Basic Pistol Course by jianghongl


									Gun Safety Education
Basic Pistol Lesson Plan Outline
► 1 The Basic Pistol Course deals with the basic
knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for
owning and using a pistol safely.

►2 Topics

      Lesson I: Rules for home and safe gun handling.
      Lesson II: Texas Law
      Lesson III: Identifying different firearms and firearm parts.
      Lesson IV: Pistol knowledge and Practical exercises in safe gun handling.
      Lesson V: Types of ammunition, cleaning and storage of firearms.
      Lesson VI: Fundamentals of pistol shooting.
      Lesson VII: Pistol sports and activities.
►3Lesson        1; Topic 1: Rules for the Home

                        I don’t care if you love guns or hate them. The fact remains
                        that guns are a part of American life, and will be for the
                        foreseeable future, laws or no laws. Restrictive laws will
                        merely drive them underground, as prohibition did with

                        They’ll still be there, and your children will still have to deal
                        with them. It is too simplistic to ban guns from your home,
                        forbid you children to ever touch one. Your wishes are not
                        enough. Gun safety cannot be ―forbidden‖ away.

                         Parents play a key role in developing safe practices and are
ultimately responsible for the behavior and safety of their children. Because isolated
lessons and concepts can be quickly forgotten, repetition will help children
remember standard safety procedures.

The Parents' Responsibility

When you were a child, was there anything in the house you couldn’t find if you
wanted to? Were there things your parents thought were hidden from you that in fact
you could get your hands on at will?

The bottom line is this: YOU CANNOT CHILDPROOF YOUR GUNS. Firearms are
designed to operable by an idiot under stress. A halfway intelligent child given time
at their leisure to play with one will eventually figure out how to bypass any safety
mechanism, load, and shoot the gun. Child proofing techniques will not work.

►5 If we cannot keep guns away from our children then the only solution remaining
is instead of childproofing guns, we must gunproof the children.

In a home where guns are kept, the degree of safety a child has rests squarely on
the child's parents.

Parents who accept the responsibility to learn, practice and teach gun safety rules
will ensure their child's safety to a much greater extent than those who do not.
Parental responsibility does not end, however, when the child leaves the home.

According to federal statistics, there are guns in approximately half of all U.S.
households. Even if no one in your family owns a gun, chances are that someone
you know does. Your child could come in contact with a gun at a neighbor's house,
when playing with friends, or under other circumstances outside your home.
It is critical for your child to know what to do if he or she encounters a firearm
anywhere, and it is the parents' responsibility to provide that training. An untrained,
unsupervised child with a gun is a deadly danger. Those who train their children to
face the ever-present dangers of daily life, including mishandling firearms, have one
less thing to be afraid. Your child should be trained. There is no safety in ignorance.

►6 There are two myths about firearms: 1) that the gun is evil; and 2) that the gun is
good and wards off evil.

A lot of folks are afraid of guns and won't even go near one, let alone handle a
firearm. Undeniably, guns can be lethal when not treated in a safe and sane manner,
but they are not a coiled rattlesnake ready to deal instant death the moment you
open a gun box. On the opposite side are the people who are comfortable around
guns--35 million Americans own handguns, primarily for recreation and self-
protection. About 700,000 citizens join the ranks of gun owners every year.

►7 While guns obviously are formidable defensive weapons in the hands of folks
who know how to handle them, they also are a great form of recreation--for folks
who know how to handle them. Firearms-related accidents have declined sharply
even as gun ownership in America is rising. More than half of all households now
own firearms, yet accidental fatalities are at an all-time low--down 60 percent over
the last 20 years. For decades, the firearms industry has emphasized education to
ensure the safe and responsible use of its products. This effort and those by other
organizations are why the shooting sports and hunting are rated among the safest
forms of recreation. Some 40 million people of all ages safely participate in these
activities. . Used properly, it is benevolent; used incompetently it becomes a terrible
instrument of destruction.

Liberals point to the magic bullet of education to address society's problems. They're
right. We agree when they say:

      Education reduces poverty
      Education reduces domestic abuse
      Education reduces pollution
      Education reduces teen pregnancy
      Education reduces drug abuse
      Education reduces on-the-job accidents
      Education reduces obesity
      Education reduces STD's
      Education reduces smoking
      Education reduces gun accidents

Stop right there!?

You won't hear many liberals say that. Gun safety is the one thing education can't
help, according to liberals. Education doesn't work with guns - abolition does?

► 8 Education is the key.
►9 The basic principles of firearms safety boil down to good common sense.

Talking With Your Child About Gun Safety

►10 There is no particular age to talk with your child about gun safety. A good time
to introduce the subject is the first time he or she shows an interest in firearms, even
toy pistols or rifles. Talking openly and honestly about gun safety with your child is
usually more effective than just ordering him or her to "Stay out of the gun closet,"
and leaving it at that. Such statements may just stimulate a child's natural curiosity to
investigate further.

As with any safety lesson, explaining the rules and answering a child's questions
help remove the mystery surrounding guns. Any rules set for your own child should
also apply to friends who visit the home. This will help keep your child from being
pressured into showing a gun to a friend.

Toy Guns vs. Real Guns

It is also advisable, particularly with very young children, to discuss gun use on
television as opposed to gun use in real life. Firearms are often handled carelessly in
movies and on TV. Additionally, children see TV and movie characters shot and
"killed" with well-documented frequency. When a young child sees that same actor
appear in another movie or TV show, confusion between entertainment and real life
may result. It may be a mistake to assume that your child knows the difference
between being "killed" on TV and being killed in reality.

If your child has toy guns, you may want to use them to demonstrate safe gun
handling and to explain how they differ from genuine firearms. Even though an
unsupervised child should not have access to a gun, there should be no chance that
he or she could mistake a real gun for a toy.

What Should You Teach Your Child About Gun Safety?

►11 If you have decided that your child is not ready to be trained in a gun's handling
and use, teach him or her to follow the instructions of NRA's Eddie Eagle GunSafe ®
Program at home. Simply call the Eddie Eagle Program at 800-231-0752 and
request a sample kit. Each kit includes a copy of the student workbook, instructor's
guide, program statistics, a description of materials, an order form, and the Parents'
Guide to Gun Safety brochure.

If you find a gun:


                                     Don't Touch.

                                   Leave the Area.

                                     Tell an Adult.
The initial steps of "Stop" and "Don't Touch" are the most important. To counter
the natural impulse to touch a gun, it is imperative that you impress these steps of
the safety message upon your child.

In today's society, where adult supervision is not always possible, the direction to
"Leave the Area" is also essential. Under some circumstances, area may be
understood to be a room if your child cannot physically leave the apartment or

"Tell an Adult" emphasizes that children should seek a trustworthy adult, neighbor,
relative or teacher -- if a parent or guardian is not available.

Gun Owners' Responsibilities

Most states impose some form of legal duty on adults to take reasonable steps to
deny access by children to dangerous substances or instruments. It is the individual
gun owner's responsibility to understand and follow all laws regarding gun purchase,
ownership, storage, transport, etc. Contact your state police and/or local police for
information regarding such laws. If you own a gun and do not know how to operate
it, do not experiment with it. Point it in a safe direction, keep your finger off the
trigger, and store it securely. Seek competent assistance and instruction at once. An
untrained adult can be as dangerous as a curious child.

Store guns so that they are inaccessible to children and other unauthorized users.
Gun shops sell a wide variety of safes, cases, and other security devices. While
specific security measures may vary, a parent must, in every case, assess the
exposure of the firearm and absolutely ensure that it is inaccessible to a child.

Get Training on Your specific firearm
Lesson I; Topic 2: Common Sense Safety - Rules for
safe gun handling
Handle all firearms as if they were loaded at all times.

                           1. ►12 ALWAYS keep the gun pointed in a safe
                              This is the primary rule of gun safety. The first thing to
                              do when handling any firearm is to point it in a safe
                              direction and open the action to verify that it isn't
                              loaded -- and that includes putting your finger into the
                              chamber as a backup to visual inspection. Then,
                              always treat the firearm as if it is loaded. A safe
                              direction means that the gun is pointed so that even if it
                              were to go off it would not cause injury or damage. The
                              key to this rule is to control where the muzzle or front
      end of the barrel is pointed at all times. Common sense dictates the safest
      direction, depending on different circumstances. Common sense will tell you
      which direction is the safest. Outdoors, it is generally safe to point the gun
      toward the ground, or, if you are at a shooting range, toward the target.
      Indoors, be mindful of the fact that a bullet can penetrate ceilings, floors,
      walls, windows, and doors.

                       2. ► 13ALWAYS keep your finger off the trigger until
                          ready to shoot.
                          When holding a gun, rest your finger on the trigger guard
                          or along the side of the gun. Until you are actually ready to
                          fire, do not touch the trigger.

                       3. ►14ALWAYS keep the gun unloaded until ready to
                          Whenever you pick up a gun, immediately engage the
                          safety device if possible, and, if the gun has a magazine,
                          remove it before opening the action and looking into the
                          chamber(s) which should be clear of ammunition. When
                          you are handed a gun, check it again. A professional will
                          NEVER mind you checking a gun for safety AFTER he
                          has checked the gun for safety. If you do not know how to
                          check to see if a gun is unloaded, leave it alone. Carefully
      secure it, being certain to point it safely and to keep your finger off the trigger,
      and seek competent assistance.
                       ► 15 ALWAYS Know your target and what is beyond.
                       Be absolutely sure you have identified your target beyond any
                       doubt. Equally important, be aware of the area beyond your
                       target. Bullets go through things and hit other things. This
                       means observing your prospective area of fire before you
                       shoot. Never fire in a direction in which there are people or any
                       other potential for mishap. Think first. Shoot second.

►16 Maximum Range of Firearms

This refers to the range at which a bullet or pellet is dangerous, not the range at
which it is an effective game getter.

