear for speed, terrain, turns and highway

      If you have a Jake Brake, use them properly

Texas “Two Step”
Follow the Texas “two-step” method for shifting. Only one foot is to be in use at
any time. Release the clutch completely before using the accelerator.

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Backing and Docking
This section focuses on backing and docking. In many cases, you can avoid
even having to back into a location, but when you need to …it is important to be
prepared and ready for the process. It is also important to know how to park/dock
a vehicle in a variety of situations.

Common Causes of Backing Accidents

      Backing unnecessarily

      Blind areas

      Vehicle design

      Infrequent backing practice

      Inadequate mental preparation for backing

      Inadequate information during backing

      Not checking the area being backed into before beginning the backing

      Not using your mirrors

      Not keeping your right foot poised over the brake pedals

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Safe Backing Principles
     Plan your route to avoid backing, if possible
     Turn your 4-way flashers on
     Honk your horn
     Start in the proper position
     Use helper whenever possible
     Make the move slowly and cautiously
     Position your equipment so you will back the shortest distance
     Avoid backing from the blind side, if possible
     Walk around your equipment to make certain you have enough room to
      back safely
     Look for objects such as water hydrants, stationary objects, rocks, holes,
     Continuously use both mirrors
     If you have to back a long distance, stop part way, get out and check for
      other objects in the path
     If you have swing-open doors, open them slightly and cautiously in case
      high stacked freight falls from the trailer
     Secure doors to the side of the trailer so they will not swing loose or
     If pedestrians are in the vicinity behind your vehicle at any time, stop and
      warn them and ask them to remain clear
     Check building overhangs, overhead doors, projecting fire escapes, etc.
     Remember snow and ice buildup can affect clearance
     Ease back to dock slowly
     Park your vehicle, set the parking brake, turn the power off, and put the
      transmission in the lowest forward gear. Then place a chock block at the
      rear wheels if at a dock
     If you should pass an address you are looking for, do not back up while
      looking in your rear view mirror. Get out and look before backing
     Always analyze your situation fully
     Create standardized hand and arm signals with your team – if they are not
      already in place
     Pull up and start over when necessary
     Perform serpentine backing slowly and using idle speed

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ASC Process

      A                 Approach

       S                Set-Up

      C                 Completion

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Backing Steps
Backing and       Process
Docking Step

1. Backing and       Back the tractor so it is out of line with the trailer. This
   Docking            starts the trailer going back in a curve
                     To follow the trailer, reverse the steering angle of the tractor
                     As the trailer moves backwards, the tractor will follow it
                     Straighten the tractor
                     50/50 rule
                     Use mirrors when docking
                     Chock tires when docking
                     Use spotter when needed
2. Pre-              Pre-positioning is the position into which you place your rig
   Positioning        before you begin backing
   for a             The straight back position is easiest and safest
   Straight          Stop, get out, and inspect the area
                     Pull ahead and as the tractor passes the hole, steer hard
                      away from the hole
                     Steer back into line with the hole
                     Pull ahead until tractor and trailer are straight and line up
                      with the hole
                     You will be able to see it in both mirrors
                     Line up the truck directly in front of what you want to back
                      up to
                     Use your horn and four ways
                     Use a spotter
3. Pre-          The clear side pre-position is backing from a position which
   Positioning    lets you have a clear view in your left rear view mirror of the
   on the Clear   space you want to back into
   Side          Stop, get out and inspect the area
                 Pull ahead and steer away from the space
                 When the tractor is at a 45-degree angle to the space,
                  straighten the wheels and pull ahead until the tractor and
                  trailer are in line and the trailer is pointing at the space.
                You will be able to see the space in your left mirror
                Start backing and turn the steering wheel to the right to
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Backing and       Process
Docking Step
                      position the tractor
                     Once the trailer is curving towards the space, turn the
                      steering wheel to the left and let the tractor follow the trailer
                      into the space
                     When the trailer is in line with the space, turn the steering
                      wheel even more to the left to straighten the tractor with the
                      trailer and continue backing
                     Idle only
                     Take your time
                     Use your horn
4. Pre-              The blind side pre-position makes it more difficult to see the
   Positioning        area you are backing into
   on the Blind      Get help
   Side              This is the most difficult position – if possible, find another
                     Use a spotter
                     Stop, get out and inspect the area
                     Pull ahead and steer away from the space
                     When the tractor is at a 45-degree angle to the space,
                      straighten the wheels and pull ahead until the tractor and
                      trailer are in line and the trailer is pointing at the space.
                      You will be able to see the space in your right mirror
                     Start backing. Turn the steering wheel to the left to jack the
                      tractor. Once the trailer is curving towards the space, turn
                      the steering wheel to the right and let the tractor follow the
                      trailer into the space
                     When the trailer is in line with the space, turn the steering
                      wheel even more to the right to straighten the tractor with
                      the trailer and continue backing
5. Docking           Steps to proper docking procedure include inspecting the
                      area, pre-positioning the rig, open the trailer doors and
                      operate at idle speed only
                     Back up close to the dock
                     Inspect the area behind the trailer and estimate the
                      remaining distance
                     Back until the trailer touches the dock

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Backing and    Process
Docking Step

6. Parallel       Parallel parking a rig is a difficult maneuver, each rig will
   Parking         turn differently because of the different wheelbases
                  Pull forward until the trailer is fully past the vehicle parked in
                   front of the selected spot
                  Manage space on right
                  Check the traffic
                  Use cones and 4 ways and park in street so paralled park is
                  Turn your steering wheel to the left so your tractor directs
                   the trailer to the right toward the open space
                  When the trailer is pointing into the space, straighten the
                   tractor by turning the steering wheel to the right
                  Continue backing
                  When the middle of your tractor is at the rear of the vehicle
                   in front, your right rear trailer wheels should be about three
                   feet from the curb
                  Continue the right turn so that the tractor directs the trailer
                   to the left
                  When your tractor will clear the front vehicle, turn the
                   steering wheel to the left

                   When in doubt, get out!

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Stopping and Parking
Below are hints and tips for safe stopping and parking.

   1. Stopping or parking on the open highway shall be avoided whenever
      possible. Stopping on the shoulder of a high-speed, limited access
      highway is particularly dangerous and is usually prohibited by law except
      in an emergency.

   2. If necessary to park on the highway, driver shall pull his unit as far to the
      right as he can, completely off of the traveled portion of the road.

   3. Whenever it is necessary to park outside of city limits, set out emergency
      warning signals in accordance with the Department of Transportation
      regulations, unless the unit is at least five feet away from the nearest part
      of the main traveled roadway. Set out emergency warning signals in built-
      up areas whenever their use will promote the safety and convenience of
      other highway users.

   4. When parking, apply the parking brake and put the transmission in the
      lowest forward gear (or reverse) after shutting down the engine. If driving
      a vehicle with a two-speed or three-speed axle, set in low range. Never
      use the trailer hand-valve or tractor protection valve to hold a parked unit.

   5. When parking, do not leave the engine running unless the temperature is
      below freezing, or the engine is required for the operation of auxiliary

   6. If curb is available, turn the front wheels toward the curb when parking on
      the level or headed downhill. If headed uphill, turn the front wheels away
      from the curb or position so that the drive wheels hooks against the curb.

   7. Avoid parking on steep grades. If such parking is unavoidable, it may be
      necessary to block one or more wheels to prevent a rollaway.

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This section is about the steering system and how it enables the driver to change
direction and get around corners. There are several components of the steering
system to be understood along with understanding steering geometry.

Steering          Description

Steering          Secured to the steering column by a nut
wheel             Turning motion continues through the U-joint to the steering
                 Continues through another U-joint to the steering gear box
                 Steering gear box changes the rotating motion of the
                   steering column to the axles
                 Connected to the steering gear box is a lever called the
                   Pitman arm
                 The drag link joins the Pitman arm to the steering axle
                 The steering axle carries a load like other axles but also
                   steers the truck
Steering axle    Steering axle is made up of the steering arm, steering
                   knuckles with a kingpin, spindles and a tie rod arm and tie
Steering arm     Steering arm is connected to the steering knuckle which
                   lets the wheels turn left or right
                 The tie rod holds both wheels in the same position
                 The kingpin in the steering knuckle allows each wheel to
                   have its own pivot point
Manual – manual steering system multiplies your turning effort at the steering
wheel column and the turning motion of the steering column is reduced at the

Power – power steering systems are easier to use and rely on hydraulic
pressure to work.

Hold the steering wheel firmly with both hands. Your hands should be on
opposite sides of the wheel. If you hit a curb or a pothole, the wheel could pull
away from your hands unless you have a firm hold.

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Alignment Section Elements
Alignment         Description

Toe In Toe Out         Toe in means the distance between the toes of the tires
                        is less than the distance between the heels of those
                       Toe out means the distance between the toes of the
                        tires is greater than the distance between the heels of
                        those tires
                       If your vehicle is aligned with too much to in or toe out it
                        will be hard to steer and will also cause the tires to wear
Camber (Proper         Camber is the position of the top of the tire
and Improper)          When there is zero camber, the top of the tire sits
                        directly over the bottom of the tire
                       When there is positive camber, the tire leans slightly
                        away from the body of the truck
                       When there is negative camber, the tire leans toward
                        the body of the truck
                       The degree of camber is the degree of the angle
                        between zero camber and how far the tire is in positive
                        or negative camber
                       Improper camber causes road shocks, uneven wear and
                        steering wander
                       Too much camber wears away tread on the outside
                        edge of the tire and too little camber will cause the
                        inside edge to be smooth
                       Steering wander occurs when a tractor pulls to one side
                        on a flat road and uneven camber causes steering
                       Uneven camber is caused by using different sized tires,
                        improperly inflated tires or unevenly worn tires
                       Improper cambering can also be caused by worn
                        steering knuckles, knuckle pins that are not in correct
                        position, worn kingpin bushings or bent axles
Caster                 Caster is the position of the tire in relation to the steering
                       Positive caster causes the steering wheel to return to a
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Alignment           Description
                        straight-ahead position after you turn a corner
                       Caster makes the front wheels more stable
                       Zero or too much negative caster causes the front to
                        shimmy and wander at low speeds
                       Uneven positive caster will cause the vehicle to pull
                        toward the side that has the least caster
                       Incorrect caster will not affect tire wear so you cannot
                        rely on tire appearance to reveal incorrect caster
Turning Radius         Turning radius is the size of the circle, or turning angle,
                        the tractor makes while turning around and determines
                        the maneuverability of the vehicle
                       It is the number of degrees to the right or left that the
                        front wheels can be turned from a straight-ahead
Set-Back Front         To allow for the set-back axles on conventional tractors,
Axle                    design changes were made to the hood, the steering
                        linkage, the front suspension mounts and the front
                       The set-back front axle greatly improves
Steering Geometry      Steering geometry refers to how your truck responds to
                        its steering system and all angles of alignment (toe in,
                        toe out, camber, caster)
Improper               Difficulty steering or straightening out from a turn
Alignment              Increased road shock and shimmying
                       Front end instability
                       Chattering noise in the power steering
                       Saw tooth, feathered edge or unusual inside or outside
                        tread wear

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Hints and Tips for Steering

     Know the vehicle

     Plan in advance

     Allow for off-tracking (rear wheels do not follow the same track as the front
      wheels when moving through a turn or curve)

     Watch your mirrors

     The sharper the turn, the slower the vehicle should be moving

     Maintain a proper speed control

     Shift into the correct gear before the turn and complete the turn in the
      same gear

     Pull further into intersection than a smaller vehicle in order to avoid hitting
      a curb

     Turn from as far right as possible

     Get about 1/2 of the rig past the corner before beginning the turn

     Accelerate slightly to smooth out the turn

     Check mirrors constantly

     Watch for vehicles in the area

     Use outside lane when there is more than one lane

     On curves, keep the vehicle close to the center of the road without
      crossing the center line for a right traveling curve

     When approaching a left traveling curve, keep the front of the vehicle as
      close to the outer edge of the road as possible.

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Coupling and Uncoupling
This section is about pre-coupling, horizontal and vertical alignment and coupling
and uncoupling procedures. The focus will also be to discuss common problems
associated with coupling and uncoupling and possible solutions.

Knowing how to couple and uncouple correctly is a basic to safe operation of
vehicles. Doing this improperly could be very dangerous.

Review the following table. Decide if the step is a coupling or uncoupling step
and determine the proper order.

C or U    Order     Coupling and Uncoupling Steps

                    Unlock fifth wheel

                    Release parking brakes

                    Inspect areas and chock wheels

                    Position rig

                    Connect the electrical cord and check air lines

                    Check connection for security (tug twice)

                    Check that the locking lever is in the “lock” position

                    Lower the landing gear

                    Check to make sure the safety latch is in place

                    Back slowly

                    Stow the handle for transit

                    Pull tractor forward

                    Disconnect air/electrical lines

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5LL – Landing Gear, Lights and Fifth Wheel
5LL and LL5 is a simple procedure or routine taken when coupling and
uncoupling a trailer. There are steps to be taken each time coupling and
uncoupling in the yard or on the street.

5LL Step           Description

Fifth Wheel           Tug twice on the fifth wheel.
                      Get out and check to make sure the release handle is in the
                       locked position.
                      Check to make sure the safety latch is in place.
                      Go behind the tractor and under the trailer and check to make
                       sure the jaws are closed around the “King Pin.”

Lights                Attach the Emergency Line (Red) to the trailer.
                      Attach the Light Cord to the trailer.
                      Attach the Service Line (Blue) to the trailer.

Landing               Raise the landing gear as high as it will go.
                      Check to make sure that the other leg also rose up.
                      Stow the handle for transit.
Note: Process developed by Roadway

Additional Coupling Hints and Tips

            Check and adjust mirrors
            Check trailer numbers to ensure match of specific trailer to paperwork
            Stop when the rear of the tractor is about five feet from the front of the
             trailer when working on horizontal alignment
            Approach the trailer from the right with horizontal alignment
            When making the connection be sure to connect the air supply lines
             and charge the trailer air supply
            Check the connection by pulling forward slowly – the tractor should not
            Connect the single electrical supply cable (pigtail) to the trailer
            Deal with tandems, as necessary

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LL5 – Landing Gear, Lights, Fifth Wheel
LL5 Step        Description

Landing         Lower the landing gear, stopping one (1) inch from the
Gear             ground.
               Insure the other leg also lowers down.
               Do not stow the handle instead, let it hang down.
Lights         Remove or unhook the Service Line and stow the line. Make
                 sure to place the line in a location where dirt and water
                 cannot enter the line.
               Remove or unhook the Light Cord and stow the cord. Make
                 sure to place the line in a location where dirt and water
                 cannot enter the cord.
               Remove or unhook the Emergency Line and stow the line.
                 Make sure to place the line in a location where dirt and water
                 cannot enter the line.
Fifth Wheel    Place both feet and legs beside the tires, not in front of the
                 tires. Reach under the trailer and grab the release handle
                 with your dominant hand. Move the safety latch with your
                 finger and using your legs as a lever, pull out the release
               Get back into the tractor and slowly pull out from under the
                 trailer, stopping as soon as the trailer drops off of the fifth
                 wheel. Wait a few seconds to make sure the landing gear will
                 hold the trailer up, before pulling out from under the trailer
               In the rare occasions, you will find that the release handle will
                 not come out easily. Get back into the tractor and slowly
                 back under the trailer further. Make sure the brakes on the
                 trailer are set and the brakes on the tractor are released.
                 When you feel the resistance from the trailer, set the brakes
                 and turn off the engine. Exit the tractor and try again with
                 releasing the fifth wheel.
Note: Process developed by Roadway

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Additional Uncoupling Hints and Tips

      Set the parking brakes first
      Disengage the fifth wheel locking mechanism
      Disconnect the air supply lines and electrical cable from the trailer
      Complete all paperwork as necessary
      Consider chocking before coupling/uncoupling depending on surrounds.
       Warning triangles, cones, etc. depending on traffic – reflective vests
      Do not jerk on the handle. Not jerking on the handle will minimize
       stresses on the shoulder
      Using the 5th wheel puller is encouraged so as not to injure yourself

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Key Safety Issues for Coupling and Uncoupling
When coupling and uncoupling, there are several safety issues to keep in mind
while performing the process steps.

      Inspect the area for safety hazards

      Chock the trailer tires at the rear and remember to remove the wheel clock

      Check the inflation of your tires

      Look for worn hoses or loose connections in the air system

      Make sure lights are working

      Do not cut corners

      GO SLOW

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Visual Search
Visual search is about seeing the big picture on the road. It means using your
eyes to establish the picture all around you (front, back, side and center). The
Smith System of training calls this looking with a 360 circle of constant

By constantly performing a visual search, you will be aware of any dangerous
situations development and be better able to take steps to avoid accidents.

What should you be paying attention to in order to avoid blind spots and
“no-see” zones?

