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					                    Aerospace Systems Engineering
                        The Fuzzy Front End
                                               Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
                                  Professor and Director, CASA, CERT, & PLMC
                                                Dr. Dan DeLaurentis
                                               Asst. Professor, ASDL
                                         School of Aerospace Engineering
                                          Georgia Institute of Technology
                                              Atlanta, GA 30332-0150



Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                               CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Presentation Outline
     • Introduction to Systems Engineering, the Systems
       Engineering Process and Systems Analysis
     • Modern Systems Engineering and the Quality
       Revolution
     • The Five Lean Principles as Guiding Principles for
       Modern Systems Engineering
     • Integrated Product/Process Development (IPPD)
       through Robust Design Simulation (RDS) for the Fuzzy
       Front End to Identify Customer Value and the Value
       Stream
     • The Goal for Perfection through creation of a Virtual
       Stochastic Life Cycle Design Environment (VSLCDE)
     • A Robust Design Simulation (RDS) Example
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Systems Engineering
     • Systems Engineering has been defined as an
       interdisciplinary engineering management process to
       evolve and verify an integrated, life cycle balanced set
       of system solutions that satisfy customer needs (SE
            Fundamentals, DSMC, 1999)
     • Systems Engineering methods and tools were
       developed in the early 1960s to decompose and
       breakdown complex Aerospace Systems, e.g. Ballistic
       Missile, Launch Vehicles, Aircraft
     • These methods and tools contributed greatly to winning
       the ―Space Race‖ and the ―Cold War‖
     • However, a Modern Approach to Systems Engineering
       must reflect the Quality Revolution which has driven
       industry for the past 20 years
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                    CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                The Systems Engineering Process
     • As developed for the Department of Defense (DoD) the
       Systems Engineering Process includes three major
       elements:
              – Requirements Analysis
              – Functional Analysis and Allocation
              – Synthesis
     • Systems Analysis and Control include the techniques
       and tools to analyze and control the Systems
       Engineering Process
     • The Systems Engineering Process is applied to each
       stage of life cycle development, one level at a time
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
             The DoD Systems Engineering Process
                                     (SE Fundamentals, DSMC, 1999)
           P
           R
           O
           C
                                                                 System Analysis
           E
                                  Requirements                     and Control
           S
                                    Analysis                        (Balance)
           S
                                       Requirements
           I                               Loop
           N
                                                 Functional Analysis
           P
                                                     Allocation
           U
           T                                                 Design
                                                              Loop
                                  Verification
                                                                       Synthesis




                                                                              PROCESS OUTPUT
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                   CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
         The Systems Engineering Process
   Process Input
   • Customer Needs/Objectives/
     Requirements
      - Missions
      - Measures of Effectiveness
      - Environments                                                                                     System Analysis
      - Constraints                                  Requirements Analysis
   • Technology Base                                 • Analyze Missions & Environments                      & Control
   • Output Requirements from Prior                  • Identify Functional Requirements                     (Balance)
     Development Effort                              • Define/Refine Performance & Design
   • Program Decision Requirements                     Constraint Requirement
   • Requirements Applied Through                                                                                               • Trade-Off Studies
     Specifications and Standards                          Requirement Loop                                                     • Effectiveness Analysis
                                                                                                                                • Risk Management
                                                            Functional Analysis/Allocation                                      • Configuration Management
                                                            • Decompose to Lower-Level Functions                                • Interface Management
                                                            • Allocate Performance & Other Limiting Requirements to             • Performance Measurement
                                                              All Functional Levels                                                 - SEMS
                                                            • Define/Refine Functional Interfaces (Internal/External)               - TPM
                                                            • Define/Refine/Integrate Functional Architecture                       - Technical Reviews
                                                                           Design Loop
                                                                      Synthesis
                                                                      • Transform Architectures (Functional to Physical)
                                                                      • Define Alternative System Concepts, Configuration
                                                     Verification       Items & System Elements
                                                                      • Select Preferred Product & Process Solutions
                                                                      • Define/Refine Physical Interfaces (Internal/External)
Related Terms:
       Customer = Organization responsible for Primary Functions                                                                 Process Output
Primary Functions = Development, Production/Construction, Verification,                                                          • Development Level Dependant
                    Deployment, Operations, Support Training, Disposal                                                             - Decision Data Base
Systems Elements = Hardware, Software, Personnel, Facilities, Data, Material,                                                      - System/Configuration Item
                    Services, Techniques                                                                                             Architecture
                                                                                                                                   - Specification & Baseline
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Why Systems Analysis?
             • Systems Analysis is a scientific process, or methodology,
               which can best be described in terms of its salient problem-
               related elements. The process involves:
                – Systematic examination and comparison of those
                   alternative actions which are related to the
                   accomplishment of desired objectives
                – Comparison of alternatives on the basis of the costs
                   and the benefits associated with each alternative
                – Explicit consideration of risk
             • NASA, DoD, and Industry are realizing that more
               emphasis must be placing on enhancing systems analysis
               at the front end of the life cycle using modern systems
               engineering approaches