       .22LR                               1-1/2 miles (2700 yards)
       Centerfire Pistol                   3/4 to 1-1/2 miles (2-3000 yards)
       Centerfire Rifle (30-06, 270)       3 to 5 miles (6-10,000 yards)
       #8-9 shot                           220 yards
       #7-1/2 shot                         300 yards
       00 buckshot                         6-800 yards

       ►17 Know how to use the gun safely.
        Before handling a gun, learn how it operates. There are a lot of different
        styles of guns. Know its basic parts, how to safely open and close the action
        and remove any ammunition from the gun or magazine. Remember, a gun's
        mechanical safety device is never foolproof. Nothing can ever replace safe
        gun handling.
       Be sure the gun is safe to operate.
        Just like other tools, guns need regular maintenance to remain operable.
        Regular cleaning and proper storage are a part of the gun's general upkeep. If
        there is any question concerning a gun's ability to function, a knowledgeable
        gunsmith should look at it.
       Use only the correct ammunition for your gun.
        Only BBs, pellets, cartridges or shells designed for a particular gun can be
        fired safely in that gun. Most guns have the ammunition type stamped on the
        barrel. Ammunition can be identified by information printed on the box and
        sometimes stamped on the cartridge. Do not shoot the gun unless you know
        you have the proper ammunition.
       Wear eye and ear protection as appropriate.
        Guns are loud and the noise can cause hearing damage. They can also emit
        debris and hot gas that could cause eye injury. For these reasons, shooting
        glasses and hearing protectors should be worn by shooters and spectators.
       Never use alcohol or over-the-counter, prescription or other drugs
        before or while shooting.
        Alcohol, as well as any other substance likely to impair normal mental or
    physical bodily functions, must not be used before or while handling or
    shooting guns.
   ►18 Store guns so they are not accessible to unauthorized persons.
    Many factors must be considered when deciding where and how to store
    guns. A person's particular situation will be a major part of the consideration.
    Dozens of gun storage devices, as well as locking devices that attach directly
    to the gun, are available. However, mechanical locking devices, like the
    mechanical safeties built into guns, can fail and should not be used as a
    substitute for safe gun handling and the observance of all gun safety rules.
   Be aware that certain types of guns and many shooting activities
    require additional safety precautions.
   Cleaning
    Regular cleaning is important in order for your gun to operate correctly and
    safely. Taking proper care of it will also maintain its value and extend its life.
    Your gun should be cleaned every time that it is used.

    A gun brought out of prolonged storage should also be cleaned before
    shooting. Accumulated moisture and dirt, or solidified grease and oil, can
    prevent the gun from operating properly.

    Before cleaning your gun, make absolutely sure that it is unloaded. The
    gun's action should be open during the cleaning process. Also, be sure that
    no ammunition is present in the cleaning area.

                                 Any Questions.
►19   Lesson II: Texas Law
Firearms law is complicated. It is complicated because there are regulations at the
federal level, the state level and by lesser governmental entities such as cities. And
it is complicated because courts have to interpret all these regulations, and
sometimes the decisions contradict each other. To further complicate things, gun
laws change frequently.

(Contradict – Felony)

Example: In Texas, a person convicted of a Felony my posses a handgun for home
protection after 1 year of his being released. However, Federal law limits a felon
from having ANY gun in his possession at ANY time. If you just read the Texas law,
you could be prosecuted under the Federal law.

Quiz - Texas Gun Laws

►20 Q: Is there a waiting period on gun sales? - NO

► 21Q: Are handgun buyers required to complete safety training? - NO

►22 Q: Is it required that you register all of your guns with law enforcement? - NO

►23 Q: Are background checks required at gun shows? - NO

►24 Q: Do state police and federal NICS perform a background check? - NO

►25 Q: Is it mandatory that locking devices be sold with guns? - NO

► 26Q: Is a license or permit required to buy handguns? - NO

► 27Q: Are background checks required on 'private' gun sales? - NO

► 28Q: Are there any restrictions regarding minors possessing guns? – YES

       State law restricts selling or giving firearms to juveniles under 18, except for
       supervised loans of firearms or for limited lawful activities (such as hunting).

       A person commits an offense under the statute if a child gains access to a
       readily dischargeable firearm and the person, with criminal negligence:
       (1) failed to secure the firearm; or
       (2) left the firearm in a place to which the person knew or should have known
       the child would gain access.

       Under this statute a "child" is someone under the age of seventeen
       Remember that under §46.01 of the Penal Code a "firearm" includes
       shotguns, rifles and handguns. A "readily accessible firearm" is one that is
       loaded with ammunition-even if the ammo is in a magazine and there is no
       round in the chamber (§46.13(a)(2)).

       One "secures" a readily accessible firearm by taking the steps a reasonable
       person would take to prevent access by a child including, but not limited to,
       placing the firearm in a locked container or temporarily rendering the firearm
       inoperable through a trigger lock or other means.

► 29Q: May the police limit carrying concealed handguns? – NO

► 30Q. Is there a FBI *NICS check for firearms transactions? - YES

► 31Q. Is a permit to carry a concealed weapon required? – YES

State law generally prohibits public possession of a handgun without a Concealed
Handgun License (CHL), effectively preventing public possession of handguns by
anyone under 21 unless they are engaged in certain approved activities. But the law
does not apply to possession of handguns by juveniles on private property even if
they don't have parental permission.

Texas CHL law states that if a magistrate or peace officer demands to see your
driver's license, you must also produce your CHL if you are carrying a handgun at
the time.

► 32Vehicle carry and transportation: Unlicensed individuals and non-residents may
not carry handguns on or about their persons while in a vehicle. Loaded rifles and
shotguns may be carried in plain view or in a case.

Carry of handguns "on or about one's person" on foot or in a vehicle is explicitly
prohibited by statute. "On or about one's person" has been defined by the Texas
courts to include any handgun within arm's reach of an individual whether concealed
or open. Under one's seat, on the dash, in the glove compartment or even in the
backseat are spatial positions which have been held to be "on or about one's

► 33Texas law, however, exempts individuals who are carrying handguns for self-
protection while traveling across Texas on a "bonafide" journey or engaged in a
lawfully related firearm activity such as hunting or target shooting. Although police
should not arrest an individual who falls within these exemptions, any doubt as to a
person's true intentions could result in a delay or an overnight jail stay. Traveling, as
it has been interpreted by the courts means, basically, going away from one's
domicile, or residence, for an extended trip of some kind. There are no exact
definitions or parameters. Travelers unable to maintain their classification as
"bonafide travelers" should carry their handgun unloaded and cased in the trunk.
Texas law contains no prohibition on the transport of loaded rifles and shotguns in
vehicles. Such firearms may be carried in plain view anywhere in the vehicle or
secured in a commercial gun case or gun rack.
► 34The reasonable use of lethal force will be allowed if an intruder is:

      Committing certain violent crimes, such as murder or sexual assault, or is
       attempting to commit such crimes.

      Unlawfully trying to enter a protected place (home).

      Unlawfully trying to remove a person from a protected place (home).

The law also provides civil immunity for a person who lawfully slays an intruder or
attacker in such situations.

The one thing you can do to avoid many difficulties is to acquire a concealed
handgun license (CHL) and use it properly. Several of the issues Texans face over
handguns go away with a CHL. It is easier to buy a gun if you have a CHL. It is
easier for you to sell a gun to someone who has a CHL. The whole area of guns in
your car or pickup is much simplified if you have a CHL.

► 35Gun Free School Zone Law

As regards our state's 300 foot gun free school zone law, it applies only to
handguns. Even people with permits to carry concealed weapons (CHL) are
prohibited from carrying weapons into schools. It is also illegal to carry concealed
handguns onto school grounds during athletic events. So, possession of a handgun
in your car as you drive to the gun range on a Saturday past an unmarked building
where after-school activities are conducted on Wednesdays may still land you in jail
and punishable for a felony. Not likely, but possible.

The Federal Gun Free School Zones Act was re-enacted a few years ago. This law
makes it illegal to possess any gun with in 1000 feet of any piece of property that is
used by a school. What about home schools? The stated exceptions are for guns
possessed in your home, CHL's, and guns unloaded and locked in a container.

► 36You cannot carry a handgun onto or into any Federal facility. "Federal facility"
means "a building or part thereof owned or leased by the Federal Government,
where federal employees are regularly present for the purpose of performing their
official duties." And this includes stepping out of a car at the Post office to buy

Remember, reliance upon police agencies (or even their attorneys') "opinions" on
the law is NO defense if a court disagrees with that opinion. We are all presumed to
"know the law" and ignorance thereof is no excuse.

You receive additional legal education on Texas gun law in the CHL class. This
class is good even if you never intend to carry a concealed handgun. The other thing
you can do is read Texas Gun Owner's Guide, by Alan Korwin and Georgene
Lockwood. This is the book on Texas gun laws. If you take a class to obtain a
concealed handgun license, this is probably the book they will use. It is a
comprehensive guide to Texas laws on gun ownership. It should be read by every
Texan who owns a gun, whether or not they carry concealed. If you only read one
book, this is the one to read. You can usually find it at better gun stores.

► 37 Recommended Reading:

      Texas Gun Owner's Guide, by Alan Korwin and Georgene
      In the Gravest Extreem, by Massad F. Ayoob
      The Gun Digest Book of Combat Handgunnery, by Massad F. Ayoob
      The Concealed Handgun Manual, by Chris Bird
      Thank God I had a Gun, by Chris Bird
      Armed Response, by David S. Kenik and Massad F. Ayoob
      Gun Proof your Children, by Massad F. Ayoob
      Unintended Consequences, by John Ross
       Dial 911 and Die, by Richard W Stevens
► 38Lesson III: Identifying different firearms and firearm
► 39 Firearm types. – Definitions

   •   Pistol – 9mm Browning Highpower
   •   Rifle – 30.06
   •   Carbine – .30 M1
   •   Shotgun – 12 gage Mosburg
   •   Machine Gun – FN Minimi
   •   Submachine Gun – 9mm Uzi pistol
   •   Assult Rifle – 5.56 x 45 mm FAMAS (French)
   •   Cannon – 20mm shoulder fired sniper cannon

► 40The two basic types of handguns are pistols and revolvers. Each has its own
advantages and disadvantages. The handgun you choose is a personal preference
and should feel comfortable in your hand and be the type required for the kind of
shooting planned.


► 41 Pistols include single-shot (bolt action, muzzle loader and hammer) and
autoloading handguns. The single-shot pistol typically uses high intensity loads,
often in guns with interchangeable barrels of different calibers. The single-shot pistol
is a sporting handgun and is used commonly for hunting and in metallic silhouette

► 42 Yes, this bolt is a pistol! However, You may question whether it is bolt

► 43 Autopistols (autoloading) are commonly used by target shooters. A semi-
automatic gun stores multiple cartridges in a magazine and instantly reloads and
recocks itself with each pull of the trigger after the first shot is fired and will continue
to do so until the magazine is empty. The magazine is usually located within the grip.
The most popular calibers used are the .22 Long Rifle, .25 Automatic Colt Pistol, .32
Automatic Colt Pistol, .380 Automatic Colt Pistol, 9mm, .40 Smith and Wesson,
10mm, and the .45 Automatic Colt Pistol. Here is shown a Glock 18 (9mm) with 28
bullet magazine, a Walther P99 (.40S&W) and Smith $ Wesson Chief Special Model
CS45 (.45ACP).

