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									CMPCD3001
User Interface Design
Lecture 10: Advances in
Interaction
Tutor:          Contact:
Andrew Symons   E-Mail: a.symons@ljmu.ac.uk
Advances in Interaction

•   Whole Body Interaction
•   Introduction
•   Technology
•   Examples
•   Challenges




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Who Body Interaction: Introduction

• What do we mean by Who Body Interaction?
• Going beyond Keyboard and Mouse
   –   Physical body – motion capture
   –   Physiological state – pulse, breathing, skin conductivity
   –   All human senses – including balance, propriocentric
   –   Cognitive State
   –   Emotional State – inferred from other measures
• Exploiting the full physical capabilities of humans
   – Extending current forms of interaction
   – New forms of interaction
   – Group, shared and remote interaction



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Technologies

• Some of technologies for whole body interaction have
  been around for a decade or more but they have been
   – Expensive in themselves
   – Limited to specialist usage
   – Require high-end computing support
   – Required Specialist software
• For example, at LJMU in Sports Science we have the Caren
  Platform we combines motion capture via six or more cameras plus
  a moving platform which can sense people’s movement
   – http://www.e-motek.com/medical/demo/boat.htm
   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3ZEvx63DNA (video)
   – The system can capture dozens of reflector points attached to
     the subject’s body for highly accurate motion capture

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Technologies …

• Much of the emphasis on past work has been on
  capturing and analysing physical motion
• Whereas in our approach we are more interested in the
  human body being an active, interaction controller of the
  system
• So now we are looking at
   – Less expensive means of motion capture
   – A better understanding of how people move combined with the
     task goals they are trying to achieve
   – More intelligent software to look for patterns in movement and
     patterns between movement and other measurements



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Technologies … Motion Capture

• As the cost of accelerometers and gyroscopes comes
  down in price wireless whole body motion kits are now
  available for around £1000-£2000
• Examples include
   – Xsens Xbus Kit
     http://www.xsens.com/en/products/human_motion/xbus_kit.php
   – Eowave Eobody2 Hands Free
     http://www.eowave.com/products.php?prod=57
   – Wiiremote which can be used with PCs and Macs using Glove
     PIE and Wiiremote
          – http://carl.kenner.googlepages.com/glovepie
          – http://sourceforge.net/projects/darwiin-remote/



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Technologies … Motion Capture

• The Wiiremote is a good example of how whole body
  interaction can be exploited in games
   – It contains an accelerometer for orientation sensing
   – And a four-point IR camera for position tracking
• It lacks a gyroscope for proper inertial sensing
• The casing is too bulky to use multiple Wii’s
• The accelerometer signal can be quite noisy and
  requires filtering
• However the addition of the new Wii Motion device
  improves the accuracy of the Wiiremote
   – http://uk.wii.ign.com/articles/893/893192p1.html


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Technologies … Motion Capture

• Another means of motion capture is by image processing
   – At the high end work at Stanford University tries to recongise the
     whole body and create a 3D mesh in real-time
   – https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~stefanoc/Markerless/Markerless.html
   – At the lower end we can use ordinary webcams and PC’s to
     perform shadow and edge detection
   – We have used this approach in the Mixed Reality demonstration
     presented at the FACT Centre in 2006
   – http://www.hci-fun.org.uk/hcied07/
   – Microsoft Project Natal
       • http://www.xbox.com/en-US/live/projectnatal/


• Follow the links above to see video demonstrations

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Examples

• At the higher end motion capture is used in
   – The Film and Animation industries e.g. Industrial Light and Magic
     and Pixar
   – Military Training – USC ICT
   – Sports Science
   – Health
       • assessing the susceptibility of older people to fall over whilst walking
       • Assessing the therapy needs of people with conditions like cerebral palsy

• In our work we are more interested
   – Lower tech devices with networks of multiple sensors
   – The software framework to manage these devices




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Examples

• As an example of low-tech devices Johnny Chung Lee
  http://johnnylee.net/projects/wii/ shows how the Wii
  remote can be programmed to provide new kinds of
  interactions such as
   – Finger tip tracking
   – Interactive Whiteboard
   – And Head tracker
• Using multiple Wii remotes these examples could be
  extended to provide full body motion tracking at low cost




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Challenges

• There remain several challenges to the
  further use of Whole Body Interaction
  – In HCI – understanding how people make sense of
    body movements to system responses
  – In Bio-mechanics – understanding the capabilities
    and limitations of people moving and acting in virtual,
    motion-capture environments
  – In Software – building intelligent systems that can
    integrate and learn people’s movements and
    physiological states


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