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					Focus Four Hazard Training
 For Masonry Construction

 Module 3 – Fall Protection

  Susan Harwood Grant Training Program
                      Disclaimer/Usage Notes
This material was produced under grant number SH-17793-SH8 from the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily
reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade
names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
Government.

Images shown may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA
requirements. These photos are clearly marked as non-compliant.

It is not the intent of RMMI to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the
intent is more to address Focus Four hazard awareness in the masonry construction
industry, and to recognize overlapping hazards present in many construction
workplaces.

It is the responsibility of the employer, its subcontractors, and its employees to comply
with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. Copies of
all OSHA regulations are available from www.osha.gov. This presentation is intended to
discuss Federal regulations only. If this training is held in a state that is operating under
an OSHA-approved State Plan, State OSHA requirements for that state must be included
in the training. It is assumed that individuals using this presentation or content to
augment their training programs will be "qualified" to do so.

                Developed under an OSHA Susan Harwood Grant, # SH-17793-SH8, by
                       the Rocky Mountain Masonry Institute, Denver, Colorado
          SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection     1



                     Training Objectives
After completing this unit, you will:
   -Be aware of the requirement for
     fall protection for masonry
     work.
   -Be able to recognize fall
     hazards associated with
     masonry work.
   -Be familiar with fall
     protection devices.
   -Be knowledgeable of safe
     work practices.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection   2



           References
29 CFR 1926 Subparts L & M
           SUBPARTS


          L & M Masonry Fall Protection     3



                      Scaffold Erection
The employer shall have a competent
  person determine the feasibility and
  safety of providing fall protection for
  employees erecting or dismantling
  supported scaffolds. A Competent
  Person is "one who is capable of
  identifying existing and predictable
  hazards in the surroundings or
  working conditions which are
  unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous
  to employees, and who has
  authorization to take prompt
  corrective measures to eliminate
  them."
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   4



                   Scaffold Erection
The employer shall have
  each employee who is
  involved in erecting,
  disassembling, moving,
  operating, repairing or
  maintaining a scaffold
  trained by a competent
  person to recognize any
  hazards associated with
  the work in question.
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection      5



                   Scaffold Erection
Inspect all scaffold
  components prior
  to erecting
  scaffold. Look
  for bend frames
  and cross braces,
  broken pins,
  damaged planks,
  etc.
      Photos depict hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection   6



                  Scaffold Erection
Supported scaffold
 poles, legs,
 posts, frames,
 and uprights shall
 bear on base
 plates AND mud
 sills or other
 adequate
 foundations.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   7



           Scaffold Erection




            Photos depict hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   8



           Scaffold Erection




            Photos depict hazardous condition
      SUBPARTS


     L & M Masonry Fall Protection   9



                 Scaffold Erection

Ladders shall be
 installed as soon
    as scaffold
   erection has
  progressed to a
point that permits
  safe installation
      and use.
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                           10



                  Scaffold Erection

Guardrail systems
 shall be installed
 before the
 scaffold is
 released for use
 by employees
 other than the
 erection crew.            Photo depicts hazardous condition
             SUBPARTS


            L & M Masonry Fall Protection                                  11



                        Scaffold Erection
The employer shall have a competent
person determine the feasibility and safety
of providing fall protection for employees
erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds.
Employers are required to provide fall
protection for employees erecting or
dismantling supported scaffolds where the
installation and use of such protection is
feasible and does not create a greater
hazard. The employer must be able to
explain and support a decision that it
creates a greater hazard. Even if the
competent person determines that being      Photo depicts hazardous condition
tied off during erection is not feasible, a
harness/lanyard must still be worn by the
workers.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection   12



           Scaffold Erection
      SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection   13



                 Scaffold Erection


Where uplift can
 occur, scaffold
frames shall be
pinned together.
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection           14



                   Scaffold Erection
No paint on wood platforms

Use scaffold grade wood

Component pieces used must
match and be of the same type

Erect on stable and level
ground

Lock wheels and braces
before using mobile scaffold
            Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                      15



                  Scaffold Erection
Each platform on all working levels of
scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked
between the front uprights and the guardrail
supports.