► 44 Autopistol parts.

► 45 Types of Revolvers

Revolvers are multiple-shot handguns with a revolving cylinder at the rear of the
barrel that may contain five to nine chambers in a rotating cylinder. The cylinder is
loaded by inserting one cartridge into each hole or chamber. There are different
calibers available for revolvers, the most common are the .22 Long Rifle, .32
Magnum, .32 H and R Magnum, .32 Smith and Wesson, .38 Special, .357 Magnum,
.357 Maximum, .41 magnum, .44 Special, .44 Magnum, .454 Casull, and .50 Caliber
Action Express. Here we have Colt Peacemaker (.45), Smith & Wesson Model 36
Snubnose (.38), Smith & Wesson M&P (.38), and an old LeMat 9 shot Civil War .44.

► 46 Revolver parts.

► 47 Open Cylinder

► 48 Peacemaker – Stop at this slide Until Ammo

An advantage of the revolver is its ability to eject fired cartridge cases at the
shooter's discretion, because they are retained in the revolver after being fired. An
autoloader will throw the empty cases clear of the gun immediately after firing. Also,
if a revolver cartridge fails to fire, the hammer can be cocked again or with a double
action gun the trigger can be squeezed and a new round will rotate into firing

An autoloader pistol usually has some kind of external manual safety feature that will
lock either the trigger and/or the firing pine when engaged, or it will prevent the
hammer from reaching the firing pin or striker. Not all revolvers have an external
safety feature.

An autopistol is considered to be more accurate because it fires from a single fixed
chamber rather than from multiple chambers that are rotated into place. Another
advantage of the autopistol is a greater cartridge capacity, which allows for more
shots before having to reload.

Hunting Handguns

Hunting with a handgun is challenging because your shot must be taken at close
range, typically no more than 75 yards away. Handguns lack the power and long-
distance accuracy of hunting rifles. A magnifying scope sight can be used with a
handgun for sighting at an extended range. For big game, common handgun
cartridges are the .357 magnum, .41 magnum, and .44 magnum. A rimfire .22 can
be used for shooting small game, but should have a barrel length of at least 4 inches
and include an adjustable sight.

Air-Powered Handguns

Air powered handguns use compressed air or CO2 gas to propel pellets or BBs. Air
guns make very little noise. All have very little if any recoil. Air guns are not very
powerful but are good choices for plinking, training, and hunting small game species
(where legal) at close distances.

Handgun Actions

There are two "action" types for revolvers and autopistols, single-action and double-
action. Single-action guns are manually cocked before they are fired. Double-action
types are fired by just pulling the trigger, usually after manually cocking the gun for
the first shot. Many target shooters prefer the single-action pistol because of the
finer trigger pulls.

Barrel Lengths

Revolvers and autopistols are available in barrel lengths varying from 2 to 10 inches.
Most shooters prefer a handgun with either a 4 or 6 inch barrel length. Short barrel
handguns can lack the accuracy capability of longer barrels. A long barrel is used as
a silhouette or hunting gun for its maximum velocity.

Gun Sights

Sighting equipment allows for more accuracy when shooting. Most handguns and
rifles come equipped with open iron sights. There is a front sight that projects
upward from the barrel near the muzzle and a square notched rear sight. Most of the
sporting handguns/rifles and all the target handguns/rifles have adjustable rear
sights allowing for adjustments of windage (horizontal) and elevation (vertical)

Fixed sights are commonly used when precise long range shooting is not the
primary consideration or fast draw for handguns. Magnifying scope sights are used
when shooting at targets or game over extended distances. Electronic sights are
non-magnifying and show a bright colored dot projected over the target when looking
through the sight.


Grips should be sized to fit the shooter's hand. This will provide better control, a
consistent grip, and make it easier to shoot accurately. Grips with greater contact
area can also spread recoil forces around to lessen the shock of firing. Some of the
common styles are wraparound neoprene and polished wood.

Trigger Shoes

A trigger shoe is a small piece of metal that fits over the trigger to provide a greater
surface area for the finger when shooting, making it more comfortable to shoot and
offering better control.

Speed Loaders

A speed loader helps to reduce the time required to load a revolver's cylinder by
loading all six rounds in the cylinder at once.

Handgun Holsters

Holsters allow shooters to have both hands free until they are ready to use a
handgun, and keep the gun properly positioned and secured. Common styles of
holster include: full flap, high ride hip, drop-loop, western style, cross-draw, and
shoulder. When purchasing a holster, make sure that it fits you and your gun

Hearing/Eye Protection

All shooters should wear ear protection such as earplugs or muffs to protect their
hearing from the noise inherent with shooting. Eye protection such as shooting
glasses should be considered mandatory and can protect eyes from possible empty
cartridge cases that may eject into the shooter's face, and bits of flying brass or lead.

Rimfire and Centerfire

Rimfire guns shoot low-cost, low-recoil .22 caliber ammunition that can't be
reloaded. This is a good gun for beginners, plinkers, and those hunting small game.

Centerfire cartridges have a primer located in the center of the base of the cartridge.
These handguns usually shoot bullets of larger caliber, generate a heavy recoil, and
use more costly ammunition that can be reloaded. The centerfire's power is used for
big game hunting and for heavy steel metallic silhouette targets. It is also used for
most recreational and competitive handgun shooting.

Practice Ammunition

For some applications, plastic cartridge cases and plastic bullets can be used for
practicing and are reusable. Less expensive, specifically manufactured practice
ammunition is available in many calibers.
► 49Lesson IV: Type of ammunition, cleaning and
storage of firearms

► 50 From left to right: .22 lr, .380 auto, .38 special, 9mm, .357 magnum, .40 S&W,
.45 acp, .44 magnum, 7.62x39mm, 8mm.


Small arms ammunition, or cartridges, are used in a variety of firearms ranging from
pistols to rifles and shotguns to heavier automatic weapons. The term "bullet" is
commonly used to describe the cartridge, when in fact, it actually only refers to the
projectile. The correct terminology for the cartridge components are bullet, case,
primer, and propellant or gunpowder. Each component is manufactured separately
and then assembled into the cartridge. Specifications for the size, shape, ignition
type, and ballistic performance have been standardized, but there are many
obsolete and one-of-a-kind "wildcat" cartridges still found. The bulk of handgun
production is for cartridges with bullets of .45 caliber or smaller.


Until the 19th century, the only way to load a weapon was to first pour the powder
into the barrel, then place a greased cloth patch around a lead bullet and ram the
bullet down the barrel to the powder with the ramrod. A flintlock produced a small
spark, or a percussion cap produced a small explosive flash to ignite the powder
which fired the patched bullet. This was a very slow process and often produced an
inaccurate shot. After repeated firing, the barrel became fouled with powder residue
to the point that loading became impossible.

The first successful new cartridge design was made in 1848 by Christian Sharps. His
design utilized a breech load. With Sharp's design, the bullet was loaded into the
open breech, followed by a powder charge held in a paper bag. When the breech
was closed, the bag was cut open. This exposed the powder which could then be
ignited by the percussion cap.

In 1852, a cartridge with a metal case was developed by Charles Lancaster of
England. It held the powder inside the case with the bullet on one end. About the
same time, another Englishman, Colonel Boxer, and an American, Hiram Berdan,
also developed a metal case cartridge that incorporated an igniter, or primer,
inserted into the center of the base of the case. The primer contained a small
amount of impact sensitive explosive that could be set off when struck . The concept
of the center-fire metal case cartridge developed by Boxer and Berdan has survived
to the present day and is the basis for modern small arms ammunition design.

► 51Ammo

Rimfire guns use a cartridge with the priming compound contained in the rim of the

Centerfire cartridges have a primer located in the center of the base of the cartridge
to ignite the powder charge when struck by the firing pin or striker. The cartridges
used for centerfire in handguns can range from the .25 to .50 caliber.

Bullet Design & Manufacture

Bullets can be made by several different processes. Smaller .22 caliber bullets are
usually lead and are pressed, or cold formed, into shape. A small piece of thick lead
wire is cut to the correct length and formed into the bullet shape by a die set in an
automatic press. High production rates can be achieved by this type of automated

Many bullets used for hunting and competition shooting are cast using conventional
casting methods. The molten lead is poured into the bullet mold cavity, cooled
quickly, and then extracted from the mold. The point at which the lead enters the
cavity (or "sprue") is trimmed away as the bullet is extracted.

Both cold-formed and cast bullets may be further improved by copper plating. The
plating process electrically deposits a thin layer of copper on the outside of the
bullet, protecting the lead from oxidation and providing a harder surface to engage
the grooves, or rifling. Copper also reduces the lead fouling of the rifling after firing,
allowing the firearm to maintain accuracy after firing many rounds.

To improve bullet performance and/or accuracy, the "jacketed" bullet was
developed. This is a family of bullets that use a substantial brass or copper outer
shell, usually filled with lead by casting or cold forming, and having several different
configurations for specific performance criteria. Some examples are FMJ (full metal
jacket), JHP (jacketed hollow point), and JSP (jacketed soft point), each with options
such as boattail design, controlled expansion, tracer, incendiary, and armor-piercing.

The copper outer shell of these bullets engage the rifling tightly upon firing, providing
a close fit for improved accuracy. The boat-tail bullet has the base reduced in
diameter to improve air flow and stability in flight. The soft nose and hollow point
bullets are designed to expand upon striking the target to intensify their impact.

Specialized bullets are sometimes found in military applications. Armor-piercing
bullets can be solid brass or copper jacketed steel core. These can penetrate engine
blocks and aircraft frames, damaging and incapacitating mechanisms inside. Tracers
have a small amount of a phosphorus compound in their base. Upon firing, the
phosphorous ignites and burns with a bright light. At night they can be seen
streaking away from the firing position towards the target, allowing the shooter to
track the bullet in flight and make aiming adjustments. Incendiary bullets contain
small amounts of magnesium, which, like phosphorous, burns when ignited, but
stays burning for a longer time and causes ignition of fuels or ammunition upon
impact at the target. . (Silver bullets for weirwolfs.)