Look around every 2 seconds

Scan ahead of the truck

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Hints and Tips for Visual Search
     Scan ahead the distance the vehicle would travel in about 12 to 15
      seconds (at lower speeds, that is about one block, at highway speeds, that
      is about a quarter of a mile)

     Position the truck properly in the lane

     Watch the road surface

     Don’t lock your eyes on the road in front

     Scanning must include the sides and back, above and signs of the road
      and vehicle

     Position both plane and convex mirrors so the plane mirrors reflect the
      trailer body and the convex mirrors show part of the trailer

     Keep track of who is on the road with you

     Look for vehicles coming onto the highway, into your lane or turning

     Watch for brake lights from slowing vehicles

     Make regular checks of your mirrors to be aware of traffic and your vehicle
      position and vehicle parts (if you are carrying open material)

     When changing lanes, turning, merging and making tight maneuvers – do
      not rely solely on your mirrors, check to the sides as well

     When you use your mirrors while driving on the road, check quickly, look
      back and forth between the mirror and the road ahead

     Use a regular pattern, mirror check every 5-8 seconds

     Check instrument panel frequently

     Recognize and adjust for blind spots and no-see zones

     Make sure you are behind the other vehicle at least 6-8 seconds

     Avoid diverting attention from the path ahead

     Use Conversational driving method

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Vehicle Communication
When traveling on the road, you will have the opportunity to communicate with a
variety of vehicles along the way. During this process of communication, it will
be important for you to ensure your communication is professional. You are a
representative of the company and how you communicate, is part of our branding
and marketing.

The following lists the different types of communications you will perform
(effectively is the key):

      Signaling

      Changing lanes

      Intent to slow, turn or stop

      Using flashers – both brakes and headlights

      Misuse of horn

      Paying attention to others around you

      Reactions

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Hints and Tips for Communication
     Intent to change lanes by signaling not less than 100 feet in advance of
      any lane changes

     Intent to slow, turn or stop by using the emergency flashers to alert others
      that you are moving slowly or that you will be slowing

     Intent to stop by flashing your brake lights

     Identify truck presence by flashing your headlights

     Remember that the turn signal in a truck does not automatically snap off
      when a turn is completed

     Turn off the turn signals when you are not making a turn

     Do not misuse the horn

     Pay attention to the communication of others – professional and non-
      professional drivers

     Be prepared to react to each situation

     When turning, signal early, signal continuously and don’t forget to cancel
      the signal when complete

     Never stop suddenly, gradually stop and use your flashers or turn signals
      well in advance - use emergency flashers if necessary and legal for that
      state when needed

     Never signal others to pass

     If absolutely needed, tap the horn lightly when you are about to pass them
      (if legal for that state) this will ensure they see you (at night, flash your
      lights if needed)

     Turn on your headlights at dawn, dusk, in rain or snow to make yourself
      easier to see and ensure you are using your low beams

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Communication Situations
Identify effective communication strategies the driver should use to be safe and
respectful on the road.

   1. You are traveling down the road and another vehicle cuts in front of you.
      How should you communicate with this person?

   2. You realize you need to pull off the road, how should you signal to other

   3. You are having some engine trouble and need to slow down. How should
      you alert other drivers?

   4. You see a person behind you wants to pass. You notice the road is clear
      ahead for at least ½ mile. What should you do to help this person pass

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Speed and Space Management
Managing your speed and your space is a critical aspect of safety on the road.
Many accidents occur because this is not done properly. This section will
discuss the keys to success for speed and space management along with
specific requirements to follow.

Speed and Space      Description

Stopping distance    Braking distance plus driver response time is equal to
                      the stopping distance.
                   How long and how far it will take your vehicle to stop
                      safely is called the braking distance.
                   Driver response time is the amount of time it takes you
                      to see a situation and react to it.
Road surface       Pay special attention when driving on bad roads (narrow
                      roads, bumpy roads with potholes, soft shoulder, etc.).
                      Adjust your driving to the specific road conditions.
                      Lookout for potholes, bumps and soft shoulders. Allow
                      time and space to slow down or change lanes to avoid
                      bad spots in the road.
                   Bad road conditions demand slower speeds of travel.
                   Friction and traction problems get worse at faster
                   In wet weather, and at fast enough speeds, tires will
                   Snow and ice reduce traction. Lock in the inter-axle
                      differential for better traction.
Shape of the road  Slow enough before entering curves so you don’t have
                      to brake.
                   You may lose speed while going uphill.
                   Downshift and use the right lane when traveling uphill.
                   You will pick up speed going downhill.
                   Downshift before starting down or use the auxiliary
                   Don’t fan the brakes.
Speed              Speed shall never be faster than a rate consistent with
                      existing speed laws, road, traffic and weather
                      conditions. Posted speed limits on the open highway
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Speed and Space    Description
                        and in towns and cities must be obeyed.
                       Your speed should be based on how far ahead you can
                        see and how long it would take to see the danger and
                       Adjust your speed for curves in the road – slow to a safe
                        speed before entering.
                       Be careful of your speed in roadway work zones.
Visibility             At night and when fog and other conditions restrict
                        visibility, speed shall be reduced to a point that will
                        enable the driver to stop within the distance he or she
                        can see ahead.
                       Speed shall be reduced when rain, snow, ice or similar
                        conditions reduce traction or visibility. Never forget that
                        posted speed limits apply only when conditions are
Flow of traffic        The ramp used to enter a freeway gives you time both to
                        build up to highway speed and to find an opening into
                        which to merge.
                       Slow when exiting a freeway. Flash your brake lights
                        and use the turn signal.
Space ahead            On the open highway, maintain a four (4) second
                        following distance to avoid bothering other drivers and to
                        leave room for safe stopping in case of an emergency.
                        Never follow another vehicle closely in an effort to force
                        the driver to speed up or change lanes.
                       Increase following distances when roads are slippery
                        due to rain, snow, ice, loose dirt, mud, or the like.
                        These conditions increase stopping distances three (3)
                        to twelve (12) times.
                       On two lane roads, always follow at a distance that will
                        permit a faster driver to pass and return to the right lane
                       At 40 mph, allow one second for every 10 feet of your
                        vehicle’s length.
Space behind and       Judge distances of other vehicles behind you.
side                   Leave a bigger following distance in front, if you are
                        being tailgated.
                       Keep a cushion on one side of your vehicle.

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Speed and Space     Description
                       Stay to the right.
                       Don’t speed up.
Space above and        Leave space above and below your vehicle to clear
below the truck         hazards.
                       Make sure you can get safely over a grade crossing or
                        under an overpass.
                       Stay centered in a lane.
                       Do not assume the heights posted at bridges and
                        overpasses are correct. Re-paving or packed snow may
                        have reduced the clearances.
                       Be careful of tilting issues.
Space for traffic      Trucks need a bigger gap of space. The gap should be
gaps                    the distance between two vehicles other than your own.
                       Traffic gaps are needed when passing, merging,
                        crossing or entering traffic or at a railroad crossing.
                       Try to be in areas where there are no other vehicles
                        around to avoid unsafe issues.
                       Provide even more space when dealing with inclement
                        weather conditions.
Giving space to        There is no situation in which any driver automatically
others                  has the right away!
                       Look for communication from other professional and
                        non-professional drivers.
                       You are at risk of hindering traffic if you fail to
                        communicate effectively.
Right of Way           Never attempt to exercise the right of way; always let
                        the other driver go first. Above all, never use the size of
                        your vehicle to assert your right of way.
                       Keep to the right except when overtaking slow-moving
                        vehicles or when getting into position to make a left turn.
                        Compliance with this rule is mandatory on multi-lane
                        highways and freeways and on one-way streets, unless
                        otherwise posted.
                       Be ready to yield to drivers who may dash out in front of
                        you from side streets, interchange ramps, private and
                        public driveways or similar places.
                       When entering main thoroughfares from side streets,
                        alleys, driveways, garages, terminal yards or buildings,
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Speed and Space   Description
                        a full stop shall be made before entering upon any
                        crosswalk. Emergency vehicles; such as fire trucks,
                        police cars, and ambulances always have the right of
                        way when giving warning by means of a siren or
                        warning lights. Pull as far to the right as possible and
                        stop until they have passed.
                       Never break a funeral procession.
                       Military convoys in close formation have the right of way.
Passing                Passing will be attempted only where it is legal to do so
                        and when the driver has adequate clear space to
                        complete the pass without racing and without personal
                        risk, or creating hazardous conditions for others.
                       Signals shall be given to indicate change of lane, both
                        when pulling out to pass and when returning to the right-
                        hand lane. The required signal is given for at least 100
                        feet before any actual change of lanes.
                       The giving of a signal is only an indication of intention. It
                        does not give right of way privilege or any guarantee
                        that the driver can change lanes safely.
                       Size up the whole situation before passing.
                       Return to the right-hand lane as soon as you can and do
                        so safely.
                       Never be too quick to pass a driver who is having
                        mechanical trouble, who may be lost or uncertain of the
                        way, or whose actions are otherwise erratic. Under
                        these conditions, the use of the horn is clearly indicated
                        before you get too close.
                       On two-lane roads, never attempt to pass when
                        approaching the top of a hill, a curve, an intersection, a
                        side road, bridge, railroad crossing, or any other place
                        you do not have a clear view of the road ahead.
                       Standing buses and streetcars will be passed in
                        accordance with legal traffic regulations.
                       Be alert for school buses and be ready to make a safe
                        stop if necessary.
                       Do not attempt to pass more than one vehicle at a time.
                       On multiple-lane highways, take care not to pass under
                        conditions that will cause you to block faster traffic
                        overtaking from the rear. Do not attempt to pass unless
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Speed and Space   Description
                        you can go at least five miles per hour faster than the
                        slower traffic in the same directions. Use only the two
                        right-hand lanes unless otherwise posted, or when
                        making a legally permitted left turn.
Being Passed           When being passed by another vehicle, drivers shall
                        keep well to the right and, if necessary, reduce speed to
                        facilitate safe passing. Never speed up to prevent
                        another driver from passing.
                       Do not signal the driver of an overtaking vehicle that it is
                        safe to pass. This practice is prohibited by the
                        regulations of the Department of Transportation.
                       Be alert for the driver who tries to pass in an unsafe
                        place. Don’t try to block him.
                       At night, dim your lights after being passed to avoid
                        creating objectionable flare in the other driver’s mirror.
Meeting Other          Always keep to the extreme right when meeting any
Vehicle                 oncoming vehicle. At night, dim your headlights when
                        within 500 feet of an oncoming driver regardless of any
                        action he or she may take.
                       If you see a vehicle approaching on your side of the
                        road, slow down; pull as far to the right as safely
                        possible, and stop. Never, under any circumstances,
                        pull to the left in an attempt to avoid an oncoming
                        vehicle in your lane.

        Ticket penalties: losing license, suspensions, loss of job

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Speed and Space Management Tips
Space in front of      One of the best ways to manage your speed and the
you                     space around your rig is to make sure you always have
                        enough stopping distance
                       When conditions are good, make your following distance
                        at least one second for every ten feet of your rig
                       Add another one second if you are traveling over 40
                       If road conditions or visibility are poor, add at least
                        another one second to your following distance
                       Your speed also affects how your rig will handle on
                       The higher your center of gravity, the more likely your rig
                        will tip over during a turn, and the more you need to
                        slow down
Managing the           Keep an eye on your mirrors
space behind you       Stay in the right lane
                       If you encounter a tailgater, keep your cool. Don’t invite
                        problems you can easily avoid
                       If you encounter a tailgater, don’t speed up
                       If you encounter a tailgater, gradually slow down to
                        encourage the driver who is tailgating to pass you
                       If you encounter a tailgater, don’t make any quick
                        changes and avoid playing games
                       Don’t be a tailgater yourself
Managing the           Keep your vehicle centered and steady
space beside you       Don’t travel with the pack
                       Drive your own trip
                       Find an open spot or adjust your speed so you are not in
                        the other vehicles’ blind spots
                       Plan ahead for your own safe space
                       If you are alert and careful, chances are you will make it
                        home safely
Above and below        Know the dimensions of your rig
your rig               Don’t rely on posted heights on overpasses and bridges
                       Be aware of all potential overhead obstructions such as
                        wires, trees and signs
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                         Be aware of road debris, unpaved surfaces and railroad
                          tracks when managing the space below your rig,
                          especially if you have got a heavy load
                         Make sure you have enough space on all sides of your
Manage All             Keep your speed within safe limits
Aspects of Your        Stay aware of the hazards that affect the space around
Speed & Space           you
                      Remember that weather, road conditions and traffic
                        affect the safest speed to travel
                      Your rig needs the extra safety cushion that allows you
                        time and space to maneuver or stop when you need to
                      Have a plan B ready at all times!
*Information adapted from work by J.J. Keller & Associates

Other things to be cautious about with space management

      Be careful around parked vehicles

      Be careful when you see pedestrians and bicyclists

      Watch out for people who are distracted

      Be careful around children

      Watch for people talking to one another, they are usually not paying

      Be careful around roadway workers

      Be careful around crashes and disabled vehicles

      Be careful around confused and slow drivers

      Watch out for drivers in a hurry or those that are impaired

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Stopping Distance Chart
Miles per       How far the       Driver          Vehicle          Total
hour            rig will travel   reaction        braking          stopping
                in one            distance        distance         distance
                second (feet)     (feet)          (feet)           (feet)
15              22                17              29               46

30              44                33              115              148

45              66                50              260              310

50              73                55              320              375

55              81                61              390              451
*Information from Oregon Commercial Motor Vehicle Handbook

Based on this information, stopping distance can equal just a few seconds.
Example; at 55 mph on dry pavement with good brakes, it can take a heavy
vehicle about 390 feet to stop which is approximately 4 ½ seconds.

The heavier the vehicle, the more work the brakes must do to stop and the more
heat they absorb. The brakes, tires, springs and shock absorbers are designed
to work best when the vehicle is fully loaded. When your truck is empty, you will
need more stopping distance due to less traction.

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Night Operations
Driving at night requires a different set of principles and strategies. The following
table outlines some of these tips to ensure you are safe when driving at night.

The Vehicle            Make sure your rig is ready for night driving
                       Headlights should be clean and properly
                       Low beams illuminate about 250 feet ahead
                       High beams illuminate about 350 to 500 ahead
                       If headlights are dirty, this distance is cut in half
                       Marker lights, clearance lights, taillights, identifications
                        lights and reflectors must also be in good shape
                       Dirt on mirrors or windshield can cause dangerous and
                        distracting glare
                       Keep the cab ventilated
The Road               The lack of light is your biggest road hazard at night
                       Do not overdrive your ability to see. Slow down on hills
                        and around curves or on unfamiliar roads
                       Allow extra room to stop – automatically increase your
                        following distance
                       Other drivers present a nighttime hazard
                       Be extra alert in the early morning hours when bars are
                       Allow a safe margin away from drivers who may be drunk
                        or otherwise impaired
                       Watch for animals, especially in wooded areas or roads
                        lined with tall grass
                       Scan for reflections for animal’s eyes and shadows to the
                       Know that street lights can cause visibility problems
                       Some roadways do not have lights
                       There is a greater possibility of drinking drivers at night so
                        be alert
The Driver             Be aware of your visual limitations at night
                       You can’t see as well to sides
                       Your eyes have a difficult time adjusting to the changes

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                       from light to dark, and vice versa
                      Wearing sunglasses during the daytime reduces eye
                       strain, which helps you see better at night
                      When approaching oncoming glare, avert your eyes to the
                       right side of the road to prevent temporary blindness
                      Keep prescription glasses clean to minimize glare
                      Avoid fatigue. Park your rig in a safe spot and rest if you
                       feel drowsy
                      Driving when you are tired puts you and everyone else on
                       the road at unnecessary risk (stop every two hours to rest
                       and move around)
                      Know your route
                      Avoid large amounts of food
                      Stay away from alcohol for at least eight hours before
                      Keep your eyes moving
Other Tips            Make sure you have enough time to stop within the
                       distance you can see by your headlights
                    Increase your following distance by at least one second;
                       more if weather or road conditions are bad
                    Drive defensively. Anticipate potential situations that
                       could lead to an incident or crash
                    Continually scan around you
                    Signal every turn, lane change or stop, so other drivers
                       have time to react
                    Slow down around corners because your headlights are
                       aimed straight ahead
                    Use your high beams when it is safe and legal
                    Dim to low beams between 500 and 1,000 feet of an
                       oncoming vehicle
                    Don’t play high beam tag with oncoming vehicles…it is
                       dangerous and stupid
                    Limit the light inside the cab. Adjust the brightness of
                       instrument lights, and don’t turn on the dome light unless
                    Keep your cab cool and comfortable to help prevent
*Information adapted from work by J.J. Keller & Associates

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Extreme Driving Conditions
Driving at night requires a different set of principles. In this section, we will
review the following types of extreme driving conditions:

       Driving in mountains and rolling terrain

       Extreme weather conditions including fog, ice, snow, rain and wind


A small grade may be only a 4% grade. This means there is a 4-foot change in
altitude for every 100 feet of roadway. A 4% grade in a thousand feet would
mean a 40-foot increase or decrease in altitude.

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Uphill and Downhill Operations
When traveling either uphill or downhill, you must take into consideration the
grade, the appropriate gear, the use of brakes, brake fades, runaway ramps and
rolling terrain.