                      Photo depicts hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  16



           Scaffold Erection




           Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                             17



                   Scaffold Erection
Platforms shall be
installed so that the
space between adjacent
units and the space
between the platform and
the uprights is no more
than 1 inch wide, except
where the employer can
                             Photo depicts hazardous condition
demonstrate that a wider
space is necessary.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   18



                    Scaffold Erection
Each end of a
planked deck,
unless cleated or
otherwise secured
by hooks or
equivalent means,
shall extend over
the centerline of it’s
support at least 6
inches but not more
than 12 inches.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                     19
                                                 20



           Scaffold Erection




             Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                             20



                    Scaffold Erection
Plank overlapping will
  only occur over
  supports. The overlap
  will not be less than 12
  inches unless the
  platforms are
  nailed/screwed
  together or otherwise
  restrained to prevent
  movement.                   Photo depicts hazardous condition
      SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection         21



                 Scaffold Erection
The height of the
scaffold should
not be more than
four times its                        20’
minimum base
dimension unless
guys, ties, or
braces are used.
                             5’
          SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection    22



                     Scaffold Erection




Photo depicts hazardous condition
           SUBPARTS


          L & M Masonry Fall Protection                        23



                      Scaffold Access
When scaffold platforms are
 more than 2 feet above or
 below a point of access,
 portable ladders, hook-on
 ladders, attachable ladders,
 stair towers, ramps,
 walkways, integral
 prefabricated scaffold access,
 or direct access from another
 scaffold, structure, personnel
 hoist, or similar surface shall
 be used.                        Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection   24



                  Scaffold Access
Hook-on and
attachable ladders
shall have a minimum
rung length of
11 1/2 inches and
have uniformly
spaced rungs with a
maximum spacing
between rungs of 16
3/4 inches.
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection               25



                   Scaffold Access
Choose the correct type of portable ladder:
Type IAA Special Duty can handle up to 375 lbs.
Type IA Heavy Duty can handle up to 300 lbs.
Type I ladders are rated up to 250 lbs.
Type II ladders are rated up to 225lbs.
Type III ladders(light duty) up to 200lbs
         SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection   26



                    Scaffold Access
Rungs   must be intact and
free from grease or oil
Make sure there are no
visible defects on the
ladder (missing, cracked
or loose rungs, missing
safety feet, or signs of rot)
Metal ladders should not
be dented or bent
All braces are secure
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  27



           Scaffold Access




           Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   28



                   Scaffold Access
 Use the 4 to 1 rule:
 Set the ladder 1
 foot out for every 4
 feet up to the point
 of support. (Rungs
 are normally 1 ft
 apart, so its easy
 to figure the
 angle).
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                           29



                   Scaffold Access

 All ladders must
  extended 36 inches
  above the landing
 Make sure the base
  of the ladder is tied
  or held and the top
  is anchored
                            Photo depicts hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   30



           Scaffold Access




            Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   31



                   Scaffold Access

If used, stair towers
must have
stairrails/handrails as
well as guardrails on
the open sides of all
landings.
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   32



                   Scaffold Access
Integral
  prefabricated
  scaffold access
  frames shall:
Be specifically
  designed and
  constructed for
  use as ladder
  rungs and have a
  rung length of at
  least 8 inches.
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   33



                  Scaffold Access
 These rungs are at
  least 11 ½ inches
 wide and no more
than 16 ¾ apart and
  can be used as a
  work platform for
  scaffold erection
   and for scaffold
  access by users.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   34



                    Scaffold Access

These rungs are not at least 11
½ inches wide so they
CANNOT be used for access
by scaffold users. They can
be used for access during
scaffold erection/dismantling
as long as they are not more
than 22 inches apart vertically.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   35



                    Scaffold Access
Direct access to or
  from another              24”
  surface shall be
  used only when the
  scaffold is not
  more than 14
  inches horizontally
  and not more than
  24 inches vertically
  from the other          14”
  surface.
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                            36



                  Scaffold Access
Cross braces on
tubular welded frame
scaffolds shall not be
used as a means of
access or egress,
even by erectors
building or
dismantling the
scaffold.                   Photo depicts hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   37



           Scaffold Access




            Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          38



                   Scaffold Use
The front edge of all
platforms shall not be
more than 14 inches
from the face of the
work, unless guard-
rail systems are
erected along the
front edge and/or
personal fall arrest
systems are used.          Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                         39



                  Scaffold Use


Each scaffold
walkway shall
be at least 18
inches wide.


                         Photo depicts hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   40



                   Scaffold Use
The top rail shall be
installed between 38
& 45 inches above
the deck shall be
provided on the
open sides and ends
of each working
level when it is 10
feet or more above a
lower surface.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          41



                    Scaffold Use
Each top rail shall be
capable of
withstanding, without
failure, a force
applied in any
downward or
horizontal direction
at any point along it’s
top edge of at least       Photo depicts hazardous condition
200 pounds.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          42



                    Scaffold Use
Mid rails, screens, etc.
of a guardrail system
shall be installed
midway between the
top rail and the deck
and be capable of
withstanding, without
failure, at least 150
pounds.
                           Photo depicts hazardous condition
 SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection       43



             Scaffold Use




Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          44



                   Scaffold Use

Guardrails shall
also be surfaced to
prevent injury to an
employee from
punctures or
lacerations, and to
prevent snagging of
clothing.
                           Photo depicts hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  45



           Scaffold Use




           Photo depicts hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                         46



                   Scaffold Use
Cross bracing is
acceptable in place of
a midrail when the
crossing point of the
two braces is
between 20 and 30
inches above the
work platform
...