Case Design & Manufacture

Nearly all small arms ammunition cases are of brass alloy. Some use aluminum,
steel, or plastic, but the brass case is most popular and easiest to manufacture.

► 52 The design of the case is determined by the firearm in which the ammunition is
used. The typical brass case is formed from annealed sheet by drawing with a
multiple punch and die set. The first stage of the multiple die set forms the metal, the
second stretches the metal deeper, the third forms the rim, and so on. Each step
stretches the metal slightly farther until the final stage produces an accurately
formed case. The cases are trimmed to length and the primer hole is punched. Heat
treating and stress relieving are performed to selected types of cases to improve
durability. This is accomplished in large batch ovens, where baskets of cases are
heated with enough temperature to gently soften the metal without distorting it.
When cooled, the metal is "relaxed" and better able to take the punishment of firing.
Some handgun caliber cases are nickel plated for durability in reloading, corrosion
resistance, and for appearance. Each case is stamped with information such as
caliber, manufacturer, munitions codes, and year of manufacture.

Primer Design & Manufacture

The primer consists of two metal parts and a small amount of explosive compound.
Primers come in different sizes depending on the firearm. Using a small pistol primer
as an example, the cup is usually about 0.125 inch (0.32 cm) in diameter and 0.125
inch (0.32 cm) tall, and made of soft copper or brass. Inside is placed a small
amount of the impact-sensitive explosive lead styphnate, and pressed into the
opening is a triangle shaped piece called the anvil. When struck by the firing pin, the
center of the cup collapses, squeezing the explosive between its inner surface and
the anvil. The explosive ignites and shoots a flame through the flash hole, igniting
the propellant to fire the cartridge.

► 53 Cartridge Assembly

The assembly process for the cartridge components begins with a thorough cleaning
and polishing of the case by a vibratory finisher. The finisher works by vibrating a
corn byproduct (dried and ground corncobs) with a polishing compound around the
cases, creating a high luster.

This is how a typical center-fire metal cartridge is assembled:

1 Sizing the case

      The cases are fed into a loading press which first sizes the case. This sizing
       forms the metal case to standard dimensions. The case must be within 0.001
       inch for it to function correctly.

2 Inserting the primer

      The primer is then pressed into the case primer hole flush with the base. The
       primer must be flush or the cartridge will not feed properly in the weapon
       magazine, causing a "jam." At the same time, the mouth of the case is slightly
       expanded, in preparation for receiving the bullet.
3 Charging the case

      The case is "charged," or filled with the correct amount of propellant. This
       step is of utmost importance, for miscalculation or double charging could be

4 Assembling the bullet

      The bullet is firmly seated into the open end of the case. The bullet has a
       coating of lubricant to prevent corrosion and assist in the assembly process.
       The bullet is then crimped into the case to give the correct overall length of
       the cartridge. The crimp reduces the diameter of the open end of the case
       and captures the bullet tightly, sealing the assembly together so moisture
       cannot invade the powder.

► 54 The press used to assemble cartridges must feed each component accurately
and in the correct sequence. Otherwise, cases could be unprimed, powder left out,
or bullets seated incorrectly. Any of these could result in a misfire or loss of accuracy
at the minimum and, at worst, cause the firearm to blow apart upon firing. In each
stage of the process, special dies perform the important assembly function. The dies
are made of tooling carbide for long life, and have close adjustments to produce
quality ammunition.

► 55 Maintain a Pistol (Handgun)

Properly maintaining a handgun is an obvious step for
any gun owner, and it is absolutely necessary for
optimal safety and effectiveness! Performing
maintenance is the owner's best chance to inspect the
pistol and its components for excessive wear or internal
breakage. Improperly maintained or un-maintained
firearms become increasingly less reliable. Lack of
reliability could have detrimental consequences if you
get a malfunction when you use the handgun under any circumstances.
Finally, if done properly and consistently, the entire cleaning process boosts your
safe gun-handling techniques that will serve you well in all situations.

► 56 Safely Unload Your Handgun

1. Handle your firearm safely. Always keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction,
   treat the firearm as if it is loaded, and keep your finger off the trigger.
2. Eject the magazine.
3. Empty the chamber.

          Pull the slide or bolt back and visually and physically (stick your finger in
           there) check that there aren't any cartridges in the magazine well or in the
          Be double-sure your firearm is unloaded. You do not want an unexpected
           boom while stripping your firearm.

4. Make sure to remove all ammunition from the area, ideally to another room or
   floor while cleaning the weapon.

Field Strip the Handgun

1. Dismantle the firearm safely. On many modern designs,
   this is a relatively simple process. De-cock the hammer
   (or striker), pull the take down tabs. After a pull toward
   the rear of the frame, the slide should be able to move
   freely off the front of the handgun.

          The actual process may vary greatly depending
           on the model of firearm you are field stripping.
          Glock users: Be triple-sure your firearm is
           unloaded as you must pull the trigger on the
           firearm to initiate the field stripping process.

2. Identify the parts you are cleaning. There are four major
   pieces to every semi-automatic handgun (though they
   may be attached in different ways).

          Frame: this is the stock (or "grip") of the
           handgun. The trigger assembly is usually
           embedded in the frame, and the magazine well
           is located inside of the stock.
          Slide: the piece of metal on top of the firearm; it
           keeps the chamber sealed, compensates for
           recoil (on many semi-autos), and houses the
           firing pin (and a few other components). If you have a polymer frame, this
           is where 70% (or more) of the gun's weight is.
          Barrel: the barrel assembly is the barrel and the chamber. Be cautious
           with the muzzle-end of the barrel and the beginning of the rifling (inside
           the barrel), as these are the two most important things to affect accuracy
           and can easily affect it adversely, if damaged.
          Guide rod and recoil spring: often these are one piece. The guide rod
           guides the slide as it recoils and the recoil spring pulls the slide back into
           place after a round is fired.

► 57 Clean the Handgun

1. Wipe down all components using some paper towel (or cloth, but a lint-free wipe
   is not necessary).
       Remove as much as you can of the thick, caked-on carbon buildup created by
        the friction of use and burning powder. Also wipe off any old oil and all
        unburnt powder buildup.
       Wipe the inside of the magazine well, the ejector, guide rails, and the area
        around the chamber. You will find certain areas turn the paper towel black
        (clean these areas more).
       On this step, precision is not required; wipe it quickly.

2. Apply solvent (preferably designed to be safe to continually contact your skin, like
   M-Pro 7) on all possibly dirty components.

       Most handgun manufacturers design components (even the polymer) to be
        safely used with any solvent, but be sure there aren't types of solvents the
        manufacturer warns against.
       A liberal amount of solvent is better than not enough.

3. Let the solvent sit for a couple minutes. Make sure any area with dirt, carbon
   buildup, or unburnt powder has a healthy amount of
   solvent on it, soaking in.
4. Scrub the whole gun with a brush (without metal
   bristles — use something like a toothbrush). This
   works in the solvent and loosens up the buildup on
   the gun. Try to get into all the nooks and crannies.
5. Wipe the gun clean with lint-free cloth (you can buy pre-cut cloth, but a clean old
   cotton shirt or socks also work). Get everywhere you
   put the solvent (should be pretty much everywhere)
   and wipe it until it wipes clean.
6. Wipe down the whole gun (inside and out) with a
   solvent-soaked lint-free cloth again, and look again for
   any areas turning the cloth dark, and clean them.
7. Use the pick to get off any thick chunks of carbon or powder buildup, or buildup
   in tight parts of the gun.

       The most common area with carbon deposits is in the chamber. Buildup
        occurs in the corners of the pieces of metal.

8. ► 58 Use a bore brush to break any buildup free
   from the barrel.

       Run the full length of the barrel at least five times
        (more if you have shot a lot since the last
       Be sure not to reverse direction with the brush in the barrel. Instead, push it
        all the way through, then all the way back (letting the bristles change direction
        outside of the barrel).
9. Swab the barrel with a cloth soaked with solvent. Repeat with clean cloths (still
    soaked in solvent) until a cloth comes out clean. Then swab it with an oil-soaked
    cloth, this coat of oil will protect your barrel from oxidation (rusting).
10. ► 59 Oil all the components requiring lubrication. Often the manual for the gun
    will have specific areas needing oil, but a quick look at where the gun is wearing
    will give you a good indication of where to apply oil.

          Be sure to oil the areas around rotating parts, such as the base of a hammer
           or trigger assembly.
          Try to keep oil away from the openings into the firing pin housing (oil is a
           collector of dirt and powder buildup, and buildup around your firing pin can
           prevent it from firing).
          Don't forget to oil the guide rails and the grooves in which they ride.
          How much to lubricate? If you can't see a uniform glossy surface, you have
           too little. If it's starting to run, you have too much.

11. Reassemble the pistol and make sure all parts are functioning properly.

          A quick test for proper functionality is to rack the
           slide; make sure it goes completely back into
           battery (all the way forward). If it does not, the
           recoil spring may not be set properly.
          Ensure it is unloaded (see above), and pull the
           trigger, you should hear a click. Rack the slide
           again, or if the gun is a double-action, cock the
           hammer (or striker) again.
          Try placing a pen or pencil back-end into the front of the barrel, point the gun
           upward and pull the trigger again; the pen or pencil should fly out (be sure to
           keep the firearm pointed in a safe direction). This tests the firing pin is in
           working order. (Never perform this check in front of a child or someone
           impressionable, as they may get the idea that it is fun to "shoot the pencil"
           and consider it a game.)

12. Wipe down the whole gun and remove any excess oil.
13. Swab the barrel with a dry cloth right before you
    intend to start shooting to remove any oil residue.


     The best way to keep a gun clean is to clean it with a properly sized bore snake
      and spray solvent every time before you leave the range. In other words put your
      gun in the carrying case clean.
     If you are having a tough time with some thick buildup, apply more solvent and
      let it soak for a while.
   If you aren't able to wipe all the areas solvent has gotten into, no worries. The
    solvent will eventually evaporate or the oil you spray on later will neutralize it.
   Some cotton-tipped swabs (e.g. Q-Tips) and / or compressed air can help get
    solvent out of tight spots.
   A very light (almost invisible) coat of oil on the exterior of metal parts will prevent
    rusting by preventing moisture saturation.
   If you want to go one step further with cleaning the barrel, before you apply the
    oil-soaked cloth, you can run a cloth (or two) soaked with copper solvent
    (different than standard solvent) through the bore. This removes any copper
    particles left behind by jacketed bullets.
   If you use lead bullets, you may need to soak your barrel in solvent (if it hasn't
    been cleaned thoroughly in a while). Either submerge it in skin-safe solvent or
    get barrel plugs to seal the ends of the barrel while it is filled with solvent.
   When you push the barrel brush all the way through the barrel bring the brush
    back and twist (slowly rotate) the brush about 45 degrees, push the brush all the
    way through the barrel again and twist the opposite way. This will clean the
    grooves a little better.