Considering these factors, respond to the following questions based on uphill and
downhill operations.

Uphill Operations Scenarios

   1. You are traveling at 45 MPH and you notice that you are slowing down.
      You need to shift down one gear. What are the steps you will need to take
      to complete this action.

   2. While traveling up the hill, you notice that your vehicle’s RPM are at the
      “high” range, but you find that the ground speed does not support shifting
      up one gear. What action(s) are available for you at this stage?

Downhill Operations

   1. You are traveling downhill at a speed of 55 MPH. You notice your vehicle
      is gaining speed and you need to bring the vehicle back under control.
      What action(s) are available?

   2. While traveling downhill, what is the gear you should shift in to descend
      the hill and maintain your speed during the downhill operation?

   3. While descending the hill, you notice your trailer brakes are starting to
      smoke and the brakes are getting “softer”. What action(s) are available?

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    Uphill and Downhill Operations Hints and Tips
Uphill Operation Tips                            Downhill Operation Tips
   If you do not downshift on an upgrade,          Reduce and control your speed before
    you will lug the engine and eventually           you start descending down a hill
    stall                                           Avoid making any sudden moves on the
   Downshifting on an upgrade is different          road. If your back box starts to slide, DO
    from downshifting on level ground                NOT BRAKE! You will have to speed up
   On a grade, the truck will slow down             to straighten it out.
    much more quickly                               Be careful not to downshift too far or not
   Shift fast                                       far enough
   Your double-clutch technique must be            Pull off before descending and check the
    very accurate                                    brakes
   If you do “miss a gear,” your only choice       Use one gear down from what you used
    may be to bring the truck to a stop, shift       to climb the hill
    into first and continue up the hill             Be in the right gear before you start
   You probably will not be able to upshift         heading down
    many gears so your trip up the hill will        Check the slack adjusters and look for
    be a slow one                                    any other loose or broken parts
   Traffic, poor driving habits and wear and       Do not change gears on a downhill run
    tear on the rig can impact your uphill          Turn on the auxiliary brake
    operation efficiency                            With the engine retarder on, you will
   To reduce wear and tear on your rig              probably not need the service brakes
    watch the temperature of the engine,            Service brakes should only be used when
    transmission and differential                    either the engine rpm or the truck speed
                                                     exceeds safe limits
                                                    Do not fan or pump the brakes –
                                                     remember, they will take a long time to
                                                    Be careful, brake fade occurs when brake
                                                     temperature gets so high the brake shoe
                                                     surface beings to melt
                                                    Overheating the brakes can also cause
                                                     the brake drums to get red hot and crack,
                                                     brake linings to burn up, wheel grease
                                                     seals to get hot and leak grease (if the
                                                     wheel grease heats to 900 degrees
                                                     Fahrenheit, it will ignite)

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Runaway Ramps Hints and Tips
Highways have runaway ramps on long downhill grades. Runaway ramps stop
up to 80% of out-of-control trucks. If using a runaway ramp, follow the following
hints and tips:

      Turn on your lights and flashers

      Blow the air horn

      Look for runaway ramp signs

      As you enter the ramp, shift your rig into neutral

      Hold the steering wheel firmly

      When you stop, shut off the engine and turn off the lights

      Climb out and take the fire extinguisher

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Rolling Terrain
There are times when your grade is not as severe and other strategies to get
back into control will work effectively. For grades that are not severe, following
the following steps:

      Check brake adjustment prior to mountain driving

      Use right lane or special truck lane going up grades

      Maintain a steady speed

      Select the correct gear for one hill after another

      Remember, you will be changing gears constantly

      Anticipate your gear changes

      Upshift and increase your speed when needed

      Downshift near the top of the hill

      Use the tachometer

      Use momentum to get up the next hill but do not exceed the legal speed

      Traffic will frustrate your attempts to maintain an even speed – try not to
       get angry about this issue

      Use four-way flashers

      Observe temperature gauge frequently when pulling heavy loads up long

      Think ahead to what may be over the hill ahead of you

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Extreme Adverse Weather Conditions
The following table outlines tips to follow when faced with extreme adverse
weather conditions. The information is a summary of the video you just watched
from J.J. Keller & Associates.

Weather       Tips

Fog              Fog is the most common visibility problem
                 When you can’t see more than seven vehicle lengths ahead,
                  slow down
                 Your maximum speed should be 20 to 30 mph
                 If you can’t see three vehicle lengths ahead, your speed should
                  be no more than 10 to 15 mph
                 Consider how long it would take you to stop for a stalled car,
                  animal or crash scene ahead of you
                 Keep your headlights on the low beams, so other drivers can
                  see you better
                 Use your wipers to clear mist from your windshield
                 If visibility is near zero, find a safe place to pull over until
                  conditions improve
Rain             Rain is the most common weather problem for drivers
                 Heavy rain can limit your visibility as much as fog
                 Your rig may hydroplane and lose contact with the pavement
                 Traction is reduced when rain mixes with dirt, oil and grease on
                  the road
                 Factors that affect traction:
                 Type and weight of rig
                 Tire condition
                 Type of road surface
                 Road and air temperatures
                 Reduce your speed to increase traction and control of your
                 If you are in a downpour, pull off the roadway to the right and
                  turn on your four-way flashers and turn off all your other lights

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Weather     Tips

Snow           Falling and blowing snow contribute to both reduced visibility
                and reduced traction
               Give yourself plenty of time, and be extra alert
               Increase visibility by using low beam headlights and properly
                functioning windshield wipers
               Reduce your speed to allow for increased stopping distances
               Accelerate, steer and brake smoothly and carefully to minimize
                the chance of skidding
               Know your company’s policy and state laws regarding tire
               Know how to mount chains correctly
               Do not use the retarder in snow
               Lock the inter-axle differential to get more traction if you need it
               If you are in a blizzard, pull off the roadway to the right and turn
                on your four-way flashers and turn off all your other lights
Ice            Icy roads can create the slickest conditions, even when
                visibility is good
               “Black ice” is difficult or impossible to see on the road surface,
                especially at night
               When ice forms on the front of your mirrors, there may also be
                ice forming on the road
               If it has been raining or snowing and there is no road spray
                from other vehicles, ice is likely to be forming
               Ice may form first on bridges and overpasses
               Increase your braking distance 4 to 10 times what you would
                allow on dry pavement
               Make no sudden moves
               If you need to accelerate or decelerate, do so slowly and
               If you have anti-lock brakes (ABS), apply them and maintain
                the pressure then slow down safely
               Slow down for turns and do not over-steer
               Do not use the retarder
               Lock the inter-axle differential if you have stopped and poor
                traction makes it hard to get started again

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Weather     Tips

Wind           Tractor-trailers and other high-profile vehicles are especially
                vulnerable to the effects of wind
               Wind effect increases if you have a light load, a top-heavy load
                or a combination of units
               When winds are 50 mph or more, controlling a rig can be a
               When winds are over 60 mph, just about any vehicle can be
                put in the ditch
               When extreme winds are combined with rain, snow or ice, your
                rig may skid, jackknife or roll over no matter how careful you
               Watch for high wind warning signs
               Listen to the radio for weather alerts and updates
               Communicate with your dispatcher about local weather
               If you proceed, keep both hands on the wheel, and eye on the
                mirrors and reduce your speed
               Be ready for sudden wind gusts, especially on overpasses and
                bridges, coming out of tunnels, while driving near canyons or in
                open, flat areas
               Look for signs of worsening wind conditions such as bent trees,
                choppy water, fully-extended flags and flying debris
               When you no longer feel in full control of your vehicle, pull over
                until conditions improve
               Check the engine temperature often
               Steer into the wind slightly

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Cold Weather Driving Tips
     A diesel engine is more difficult to start in cold weather

     Cold air takes longer to reach combustion temperatures

     If temperatures are consistently below 40 degrees Fahrenheit, you may
      need a starting aid to get the engine going

     Bring your engine up to operating temperature. If you try to accelerate
      before the lubricant is circulating well, your truck may experience camshaft
      lobe damage, crankshaft and bearing damage and turbo-shaft and bearing

     Do not start your trip until the needle of the water temperature gauge
      starts to move up

     White smoke coming from your exhaust stack during cold starts is a sign
      of incomplete combustion and will clear up when the engine warms up

     Allowing for an idling period will help to establish an oil film on the cylinder
      walls, lubricate the turbocharger bearings, allow time for the pistons to
      expand to fit the cylinders and allows coolant temperature to increase

     Be prepared for cold weather – carry additional food and clothing to deal
      with “stop” situations

     Always check with dispatch or other source for weather conditions

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Winter Safe Driving Tips

     Winter Safe Driving Tips

     1. Check backside of mirror for ice. If there is ice on the mirror, there is
        ice on the road.

     2. When road spray stops, ice begins.

     3. Get your proper rest before each day’s work.

     4. Know the weather report for the area you will be delivering to.

     5. Properly check the truck each day before leaving the parking lot.

     6. Check the snow on the head and taillights, and clean if necessary.

     7. Slow down before entering curve. Do not brake while in curve.

     8. Watch for wind conditions when entering and leaving tree rows and

     9. Heavy blowing snow, use flashers.

     10. Always turn on windshield wipers before you meet an oncoming truck
         and when passing.

     11. When going up steep slippery hills, and your speed has dropped to
         less than 30 MPH, you can move to the shoulder of the roadway to
         take advantage of the better traction in the loose snow on the shoulder.

     12. Drive with headlights on at all times.

     13. Before starting each day, make sure windshield washer is filled.

     14. Watch corners at intersections for drivers that may fail to stop.

     15. Do not put blind trust in the other driver.

     16. Watch ahead for the slow driver. You may have to stop.

     17. When stopping, make sure you park your unit in a straight line and
         allow your tractor to roll to a stop rather than applying your brakes and

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     Winter Safe Driving Tips

        make a hole you can not get out of.

     18. When wind is blowing snow across the road look for slippery spots.

     19. Don’t add anything to fuel tanks not furnished and approved by the
         company. Combining additives may create your own home brewed
         rocket fuel.

     20. When disaster strikes:
           Pull of the roadway
           Use your four ways until you get your triangles out. Place your
            triangles 100’, 50’ and 25’ from the rear of the truck – refer to
            FMCSR 392.22
           Turn off all lights and four ways. Save your batteries for when you
           When you call in, give as much information as possible. Describe
            exactly what happened. Let the mechanic decide what is important.
            Give as much information on your location as you can. Maps don’t
            show mile markers, so the nearest exit on highways is a big help in
            locating you.
           Remember that fuel filters must be filled before installing
           You are our representative on the scene. Ask questions. Watch
            the repairman, if he does something that does not look right to you,
            ask him what he is doing and why.

     21. When you are stuck:
           Look the situation over before you try to get moving. Will the tractor
            rock at all? Can you move the opposite direction? Will the trailer
            roll? If yes to these questions, contact the shop for a wrecker
            and don’t try to burn your way down to traction. For the cost of one
            rear end tow drive tires, we can pay for about sixty wrecker calls
           Hook chains to tow hooks or axles. Bumpers are strictly for
           If you put a chain around the front axle, don’t hook around the tie
            rod. It will bend immediately and the front wheels will point in
            different directions.

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     Winter Safe Driving Tips

     22. Watch for the wind when passing or being passed.

     23. Change your driving habits as the weather changes.

     24. If the roads are snow covered and you have to stop fast, look at the
         right mirror to see what your trailer is doing.

     25. Anti-lock brakes help you stop in a straight line and give you some
         steering control. They do not help you stop faster or shorter.

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Other Driving and Road Hazards
     Always be aware of the road and learn the location of all road hazards,
      curves, railroad crossings and other road conditions in a route when
     Approach bridges, trestles, overpasses, viaducts, underpasses, etc.,
     Be careful when pulling up next to curbs or passing through alleys
     Be careful around telephone poles, trees, signs, fire escapes, overhead
      wires, etc.
     Use care in driving through tunnels. In most states transporting Haz Mat
      in tunnels is a violation of the law. Watch for signs
     In daytime, turn on headlights before entering a tunnel
     At night, dim lights before entering narrow tunnels and proceed cautiously
     Never turn lights off when entering or traveling through tunnels unless
     If another vehicle enters a narrow tunnel from the opposite and, come to a
      full stop immediately and dim lights until the other vehicle has passed
     Check side and top clearance closely
     Know your equipment height and watch posted clearances on bridges and
      underpasses. Where the posted clearance exceeds the height of your
      until six inches or less, slow down to avoid bouncing into the overhead
     Posted clearance signs are not always correct. Before entering areas with
      questionable overhead clearances, stop, get out, and check
     Watch for slippery surfaces – shaded areas, bridges, melting ice, black
      ice, vehicle icing, areas with standing water
     Be careful to not hydroplane – if it happens, regain control by releasing the
      accelerator and pushing in the clutch to slow the vehicle
     If the weather is hot, carry an ample supply of drinking water
     Inspect tires frequently when it is hot weather
     Avoid leaving the vehicle if it is disabled in the desert
     Check tires, lubrication levels and operation of cooling system, fan belts,
      fans and hoses and check the radiator for debris

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Hazardous Materials
As discussed earlier, some of you might be transporting hazardous materials.
Drivers who haul hazardous materials must have a special endorsement on their
CDL and must pass background security checks.

The Department of Transportation regulates hazardous materials regarding
packaging, labeling, loading and transporting. As a driver, when hauling
hazardous materials your responsibility is to be able to recognize, load safely,
placard correctly and transport safely the cargo.

The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) is found in parts 171-180 of title 49
of the Code of Federal Regulations. The common reference for these
regulations is 49 CFR 171-180.

As a driver, you must follow the many rules about transporting hazardous
materials so you can:

      Contain the product

      Communicate the risk

      Ensure safe drivers and equipment

      Avoid fines

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A hazardous material can pose a health or safety risk to individuals, animals,
plants and could damage property. There are 9 classes of hazardous materials
that can cause a serious health issue if not managed properly. These classes
include substances that are flammable, combustible, poisonous or otherwise
harmful. ORM-D (other regulated material – domestic) is a consumer commodity
which presents a limited hazard during transportation due to it’s form, quantity
and packaging. These include elements of:

      Liquid
      Gas
      Solid

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Employee Responsibilities
As an employee dealing with Haz Mat materials, you must follow proper
procedures and ensure you in compliance when:

      Loading or unloading Haz Mat materials

      Preparing Haz Mat documents for transportation

      Know what to do to stay in safety compliance

      Effectively operate a vehicle to transport Haz Mat materials

      Know how to test or Mark materials for Haz Mat packages

As an employee, it is critical that you understand this information and continue to
refresh your knowledge at least every 3 years. Haz Mat information is consistent
across the United States but there are a few exceptions when the regulations
apply differently:

      Shipping into Canada (Transportation Dangerous Goods)

      Shipping by Air (International Aviation Transportation Association)

      Shipping by Sea (International Maritime Dangerous Goods)

There are three Packaging Groups to Learn:

   1. Packaging Group I refers to great level of risk to health and safety

   2. Packaging Group II refers to medium level of risk to health and safety

   3. Packaging Group III refers to minor level of risk to health and safety

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Hazardous Materials Class
You must be able to verify the proper identification number, packaging group,
verify the label is correct, the shipper used the proper package and know what
placards are required. You must also be able to recognize a Haz Mat shipment
and handle it safely. Refer to your Hazardous Materials Compliance Pocketbook
for this process and your Emergency Response Guidebook.

Shipping         Haz   ID        Packaging Labels Special    ERG   Proper
Name             Mat   Number    Group            Provisions Guide Placards
                 Group                                       No.
Nitrotriazolone 1.1D    UN0490 II            1.1D     None        112     Explosives
or NTO                                                listed              1.1

Pentolite, dry
or wetted with
less than 15%
water, by
gas mixture,



contained in


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Shipping Papers and Manifests
When preparing to transport hazardous materials, it is critical that the shipping
papers be in order along with the manifest. The shipper is responsible for
completing this paperwork and a driver must verify this information.

The following acronyms should help you to better understand how things are

Acronyms and        Description

Placards            Used to warn others of hazardous materials. Placards are
                    signs put on the outside of a vehicle (four sides) that identify
                    the hazard class of the cargo.

ID                  Identification Number – four digit code used by first
                    responders to identify hazardous materials.

Bulk Packaging      Packaging, other than a vessel, or a barge, having a
                    maximum capacity greater than 119 Gals for a liquid, net
                    mass greater than 882 pounds for a solid and capacity
                    greater than 1000 pounds for gas.

Carrier             A person engaged in the transportation of passengers or

EPA                 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

FMCSR               The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

Fuel Tank           A tank, other than a cargo tank, used to transport flammable
                    or combustible liquid or compressed gas.

N.O.S.              Not otherwise specified.

Hazardous           A hazardous material is a substance or material which has
Material            been determine by the Secretary of Transportation to be
                    capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and
                    property when transported in commerce, and which has been
                    so designated. This includes hazardous substances,
                    hazardous wastes, marine pollutants, and elevated
                    temperature material.