                          Photo depicts hazardous condition
          SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection                         47



                     Scaffold Use


. . . or as a top rail
when the crossing
point of the two
braces is between
38 and 48 inches
above the work
platform.

                           Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   48



                  Scaffold Use

Fall protection
must also be
provided at the
exposed ends
of the walk
planks as well
as openings in
front of the
workers.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  49



           Scaffold Use




           Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          50



                   Scaffold Use
Makeshift devices,
such as, but not
limited to, boxes,
barrels and ladders,
shall not be used on
top of scaffold
platforms to increase
the working level
height of employees.


                           Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   51



                   Scaffold Use
   Employees shall be
prohibited from working
on scaffolds with snow,
  ice, or other slippery
    material except as
 necessary for removal
 of such materials. Do
 not work on scaffolds
 during storms or high
          winds.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   52



                    Scaffold Use
Mason was working on the third
level of a tubular welded frame
scaffold which was covered
with ice and snow.

The scaffold was not fully
decked, there was no guardrail
and no access ladder.

The worker slipped and fell
head first 20 feet to the
pavement below.
       SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   53



                   Scaffold Use
The use of shore, lean-to or
  makeshift scaffolds is
        prohibited.




                  Photos depict hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection              54



             Forklifts/Aerial Lifts

Using a forklift as an aerial lift can only be
done when the following requirements are
met:

1. The forklift manufacturer approves the use of
   their equipment for such purposes

2. An engineered/approved platform meeting the
   OSHA requirements for fall protection is used
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                        55



     Forklifts/Aerial Lifts




           Photos courtesy of Lifting Technologies
           SUBPARTS


          L & M Masonry Fall Protection                        56



                Forklifts/Aerial Lifts
The following requirements must be met as well:

1. The work platform must be equipped with standard guardrails
and must be firmly secured to the lifting carriage or forks.
2. The hydraulic system must be designed such that the lift
mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the
event of a failure in any part of the system.
3. The operator must be in the driving seat while workers are on
the platform.
4. The operator must be in the driving seat while raising or
lowering the platform.
5. The area between the personnel on the platform and the mast
must be guarded to prevent contact with chains or other pinch
points.
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  57



     Forklifts/Aerial Lifts




           Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection                              58



              Forklifts/Aerial Lifts
When using extensible and
articulating boom platforms a
harness shall be worn and a
lanyard attached to the boom or
basket when working from the
lift. Employees shall always
stand firmly on the floor of the
basket, and shall not sit or climb
on the edge of the basket or use
planks, ladders, or other devices
for a work position.
                                     Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection   59



            Forklifts/Aerial Lifts


When working in a
straight up and
down scissors type
lift, a harness/
lanyard is not
required.
          SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection   60



               Forklifts/Aerial Lifts
Employee was operating an
aerial lift, with an extendable
boom rotating work platform.

The boom was fully extended
and the machine apparently ran
over some bricks, causing the
boom to flex or spring, throwing
the employee from the basket.

The employee fell 37 feet to a
concrete surface.
          SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection   61



               General Scaffolding
COMPETENT PERSON

Person capable of identifying and
having authority to promptly correct
hazards

Determines if it’s safe to work on a
scaffold during storms or high winds

Trains workers to recognize hazards

Selects qualified workers to conduct
work
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                         62



             General Scaffolding

Competent person
inspects scaffolds for
visible defects before
each shift and after
any alterations or
unusual occurrences.
Defective parts must
be immediately
repaired or replaced.
                          Photo depicts hazardous condition
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  63



     General Scaffolding




           Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   64



         General Fall Protection

General fall protection
is required when
working above 6 feet
in construction. When
working on a silo,
ensure guardrail
chains are closed.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection   65



         General Fall Protection

When masonry work
must be done on a
roof or other elevated
surface, a guardrail
system must be
installed or a Personal
Fall Arrest system
must be used above 6
feet.
            SUBPARTS


           L & M Masonry Fall Protection          66



             General Fall Protection
When performing overhand bricklaying work,
a Controlled Access Zone may be used as a
method of fall protection, as long as masons
do not reach more than 10 inches below the
platform on which they are standing or
kneeling. "Overhand bricklaying" is "the
process of laying bricks and masonry units
such that the surface of the wall to be jointed
is on the opposite side of the wall from the
mason, requiring the mason to lean over the
wall to complete the work. It includes mason
tending, maintaining supplies of bricks and
mortar and electrical installation incorporated
into the brick wall during the overhand
bricklaying process."
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                          67