   Keep oil away from the openings into the firing pin housing (oil is a collector of
    dirt and powder buildup, and buildup around your firing pin can prevent it from
   Be sure the solvent is safe for your gun, and preferably, safe for continual contact
    with your skin.
   Wash your hands after handling the gun and cleaning supplies.
   Always clean your gun in a well ventilated area, as fumes from solvents or oils
    can be unhealthy if inhaled.
   Keep oil away from your ammunition, The oil can penetrate the primer and cause
    the ammunition not to fire.
   Unless you are a dealer authorized armorer, never use power tools to speed up
    the cleaning process.
Things You'll Need

   A dirty (used) handgun.
   Paper towels (optional).
   Lint-free cloth (you can buy pre-cut cloth, but a clean old shirt or socks also
   Solvent (preferably designed to be safe to continually contact your skin, like M-
    Pro 7).
   Oil (oil specifically designed for use with a firearm — grease or other lubricants
    are also a viable option, but often require more work).
   Pick (or other sharp, soft-metal object — such as an aluminum pick).
   Barrel brush for the caliber you are cleaning.
   Brush (without metal bristles — like a toothbrush)
   Standard Pipe Cleaners, useful in small orifices, or recesses where a brush
    and/or pick might not reach. Cotton swabs (such as "Q-Tips") work very well for
    this too.

Firearm storage
       ► 60 Safes
       ► 61 Lock Boxes
       ► 62 Locks
► 63 Topic IV: Pistol knowledge and practical exercises
in safe gun handling
This part is hands-on Loading and unloading and explaining the features of
each gun.
► 64
    Single shot pellet
    CO2 BB
    Ruger .22 Mark 1
    Ruger .22 Mark 3
    Springfield XD 9mm
    Smith & Wesson .38 Revolver
    Colt .45 Revolver

Explain the following:
   Checking to see if it is loaded.
   Parts
   Ammunition
   Safety
   Loading
   Loading Helps
   Unloading
►65     Lesson V: Fundamentals of pistol shooting
Fundamentals of Pistol Shooting

Shooting well is simple, it just isn’t that easy.

It’s true that the handgun is the most difficult of firearms to shoot well. There’s less to
hang on to. There’s a shorter radius between the front and rear sight than with a
rifle, meaning a greater unnoticed human error factor in aiming. You don’t have that
third locking point on the shoulder that you have with a long gun’s butt stock.

And few handguns have the inherent mechanical accuracy of a good rifle.

That said, though, you can get the most of your handgun’s intrinsic accuracy by
simply performing marksmanship basics correctly. If the gun is aimed at the target,
and the trigger is pressed and the shot released without moving the gun, then the
bullet will strike the mark. That’s simple.

► 66 Here is a five-point ―pre-flight check list‖ to go through before you fire the shot.
As with any structure, you start from the bottom up. Those points are:

   1.   Strong stance.
   2.   High hand grasp.
   3.   Hard grip.
   4.   Front sight.
   5.   Smooth rearward roll of the trigger.

The “Power Stance” (Standing)

► 67 The edgeways stance of the duelist is necessary for skateboarding or surfing,
but counter-productive to good shooting. If one heel is behind the other, the body
does not have good lateral balance and will tend to sway sideways. (The miss will
most commonly go toward the strong hand side.) If the feet are squared off parallel,
in the old ―police academy position‖ or isosceles triangle, the body does not have
good front to back balance, and the shots will tend to miss either high or low, most
commonly the latter.

► 68 You want to be in a fighter’s stance, a boxer’s stance, what a karate
practitioner would call a ―front stance.‖ The lower body needs a pyramidal base, a
triangle with depth. If you are right handed and firing with your strong hand only, the
pelvis wants to be at about a 45 degree angle vis-à-vis the target, with your left leg
to the rear. If you are shooting two-handed and are right hand dominant, the hips still
want that 45-degree angle but the left leg should now be forward and the right leg
back. Now you’re balanced forward and balanced back, balanced left and balanced
right. It’ll be easier to hold the gun on target.
                               Nancy Crenshaw uses strong stance and technique to make up for lack of size as she
                               turns in an excellent one-handed high speed performance with SIG 9mm

                                In rapid fire, the shoulders want to be forward. This will
                                get body weight in behind the gun and help control
                                recoil. For very precise slow fire, some shooters like to
                                cantilever the shoulders to the rear. This may make
                                the gun seem to hang steadier with less effort, but it
                                will cause the gun to jump up sharply upon recoil. This
                                not only slows down your rate of sustained fire, but
                                subconsciously, the more the muzzle jumped at the
                                last shot, the more likely you are to jerk the trigger on
                                the next one. Use the power stance with the shoulders
at least slightly forward even in slow fire. Master shooters have a phrase that helps
them remember this principle more easily: ―Nose over toes.‖

► 69 High hand grasp

                                         With a double action revolver, you want the
                                         web of your hand all the way up to the rear
                                         edge of the backstrap, as shown in the
                                         accompanying photos. With a single action
                                         frontier-style revolver with the plow-handle
                                         shape grip, you still want a high hand grasp.

                                         High hand grip, thumb curled down for strength, index finger at distal
                                         joint on trigger for maximum leverage. This is the grasp Massad Ayoob
                                         used to win IDPA NH State Championship in 2003 with this stock
                                         service revolver, S&W’s .45 caliber Model 625.

                                         ► 70 On a semiautomatic pistol, you want the
                                         web of the hand so high that a ripple of flesh is
                                         seen to bunch up behind the backstrap of the
                                         grip at the top edge, where the grip safety
                                         would be on a 1911 style pistol.
                                         With a proper high hand grip on an auto pistol such as this Wilson Custom
                                         CQB .45, you’ll see this ―ripple of flesh‖ behind the grip tang

The higher the hand, the lower the bore axis. This means much better control of
muzzle jump and less movement of the pistol upon recoil. Since most handguns,
particularly semiautomatics, are designed to be shot this way, it means that you will
find it easier to press the trigger straight back as you make each shot. If your hand is
too low on the ―handle,‖ a straight rearward pressure on the trigger will tend to pull
the muzzle down, placing the shot low.

A semi-auto is designed to operate as the slide moves against the abutment of a
firmly held frame. A low grasp allows the muzzle to whipsaw upward from recoil as
the mechanism is automatically cycling, diverting momentum from the slide through
the frame. Now the slide can run out of momentum before it has completed its work.
This is why holding a pistol too low can cause it to jam.

All these problems are cured with the high hand grasp.

► 71 Hard grip

In the debate about shooting techniques in the saloon after all the guns have been
locked away, this issue will take up about three rounds of drinks. In the old days, the
―quail grip‖ was taught. ―Imagine yourself holding a live quail. Hold it just firmly
enough that it can’t fly away, but not firmly enough to hurt it.‖

                                                               We’re talking about guns. Specifically, we are
                                                               talking about powerful defensive handguns and
                                                               hard-kicking Magnums and large calibers used
                                                               for outdoor sports such as hunting. The harder
                                                               we hold them, the less they kick and jump. The
                                                               less they kick and jump, the more efficiently we
                                                               can shoot them.
                                                               Traditional grasp of the .45 autoloader. Thumb rests on manual safety, pad
                                                               of index finger is in contact with trigger.

The world police champion strongly recommends the ―crush grip.‖ How hard do you
hold the handgun? As hard as you can. It was once advised, ―Apply pressure until
you begin to tremble slightly and then release pressure until it stops.‖ In the real
world, under stress, there’s going to be some tremor anyway. Get used to it now.
Hold the gun as tightly as you can and let it tremor.

The key is this: keep the sights straight in line. If the sights are in line, and the hand
is quivering, the sights will quiver in the center of the target. When the shot breaks,
the bullet will strike the center of the target. Once it has been center-punched, the
target will neither know nor care that the launcher was quivering before the projectile
took flight.

► 72 Any marksmanship expert will tell you
that consistency of grasp is a key to consistent
accuracy. As stress levels change during
shooting, which is really a multi-tasking
exercise that gives you a lot to think about, the
consistency of grasp can change too. If you
think about it, there are only two ways to grasp
the pistol with uniformity.

Massad Ayoob prefers this grasp: thumb curled down for more gripping
strength, trigger finger inserted to distal joint for more leverage

► 73 One is to hold it with virtually no pressure at all. This will give you poor control
of recoil.
The other is to hold it as hard as you can, for each shot and every shot.

The hard hold has some other benefits. If you have accustomed yourself to always
hold a pistol with maximum grip strength, you are much less likely to ever have it
knocked or snatched from your hand. Moreover, you now have the ultimate cure for
a handgunner’s malady known as ―milking.‖

―Milking,‖ taken from the hand’s movement when milking a cow’s udder, occurs
when the index finger closes on the trigger and the other fingers sympathetically
close with it, changing the grasp and pulling the sights off target. Most commonly,
this will pull the shot low and to the side of what you were aiming at. It is a function
called ―interlimb response.‖ When one finger closes, the other fingers want to close
with it.

► 74 Do this simple exercise. Relax your hand, and pretend to be holding a
handgun. Now, move the index finger as if rapidly firing a handgun with a heavy
trigger pull. You will see the other fingers reflexively contracting along with it. You
have just seen and experienced milking in action.

                                        Imagine yourself
                                        holding a pistol, and
                                        grasp it thus with
                                        fingers relaxed…

                                        … and notice that
                                        when you ―press the
                                        trigger,‖ the other
                                        fingers close
                                        reflexively. This is
                                        called ―milking,‖ and
                                        is conducive to bad
                                        shots. The cure…

Now do the same, but this time with all but the index finger closed as tightly as you
can hold them. As you run the index finger, you’ll feel the tendons trying to tighten
the grasp of the other fingers, but you’ll see that they actually can’t. That’s because
the tight grip has already hyperflexed the fingers, and they can’t tighten any more.
The milking action has now been eliminated.
                                       … is to grasp firmly
                                       with everything but
                                       the trigger finger.
                                       Now, when trigger
                                       finger is flexed…

                                       … the other fingers
                                       close, because
                                       they’re already
                                       closed as tight as
                                       they can get
                                      With a slide mounted safety as on S&W Model 457 compact .45, shown,
                                      Massad Ahoob prefers this grasp, with thumb at upward angle to guarantee
                                      release of safety catch.