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Hints and Tips about Shipping Papers and Manifests

     According to HMR 172.205, a shipper is required to prepare, date and
      sign their shipping papers. As a driver, you must receive 3 copies and
      keep them readily available should you be stopped in route or questioned
      upon your delivery.
     Abbreviations of the shipping name may be used only when certain
      regulations permit

     The identification number is a four digit United Nations (UN) number used
      for U.S. and international shipments

     The identification number is a North American (NA) number used for U.S.
      and Canadian shipments only

     Keep these documents within reach even when you wear your seat belt

     Keep these documents in the cab, on the driver’s seat, in plain view even
      when you leave the tractor

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Loading Hazardous Materials
We have discussed many elements of hazardous materials except how to load
them onto the vehicles. As you watch the video, record the loading steps in the
appropriate column.

Class      Hazardous           Examples                   Loading Steps

1          Explosives          Ammunition, Dynamite,
                               Fireworks – includes six
                               divisions with the final
                               division being extremely
                               insensitive detonating
2          Compressed Gas      Propane, Oxygen,
           Cylinders           Helium – includes three
                               divisions (flammable,
                               non-flammable and non-
                               poisonous, poisonous by
3          Flammable and       Gasoline Fuel, Acetone

4          Flammable Solids    Matches, Fuses –
                               combustible and
                               dangerous when wet

5          Oxidizing           Ammonium Nitrate,
           Substances          Hydrogen Peroxide,

6          Poisons             Pesticides, Arsenic –

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Class      Hazardous           Examples                      Loading Steps
                               poisonous or infectious

7          Radioactive         Uranium, Plutonium –
           Materials           greater than .002
                               microcuries per gram

8          Corrosives          Hydrochloric Acid,
                               Battery Acid – visible
                               destruction or
                               irreversible alternation to
                               human skin or can
                               cause sever corrosion
                               on steel or aluminum
9          Miscellaneous       Formaldehyde, Asbestos
           Hazardous           – hazardous substance
           Materials           or waste

None       ORMD (other        Hair spray or charcoal –
           regulated material consumer commodities
           – Domestic)

None       Combustible         Fuel Oils, Lighter Fluid

Review the Oregon Commercial Vehicle 2005 – 2007 workbook which outlines
materials that should not be loaded next to or near certain hazardous materials.

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General Steps for Loading and Unloading
     Refuse leaking packages and shipments
     Make sure the parking brake on your vehicle is set
     Do not speak when loading or unloading hazardous materials – keep fire
     Chock the wheels
     Turn off the engine
     Be alert
     Have a clear view of the cargo tank
     Ensure the load will not bounce or shift
     Do not load if materials are damaged or leaking
     No overhang or tailgate with loads of explosives
     Make sure you have proper emergency equipment (fire extinguisher being
      one of them)
     Load the containers so they will be easy to get to in an emergency
     Load the materials so they will not bounce or shift in the ride
     Do not drop or roll containers of corrosive liquid
     Pay attention to what you load packages next to or near – keep corrosive
      liquids away from explosives, flammable solids, spontaneously
      combustible oxidizers and poisonous gases)
     Do not load nitric acid above any other product and do not stack it more
      than two levels high
     Do not park within 300 feet of a bridge, tunnel or building, a place where
      people gather, an open fire if you have Class A or B explosives
     Refuel with the engine off
     Never use flares

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Placards are similar to a label and are attached to the outside of a vehicle. It is
the shipper’s responsibility to provide, class and quantity of the material listed
determines the placard needed.

The following lists the different types of Placards you might see on the road:

                                                               Explosive 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3
                                                               – a Placard must be used
           Explosives                                           for any amount carried


                                                                A Combustible Placard
                                                                 may be used instead
           Flammable                                           Flammable, if the liquid
                                                               has a flash point greater
                                                                      than 141 F

                                                                A Placard must be used
                                                                   for any amount of
       Flammable Solid                                          Division 4.3 Dangerous
                                                                  When Wet Material

                                                                A Placard must be used
                                                                   for any amount of
    Oxidizing Substances                                          Division 5.2 Type B
                                                                Temperature controlled

                                                               A Placard must be used
                                                                  for any amount of
             Poison                                            Division 2.3 and 6, Zone
                                                                         A or B

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                                                             A Placard must be used
                                                                for any amount of
          Radioactive                                          Radioactive III label

                                                            Placards are required for
                                                            amounts of 1001 pounds
           Corrosive                                                or more

                                                             Placards are required for
                                                             amount of 1001 pounds
 Spontaneously Combustible                                           or more

                                                             Placards are required for
                                                             amount of 1001 pounds
        Flammable Gas                                                or more

Placards must be visible when carrying these hazardous materials for classes
noted above (as noted in the far right column). For all others, a Placard must be
visible if total weight is greater than 1,001 pounds. This includes when two
elements are combined and total 1,001 pounds. When total weight equals 2,204
pounds, all Placards must be visible.

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Safe Transport on the Road
While on the road, it is important to ensure safe transport on the road.

Safe Transport            Description

 Tire Inspection           If any defect is found in a tire, it should be repaired or
                           replaced immediately. The vehicle may, however, be
                           driven a short distance to the nearest safe place for
                           repair. If a hot tire is found, it must be removed from
                           the vehicle immediately and taken to a safe distance.

 Parking                   Do not park on or within five feet of the traveled
                           portion of any roadway. Standard warning devices
                           are to be set out as required by law when a vehicle is
                           stopped along a roadway. If vehicle does not contain
                           division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.3 explosive materials, it may be
                           stopped for brief periods when operational necessity
                           requires parking the vehicle.

 Routing                   Identify routes which do not go through or near
                           heavily populated areas, places where crowds are
                           assembled, tunnels, narrow streets, alleys except
                           when there is no other alternative. Convenience is
                           not a basis for determining if a route can be used.

 Railroad Crossing         Must stop at a railroad crossing. Stops must be
                           made within 50 feet of the crossing but no closer than
                           15 feet. Do not shift gears while crossing the tracks.

 Fire                      Do not drive near an open fire, unless careful
                           precautions have been taken to be sure the vehicle
                           can completely pass the fire without stopping. Do not
                           park within 300 feet of any open fire.
Please note: during the loading and unloading of any hazardous materials
shipment and handbrake on the vehicle must be set and all precautions taken to
prevent movement of the vehicle.

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In Case of an Accident
Due to extreme circumstances, you could find yourself involved in an accident.

The following lists the specific steps you should follow should an accident occur:

      Keep people away from the scene

      Limit the spread of material, only if you can do so safely

      Communicate the danger of the hazardous materials to emergency
       response personnel

      Provide emergency responders with the shipping papers and emergency
       response information

      If driving with another person, make sure they are okay

      Warn others of the danger

      Send for help

      Follow your employer’s instructions

      Use the fire extinguisher to keep minor truck fires from spreading to cargo
       before firefighters arrive

      Do not open doors if they are hot

      Do not touch leaking materials

      If materials are leaking, park your vehicle, secure the area, stay there and
       send for help

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Hazardous Materials Case Scenarios
Review the following case scenarios and complete in small groups.

Case Scenario                               Steps to Follow
1. You are traveling down a major
   highway and notice your vehicle is
   leaking fluids. You are carrying
   class 6.1 materials.

2. Your vehicle has just been in an
   accident and is on fire. You are
   carrying class 2.1 and your back
   door is hot.

3. You are assigned to pickup a trailer
   at a customer’s facility. You notice
   that the trailer contains class 8
   material, but no placards are applied
   to the trailers.

4. Your vehicle is stopped at a rest
   area and you notice a strange
   individual showing interest in your
   placard load.

5. While loading your trailer, you notice
   a mislabeled carton of food on
   board. You are currently carrying
   class 2.3 material.

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Destination Process
When you reach your final destination, the following steps must be followed.

   1. Allow for no delay – find the appropriate person immediately to begin the

   2. If your shipment is refused, call your dispatcher immediately to determine
      next steps

   3. Should all else fail, call your dispatcher

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 Emergency Maneuvers
 There will be times in your driving experience that you will need to employ an
 emergency maneuver. Steering to avoid an emergency is safer than trying to
 stop. If an escape path is available, evasive steering provides a better chance of
 avoiding a collision than attempting to stop.

 Often, you will use evasive steering and can be a very safe maneuver. In doing
 so, minimize the amount of turning necessary and start the process as soon as
 possible. It is also important to avoid braking while turning. Once you make the
 turn, be sure to counter steer immediately to keep your vehicle from going
 outside its escape path.

 Take a few minutes to match the emergency maneuver with the appropriate step.

 A = Evasive steering, B = Emergency stop, C = Off-road recovery, D = Brake
 failure on a downgrade, E = Rapid air loss or blowout

Emergency     Emergency Action

               Use controlled braking. Stab brake whenever you can

               Apply a little power. Do not apply the brakes. Make steering
               corrections and pull off the road

               If you have to go off the pavement, maintain control of your vehicle.
               Try to keep one set of wheels on the pavement

               Steer to avoid an accident. Do not over-steer or use the brakes
               during this process and avoid braking while turning

               If brakes fail, look for an escape ramp

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Skid Control
When the wheels of the trailer lock, the trailer will begin to jackknife. Skid control
can happen and we need to be prepared to manage it when it does.

Brainstorm when you think skid type of issues can occur.

When tires lose their grip on the road

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3 Types of Skids
    Skid Type      Description

  Over-Braking      Brakes are applied too hard and the wheels lock up

 Over-Steering     The wheels turn too sharply (more than the vehicle can turn)

     Over-         Too much power is sent to the drive wheel

  Most skids result from driving too fast for the existing road conditions!

Drive wheel skid with wheels spinning due to loss of traction or locked due to
braking. Recovering from a jackknife skid involves four steps:

   1. Speed control

   2. Corrective steering

   3. Counter-steering

   4. Braking a stop

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Skid Recovery Strategies
           Inspect your air system and check brake adjustments before driving
           Avoid hard braking
           Load your cargo properly
           Avoid over braking, over acceleration and sudden downshifts
           When the trailer jackknifes, skids can be recovered by a slight
            increase in speed
           Be careful to not use the brakes or the trailer hand brake
           Stop braking to recover
           Turn quickly in the direction you want the vehicle to travel
           When the vehicle begins to slide sideways, steer the direction you
            want to go
           When the front wheels skid, the front end tends to go in a straight
            line no matter which way the wheels are turned – slow down and
            use the brakes and stop the vehicle as soon as possible
           Countersteer when you are back on course
           Operate brakes properly to provide maximum braking without loss
            of control
           Maintain control
           Judge maximum safe speed for slippery surface conditions

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Railroad Crossings
This section focuses on what you should do prior to and while driving over a
railroad crossing. There are two types of crossing; passive and active.

Passive crossings do not have any type of traffic control device. They require
the driver to recognize the crossing, search for any train using the tracks and
decide if there is sufficient clear space to cross safely. They will have yellow
circular advance warning signs, pavement markings and crossbucks to assist

Active crossings have a traffic control device installed at the crossing to
regulate traffic. These include flashing red lights, with or without bells and gates.

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Railroad Engineering Considerations
Signs and        Description                                 Sign Icon

Crossbuck        One of the oldest warning devices. IT is
Signs            a white regulator, X-shaped sign with
                 words “Railroad Crossing” in black
                 lettering, located alongside the highway
                 prior to the railroad tracks.
                 In most cases, the crossbuck sign is
                 installed on the right-hand side of a
                 public roadway on each approach to the
                 highway-rail grade crossing.

Advance          Round yellow warning sign with a black
Warning Signs    “X” and “RR.” These signs are located
                 alongside the highway in advance of the
                 crossing, and serve to alert motorists to
                 the crossing. This is usually the first
                 sign you see when approaching a
                 highway-rail grade crossing.

Flashing Light   This is a device installed on a standard
Signal           mast which, when activated, displays
                 red lights flashing alternately. Flashing
                 light signals activate upon the approach
                 or presence of a train at a highway-rail
                 grade crossing, and require a complete
                 stop by the highway user.

Standard Bell    A device which, when activated,
                 provides an audible warning. It may be
                 used with flashing light signals and
                 gates, and is most effective as warning
                 to pedestrians and bicyclists. A new
                 approach is to use an electronic bell in
                 which the volume can be adjusted.

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Signs and        Description                                  Sign Icon

Standard Gates Active traffic control device used with
               flashing lights and normally
               accompanied by a crossbuck sign,
               flashing light signals and other passive
               warning signs.

Long Arm Gate    This is similar to a standard gate but       Same as gate above
                 with a longer arm. This reduces the          but longer arm
                 driver’s ability to run around the gate.
                 This will cover at least 75 percent of the

Four Quadrant    These gates have an additional pair of       Same as gate above
Gates            dual gate arms to completely seal off        but gates on both
                 the intersection.                            sides

Barrier Gates    These warning gates lock into a post         Additional barrier
                 when in the down position. It prevents       gate
                 vehicles from driving around them at a

Median           These barriers consist of a pre-             Additional barrier
Barriers         fabricated mountable island placed in        gate
                 the center of the roadway leading up to
                 a highway-rail grade crossing. The
                 barrier provides an obstacle so they can
                 not be driven around.

Wayside Horns    Stationary horn system that is designed
                 to sound like a train horn and is
                 activated by the railroad-highway grade
                 crossing warning system.

Exempt Signs     This sign is to inform placarded
                 hazardous materials vehicles, buses
                 and users that a stop is not required,
                 except when a signal or other person is
                 approaching the crossing.

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Signs and        Description                                  Sign Icon

Yield Signs      Assigns right-of-way. A train has the

Do Not Stop on   Placed at a crossing when an
Track Signs      engineering study or experience
                 determines there is a high potential for
                 vehicles stopping on the tracks.

Stop Sign        Standard, red regulatory stop sign
                 telling vehicles to completely stop.

Tracks Out of    This is used at a crossing in lieu of the
Service Sign     crossbuck when a railroad track has
                 been abandoned or use is discontinued.

Parallel Track   This is a diamond-shaped yellow
Sign             advance warning sign located on
                 roadway parallel to the railroad tracks
                 indicating the road ahead will cross the

Low Ground       To let vehicles know that conditions are
Clearance Sign   sufficiently abrupt to create a hang-up of
                 long wheelbase vehicles or trailers with
                 low ground clearance.

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Signs and      Description                               Sign Icon

Number Sign    At multiple-track crossings, a sign
               indicating the number of tracks will be
               on the post below the crossbuck.

Pavement       The white letters “R&R” can be set into
Markings       the surface of the pavement in advance
               of a crossing to advise, warn or guide

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Hints and Tips for Railroad Crossings
     Always be alert, and always expect a train
     Obey all rail-crossing signals
     Check for traffic behind you and make sure they know your intentions
     Choose an escape route in the event of a failure
     Roll down your window and turn off the fan, radio, CB and other noisy
      equipment to better hear the train
     While waiting for the train to pass, set your emergency brakes so you will
      not move onto the track
     Stop within 50 feet but no closer than 15 feet of a railroad crossing if you
          1. Carrying chlorine
          2. Carrying hazardous materials (cargo tank loaded or empty,
             required to be marked)
          3. Operating a bus carrying passengers
     You do not need to stop if the crossing:
          1. Used for streetcars
          2. An industrial switching track or in a business district
          3. Marked as abandoned
          4. Controlled by a police officer
          5. Controlled by traffic signal
          6. Marked exempt
     Always slow down and be able to make a complete stop before reaching
      the tracks, if necessary
     Look and listen before crossing (don’t expect to hear a train)
     Never shift gears while crossing
     Use the highest gear that will allow you to cross the tracks without shifting
     Always be aware of overhangs
     Determine that no train is approaching
     Watch for additional trains
     If you get stuck – get out of the vehicle immediately, take your cell phone,
      move away from the vehicle in the direction of any approaching train, look
      for an emergency telephone number (could be 911), give your exact
      location and the DOT number from the crossing

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Vehicle Checks and
This section is intended to teach the driver how to do preventive maintenance to
their truck in order to increase safety and reduce or eliminate the need for major
repairs. There are three types of maintenance:

       1. Routine servicing

       2. Scheduled preventative maintenance

       3. Unscheduled maintenance and repair

Section 396.3 of the FMCSRs states that every motor carrier must systematically
inspect, repair and maintain all vehicles in its control or make provisions for
systematic inspection, repair and maintenance.

This means that in addition to the daily inspections, there must be scheduled
maintenance and servicing checks completed on each vehicle. This will help to
ensure that the trucks on the road are safe for the drivers and other individuals
on the road.

As a part of a routine check, a driver will ensure that all fluid levels are up to code
and systems are running in good order.