         General Fall Protection

On a construction
site, floor holes
greater than 2
inches in any
dimension must be
covered or guarded.
If covered, the cover
must be marked as
such and secured.
                           Photo depicts hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection             68



        General Fall Protection

There must be a stairway or ladder at points of
access where there is an elevation break of 19
inches or more. At least one point of access must
be kept clear.
                            Break in elevation



                           19 inches
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection            69



         General Fall Protection
Stairways with four or more risers or more than 30
inches high must have a stair rail along each
unprotected side or edge and have at least one
handrail
SUBPARTS


L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  70



 General Fall Protection




           Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection                            71



          General Fall Protection
Only use pan stairs if
filled with filler material
at least to the top edge                Landing
of each pan, has stair
rails/ handrails installed
and the unprotected
sides of landings have
a standard 42 inch
guardrail system.
                              Photo depicts hazardous condition
       SUBPARTS


      L & M Masonry Fall Protection   72



       General Fall Protection


Stair rails must
be able to
withstand a force
of 200 pounds
outward and
downward along
its entire length.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                   73



                     Summary

Remember, falls may
occur:
 While climbing on or
off the scaffold
 Working on
unguarded scaffold
platforms
 When scaffold
platforms or planks fail
                    Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                         74



                         Summary
                    Guardrails
Install along open sides & ends
Front edge of platforms not more
than 14 inches from the work,
unless using guardrails and/or
Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS)
Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tall
Midrails halfway between toprail
and platform
                                           Photo depicts
Toeboards at least 3-1/2 inches high    hazardous condition
          SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection   75



                     Summary
You must be trained how to
properly use a PFAS
PFAS include anchorage, lanyard
and body harness
Can use PFAS instead of
guardrails on some scaffolds
Use PFAS & guardrails on
suspension scaffolds
Use PFAS on erectors and
dismantlers unless it creates a
greater hazard
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection   76



                   Summary

Use appropriate
scaffold construction
methods

Proper scaffold
access

Always have a
competent person for
the scaffold
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                            77



                    Summary
Platforms must:
be fully planked or
decked with no more
than 1 inch gaps
be able to support its
weight & 4 times
maximum load
                             Photo depicts hazardous condition
be at least 18 inches wide
if used as a walkway
        SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                  78



                           Summary
No gaps over 14 inches at
front edge of platforms

Each abutted end of plank
must rest on a separate
support surface

Overlap platforms at least
12 inches over supports,
unless restrained to
prevent movement

                   Photos depict hazardous condition
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection                               79



                    Summary
Provide access when scaffold
platforms are more than 2 feet
above or below a point of access
Permitted types of access:
  -Ladders, such as portable,
hook-on, attachable, stairway
type, and built-ins
 -Stair towers
 -Ramps and walkways
May use building stairs and
come out window
                                Photo depicts hazardous condition
        SUBPARTS


       L & M Masonry Fall Protection                           80



                   Summary
No access by
crossbraces

When using ladders,
bottom rung no more than
24 inches high

Can use some end frames

Can access from another
scaffold, structure or
hoist
                           Photo depicts hazardous condition
            SUBPARTS


           L & M Masonry Fall Protection                    81



                        Summary
Train employees on scaffold hazards and procedures to
control the hazards.
The training must include:

-Nature   of electrical, fall, and falling object hazards

 -How to deal with electrical hazards and fall protection
systems

 -Proper use of the scaffold

 -Scaffold load capacities

Retrain as necessary
         SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection          82


            REVIEW QUESTIONS
 True   or False?
  1. Erectors & dismantlers must have additional
     training in safe procedures.
  2. Scaffolds must always have mudsills beneath
     the baseplates.
  3. Guardrails must be installed before the
     scaffold is used by masons/hoddies.
  4. Erectors only need to wear a harness if 100%
     tie-off is feasible.
  5. Brickwashers can work with only two planks
     as a work platform.
         SUBPARTS


         L & M Masonry Fall Protection             83


            REVIEW QUESTIONS
 True   or False?
  6. Planks can be nailed or screwed together if
     12 inches of overlap is not possible.
  7. Scaffolds only one frame high can be
     climbed without using a ladder.
  8. Workers above 10 feet can remove the
     midrail to accept a mud tub without using
     other fall protection.
  9. Workers do not need fall protection on the
     walk planks when laying block.
  10.Workers can stand on the midrail of a
     scissors lift if they are tied off.
         SUBPARTS


        L & M Masonry Fall Protection           84


            REVIEW QUESTIONS
True   or False?
  11.The Competent Person must be a foreman.
  12. You can climb through a window onto the
     scaffold if you only step up/down 28 inches.
  13. Floor holes greater than 2 inches wide must
     be covered or guarded.
  14. Ladders must be tied off at the top only if
     the scaffold is over 20 feet high
  15.Scaffold training is only required when you
     are first hired by your employer.

				
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