                                         Thumb position is negotiable. Generations of
                                         shooters with the GI 1911 .45 learned to shoot
                                         with the thumb high, resting on the manual
                                         safety. Many competitive target shooters prefer
                                         to point the thumb straight at the target. This
                                         straight thumb position seems to align the
skeleto-muscular structure of the hand in a way that allows the index finger its
straightest rearward movement. With powerful guns, curling the thumb down to add
grasping strength and enhance control is a valid technique. A lot of it depends on
how the gun fits your hand. The controls may also be a factor. With a conventional
double action auto that has a safety catch mounted on the slide (Beretta, S&W, and
Ruger to name just a few), the thumb can not only push the lever into the ―fire‖
position, but verify that the lever is in fact in the position it should be in.

Trigger finger contact? The old time marksmen liked the very tip of the finger, on the
theory that it offered more sensitivity. With a handgun that has a very light trigger
pull, there may be some validity to that. Still others use the pad of the finger, which is
basically the point at which you find the whorl of the fingerprint.

Some have learned that contacting the trigger at the crease of the distal joint, the
spot old time revolver masters called ―the power crease,‖ gives much more leverage
and therefore more control. This is particularly true on guns whose trigger pulls may
be long and/or heavy: the double action handgun, the Glock, etc. A lot of this will
depend on hand size and shape in relation to gun size and shape. There are many
variables in the interface between human and machine.

One Handed – Gripping the pistol with one hand leaves your other hand free for
other uses but also hampers accuracy. The pistol must be gripped firmly with the
lower three fingers of the hand and thumb, leaving the trigger finger free. The trigger
finger has to be independent of all other for smooth pull and accuracy. Compact
pistols only allow the use of two fingers (middle and ring fingers) and thus require
more pressure to control the weapon.

Two Handed – Using two hands allows the shooter to control the weapon much
better than one and allows maximum accuracy. There are three types of two-
handed grips:

      Palm Supported – This is commonly known as the ―Cup Grip‖. The strong
       hand grips the pistol as in a one handed grip, the off hand cups the strong
       hand while wrapping the fingers around the back of the strong hand and the
       thumb crosses the middle finger on the strong hand.
      Fist Grip – Grip the weapon as in one hand. The non firing hand aligns its
       fingers with the firing hand and the thumb is laid alongside the firing hand.
         Weaver Grip – Same as the Fist Grip but the non firing thumb crosses and
          interlocks with the firing thumb.
This person demonstrates a strong Weaver stance at an LFI class. Feet are in proper pyramidal base, upper body is forward, and he is
firmly grasping his .40 caliber Walther P99.

                                               The goal of the combination of stance and grip is the
                                               natural point of aim. When gripping the pistol take aim
                                               at a target and close your eyes for 5-10 seconds.
                                               When you open your eyes the pistol should still be on
                                               target. If not, try a different grip or alter the pressure
                                               you hold the pistol with until your natural point of aim
                                               does not move. (STANCE EXERCISE)

                                               Breath Control – The shooter must learn to control
                                               their breathing to attain a high level of accuracy with
                                               any gun. While a simple procedure, it requires a lot of
                                               practice to attain proficiency. The breathing cycle for
                                               most accurate firing as a single target is the following:
                                               In, Out, In, Out, Hold Breath, squeeze trigger, In, Out.
                                               The breathing cycle for accuracy at multiple targets is
                                               the following: In, Out, Hold Breath, Fire, In, Out, Hold
                                               Breath, Fire. Repeat as necessary.

Front Sight

► 75 The conventional sight picture with conventional handgun sights is the one you
see in the marksmanship manuals. The front sight is centered in the notch of the
rear sight. The top of the front sight is level with the top of the rear sight, and there is
an equal amount of light on either side.

► 76 Human vision being what it is, you can’t focus on the sights and the target at
the same time. Actually, you can’t focus on both the front and the rear sight at the
same time, either. Once the target has been identified as something you need to
shoot, you no longer need your primary visual focus on it. Primary focus now goes to
the aiming indicator, the front sight. Think of it as a fighter pilot would: ―enemy craft
sighted, lock missiles on target.‖ The way we lock the handgun’s missiles onto the
target is by focusing on its front sight.

Failing to properly focus on the front sight is a widespread problem among shooters.
Every good shooter with iron sights (as opposed to red-dot optics or telescopic
sights) whom you know can probably remember when he or she experienced ―the
epiphany of the front sight.‖

► 77 Watch the front sight hard. Apply your primary visual focus there. Look at it
until you can see every little scratch in the machining on its surface. If it has a dot on
it, focus on it until the dot looks like a soccer ball. Then you, too, will experience the
epiphany of the front sight, and will see your shot groups tighten as if by magic. It is
your primary sighting indicator.
►78 Proper sight picture… fuzzy rear sight and fuzzy bulls eye.

► 79 Sight placement is the position of the sights on the target at the point of the
shooter’s choice. You have a variety of Sights choices.

► 80 Smoothly roll the trigger

Remember the prime directive: once the gun is aimed at the target, the trigger must
be pulled in a way that does not pull the muzzle off target before the shot is fired.
This means that the trigger must come straight back.

Incorrect trigger squeeze causes more marksmanship problems than any other part
of firing a pistol (5 of 9). Flinching (the other 4) is the natural human reaction to the
anticipation of recoil and jerking is the quick pulling of the trigger as the sights cross
the target. Both will result in inaccurate fire. Proper trigger squeeze is the
independent movement of the trigger finger relative to the rest of the pistol. The
trigger pull should be slow and steady until the hammer drops. Done correctly, a
smooth trigger squeeze will allow the shooter to keep the sights on target and
assure a hit. Double action semi-auto’s and double action revolvers have a heavy
trigger pull of up to 6 pounds as the act of pulling the trigger also pulls back the

You want a smooth, even, uninterrupted pull. You can say to yourself, ―press the
trigger.‖ You can say to yourself, ―sque-e-eze the trigger.‖ You say to yourself, ―roll
the trigger,‖ because that connotes the smooth, consistent, uniform pressure your
trying to apply. You don’t want the shot to truly surprise yourself, of course, because
that would be an unintentional discharge. Rather, you want the exact instant of the
shot to surprise you, so you don’t anticipate it and convulsively jerk the shot off

Experts agree that the best way to get the trigger pull down, once you know what it’s
supposed to be, is to practice it. Dry-fire, or ―clicking‖ the empty gun, is the best
practice. The position of the sights when the gun goes ―click‖ will tell you whether the
shot would have been on target or not. The more thousands of these repetitions you
perform, the more the proper trigger pull will be hard-wired into your mind and body
to the point where you can do it automatically.

The best way to learn it is with what I dubbed the ―exemplar drill.‖ Find an
accomplished pistol shooter to assist you. Take a strong stance and firm grasp, and
hold the gun on target. Let your index finger barely touch the trigger, and let that
finger go limp. Ask the seasoned shooter to place his gun hand over yours, and his
trigger finger over yours, and let his finger press yours straight back against the
trigger. After several repetitions, you’ll be feeling what he feels when he makes the
perfect shot. This is the easiest way to learn what a good trigger pull feels like.
Now progress to the two of you pulling the trigger together at the same pace. After
some of that, you’re ready for the third stage. Now it’s your finger pulling the trigger,
his lightly touching yours to monitor its progress. Once you’ve got that down, let the
coach sit back and watch as you ―fly solo,‖ making corrections as necessary.

Target Engagement

Engaging a target uses all of the fundamentals we discussed and adds the process
of decision making to the shooting process. We will ignore any moral decisions
about shooting and concentrate on the mechanics. The first decision is, is the target
a single or multiple target? If it is a single target, align the sights on center or mass
and fire. How many shots you fire will be dictated by the situation. Usually a single
target will require one shot, but be ready for a follow-up shot. If you engage multiple
targets you have to decide which target to engage first and what order to engage the
rest of the targets in.

Some suggestions

Observe all rules of safe shooting and safe gun handling, of course. Start with paper
or cardboard targets in close, at three to seven yards. If your shot is off the mark by
three inches at 25 yards, it might have been just the natural limits of the gun’s
accuracy. It might have been the ammo. It might even have been the wind. But if
you’re off by three inches at four yards, you’ll know exactly what it is. The closer you
are, the easier it is to correct whatever caused the bad hit on the target. Once you’re
hitting in tight groups at close range, move back incrementally. As the distance
increases, so does the challenge.
► 81 Lesson        VII: Pistol sports and activities

How do you get started in a particular competition shooting program? This is not
intended to cover all aspects of all shooting programs. It is intended to cover the
basics only. The following information applies to all NRA competitive shooting

If you're interested in trying competitive shooting, contact the NRA Competitions
Division for a complimentary copy of Shooting Sports USA. The "Coming Events"
section of this magazine lists NRA sanctioned tournaments for several months
following the publication date. Find a tournament conducted near you, contact the
listed sponsor and request a program. Attend first as a spectator; this will let you see
how it works and talk to the sponsor and competitors. Be sure you don't disturb the
competitors during the match - between relays is a good time to talk to them.

You will see a variety of equipment and accessories. Every competitor has his own
opinion as to what is best. This may sound confusing, but remember, you're there to
gather information.

If there is a club in your area, attend one or more of their practice sessions. This will
serve the same purpose as attending a tournament except a practice session is not
always conducted under match conditions. However, this will give you a better
opportunity to talk about equipment.

An excellent way for a new shooter to start in competitive shooting is a league.
Although NRA rules are used, a league is generally informal. Usually a handicap
system is used so all individuals or teams have an equal chance of winning. A
Sanctioned League Handbook and application to have a sanctioned is available at
no cost from the NRA Competitive Shooting Division.

Should you decide that competitive shooting is for you, you may wish to join a local
club. Ask three questions of your prospective club leaders:

      Does the club have a range or access to a range?
      Does the club have the type(s) of shooting program(s) you're interested in?
      Is the membership open?

If you can answer "Yes" to all three questions, then you have found a good starting
place (most shooting activities are sponsored by local gun clubs).

Eye and Ear Protection
These should be the first accessories you purchase. If you normally wear glasses
and they have hardened lenses, you are covered for eye protection. If not, you
should get shooting glasses designed for that purpose. Ear plugs or muffs are
necessary also. Some shooters wear both.