Maintenance checks specifically include the following areas:

       Braking system

       Steering system

       Coupling devices

       Tires and wheels

       Suspension system (clutch and engine areas)

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Daily Vehicle Maintenance Checklist

      Checklist Steps

      Power and Towed Unit – Engine Off
      DVIR – check previous report for repairs.
      Approach to vehicle – looking for leaks under the vehicle.
      License plate(s) – is not missing or tags are current.
      Lights/Reflectors – clearance (five amber on top of cab), headlights and turn
      Mirrors and Windshield – clean with no illegal stickers, obstructions and
      mirrors adjusted correctly.
      Doors – hinges not damaged. Will open and close properly. Windows go up
      and down.
      Engine Access – check fluids, belts, hoses, and air compressor is not
      Battery box – secure, connections tight, and no sign of excessive corrosion.
      Fuel tanks – secure, caps not missing, and no leaks. Check crossover line
      for leaks, and if steps are mounted, no loose or missing.
      Frame – no cracks, broken welds, foreign welds, or holes.
      Catwalk (if equipped) – secure and not missing
      Exhaust system – not damaged and not leaking (soot trails) and securely
      Drive shaft – not bent or cracked. Securely mounted.
      Mounting bolts – not loose or missing brackets clamps, bolts or nuts.
      Fifth wheel – no cracks or breaks in the platform structure. Check jaws and
      release arm is not damaged.
      Suspension springs – not missing, shifted, cracked or broken. Check air
      bags for leaks or damage, if equipped.
      Suspension mounts – not cracked or broken hangers, missing or damaged
      bushings and broken, loose or missing bolts, U-bolts or other axle mounting
      Shock absorbers – are secure and not leaking.
      Slack adjuster – not broken, loose or missing parts.
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      Checklist Steps

      Brake chambers – not leaking, cracked, dented and is mounted securely.
      Brake hoses/lines – not cracked, worn, or leaking.
      Brake linings – have visible amount of liner left (1/4 inch minimum).
      Brake drums – not crack, dents, or missing pieces of drum.
      Wheels – rims not damaged or bent. Tire tread is 4/32 on steering and 2/32
      on all other tires. Seals not leaking and lug nuts not loose or missing.
      Splash guards – is not mounted more than 10 inch above the level ground.
      Not torn and missing.
      Air/Electrical lines – check for cut, chafed, spliced, worn, tangled, pinched, or
      dragging/rubbing against tractor parts. Check glad hands for missing seals
      and is not leaking.
      Header board/Front of the trailer – is secured, free of damage and strong
      enough to contain the cargo.
      Kingpin/Apron – is not bent. Apron is not cracked, bent. No gap between
      fifth wheel and apron when coupled.
      Landing gear – no missing parts and both legs are operational. The crank
      handle is secure and not missing parts.
      Trailer frame – not crack, broken welds, holes or other damage to the frame,
      cross members, box and floor.
      Trailer suspension springs – not missing, shifted, cracked or broken. Check
      air bags for leaks and damage.
      Trailer mounts - not cracked or broken hangers, missing or damaged
      bushings and broken, loose or missing bolts, U-bolts or other axle mounting
      Trailer slack adjusters - not broken, loose or missing parts.
      Trailer brake chambers - not leaking, cracked, dented and are mounted
      Trailer brake hoses/lines - not cracked, worn, or leaking.
      Trailer brake lining - have visible amount of liner left (1/4 inch minimum)
      Trailer brake drum - not crack, dents, or missing pieces of drum.

      Trailer wheels - rims not damaged or bent. Tire tread is 2/32 on all tires.
      Seals not leaking and lug nuts not loose or missing.
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      Checklist Steps

      Trailer splashguard - is no more than 10 inch above the level ground.
      Power and Towed Unit – Engine On
      Emergency equipment – not missing three red reflective triangles, fire
      extinguisher, and fuses.
      Seat belt – not cut, frayed, worn and operates properly.
      Oil gauge – is operating in the normal range.
      Temperature gauge – is operating in the normal range.
      Ammeter/Voltmeter – is operating in the normal range (13.5 volts on a 12
      volts system).
      Air Pressure gauge – is operating in the normal range (between 100-120 psi)
      Wiper/Washer – arms and blades are secured, not damaged and operate
      properly. Washer operates correctly.
      Lighting indicators – check left, right turn signal, 4-way emergency flashers,
      and high beam indicator.
      Heater/defroster – check that the heater/defroster works.
      Horns – check both air and city horns.
      Pedals – check for free movement and unusual noise.
      Steering wheel – check for free play (no more than 10%).

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      Brake Testing – 5 steps


      1. Run the engine until you have maximum air pressure. With the air tanks
      fully charged, the air gauge should normally read 120 to 125 psi. Normal
      operating pressure is from 100 to 125 psi.

      2. Secure the unit from moving by chocking both sides of the rear tire.

      3. Release both knobs – Parking Brake (Yellow) and the Trailer Air Supply
      (Red) – by pushing in.

      4. After the initial loss of air, the system must maintain or maintain and gain.
      (This depends on what the air governor is set at.)

      5. If the system is not maintaining air pressure, then you have a leak on the
      EMERGENCY side of the air system.


      1. Apply full brake pedal pressure (at least 90 psi) for 60 seconds.

      2. After the initial loss of air, the system must maintain or maintain and gain.
      (This depends on what the air governor is set at.)

      3. If the system in not maintaining air pressure, then you have a leak on the
      SERVICE side of the air system.


      1. Start by pumping the brake pedal rapidly until the Low Air Warning Device
      comes on. (This should be at least a loud buzzer. It could also include a
      warning light on the dash.)

      2. The Low Air Warning Device must not come on before 60 psi.


      1. Start by pumping the brake pedal rapidly, going past the Low Air Warning,
      until the Trailer Air Supply knob pops out.

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      Brake Testing – 5 steps

      2. The Trailer Air Supply knob must not pop out before 20 psi.


      1. With a fast acceleration, bring the air pressure up to 85 psi.

      2. Let the engine idle and monitor the air pressure gauge. The air
      Compressor should build 15 psi on 45 seconds.

      3. After testing the Air Compressor, bring the air pressure up to 110 psi and
      let it idle. The Air Governor must cut out before the pressure reaches 130

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Types of Service Checklist
       Checklist Steps

       Before bringing the truck in for service, check the starter and
       charging systems for proper operating condition
       Inspect batteries and cables for corrosion and the operation of the air
       compressor and governor
       Check clutch for free play
       Look for cracked or worn belts and exhaust leaks
       Note the position of the air warning device on the air cleaner
       restriction gauge
       A Level

       Most basic service
       Includes checks and adjustments that can be taken care of without
       much issue
       Tire inspection
       Brake inspection
       Fluid level checks
       B Level

       A-level service plus a few additions
       Oil and oil filter
       Fuel filter
       Higher Levels

       A and B level service
       Engine tuning
       Brake change
       Changing or rebuilding other components

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Winterizing and Summerizing
The following steps must be followed when either winterizing or summarizing
your vehicle.


      Check antifreeze level

      Make sure heaters and defrosters work

      Check windshield washer antifreeze

      Make sure truck is clean


      Double check the engine oil supply

      Check antifreeze level

      Make sure heaters and defrosters work

      Double check the condition and tightness of the water pump and fan belts

      Double check the condition of the coolant hoses

      Check tire pressure

      Make sure truck is clean

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Diagnosing and Repor ting
This section focuses what to do to effectively diagnose and report vehicle
malfunctions. It is the drivers responsibility to report any problems with your
vehicle and make sure issues are investigated and completed.

Eventually, you will be able to quickly diagnose based on:

      Sight

      Sound

      Smell

      Feel

Problem                                   Symptom or Vehicle System

 1. A loose or shaky feeling in the

 2. A “thumping” feeling, while
    driving down the road.

 3. Poor or weak power when

 4. Poor braking when hooked to a

 5. Turning is difficult when hooked
    to a trailer.
How would you describe symptoms completely and accurately to
maintenance personnel?

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Typical Issues Drivers Face
There are many types of malfunctions a driver can face before, during or after a

Brainstorm as many typical malfunction issues you think could happen:

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Malfunction Process Steps
The following steps should be followed when a malfunction occurs. The steps
also include what to do regarding the reporting procedures. A Driver Vehicle
Inspection Report is to be completed each day. The following lists the steps to
complete to ensure the vehicle is noted as safe for the next day.

Completing DVIR’s Check List

   1. DVIR’s are to be completed at the start and end of every day and when
      switching power units (tractors).
   2. DVIR’s can typically be found between passenger and driver seat.
   3. The DVIR should be signed off by last driver and current driver indicating
      whether the vehicle is safe to drive after completing your pre-trip
   4. If vehicle defect has not been repaired by a mechanic and is unsafe to
      drive, see mechanic on duty.

         Don’t forget – fill these out correctly!!!

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Handling, Adjusting and
Documenting Cargo and
This section focuses on how to properly handle, adjust and document cargo and
the manifest. Cargo documentation is the paperwork needed for each shipment
of freight. As we discussed in the hazardous materials section, following protocol
is important to ensure materials are loaded and unloaded properly and well

Cargo               Description                               Driver Roles and
Documentation                                                 Responsibilities

Bills of Lading         Contract between the trucking           Sign the Bill of
                         company and the shipper                  Lading
                        Common carrier of goods must            The Bill of Lading
                         comply with the conditions               cannot be changed
                        The shipper and the consignee            once it is signed
                         must obey them as well                  Treat the Bill of
                        Legal and binding contract               Lading with the
                        Covers interstate shipments              same care as a
                                                                  personal check
                        COD means you must collect
                         the money before unloading the          Sign for the exact
                         shipment                                 count on all
                                                                 Always weigh the
                                                                  load. The overload
                                                                  ticket will be written
                                                                  against you, the
Freight Bills           Similar to an invoice                   The consignee gets
                        Has the information contained            the consignee copy
                         on the Bill of Lading and more           and the driver gets
                        Shows all charges, the trailer           the delivery receipt
                         number, the origin and                  Both copies should
                         destination terminals and any            have the same
                         additional information that the          information
                         driver needs
Waybills                Allows the driver to deliver split      This sometimes
                         shipments or a shipment before           call a “part-lot”
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Cargo            Description                                Driver Roles and
Documentation                                               Responsibilities
                        the charges have been applied           shipment.
                       Each one shows the number of
                        cartons, the weight and the
                        trailer number or the trip
                       Each load is delivered on a
                       No freight charges show on the
Manifests              Used when there is cargo from          This is a contract
                        more than one shipper in your           between the
                        trailer                                 shipper and the
                       Lists all the cargo in the load         carrier.

Pro Numbers            Pro numbers are the numbers            This is a numbering
                        assigned to freight bills and           system used to
                        waybills                                track the shipment
                       It is easy to keep track of pro         thru the carrier’s
                        numbers                                 system.
                       Pro numbers allow the freight
                        bills to be filed in order, day
                        after day
Delivery               The delivery receipt is valuable       Any damage or
Receipts                to the carrier                          shortage must be
                       The Delivery receipt can prove          noted and signed
                        delivery of a shipment to the           by the driver and
                        correct consignee                       consignee
                       Shows the name of the person           Describe the
                        who received the shipment, the          damage or
                        name of the truck driver who            shortage exactly
                        delivered it, the charges paid at      Shortages are
                        the time of delivery, any               fewer pieces and
                        exceptions at time delivery, the        overages are more
                        date and the time of the                pieces to deliver
                        delivery, the truck or trailer          than what the
                        number and the shipper’s                freight bill or Bill of
                        number                                  Lading calls for
                                                               Call the dispatcher
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Cargo               Description                             Driver Roles and
Documentation                                               Responsibilities
                                                                before accepting
                                                                an exception to a
                                                                clear delivery
Trip Reports            Shows all the important facts         Enter the odometer
                         about a trip including date and        reading each time
                         place the trip began, the              you enter a state
                         driver’s name, truck equipment        The number of
                         numbers and beginning and              miles driven in a
                         ending odometer reading                state determines
                        The trip report shows all the          the amount of fuel
                         important facts about trip             tax that state must
                         including each state entered or        be paid
                         crossed, odometer readings at         Carriers can figure
                         each entry into a state and            pay from the trip
                         amount of money advanced to            report
                         the driver for expenses
                        The trip report shows all the
                         important facts about a trip
                         including fuel purchases, where
                         the driver purchased the fuel,
                         the amount of fuel and cost
                        Trip reports can help carriers
                         figure out the cost per mile and
                         per shipment, which tractors
                         cost less to operate and which
                         tractors break down more often
                        It shows all the money paid out
                         for a trip and advancements to
                         the driver

Upon receiving your Manifest, highlight your manifest number, route number,
employee number, first and last invoice number. This will help you begin your
trip planning process.

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Cargo Documentation and Manifest Example

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Load Differential and Damaged Cargo
No matter who loads a trailer, the driver is ultimately responsible for the condition
of the cargo unless the trailer is sealed. When items are damaged by improper
handling or tying down, they are noted when unloaded and inspected at the final
destination point. This could lead to a claim against the driver – one that could
have been prevented with better loading and securing.

The following list provides the driver with hints and tips for managing load
differential and preventing and/or identifying damaged cargo.

Hints and Tip Sheet

      Know your height limits – platform trailers height limit for travel on the
       interstate is usually 13 ½ feet
      Know FMCSR Part 393.100 which outlines the specific regulations for
       certain types of loads
      Use appropriate tools for securing down items on platform trailers but be
       very careful because these could damage the load if used improperly -
       cables and winches, webbing straps and winches and chains and load
       binders, using a cheater pipe to add leverage to make the binder snap
       over is unsafe
      Use boards or wooden blocks – these keep machinery mounted on
       wheels from moving, four-by-fours should be nailed to the wood floor,
       make sure the lumber used has no knots or cracks, nails should be twice
       as long as the thickness of the board
      Know how many tie downs you need for each load
      Use tarps to protect platform loads
      Make our first inspection within the first 50 miles of travel
      Make your second inspection after three hours or 150 miles and then
       continue with the same process every 3 hours or 150 miles
      Be aware of your driving techniques to ensure you are in compliance and
       safe with your load
      Tiered stacking will distribute the weight equally
      When loading reefers, the air must circulate all around the load
      Use Load Locks when securing van loads

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49 CFR 658 Truck Size and Weight, Route designations – Length, Width and
Weight Limitations


                                          Maximum Legal
          STATE                              Lengths
Alabama                                       53' 6"
Alaska                                          48'
Arizona                                       57' 6"
Arkansas                                      53' 6"
California                                    48' (1)
Colorado                                      57' 4"
Connecticut                                     48'
Delaware                                        53'
District of Columbia                            48'
Florida                                         48'
Georgia                                         48'
Hawaii                                          48'
Idaho                                           48'
Illinois                                        53'
Indiana                                      48' 6" (2)
Iowa                                            53'
Kansas                                        57' 6"
Kentucky                                        53'
Louisiana                                     59' 6"
Maine                                           48'
Maryland                                        48'
Massachusetts                                   48'
Michigan                                        48'
Minnesota                                       48'
Mississippi                                     53'
Missouri                                        53'
Montana                                         53'
Nebraska                                        53'
Nevada                                          53'
New Hampshire                                   48'
New Jersey                                      48'
New Mexico                                    57' 6"
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                                                Maximum Legal
            STATE                                    Lengths
 New York                                               48'
 North Carolina                                         48'
 North Dakota                                           53'
 Ohio                                                   53
 Oklahoma                                             59' 6"
 Oregon                                                 53'
 Pennsylvania                                           53'
 Puerto Rico                                            48'
 Rhode Island                                         48' 6"
 South Carolina                                         48'
 South Dakota                                           53'
 Tennessee                                              50'
 Texas                                                  59'
 Utah                                                   48'
 Vermont                                                48'
 Virginia                                               48'
 Washington                                             53'
 West Virginia                                          48'
 Wisconsin                                            48' (3)
 Wyoming                                              57' 4"
(1). Semi-trailers up 52 feet may also operate without a permit by conforming to a
kingpin-to-rearmost axle distance of 38 feet. Semi-trailers that are consistent
with 23 CFR 658.13(h) may operate without a permit provided the distance from
the kingpin to the center of the rear axle is 46 feet or less.

(2). Semi-trailer up 53 feet in length may operate without a permit by conforming
to a kingpin-to-rearmost axle distance of 40 feet 6 inches. Semi-trailer that are
consistent with 23 CFR 658.13(h) may operate without a permit provided the
distance from the kingpin to center of the rear axle is 46 feet or less.

(3). Semi-trailers up to 53 feet in length may operate without a permit by
conforming to a kingpin-to-rearmost axle distance of 41 feet, measured to the
center of the rear tandem assembly. Semi-trailer that are consistent with 23 CFR
658.13(h) may operate without a permit provided the distance from the kingpin to
the center of the rear axle is 46 feet or less.

(53FR 2599, Jan 29, 88, as amended at 54FR 1931, Jan 18, 89; 62FR 10181,
Mar 5, 97).
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Loading Liquid Tankers
When loading liquid tankers, there must be a person watching the loading and
unloading; they must have a clear view of the cargo tank, be within 25 feet of the
tank, be aware of the hazards, and know the emergency procedures. This
person must also be authorized to move the cargo tank.

Steps for loading a Liquid Tanker

   1. Turn off your engine before loading or unloading any flammable liquid
   2. Never load liquid tankers completely full because liquids need room to
      expand when warm (this is called outage and your dispatcher will let you
      know how much you need)
   3. Fill a liquid tanker only partially full of heavy liquids
   4. Inspect the hoses and valves for leaks
   5. Check the temperature and pressure gauges for normal readings

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Proper Weight Distributions
Keeping an eye on weight distribution is an important part of the loading process.
You must keep weights within legal limits. States have maximums for GVWs,
GCWs and axle weights. Often, maximum axle weights are set by a bridge
formula. A bridge formula permits less maximum axle weight for axles that are
closer together. This is to prevent overloading bridges and roadways.

You should be concerned with the following:

Weight                 Description

Gross Weight and          The total weight of the tractor or trailer plus its load
Gross Combination         The total weight of the tractor and the trailer or trailers
Weight                     plus the cargo
                          Cannot exceed the limit set by each state you drive
                          The allowed gross combination weight for an 18-
                           wheeler is 80,000 pounds – the axle weights must not
                           be exceeded
Axle Weight               The weight any axle or combination of axles transmits
                           to the ground
                          Bridge laws determine the maximum axle weight for
                           axles that are close together
                          Loading to bulk capacity means trying to fill all space in
                           a trailer and still stay within weight limits
                          Weight each axle or pair of axles separately
                          Exceeding the weight rating can be dangerous
Tire Load                 The maximum safe weight a tire can carry at a
                           specified pressure. This rating is stated on the side of
                           each tire
Suspension Systems        Suspension systems have a manufacturer’s weight
                           capacity rating
Coupling Device           Coupling devices are rated for the maximum weight
Capacity                   they can pull and/or carry

Bridge Gross Weight       The standard specifying the relationship between axle
Formula                    (or groups of axles) spacing and the gross weight that
                           (those) axle(s) may carry expressed by the formula:

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Weight             Description

                   where W=overall gross weight on any group of two or
                   more consecutive axles to the nearest 500 pounds,
                   L=distance in feet between the extreme of any group of
                   two or more consecutive axles, and N=number of axles in
                   the group under consideration.

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Hints and Tips for Proper Weight Distribution and

     The weight needs to be properly distributed
     Put the heaviest parts of the cargo under the lightest parts
     Plan how you are going to load the whole trailer
     Figure out how many boxes or pallets you can put in the trailer without
      going over your gross weight
     Be sure the load spaced evenly from the front to the back
     The last cargo loaded should be destined for your first stop
     Trailers with doors must have a padlock
     Driver should not remove a seal until the consignee looks at it or removes
      it just before unloading
     Keep track of pallets and cartons as they are taken off
     Watch the forklift driver
     Have your delivery receipt signed
     Never leave the trailer when the doors are open
     Do your own checking and counting
     Verify seals, if used
     Remember the old rule; “light to the right”, meaning load the lightest freight
      on the right side of the trailer.

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Securing the Cargo
Securing the cargo will help to ensure that your load stays in place throughout
your trip. However, as mentioned, it is important to continually re-check the
security of the load throughout the trip.

Types of securing processes include:

Weight                          Description

Blocking and          Blocking is used in the front, back and/or sides of a piece
Bracing                of cargo to keep it from sliding. Blocking is shaped to fit
                       snugly against cargo. It is secured to the cargo deck to
                       prevent cargo movement. Bracing is also used to prevent
                       movement of cargo. Bracing goes from the upper part of
                       the cargo to the floor and/or walls of the cargo
Cargo Tiedown         On flatbed trailers or trailers without sides, cargo must be
                       secured to keep it from shifting or falling off. In closed
                       vans, tiedowns can also be important to prevent shifting.
                       They must be of the proper type and strength. The
                       combined strength of all cargo tiedowns must be strong
                       enough to lift one-half times the weight of the cargo tied
                       down. Tie down equipment includes; winches, ratchets,
                       clinching components). They must also be attached to
                       the vehicle correctly using hooks, bolts rails or rings.
Header Boards         Front-end header boards protect you from your cargo in
                       case of a crash or emergency stop.
Covering Cargo        It is important to cover the cargo to protect people from
                       spilled cargo and protect the cargo from the weather.
                       Spill protection is a safety requirement in many states.
                       Look at your cargo covers in the mirrors from time to time
                       while driving.
Sealed and            Containerized loads are used when freight is carried part
Containerized          way by rail or ship. Regardless of whether they have their
Loads                  own tiedown devices or locks or if they are loaded onto
                       flat bed trailers, they must be properly secured.

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Map Reading
This section focuses on how to effectively read and interpret a map. The
interstate system and certain state highways make up the National Network of
Designated Routes or the Designated System. This system provides highway
access to heavy vehicles such as the ones you will be driving. Knowing how to
read a map is an important part of trip planning and managing your route

Here are a few tips to help you understand map reading better:

   1. Highways that start with an odd number indicate a North/South direction.

   2. Highways that start with an odd number spur into the city – inbound and
      outbound from city.

   3. Highways that start with an even number indicate an East/West direction.

   4. Highways that start with an even number spur of a highway and go around
      a metro area.

   5. Highway numbers increase when they go from the South to the North.

   6. Highway numbers are smaller on the West coast and increase in on the
      East coast. Example; I-5 is on the West coast and I-95 is on the East

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Map Symbol Descriptions
Map Symbol Name            Description

US Highways                Shown in different colors
                           Several kinds; ordinary road, limited access, toll,
                           multi-lane (four lanes or more)

Interstate                 Shield shape with the name of the state and the
                           highway number inside

Under Construction         Indicates road construction ahead

Toll ways                  Have to pay a toll charge to use the highway or

Rest Areas                 Parking and spaces for large trucks
                           Rest rooms
                           Drinking water and telephones
                           Great place for a safety check

Tourist/Recreation Areas   National parks, historic sites and other spots
                           Avoid these spots because traffic will move slower

Ferries                    The word “ferry” or “FY” will denote this feature
                           Usually a fee is required

Port of Entry              This is an important symbol
                           Make sure your log book is current, permits are
                           ready and be prepared to stop at the scales

Weigh Stations             Ensure your log book is up to date

Time Zones                 Time zones identify current time for the area
                           Consider the differences between your destination
                           and the local time when you determine your
                           estimated time of arrival (ETA)

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Map Symbol Name         Description

Highway Mileage         Distances between intersections and large towns will
                        be shown by a small black number
                        At major intersections and large towns, there will be
                        a dart or a dot
                        Between the darts there will be a larger number
                        (usually in red) that shows the distance between the

Map Scale               Provides indications of distance

Routes                  Odd numbered routes run north and south with
                        lowest numbers in the west
                        Even numbered routs run east and west with the
                        lowest numbers in the south

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Fuel Management
This section focuses on fuel management and understanding the impact of wear
and tear on your vehicle and its parts.

Natural forces and fuel use is a big part of this process. There are three areas
under this domain:

   1. Friction – the rubbing of one surface against the other. There is friction
      between your truck tires and the road. This is called rolling resistance or
      traction. There is also friction between the truck and the air; this is called
      air resistance or drag.

   2. Gravity – helps hold your vehicle on the road but too much gravity slows
      down your vehicle and even keeps it from moving. Gross vehicle weight
      affects the influence of gravity on a truck.

   3. Inertia – is the tendency of an object that is in motion to stay in motion
      (and to stay still if it is already still). You must overcome inertia to get the
      truck to stop or move.

How can these three elements help you save fuel?

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Economy Driving Techniques
Economy operating requires some planning to ensure you are doing your best to
save on costs.

Economy Driving           Description

Keeping Speed Down           Keep your speed down, go slowly and do not
                              speed up to buck the wind. Keep the number of
                              stops you make to a minimum and approach a
                              hill going no faster than the posted speed limits.

Progressive Shifting         Progressive shifting is a special shifting
                              technique used with economy engines. The
                              engine is not brought to maximum rpm with
                              every shift.

Skip Shifting                Skip over some of the lower gears to reduce the
                              amount of time the engine is running at high
                              rpm. One thing you must avoid is making the
                              engine work too hard at too low an rpm.

Trip Planning                A well-planned, well-driven run is economical.
                              Every stop saved is fuel saved.

Road Management              Watch the traffic and plan ahead. Drive at a
                              steady speed. Vehicle management systems
                              help maintain a slow, steady driving speed.

Idling and Shutting Down     Idling wastes fuel and wears out the engine.
the Engine                    Idle your engine as little as possible. Remember
                              to idle before shutting down to avoid
                              turbocharger heat from ruining the bearings.

Proper Maintenance and       Fuel can also be saved with other optional
Optional Equipment            equipment and proper maintenance. Power
                              components that can be turned off when not
                              needed are fuel savers. A fan clutch turns the
                              fan on only when the engine heat climbs to a
                              certain level.
                             A well tuned vehicle simply runs more efficiently.

Aerodynamic Design           Trucks and tires are designed to combat rolling

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Economy Driving             Description
                                and air resistance. Vehicles are rated as to how
                                aerodynamic they are. This rating is given as a
                                coefficient of drag “Cd.” A low Cd means little air
                                resistances. Radial tires roll better. In modern
                                trucks, square or sharp edges are rounded off.
                                Wind deflectors direct the air up and over.
                                Lightweight materials keep gross vehicle weight

Progressive shifting patterns:

      First gear: 0 to 3 mph. You may need only 1,250 rpm

      Second gear: 3 to 6 mph. You may need only 1,350 rpm

      Third gear: 6 to 9 rpm. You may need only 1,450 rpm

      Fourth gear: 9 to 15 mph. You may need only 1,600 rpm

    Fifth gear: 15 to 20 mph. You may need only 1,650 rpm

Remember the Fuel Management GIFT…

Gravity - weight reduction, load management

Inertia - focus ahead, avoid braking or stopping, progressive shift, skip shifting

Friction - tire inflation, matching, radial tires, aerodynamics

Team - dispatch, router, mechanic and driver all working together!

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Fuel Management Scenarios
Read the following scenarios and identify appropriate and effective fuel
management and equipment optimization strategies.

Case Scenario                             Fuel Management and Equipment
                                          Optimization Strategies

1. You are traveling through the
   mountains and heading down a long

2. You are traveling through a metro
   area with rush hour traffic.

3. You have stopped for the night and
   the outside temperature is 40

4. You are traveling empty to your next

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Hours of Service, Daily Log,
Logbook Recap
This section focuses understanding regulated hours of service and listing the
exceptions to (off-duty time, sleeper berth time, driving time, and on-duty (not
driving) time. The importance of documentation and monthly summaries are
required as a driver. The hours of duty information is documented as DOT Part
395.3, Hours of service of Drivers, of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Regulations (FM CSR).

The rules were adopted in 1939 and have evolved in order to save lives and help
with driver fatigue. The hope is that it will save up to 75 lives and prevent as
many as 1,326 fatigue related crashes annually. This effort moves towards a 24
hour work rest cycle. It increases the opportunity for restorative sleep by
increasing the amount of off-duty time.

Duty Status Acronyms:

   1. Off Duty – “OFF” – your own time

   2. Sleeper Berth – “SB” – time spent in the sleeper berth

   3. Driving – “D” – at the wheel while in operation

   4. On Duty – “On” – not driving time, inspections, waiting for dispatch, time
      spent loading and unloading, co-driving, working for someone else

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Interstate and Intrastate Driving Regulations
Starting in October 2007, the rules for driving have changed to the following:

Interstate Driving Regulations             Intrastate Driving Regulations in

Off-duty time = Must be at least 10        Off-duty time = Must be at least 10
consecutive hours                          consecutive hours
Ref: 49CFR 395.3(a)(1)                     Ref: OAR 740-100-0010(f)(A & B)

On-duty driving time = May not drive       On-duty driving time = drivers may not
beyond the 14th hours after coming on      drive beyond the 16th hour after coming
duty, following 10 consecutive hours off   on duty
duty                                       Ref: OAR 740-100-0010(f)(B)
Ref: 49CFR 395.3(a)(2)

Driving time = May drive a maximum of      Drive time = Exceed 12 hours driving
11 hours after 10 consecutive hours off    following ten consecutive hours off-duty
duty                                       Ref: OAR 740-100-0010(f)(A)
Ref: 49CFR 395.3(a)(1)

May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty    Drivers may not drive 70 hours on duty
in 7/8 consecutive days.                   in any 7 consecutive days
Ref: 49CFR 395.3(b)(1),(b)(2)              Ref: OAR 740-100-0010(f)(C)

34-hour restart = the 60/70 hour clock     Drivers may not drive following 80
may restart after 34 consecutive hours     hours on duty in any 8 consecutive
off duty                                   days
                                           Ref: OAR 740-100-0010(f)(D)

Split sleeper berth = Commercial motor     34 hour restart = the 70/80 hour clock
vehicle (CMV drivers using a sleeper       may restart after 34 consecutive hours
berth must take 10 hours off duty, but     off duty
may split sleeper-berth time into two
periods provided neither is less than 2
Ref: 49CFR 395.1(g)

16 hour Exception for Property-
Carrying Drivers = Drivers may extend
the 14-hour on-duty period by 2

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Interstate Driving Regulations             Intrastate Driving Regulations in
additional hours IF THEY:
* Are released from duty at the normal
work reporting location for the previous
5 duty tours; AND
* Return to their normal work reporting
location and are released from duty
within 16 hours; AND
* Have not used this exception in the
previous 6 days, except following a 34-
hour restart of a 7/8-day period
Total hours driving may not exceed
11 hours.

Rule Exemptions

      Certain types of drivers are considered to be exempt from these rules (100
       air-mile radius HOS provision)
      Some of these include local drivers and special situations and usually
       made under certain conditions
      Under a rule effective as of January 2004, any period of seven or eight
       days will end with the beginning of any off duty period of 34 or more
       consecutive hours. This will allow a driver to “restart” the 70-hour rule.
      Adverse driving conditions – adds 2 hours to the 11 hours driving. Driver
       must comply with the 14-hour rule

100 Air-Mile Radius HOS Provision

A driver normally operating under the 100 air-mile radius exception in 395.1(e)
may also meet the requirements in 395.1(o) enabling the driver to have one
period of 16 hours on-duty each week (or after a 34-hour restart). However, on
the day in which the 16-hour exception is utilized, the driver would not meet the
12-hour duty period requirement of the 100 air-mile radius exception and would
therefore be required to make a RODS for that day.

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Hours of Service Case Scenarios
Read the following scenarios and identify what the driver should have done
differently to comply with regulations.

Case Scenario                                 What Should the Driver Have Done?

1. A driver has been traveling within
   Oregon for the past 11 hours. They
   are just 1 hour from their final
   destination and decide to just get
   there so they can deliver their load.

2. A driver, working under the 100 air
   mile ruling, is approaching a weight
   station and is asked to stop and
   bring in papers.

3. A driver, after working 50 hours of
   the 60 ruling, takes the next day off
   from work. They decide to help a
   friend move equipment and receives
   pay for the work.

4. A casual driver, working for two
   different companies, is required to fill
   out a recap of hours worked for one
   of the companies.

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Log Books
A logbook shows how you spent your work time and where you were traveling
while on the road. It is important to keep a legible and accurate log book which
supports keeping good records. The following steps should be followed when
recording your time in your logbook:

   1. Know where to find them

   2. Write legibly

   3. Include key information (name of driver, month, day and year of beginning
      of 24 hour period, carrier’s vehicle number, number of miles you drove
      that day, legal signature, name and main office address of carrier, name of
      co-driver if there was one, number of hours in each duty status, total hours
      (adding to 24), any sipping document numbers or names of shippers)

   4. Update your logbook each time you change your duty status (you need to
      record the name of the city, town or village with the state abbreviated and
      where the change took place)

   5. Always use the local time from your base location

   6. Time must total 24 hours each day

   7. Keep track of your time to the closest quarter of an hour

Special Provisions

100 air-mile radius HOS provision conditions:

      The driver operates within a 100 air-mile (115 statute miles) radius of the
       normal work reporting location

      The driver returns to the work reporting location and be released from duty
       within 12 consecutive hours

      The driver maintains time records as specified in the rule

      The driver is not covered by the “non-CDL 150 air-mile radius” provision

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Log Book Examples

No violation on either day occurs.

No violation occurs on day one. There is an 11-hour violation on day tow,
starting at 11:00 p.m. until midnight. A driver may not drive more than 11 hours
following one of the 10-hour off-duty periods.

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Log Book Examples Continued

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Keeping track of your time:

     Record each 24 hour time period on a separate log sheet staring with
     Fill out an original form and one copy of each log.
     The original must reach the carrier within 13 days after you have
      completed the form.
     Keep the copies of your logs for the past seven straight days with you at
      all times.
     The Department of Transportation mandates that you complete your
      logbook every day.
     Not doing so will place you out of compliance with the law and you may be
     Not keeping proper track of your time can put you out of service.
     Remember, any agent of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
      can inspect your logbook and, if you are out of compliance, they can
      declare you out of service.
     These agents can range from highway patrol offices, Department of
      Transportation inspectors and weigh masters.
     Once you have been declared as out of service, you will be required to
      spend the next ten hours off duty before you can return to the wheel (your
      carrier cannot change this regulation)
     You must mail your carrier a copy of the out of service form within 24
      hours from receiving the notice
     The Department of Transportation has only approved certain log sheets;
      The Daily Log, Form MCS-59, Multi-day Log, MCS – 139 & MCS-139A

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CAB - Monthly Summary Sheet
The monthly summary sheet tracks your hours for the week and month. It is a
tool to help you remember how many hours you can work going forward. Using
the daily logbook and the monthly summary will help you to stay in compliance
with the law.