You don't need to have the best, most expensive equipment available to compete
effectively. There are many good values in used equipment. If others know you are
"in the market," you will hear of good deals. Although the question of which is best is
asked often, there is no answer. As you will find, each competitor has his or her
favorite brands and models. A reliable gun dealer is helpful in proper firearm
selection. A used firearm for a beginner is not a bad idea, especially if the dealer can
certify the condition of the firearm and/or guarantee it.

NRA Rule Book
You will see many references to the NRA Rule Book. We strongly recommend you
get the appropriate book and read it. You don't need to memorize it, but all
competitors should be familiar with it. A general understanding will prevent many
problems. Rule Books may be purchased from the NRA Sales Department.

► 83 NRA Classification System
Many new shooters do not enter competitions because they feel they are not good
enough and would not win anything. This is true to some extent as with most sports,
the first time does not prove productive as far as awards are concerned. The NRA
Classification System, developed to provide an equitable distribution of awards,
places all shooters in a particular class: Marksman, Sharpshooter, Expert, Master, or
High Master, depending on their average. Tournament sponsors award prizes in
each class and in some tournaments, depending on the number entered, second
and third place. Complete information on the NRA Classification System is in
Section 19 of the NRA Rule Books.

► 84 Sample Targets – Compitition

► 83 Sample Targets - Silhouette

Tournament Entry
When entering a tournament you will be required to fill out a Registration/Entry Card
(also known as an "SR-1 card" for Conventional Pistol and Smallbore Rifle events,
or an "SR-7 card" for Black Powder events). Provided by the tournament sponsor,
this card gives the sponsor the information needed to place you in your proper class
and category. Part of this card is sent by the sponsor to NRA at the end of the
tournament with your scores so they can be posted to the NRA Classification
System maintained at NRA Headquarters.

It is very important that you put your NRA membership ID number (if you are an
NRA member) on the card. This will assure that your scores are posted properly and
quickly. It is also very important that you use your name in the same way all of the
time, to avoid confusion. For example, if initials are used, such as "J.D. Smith", then
continue to use initials, rather than sometimes using "Joe Smith." Also, always use
your name and address on record with NRA when entering a tournament.

If you are not an NRA member and wish to become one (and therefore able to shoot
in an NRA Registered tournament), you may join the NRA at any NRA Sanctioned
tournament. For competition purposes you will be considered an NRA member after
completing the forms and paying the dues to the tournament sponsor. However, all
other NRA membership services and benefits will begin approximately one month
after signing up at a tournament.

Other Activities
► 85 Competitive shooting is a great hobby you can pursue on weekends, with
maybe a practice session during the week. NRA's Marksmanship Qualification
Program allows you to use the practice session and matches to earn attractive
awards by meeting or beating "par" scores. For complete details on the NRA
Qualification Program, write to the NRA Education & Training Division at NRA
Headquarters, call (703) 267-1591.

► 86

Massad Ayoob

Massad Ayoob is arguably one of the most lethal men around, in fact he even trains others in the
use of deadly force. Many people cannot distinguish the difference between 'dangerous' and
'lethal.' When they hear that someone is an expert in handgun combat, urban rifle, knife/counter-
knife, close-quarters battle and stressfire shotgun, they automatically think of someone to be
feared. However, after reading the following we believe you'll recognize a good guy who
balances lethal force and compassion. Only the bad guys need fear him.

Mr. Ayoob has had stories about him and interviews in various publications and news shows
such as the Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe, New York Post, ABC's "Turning Point," National
Enquirer, PBS "Frontline," ABC's "20/20" and the BBC News Magazine and we are privileged to
interview him here.

February 8, 2005

Q: In your book, "The Truth About Self Protection," you say we have the right to protect
ourselves. How do you respond to those who say it only promotes the "cycle of violence"?

A: I refer them to Biology 101. When the predator chases down, destroys, and consumes its prey
without intervention, the cycle of its violence continues. When the given predator is taken out of
circulation, then by definition, its cycle of violence is ended for the duration. The criminal is the
actor, his prey merely the reactor, and the cycle is dependent on the action of the predator.

Q: You also say, "sympathizing with a criminal in the prison visiting room is like sympathizing
with the timber wolf caged inside its bars at the Bronx Zoo. It's safe enough there, but you don't
want to meet either of them in their natural habitat...These predatory people are not like you.
They aren't people like you. They are a different breed." How do you respond to those who say
we should just reason with them, or try to rehabilitate them? Or that we should not be threatening
to them, as in dis-arming security and prison guards?

A: You can only reason with the reasonable.

You do not reason with your food; you eat it. A violent attacker can be expected to respond the
same way.

Your violent criminal tends to be a sociopath or even occasionally a psychopath. You can only
reason with such an entity by giving it a better deal. Throwing the baby from the sleigh is one
approach to bargaining with the predator, but as the Europeans discovered along about World
War II, it's a temporary and unsatisfactory solution. The way to reason with a predator is to make
it aware that it can live in a cage, or it can die, but it can no longer prey upon us.

Unarmed prison guards survive because the structure of the prison environment, and the
certainty of retribution for violence committed upon the corrections officer, acts (most of the time)
as a deterrent to attack. The citizen abroad in the land and going about his business has no such
protection from human predators, because the public environment lacks the element of control
that pervades the penal environment.

Q: You've also said in your book, "I no longer believe that there is no such thing as a bad boy. I
changed my mind after I met and interacted with and interviewed, human beings who were evil.
There's no other word for it — evil. I never lost my sense of compassion for them or for their loss
of human dignity — I never arrested a person I didn't feel sorry for — but that compassion has
been tempered with control. "I'm sorry for you and the things you felt you had to do, but you
won't be allowed to do those things to me or anyone under the mantle of my protection, and
that's why my gun is pointed at you, and that's why you will be docile as we put these handcuffs
on you." We also wanted our readers to see this side of you, just in case they don't follow our
recommendation to read your book. It's clear you've examined your soul about the use of deadly
force. Where did you find the compassion for someone who harms others?

A: I have never arrested a criminal, or interviewed a convict in prison, for whom I could not feel
sorry in at least some small way. Broken homes. Molestation in childhood. Poverty.
Discrimination. Something twisted in their brain. Something that kept them from being a normal
human being.

The key is not allowing your compassion to seduce you into sacrificing yourself or a victim you
have the power to protect, in the name of your sympathy for the long-lost child who is now a
dangerous adult criminal. Watch the old Disney movie "Old Yeller" as an adult with adult eyes. In
the end, when the dog has become rabid, the boy does the right thing by shooting him. The
situation has reached the point where further compassion would endanger the innocent.

Q: You said you ran with criminals as a kid, but broke out of the mold. How did you break out of
the mold?

A: In my teens, I ran with a rough crowd, what the other high schoolers called "hoods." Not evil
kids, but wild kids, and occasionally laws were broken. None of them harmed innocent human
victims. But it was getting out of control. It reached the point in my senior year when out of
perhaps twenty in a loose-knit clique, there were only two of us who had not been arrested. I
could see what the arrests did to the families, and to the kids. Confidentiality laws regarding
juveniles in the criminal justice system notwithstanding, the gossip in a small community marks a
kid and puts a brand on his head. Soon, the bad kids are the only ones who'll hang out with him.
Criminality then becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.

That other kid and I saw the handwriting on the wall. We knew what it would do to our parents if
we got arrest records, and more for that reason than anything else, we separated from the
group. He went on to become an executive in a Fortune 500 company, and I went where I went.
Neither of us would have been able to do those things with our lives if we hadn't changed our
lives and lifestyles when we did.

Among the others, not one achieved what he should have with the rest of his life. Some were
successful, but not as successful as they would have been without criminal records. One
committed suicide in his late teens. Several struggled with alcohol and drugs.

The answer is not something the Government can give. In the same sense that this society has
made drunk driving and cigarette smoking unacceptable as social norms, kids need to be
reminded that there are people counting on them to be there the next day, the next year, the
next decade. Kids think about their futures more than adults remember or realize. In 30 years of
carrying a badge, I've been able to help some young people turn their lives around. It's one of
the most satisfying parts of the job. But the decision to change, to do the right thing, ultimately
comes from within.

In his studies of men under fire, General S.L.A. Marshall noted that the soldier bonded to his
peer group would fight valiantly on their behalf when he might have given up if he was alone on
the battlefield. I remind my students that those who fight to come back to their loved ones will
fight harder and more successfully than those whose only motivation is themselves. I've taken
the same approach to this particular issue, and it seems to be equally successful.

Q: Do you see a significant difference between a "terrorist" and a "criminal"? Do we protect
ourselves from them differently?

A: Yes and yes. The difference is in the motivation. The one is often disguised as the other.

You can reason with a criminal — particularly a professional criminal, who is the ultimate
pragmatist. The implicit statement when a criminal is taken at gunpoint is, "Cease your
assaultive behavior or die." This generally works. It is why, police and armed citizen alike, the
overwhelming majority of incidents where good people take bad people at gunpoint end in
surrender or flight of the subject, as opposed to bloodshed on either side.

This does not work for the religiously as opposed to politically motivated terrorist. With the
politically motivated, there is still something to reason with: you are offering him a chance to live
to enjoy his martyrdom in the spotlight, and to perhaps later be traded for a prisoner or hostage
from the other side. The religious fanatic who practices terrorism cannot be reasoned with,
because there is nothing you can threaten him with, and no alternative you can offer him that is
more palatable than his genuine belief that if he dies fighting you, he will be greatly rewarded in
afterlife. Only swift and extreme force can stop him.

Q: You write about Threat Management and that the average citizen might not like to confront
the idea of crime in their lives. You liken it to the trade-off between having cancer or having the
treatment. When we read your book we found ourselves getting resentful of the "bad guy"
because we have to change our lives because of his anti-social actions. Why do you think
people do not want to acknowledge that 'it's dangerous out there'?

A: It is the nature of the civilized human in a comfort-centered society and environment to avoid
discomfort. In a word, the answer is 'denial.' The morbidly obese patient who refuses to diet or
exercise is in denial. The individual who refuses to wear a seat belt or learn rudimentary first aid
is in denial. Similarly, the person who pretends that he can't possibly be a victim of violent crime
is in denial.

Q: Being both a Captain on a Police Force and of Arabic descent, what do you think of profiling?

A: I think profiling is one of those terms like "street justice" that can be misunderstood because
the thing itself can be abused.