C = How many hours you have worked in the last
eight days

A = total hours on-duty the last seven days

B = how many hours you can work tomorrow

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Preventable Accidents
In many cases, accidents can be prevented. The following lists the types of
preventable accident types and descriptions.

Preventable          Description
Accident Type

Intersections        It is the responsibility of professional drivers to approach, enter,
                     and cross intersections, prepared to avoid accidents that might
                     occur from the actions of other drivers. Complex traffic
                     movement, blind intersections, or failure of the “other driver” to
                     conform to law or traffic control devices will not automatically
                     result in a “non preventable” decision. Intersection accidents may
                     be preventable even if the professional driver did not violate any
                     traffic regulations. Failure to take precautionary measures prior
                     to entering the intersection is an important factor to consider.
                     When a professional driver crosses an intersection and the
                     obvious actions of the “other driver’ indicate possible involvement
                     – either by reason of excess speed, crossing their lane in turning,
                     or coming from behind a blind spot – the decision based on any
                     of the above entrapments may be preventable

Backing              Practically all backing accidents are preventable. Even when a
                     guide is involved in the maneuver, the driver is not relieved of his
                     or her responsibility to back safely since a guide cannot control
                     the movement of the vehicle. Therefore, it is the driver’s
                     responsibility to check all clearances.

Front-End            Regardless of an abrupt or unexpected stop by the vehicle
collisions vehicle   ahead, any driver can prevent accidents by maintaining a safe
number 1 into        following distance at all times. This includes being prepared for
vehicle number 2     possible obstructions on the highway – whether in plain view or
                     hidden by the crest of a hill or the curve of the roadway. Over-
                     driving headlights at night is a common cause of front-end
                     collisions. Night speed should not be greater than that which will
                     permit the vehicle to come to a stop within the forward distance
                     illuminated by the vehicle’s headlights.

Rear-end             Investigation will often disclose that a driver risked being struck
Collisions Vehicle   from behind by failing to maintain a margin of safety in their own
Number 2 into        following distance. Rear-end collisions preceded by a rollback,
vehicle number 1     an abrupt stop at a grade crossing or traffic signal change, or the
                     driver’s failure to signal a turn at an intersection are preventable.
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Preventable          Description
Accident Type

Passing Safely       Failure to pass safely indicates not only faulty judgment, but the
                     possibility of not having considered one or more important factors
                     a driver must observe before attempting the maneuver. Unusual
                     actions of oncoming traffic or the driver being passed might
                     appear to exonerate the driver involved in a passing accident;
                     however, the entire passing maneuver is the driver’s
                     responsibility since it is a voluntary act.

Being Passed         Sideswipes and cut-off accidents are preventable if the driver,
                     who was being passed, failed to yield to the passing vehicle by
                     slowing down or moving to the right, where possible.

Lane                 When changing lanes, a safe driver is rarely a victim of
Encroachment         entrapment. Similarly, entrapment in merging traffic is an
                     indication of unwillingness to yield to other vehicles or to wait for
                     a break in traffic.

Blind Spot Not       Blind spots are not a valid excuse for lane encroachment
Valid Excuse         accidents. Drivers must make extra allowances for protecting
                     themselves in areas with limited sight distance. Squeeze plays
                     that cause involvement with parked cars, pillars or other road
                     structures can be prevented by dropping back when it is apparent
                     that the other driver is forcing the issue or contesting a common
                     portion of the road.

Grade Crossings      It is the professional driver’s responsibility to prevent collisions
                     with fixed rail vehicles, such as trains, streetcars, etc., that occur
                     at grade crossing, in traffic, in a rail yard, in a switch area, or on
                     private property. Before parking a vehicle across a rail siding, the
                     driver must first determine if it is safe and permissible. They must
                     then standby, during the parked interval in case conditions
                     change, such as the movement of rail cars.

Approach of       It is extremely important to determine what action our driver took
Opposing Vehicles prior to a head-on or side-swiped collision with a vehicle
                  approaching from the opposite direction. The exact location of
                  vehicles, prior to and at the point of impact, must be carefully
                  verified. Even if an opposing vehicle entered our driver’s traffic
                  lane, the collision may have possibly been avoided. For
                  example, if, while the opposing vehicle was in a passing
                  maneuver, our driver failed to slow down, stop, or move to the
                  right (allowing the vehicle to reenter its own lane) they failed to
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Preventable         Description
Accident Type
                    take proper action to prevent the occurrence. Failure to signal
                    the opposing driver, by flickering the headlights or sounding the
                    horn, must also be taken into account.

Turning             Turning movements, like passing maneuvers, require the most
                    exacting care from a professional driver. When making left or
                    right turns, it is the driver’s responsibility to avoid squeeze plays
                    involving other vehicles, scooters, bicycles, or pedestrians.
                    Failure to signal, failure to properly position the vehicle for a turn,
                    failure to check the rear view mirrors, failure to check pedestrian
                    lanes, or failure to take any other defensive action must be
                    considered. Sudden turns or other drivers must be carefully
                    examined, since it may be found that, immediately preceding the
                    incident, our driver failed to take precautionary action on the other
                    vehicle’s tip-off. U-turns that result in a collision are preventable.

Weather             Adverse weather conditions are not a valid excuse for being
                    involved in an accident. Conditions such as rain, snow, fog,
                    sleet, or icy pavement do not cause accidents – they merely
                    increase the hazards of driving. Failure to adjust driving to the
                    prevailing weather conditions would be cause for judging an
                    accident preventable.

Alleys, Driveways   Accidents that involve traffic within alleys, driveways, plant
and Plant           entrances, or other special locations must be carefully analyzed
Entrances           to determine what measures the professional driver might have
                    taken to avoid the occurrence. Failure to slow down, failure to
                    sound a warning, failure to yield to the other driver would be
                    cause for judging an accident preventable.

Fixed Objects       Collisions with fixed objects are preventable because they usually
                    originate from the driver’s failure to check or properly judge a
                    clearance. New routes, strange delivery points, resurfaced
                    pavements under viaducts, inclined entrances to docks,
                    marquees projecting over traveled sections of road, and similar
                    situations are not in themselves valid reasons for excusing a
                    driver’s involvement in a collision. He must constantly be on the
                    lookout for such conditions in order to avoid an accident involving
                    fixed objects.

Private Property,   When a driver is required to make deliveries to unusual locations,
Driveways, Lawns,   construction sites, etc., or on driveways that are not built to
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Preventable          Description
Accident Type
Etc.                 support heavy commercial vehicles, it is their responsibility before
                     entering such and area to discuss the operation with and obtain
                     permission from the proper authorities.

Parking              Failure to properly park, failure to park in appropriate locations
                     (including double parking), failure to put out warning devices, etc.,
                     generally constitutes evidence for judging an accident
                     preventable. Roll away accidents that occur from a parked
                     position of the vehicle are normally classified preventable if the
                     driver failed to place the vehicle in gear, cut ignition, apply
                     parking brake and block vehicle.

Mechanical Failure   Any accident caused by a driver’s negligence to heed a warning
                     indication of mechanical failure in their vehicle is preventable. It
                     is the driver’s responsibility to report unsafe vehicle conditions
                     and obtain immediate repairs when continued operation might
                     result in an accident. If, during a trip, unexpected mechanical
                     difficulties occurred and the driver, upon discovery, failed to
                     check with his company for emergency instructions prior to an
                     accident, the accident could be charged preventable.
                     Furthermore, any accident caused by mechanical failure as a
                     result of abusive driving is preventable.

Non-Collision        Since many accidents (such as overturning, jackknifing, or
                     running off the road) result from a driver’s emergency action to
                     avoid being involved in a collision, a careful examination of their
                     driving practice – prior to the incident – must be made.
                     Frequently, in situations such as those just mentioned, the
                     examination reveals speed too fast for conditions, lack of
                     defensive driving practice, or other possible errors.

Miscellaneous        When evidence that projecting loads, doors swinging open, loose
                     objects falling, or loose tarpaulins and chains from a vehicle
                     caused damage to the cargo, vehicle, or other property it would
                     be a preventable charge against the driver if they had failed to
                     either correct or secure them. Cargo damage resulting from
                     unsafe vehicle operation is also a preventable charge against

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Accident Prevention Strategies

Aim High in Steering    1. Our eyes are designed to work for us at walking
                        2. The average person has not fully adjusted
                           visually and mentally to gathering information at
                           the higher speeds traveled in motor vehicles
                        3. Look ahead to where you will be at least fifteen
                           (15) seconds from now
                        4. Fifteen (15) second eye-lead time provides
                           advance warning of pending danger, and gives
                           you an additional margin of safety
                        5. Use improved eye-lead time, for safer, more
                           efficient, and more economical driving

Get the Big Picture     6. While glancing ahead, don’t forget the sides and
                           the rear. Consistently update your information
                        7. Eliminate vision barriers by establishing proper
                           following distance. Stay far enough behind
                           vehicles to obtain the visibility required to make
                           your own decisions
                        8. Avoid distractions inside your truck or in your
                           thinking. Recognize and avoid drivers who seem

Keep Your Eyes Moving   9. Focusing on any object for too long disables your
                           peripheral vision – your early warning system
                        10. Keep your eyes moving at least every two (2)
                        11. Check your mirrors every five (5) to (8) seconds

Leave Yourself An Out   12. Your safest location in traffic is where the fewest
                            potential conflict exists
                        13. When possible, surround your truck with space
                        14. Choose the clearest legal lane and adjust speed
                            accordingly to maintain the space cushion
                        15. If you lose part of the cushion, work to keep at
                            least the front open
                        16. Don’t allow vehicles to enter your blind areas
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                           without your knowledge

Make Sure They See      17. Detect the presence of potential danger early.
You                         Send your warning as soon as you think they will
                            be recognized – not too soon, nor too late
                        18. Get eye contact by using the warning devices on
                            your vehicle
                        19. Don’t take eye contact for granted. Be sure your
                            warnings are heeded
                        20. Eye contact is insurance against the unexpected

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Accident and Safety
The previous section highlighted strategies for preventing accidents from
occurring. This section focuses your roles and responsibilities when you are
involved in an accident. The process steps to follow for reporting are also
discussed within this section.

If you must stop on the highway or the adjacent shoulder for any reason other
than a normal traffic stop, emergency warning devices must be set out to comply
with the rules of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the company as
prescribed below.

Warning devices must be set out far enough from the stopped vehicle to give
sufficient warning for another driver to see them and react to avoid a collision.
When setting out signals pace off the distance indicated for each warning device.
Warning devices must be set out fast and at the proper distances. Reflective
devices must be set squarely.

Red reflective triangles with an orange inside border are the currently required
warning devices. Other types may be used if they were installed in a vehicle
prior to January 1, 1974.

Safety Devices Table

Time Used             Description

 Daylight Use             Place one reflective triangle at least one hundred feet
                           (40 paces), but not more than five hundred feet (200
                           paces), behind the unit in the center of the occupied
                          Place one reflective triangle at least one hundred feet
                           (40 paces) in front of the unit in the center of the
                           occupied lane.
                          When stopped on a divided highway or one-way
                           roadway, place one reflective triangle ten feet (304
                           paces) to the rear of the unit. Place the second triangle
                           one hundred feet (40 paces) to the rear, and place the
                           third reflective triangle to hundred feet (80 paces) to the

 Night Use                Immediately upon stopping, turn on the four-way flasher
                           switch to simultaneously flash the turn signals on both
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Time Used         Description
                        sides of the vehicle, front and rear. The four-way
                        flashers, alone, may be used for not more than ten
                       Within ten minutes, place a reflective triangle at the traffic
                        side of the vehicle ten feet (2-3 paces) from it in the
                        direction of the closest approaching traffic, usually
                        coming from the rear.
                       Place another reflective triangle at least one hundred
                        feet (40 paces) from the unit in the direction of the
                        closest approaching traffic, usually coming from the rear.
                       Place the third reflective triangle one hundred feet (40
                        paces) from the unit in the opposite direction.
                       If stopped on a divided highway or one-way roadway, all
                        reflective triangles must be to the rear of the unit at
                        distances of ten feet (203 paces), one hundred feet (40
                        paces), and two hundred feet (80 paces).
                       When ready to resume travel, turn on four-way flashers
                        before starting to pick up reflective triangles.

Restricted View        If your unit is stopped just over a hillcrest, just around a
                        curve, or just beyond some other obstruction to the view
                        of the unit or the emergency warning devices, the
                        warning device closest to the obstruction shall be set out
                        not less than one hundred feet (40 paces), not more than
                        five hundred feet (200 paces) from the unit.

Special                Avoid leaving four-way flashers on for long periods.
Consideration           Doing so may run down the battery and keep you from
                        restarting the engine. This does not apply to air start

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Accident Procedures
The following lists the steps to follow when you need to report an accident:

       Accident Report Process Steps

       1. Stay calm

       2. Pull off road if possible

       3. Stop immediately and turn on four way flashers and park truck in safe location

       4. See that the injured are cared for (apply first aid and CPR procedures as

       5. Check for fuel leaks

       6. Immediately set out fuses, flags, and/or emergency reflectors

       7. See that police are notified (911 if required)

       8. Notify your supervisor immediately

       9. Follow instructions on your driver’s preliminary report of an accident;
          completely fill out your report, document the collision, have witness cards filled
          out, make freehand drawing, get all names, license numbers, addresses,
          insurance companies, vehicle VIN and license number, take pictures, know
          where your insurance information certificate and information is located in the

       10. Do not discuss accident except with company personnel, police, or our adjuster
           when sent to you (all representatives must properly identify themselves)

       11. Protect yourself from blood-borne pathogens

       12. Use your camera in your packet to take pictures

       13. Choose and operate fire extinguishers correctly

       14. Make sure any truck cargo that is spilled is cleaned up. Arrange for cleanup as
           necessary and call appropriate authorities

       15. Stay at the scene until law enforcement and company say it is okay to leave

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Accident Packet
You will find all the forms that are necessary to assist a Driver Sales
representative in the event of an accident in the Accident Packet. DO NOT
PANIC…remain calm and gather as much information as possible. Use your
camera to take pictures.

The following information is needed on the report:

   1. Your name and address
   2. Your driver’s license number
   3. Social Security number
   4. Owner’s name and address
   5. Date and time of the accident
   6. Place
   7. Street or highway
   8. On duty hours
   9. Actual driving hours
   10. Physical conditions
   11. All numbers of the equipment involved
   12. Describe the damage
   13. Estimated damage
   14. Vehicle involved
   15. Names, addresses, and ages of any witnesses
   16. Police investigation
   17. information on passengers
   18. Fatalities and injuries
   19. Type of roadway
   20. Weather
   21. Diagram of the accident
   22. Description and driver’s signature

Blue courtesy card – If you are unable to leave the scene, fill out the blue card
with the correct information.

Witness card – Attempt, to the best of your ability, to get as many witnesses as
possible. All of the information must be correct.

Driver’s exoneration form – This form is to be filled out voluntarily by the
individual(s) involved in the accident claiming that the accident was not our
driver’s fault.

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Accident Reporting Scenarios
Read the following case scenarios and identify the proper reporting steps the
driver should follow.

Case Scenario                     Reporting Steps

1. You were just involved in
   an accident where your
   truck jackknifed on a major
   highway. Luckily, no one
   was injured but your truck
   is now blocking traffic and

2. You just side swiped
   another car when you
   were trying to change
   lanes. You did not see
   them unfortunately. A
   person is injured in the car
   and an ambulance is on
   the way. Your truck is
   slightly damaged and you
   are okay.

3. You were trying to turn
   right and had three lanes
   available for the turn.
   When you began to
   straighten your vehicle,
   you noticed a person had
   merged into the lane you
   were turning into. You did
   not have enough time to
   react and side-swiped the
   car. Fortunately, there
   were no injuries but the
   other car is damaged.

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Road Life
This section focuses on road life of a driver and how to manage your personal
and professional life as a driver. This includes managing your time, your health
and well being, your finances, your relationships, managing fatigue and preparing
for your trip.

Time Management Challenges

List the challenges you may face when managing your time on the road:

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Time Management Scenarios
Read the following scenarios and identify what the driver should do more of to
manage their time effectively.

Case Scenario                            Time Management Strategies

1. Last month, you were behind on
   paying your bills, missed a
   doctor’s appointment and forgot to
   get something for your significant
   other on their birthday.

2. You have been behind on
   documenting your hours and your
   supervisor points this out to you.
   It seems as if you have to rush
   home after you return and just do
   not have time to get everything
   documented properly.

3. When you report to work, it is
   usually in a rush and you are often
   late getting there. This means
   you also are late getting started
   on the road as well.

4. You get to work on time every day
   and get out on the road when
   planned. Unfortunately, you end
   up late for each delivery due to
   traffic and other unforeseen

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Managing Money
Managing your money on the road is keeping check of what you have while
traveling and anticipating what you will need in case of emergencies. Consider
the following scenario:

“You are about to go on a trip that will take you away for 2 days. It will take you

350 miles each day to get to your destination and back. The price of fuel is $3.50

a gallon. Your tank holds approximately two 110 gallon tanks. Your hotel charge

will cost you $70. There are two tolls on the road that will cost approximately $6

total. Take a few minutes to price the cost of fuel and how much money you will

need for the trip.”

   1. How much money will you need to have on hand to cover your fuel, hotel,
      tolls and food expenses?

   2. What are effective ways of carrying money while traveling?

   3. What type of system should you put in place to ensure you track all of your
      expenses and keep all of your receipts?

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Physical Fitness
There are many benefits to establishing and maintaining a physical fitness
routine. As a driver, it is important for you to establish a consistent routine to
follow so you can stay alert, in shape and safe on the road.

   1. How do you feel after your 20-minute walk?

   2. What are the benefits of a consistent exercise routine as a driver?

   3. What will you do specifically to ensure you are following a fitness routine?

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Physical Activities
Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Walking,
gardening, briskly pushing a baby stroller, climbing the stairs, playing soccer, or
dancing the night away are all good examples of being active. For health
benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at least
30 minutes a day.

Moderate physical activities include:
      Walking briskly (about 3 ½ miles per hour)
      Hiking
      Gardening/yard work
      Dancing
      Golf (walking and carrying clubs)
      Bicycling (less than 10 miles per hour)
      Weight training (general light workout)

Vigorous physical activities include:
      Running/jogging (5 miles per hour)
      Bicycling (more than 10 miles per hour)
      Swimming (freestyle laps)
      Aerobics
      Walking very fast (4 ½ miles per hour)
      Heavy yard work, such as chopping wood
      Weight lifting (vigorous effort)
      Basketball (competitive)

Some physical activities are not intense enough to help you meet the
recommendations. Although you are moving, these activities do not increase
your heart rate, so you should not count these towards the 30 or more minutes a
day that you should strive for. These include walking at a casual pace, such as
while grocery shopping, and doing light household chores.

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Healthy Eating
An effective fitness routine is only part of the equation. Eating a healthy diet
while on the road is another factor for success as a driver. To stay alert and
safe, eating well on the road will need to happen.

Currently, the United States has the highest obesity rate. The advocacy group,
Trust for America’s Health, said data from the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention showed that the percentage of obese adults for 2002-04 stood at 22.7
percent nationally. The percentage for the previous cycle, 2001-03, was 22
percent. An estimated 64 percent of adults age 20 years or older are considered
overweight or obese, according to the most recent CDC statistics.

Let’s take a few minutes to identify the types of food we should be eating while
on the road.

Good Foods                                Bad Foods

   1. What type of foods will you pack when you are traveling to ensure you are
      eating a healthy diet?

   2. What type of restaurants will you try to find when you do need to dine out?

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Food Pyramid
The following food pyramid identifies the types of foods we should be eating
more frequently.

Grains         Fruits          Meat &          Vegetables Milk                Oils and
                               Beans                                          Discretionary
                                                                              Oils are fats that
Any food       Any fruit or   All foods       Any vegetable All fluid milk
                                                                              are liquid at
made from      100% fruit     made from       or 100%        products and
wheat, rice, juice counts meat, poultry, vegetable           many foods
oats,          as part of the fish, dry beans juice counts made from
                                                                              like the
cornmeal,      fruit group.   or peas, eggs, as a member milk are
                                                                              vegetable oils
barley or      Fruits may be nuts, and        of the         considered
                                                                              used in cooking.
another cereal fresh, canned, seeds are       vegetable      part of this
                                                                              Oils come from
grain is a     frozen, or     considered      group.         food group.
                                                                              many different
grain product. dried, and     part of this    Vegetables     Foods made
                                                                              plants and from
Bread, pasta, may be whole, group. Dry        may be raw or from milk that
                                                                              fish. Some
oatmeal,       cut-up, or     beans and       cooked; fresh, retain their
                                                                              common oils
breakfast      pureed.        peas are part frozen,          calcium
cereals,                      of this group canned, or       content are
tortillas, and                as well as the dried/dehydrat part of the
grits are                     vegetable       ed; and may group, while  canola oil
examples of                   group. For      be whole, cut- foods made  corn oil
grain                         more            up, or         from milk that  cottonse
products.                     information on mashed.         have little to       ed oil
                              dry beans and                  no calcium,       olive oil
Grains are                    peas click                     such as cream  safflower
divided into 2                here.                          cheese,              oil
subgroups,                                                   cream, and        soybean
whole grains                  Most meat                      butter, are not.     oil
and refined                   and poultry                    Most milk         sunflower
grains.                       choices                        group choices        oil
                              should be lean                 should be fat-
                              or low fat.                                     Some oils are
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Grains     Fruits       Meat &          Vegetables Milk            Oils and
                        Beans                                      Discretionary
                        Fish, nuts,                free or low fat. used mainly as
                        and seeds                                   flavorings, such
                        contain                                     as walnut oil
                        healthy oils,                               and sesame oil.
                        so choose                                   A number of
                        these foods                                 foods are
                        frequently                                  naturally high in
                        instead of                                  oils, like:
                        meat or
                        poultry.                                      nuts
                                                                      olives
                                                                      some fish
                                                                      avocados

                                                                   Each person
                                                                   has an
                                                                   allowance for
                                                                   calories. But,
                                                                   many people
                                                                   have used up
                                                                   this allowance
                                                                   before lunch-
                                                                   time! Most
                                                                   allowances are
                                                                   very small,
                                                                   between 100
                                                                   and 300
                                                                   especially for
                                                                   those who are
                                                                   not physically

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When on the road, focus on the following:
     Eating whole grains, lean meat and lots of fresh produce

     Avoid processed food and look for more fresh food

     Eat food that is low in salt, sugar, caffeine and fat

     Eat more lean meats (poultry and fish)

     Focus on drinking unsweetened juices and low-fat and skim milk products
      (skim milk, mozzarella cheese, yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese)

     Avoiding candy bars as a quick snack

     Staying away from sugary soft drinks

     Eat less white breads and pastas

     Avoid fried foods

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Signs of Fatigue

Factors which have been shown to contribute to the onset of fatigue include
inadequate sleep or rest (long- or short-term disturbance to sleep patterns,
certain phases of circadian rhythms, sleep disorders), prolonged hours of service
(prolonged driving periods, night-time driving), and food and drug intake (eating
patterns, intake of alcohol and other drugs).

Driving behavior while fatigued can include zigzag driving within the permitted
lane, crossing the centre line, and running off the road.

      Poor concentration
      Tired or sore eyes
      Restlessness
      Drowsiness
      Slow reactions
      Boredom
      Feeling irritable
      Making fewer and larger steering corrections
      Missing road signs
      Having difficulty in staying in the lane
      Micro sleeps

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Circadian Clock
The brain regulates bodily functions and behavior on a 24-hour clock. This clock
can go cuckoo when changing time zones or switching work shifts. The body's
processes have peaks and low points during every 24-hour period. These are
called circadian rhythms. Time cues -- such as sunlight and work/rest schedules
keep the circadian clock "set." Crossing time zones or changing from a day shift
to a night shift forces the circadian clock to move to a different schedule. Time is
required to adjust to the new schedule. During the transition, symptoms similar to
sleep loss can occur. Disruption of the circadian rhythm when combined with
loss of sleep can create a dangerous increase in fatigue.

The environment and nature of the work can further magnify the effects of sleep
debt and circadian rhythms. Environments with dim lighting, limited visual acuity
(e.g. due to weather), high temperatures, high noise and high comfort tend to
enhance fatigue. In addition, a worker's susceptibility to fatigue is increased by
tasks where attention must be sustained for long period, and those which are
long, repetitive, paced, difficult, boring and monotonous.

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Methods to Reduce Fatigue

Methods of counteracting fatigue include: compliance with hours of driving
regulations including regular rest stops, using CB and AM/FM radio, avoidance of
driving if narcoleptic, or under the effects of alcohol, depressants or
amphetamines, using moderate amounts of caffeine, and introducing variation
into the environment. Further study of the effects of adequate cabin ventilation
and reduced cabin vibration is needed before these methods can be

   1. Adjust your car's environment so that it helps keep you awake and
      alert. Keep the temperature cool, with open windows or air conditioning in
      the summer and frugal amounts of heat in the winter. Turn the radio
      volume up, and switch stations frequently, but avoid soft, sleep-inducing
      music. Do not use cruise control; keep your body involved with the driving.
   2. Watch your posture. Drive with your head up and your shoulders back.
      Tuck your buttocks against the seat back. Legs should not be fully
      extended, but flexed at about a 45-degree angle.
   3. Take frequent breaks. At least every two hours, stop at a gas station,
      restaurant or rest stop. Get out of the car, walk around, even jog or do
      calisthenics. Exercise fights fatigue.
   4. In addition to exercise breaks, stop for light meals and snacks. Avoid
      alcohol entirely.
   5. Don't allow your eyes to become fatigued or hypnotized. Wear
      sunglasses to fight glare (but never wear sunglasses at night).
   6. Break the monotony. Turn the radio on for a while, then off. Vary speed
      levels. Chew gum. Stretch your legs, slap your thighs. Talk to yourself.
      Sing. Keep your eyes moving.

If anti-fatigue measures fail, and you start noticing the danger signs of fatigue,
then there is only one solution. Sleep. If no motels or rest areas are in sight, pull
off the road in a safe area that is well lit and take a nap. Even 20 minutes of
sleep might refresh you enough to keep going until you reach a safe rest area.

       What will you do specifically to manage fatigue going forward?

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Running Your Home from the Road
When traveling, it can be challenging to manage your home life from the road. If
you do not have someone at home to help, this can be even more challenging. It
is also challenging for the person left at home since they may have to handle all
aspects of the home while you are away. To reduce stress on both ends, there
are strategies you can employ to ensure the load is balanced for both parties.

List as many aspects of your home life that will need to be managed while on the



  What will you do specifically to effectively run your home from the road
                               going forward?

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Managing Road Life Action Plan
Complete the following action plan which identifies specific areas of your life on
the road to manage. We will revisit this plan in the 141 class and see if we can
add any other actions.

Personal Resource Area        Specific Actions



Eating Habits

Physical Fitness


Time Management

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Trip Planning
As we discussed, one way to reduce stress is to effectively plan for your trips.
This includes looking at your routing, equipment checks and ensuring you have
the proper amount of money available for the trip.

Trip Planning Scenario

You are about to take a trip from Portland Oregon to San Francisco. Plan the
following elements:

   1. What is the best route to follow?

   2. How many miles will this trip take?

   3. How long will it take? How many stops will you incorporate to make sure
      you are rested and stay safe while traveling?

   4. What will the weather conditions be like? Where can you check for
      weather information?

   5. What type of roads will you be traveling on?

   6. Will you travel through tolls, ferries or other options if it means getting you
      there faster? If yes, describe.

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   7. How will you determine your expenses and track your receipts?

   8. How much money should you carry?

   9. What will you need to have in your vehicle (paperwork, documents, etc.)?

   10. What will you need to take care of before leaving home?

   11. What inspections will you need to do prior to leaving?

   12. What else will you need to do prior to leaving for this trip?

   13. How will you manage your health and fitness while on the road?

   14. What will you do to combat fatigue?

Create a checklist that includes the various items you will need to prepare
for and bring with you.

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Driving Behavior
It can be easy to lose control while driving. Losing behavioral control could be
considered as venting your emotions when driving. When this happens, you can
cause accidents. Your attitude can have a big impact on your concentration.

The following elements can impact your driving behavior:

      Intoxication

      Judgment

      Reflexes

      Attitude

      Vision

      Attention

      Anger

      Personal issues

      Physical condition

      Aggressiveness

What will you do specifically to manage your overall driving behavior?

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Body Mechanics
A personal injury can happen quickly or develop over time. To prevent this from
happening, it is important to watch your body mechanics as you lift, move and


Sitting can be twice as hard on your back as standing. Good sitting requires
good support. Tips for driving and body mechanics:

   1. Use a pillow or rolled-up towel to support your lower back
   2. Keep the seat far enough forward to reach instruments and pedals easily
   3. Stop from time to time to rest during long-distance driving

The biggest danger on your back is twisting. Instead of twisting, use your feet to
pivot. This will turn your whole body and not twist your back.


      Before starting to lift or carry anything, check your entire walkway
      Make sure your footing will be solid. Your shoes should give you good
       balance, support and traction.
      Clear any movable obstacles out of your way and make sure you know
       where the unmovable ones are
      Cautiously shift the object you will be moving to check its weight and
       center of gravity (anything over 50 pounds is considered heavy)
      Use mechanical aids such as hoists, carts or dollies when needed

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Safe and Easy Lifting Tips
Performing the lift is the area that causes most on-the-job back injuries. Follow
these tips to ensure you are performing the lift properly.

        Performing the Lift

        Face the object squarely and get as close to it as you can

        Balance yourself solidly, with your feet slightly apart

        Squat down, bending your knees. Keep your back arched

        Grip the object firmly

        Take a breath and hold it

        Tighten your abdomen

        Use your legs to bring you to a standing position, keeping your back

        Make the lift smoothly and under control

Safety Tips

      Don’t lift objects over your head
      Don’t twist your body when lifting or sitting an object down
      Don’t reach over an obstacle to lift a load. Move whatever is in your way
       or go around it
      Bend your knees and let your legs do the work
      Set the load down properly
      Always push, don’t pull an object
      Pace yourself to avoid fatigue when doing heavy work for a long period of
      Follow the safety guidelines of your workplace

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Methods for Movement and Stretch
The following movements and stretches are specifically designed to warm up and
reduce injury of major muscle groups used on the job. These activities also help
to improve mobility and overall performance. Being consistent and focused on
each activity will be the most effective way to see results.

There are two types of activities, Dynamic movement based activity and
Stretching based activity.

   1. Dynamic Movement Based Activities = done with a continuous motion
      that is slow and controlled.

   2. Stretching Based Activities – done with a two-second hold then release.
      Repeat this until recommended number of repetitions is complete.

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Types of Activities and Steps
Type           Process       Stretch Cues      Purpose          Benefit

Cross Back     1 set of 10   Standing leg      To warm-up       Improves
               repetitions   straight, turn    and stretch      torso rotation
               each leg      at hips, and      hips, legs,      and hip
                             reach for         back and         mobility
                             outside of foot   arms
                             with opposite

Elbow          1 set of 15   Feet together,    To warm-up       Improves
Touches        repetitions   knuckles on       and stretch      upper back
                             temples,          shoulders and    and shoulder
                             thumbs down,      upper back       mobility.
                             elbows up                          Prevention of
                                                                back and

Cop Squat      1 set of 10   Feet              To warm-up       Improves
               repetitions   balanced, hips    and stretch      overall
                             back, hands       hips, legs,      mobility.
                             behind head,      back and         Prevention of
                             chest up,         chest            low back
                             head forward                       injury

Elbow Drops    1 set of 5    Drop your         To warm-up     Improves low
               repetitions   elbow to the      and stretch    back and hip
               each leg      inside arch of    hips, low      mobility
                             the forward       back, and legs

Knee Hugs      1 set of 5    Pull knee to      To warm-up       Improves
               repetitions   chest, stand      and stretch      back and hip
               each leg      tall              hips and back    mobility

Standing Hip   1 set of 5    Standing leg      To warm-up       Improves low
Circles        repetitions   straight, giant   and stretch      back and hip
               each leg      circles with      hips, low back   mobility
                             lifted leg,       and legs
                             hands on hips

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Final Review and Exam
Let’s spend some time reviewing our material and then prepare ourselves for the
final exam.

List areas that you believe you know well at this point

List areas that you would like to spend more time addressing

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Topic                   Website Name             Website Address

Inspections             14 Point North 
                        American Standard        NAStandardInspectionProcedure.pdf
                        Inspection Procedure

Health and Fitness      Food Pyramid   

Trucking Advances       Technology changes
                        in trucking              03/tech-options/tech-options-1-1-2.pdf

Videos                  J.J. Keller &  

History                 History of Trucking

Oregon Trucking         Resources, articles
Association             and other helpful

Federal Motor Carrier   Resources and  
Safety Administration   regulation information
Oregon Employment       Information on jobs
Department              and wages


                                                 Oregonian Article
Articles                Oregonian and AARP

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                                                  AARP Article

Highway Watch            Includes additional
                         websites and links for
                         safety on the road
2004 Emergency           This would be a nice
Response Guidebook       workbook to order for
2007 Facts for Drivers   This would be a nice
(or appropriate year)    workbook to order for
Driver’s Guide to the    This would be a nice
FMCSRs – 2nd Edition     workbook to order for
Hazardous Materials      This would be a nice
Compliance               workbook to order for
Pocketbook               participants

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