When a cop catches a kid vandalizing property and instead of running him through the criminal
justice machine and giving him a record, he makes him apologize to the victim and repair the
vandalism, that's street justice at its traditional best. When "street justice" is administered with
the non-illuminating end of a large black flashlight, it's no "justice" at all.

Similarly, if "profiling" is taken to mean stopping a motorist because he is an African-American in
a Caucasian neighborhood, it's wrong. Victims call it "DWB": "Driving While Black" or "Driving
While Brown." That sort of profiling is, obviously, unacceptable.

At the same time, if the profile of committed Al-Qaeda members is Arabic, with little or accented
English, late teens to mid-forties, then it is understandable that good people who unfortunately fit
this profile come in for additional scrutiny, but the scrutiny is logical and reasonable given the
prevailing circumstances. In my case, as a frequent flyer with an Arabic name who has to
declare firearms at airport check-in counters, life has become more interesting the last few years,
but I shrug it off because I understand where it comes from.

Let's say that you are driving a white Audi with Virginia plates through the community I serve,
and an hour ago there has been a vicious murder perpetrated by a suspect driving a white Audi
with Virginia plates. You can expect that I, or one of my brother or sister officers, will pull you
over. Some would call it profiling, but under the circumstances, we would call it common sense
and fulfillment of duty.

Short Bio of Massad Ayoob:

Chair of the Firearms Committee, American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers, 1987-present.

Captain and police prosecutor with a small municipal police department in Northern New

Director, Lethal Force Institute, 1981-present.

Current NH State Champion and New England Regional Champion, IDPA (International
Defensive Pistol Assn.), Stock Service Revolver category.

Information on Massad Ayoob's books and videos, and the training classes he runs around the
country, are available at

Long Bio, Massad Ayoob:

Massad Ayoob is presently Director of Lethal Force Institute, training 800 to 1,200 personnel per
year in judicious use of deadly force, armed and unarmed combat, threat management for police,
and advanced officer survival, coordinating a dozen LFI staff instructors and assistant instructors
in four countries. He appears selectively as a court accepted expert witness in the areas of
dynamics of violent encounters weapons and weapons/self defense/police training, and survival
and threat management tactics and principles.

Teaching Experience:

International Director of Police Firearms Training, Defensive Tactics Institute, 1980-82

Special Instructor, Chapman Academy, 1981-88

Assistant Professor teaching weapons and Chemical Agents, Advanced Police Training Program
of New Hampshire 1974-77

Special Instructor, NH Institute of Karate

Feature lecturer, Missouri Police Shooting State Championships and Seminar, 1983-88

International Instructor Staff, PR-24 police baton training program
National Chairman, committee on police firearms training, American Society of Law Enforcement
Trainers (ASLET), 1987-present

Co-instructor (with former world combat pistol champion Ray Chapman) of Advanced Officer
Survival Seminars conducted nationwide through Police Marksman Association

Lecturer and coordinator, first state ASLET seminar (New Hampshire, 1988)

Ethicist Experience: Senior Research Associate, Center for Advancement of Applied Ethics,
Carnegie-Mellon University, 1990 to present. Member of Ethics Committee, ASLET, 1994 to

Combat Shooting Qualifications and Awards:

      Four Gun Master, International Defensive Pistol Assn.
      Combat Master, NRA Police Revolver Master,
      Revolver, National Marksman Sports Society Master,
      Automatic, National Marksman Sports Society Class A,
      International Practical Shooting Confederation Grand Mastershot,
      UKPSA Master Blaster, Second Chance Expert,
      NRA Action Shooting Honorary Distinguished Expert,
      Federal Law Enforcement Training Center New Hampshire State Champion,
      police combat shooting,
      1973, 1989 Overall top shooter, NH Police Association annual match,
      1988 Co-holder (w/Cpl. Robert Houzenga) 2-man State Champion Team, Professional
       Class, Missouri Police State Championships,
      1988 New England Regional combat shooting champion, 3-gun,
      1981 Top shooter,NH Police Officers Association annual combat match,
      1988-89 2nd overall (1st Master),
      Fraternal Order of Police National Championship, 1977
      Has twice placed in top 5, several times in top 20 at Second Chance National Police
       Combat Shoot Has place in top 20 at Bianchi Cup Invitational Professional Handgun
      one of only three people in the world to have completed in all ten Bianchi Cups 1979-88

      Only officer of 600 to be judged to have survived unsurvivable Duelatron computerized
       ambush course, Ohio State Peace Officer Training Academy,
      1980 Winner, New England Duelatron Championships,
      1980 Co-Winner, National Duelatron Shoot, Michigan,
      1980 4th Place, National Duelatron Shoot, Michigan,
      1979 Won two gold and two silver medals in combat shooting, Bisley, England,
      1979 (850 competitors representing 15 nations) Has held three national records in
       combat pistol shooting Winner, Montreal Professional Charity Pistol Match,
      1986 Holds record for highest score to win New Hampshire Police Association service
       revolver event (5/88)
      Has competed in all six National Tactical Invitationals to date, finishing Top 3 in three.
       Has won numerous individual/local combat shooting tournaments, has competed
       successfully in five countries.
   Current NH State Champion, Stock Service Revolver (IDPA) Current NH State
   Senior Class (IDPA) National Champion, senior class,
   1999 (Mid-Winter Nationals) National Champion Parent/Child Handgun Team
    (w/daughter Justine Ayoob, then 13 year old, sub-junior class),
   1998, National Junior Handgun Championships.
Gun Cleaning Insturctions

Firearms work better, shoot straighter and last longer if they are properly maintained
and treated with respect. A large part of this maintenance involves the proper
cleaning and care of the working mechanisms and the all-important bore.

1. IMPORTANT - Always check the chamber to make sure that the firearm is
unloaded before attempting to clean. Remove any clips or magazines.

2. Do not disassemble the firearm beyond what the manufacturer has recommended
in the owner’s manual.

3. While disassembled, inspect for cracks and other signs of excessive wear.
Consult with a qualified gunsmith for any necessary repairs.

4. Clean your firearm from the breech end whenever possible. If this method of
cleaning is not possible, take precautions not to push debris into the action. Be sure
to use the included Muzzle Guard if the cleaning is done from muzzle end. This
helps to protect the crown (the area where the bullet exits the muzzle) from nicks
and wearing. Protection of this area is critical to shooting accuracy. This is also an
excellent tool to keep the cleaning rod centered when cleaning from the breech end.

5. Select the proper Jag or Patch Holder and correct size patch for your application.
Saturate the patch with No. 10 Solvent or No. 10 Copper Cutter.

6. Run the patch down the barrel to soak the fouled bore. Remove soiled patch from
rod as it exits the end of the bore. Pulling the patch back through can redeposit
fouling and draw debris into the action. Let the solvent soak a couple of minutes to
help remove any lead or carbon buildup.

7. Remove the Jag or Patch Holder, and attach the appropriate bore brush. Saturate
the brush with the solvent and work it back and forth through the bore 3-6 times.
Reattach the Jag or Patch Holder with a soaked patch, and run down the bore with
new patches until they emerge clean. Run a dry patch down the bore to remove any
remaining residue. Check barrel for traces of fouling and repeat process if

8. Place 3-4 drops of Formula 3 Gun Conditioner or TW25B High Tech Lubricant
(follow instructions) on a patch or Cotton Mop and run it down the cleaned bore to
leave a light coating of rust preventative behind.

9. Using the double ended Nylon Gun Brush soaked in No. 10 Solvent or Copper
Cutter, begin to remove any unburnt powder or debris in and around the action. If
available, use a degreaser, such as Kleen-Bore’s ―Gunk-Out‖ to remove loosened
fouling and wipe with a clean cloth. Be sure to lightly lubricate all surfaces that have
been degreased, and all moving parts. This will aid in rust prevention as well as
increase the life of the firearm. Do not over lubricate, this can cause the action to
become gummy, allowing dust and debris to collect.
10. When reassembling the firearm, be sure to wipe down any metal surfaces that
you have come in contact with, due to the acid content in perspiration. The Silicone
Gun and Reel Cloth are ideal for this. It will remove handling marks, restore luster,
and provide rust protection.

11. CAUTION: Before any firearm is fired, be sure the bore is free of any
obstruction. This may cause bodily harm, as well as damage to your firearm. Never
attempt to shoot an obstruction clear.

                             CLEANING THE BORE

                             1. Dip a patch in No. 10 or No. 11 Copper Cutter Solvent and pass
                             it, on a jag or patch holder, through the bore several times to
                             penetrate and loosen fouling. Work from the rear whenever
                             possible and don't pull the dirty patch back through the bore. Note
                             use of muzzle guard to center rod and protect bore.

                             2. Dip a phosphor bronze brush of the proper size in solvent and
                             pass it through the bore several times. Again, work from the rear
                             and go in one direction only.

                             3. Pass clean, dry patches through the bore until there are no signs
                             of residue on the patch. Work from the rear and go in one direction

                             4.Lightly lubricate (just a dab of TW25 or 3 or 4 drops of Formula
                             3) a bore mop of the proper size and pass it through the bore 3 or
                             4 times.

                              CLEANING THE ACTION
                             5. Dip a nylon or phosphor bronze gun brush in solvent and scrub
                             areas where powder residues and fouling build up (top strap,
                             forcing cone, ejectors, slides, etc.).

                             6. Follow the same procedure on bolts, frames, trigger assemblies,
                             etc. to loosen burnt powder, old lubrication and other fouling.
7. Blast away loosed foulings with a powerful cleaner/degreaser
(Gunk Out) to prepare for proper lubrication.

8. Sparingly use a quality lubricant like TW25 B, Formula 3 or
Super Lube to protect moving parts and inhibit rust. Do not over-

9. After reassembling the gun, wipe all exposed metal surfaces
with a silicone gun and reel cloth to eliminate fingerprints and
provide rust protection. If gun is to be stored for a length of time,
consider using Rust Guardit for long-term protection.
Recommended Reading:

     Texas Gun Owner's Guide, by Alan Korwin and Georgene
     In the Gravest Extreem, by Massad F. Ayoob
     The Gun Digest Book of Combat Handgunnery, by Massad F. Ayoob
     The Concealed Handgun Manual, by Chris Bird
     Dial 911 and Die, by Richard W Stevens
     Thank God I had a Gun, by Chris Bird
     Armed Response, by David S. Kenik and Massad F. Ayoob
     Gun Proof your Children, by Massad F. Ayoob
     Unintended Consequences, by John Ross

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