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                              CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                 Lean Principles for Modern Systems Engineering
              • Systems Engineering developed in the early 1960s for a
                top down hardware decomposition approach
              • Systems Analysis and Control used to track and evaluate
                implementation
              • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) identified work
                packages for pulling in the complete supply chain
              • Software Engineering was developed in 1980s along a
                parallel path
              • Quality Revolution of the 1980’s revealed the need for a
                quality emphasis, e.g. Concurrent Engineering, IPPD, JIT
                Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing
              • Quality Emphasis has cumulated into a set of Lean
                Principles , as first identified in the Womack and Jones
                Book on Lean Thinking
              • Modern Systems Engineering should start with the Lean
                Principles as Guiding Principles
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                             CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
    Evolution of Systems Engineering and Software
                Engineering Standards
                                                                                                                                2000+

                                                                                                                                   ISO
                                                                                                                                  15288
                        Systems                                                   1994                       1998            2000+
                        Engineering
                                                                                  EIA/IS                   ANSI/EIA         ANSI/EIA
                                                             1994                  632                       632              632
                                             1974           Mil-Std-
                        1969                                                                                                    1998
                                                             499B
                                            Mil-Std-
                                             499A                                 1994                                     EIA/IS 731 SE
                      Mil-Std-                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                           CapabModel
                       499                                                        IEEE
                                                                                   1220                      1998
                                                                                                                          Others ...
                                                                                  (Trial Use)                IEEE
                                                                                                              1220
                                                                                                                            IEEE
                                                                                                                            1220
                                                                                                                           Updates

                                                                                                 1995                     1998?
                Software                         1988                                           ISO/IESC                   US
                Engineering                                                                       12207                   12207
                                                Dod-Std-
                                                 2167A
                                                                                                                         1997
                                   1987                                1994                        1996
                                    -Std-
                                  Dod                                  Mil-Std-                  IEEE 1498               J-Std-
                                   1703                                  498                      /EIA 640                016
                                                    1988                                           (Draft)
                                                 Dod-Std-
                                                  7935A

               Application of standards is the realm of Systems Engineers
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                      CASA/CERT/PLMC
      Source: INCOSE Systems
www.asdl.gatech.edu               Engineering Handbook
             Quality Revolution - Where Competition is Today
                  Cost Advantage
                     Cheap Labor
                     Hi Volume, Lo Mix Production
                                        Quality
                                    Statistical Process Control
                                    Variability reduction
                                     Customer Satisfaction        Time-to-Market
                                                                  Cycle time Comparison (JIT)
                                                                  Integrated Product/Process Development
                                                                  Product/Process Simulation
                                                                  Hi Skill adaptable Workforce
                                            Manufacturing                  Product Variety
                                             Enterprise
                                                                           Cost Independent of Volume
                                              Flexibility
                                                                           Agile and Lean
                                                                           Commercial/Military Integration
                                                                             Virtual Companies
                                                                                 Company Goodness
                                                                                   Environment
                1960              1970           1980               1990               2000
                                                                                       NCAT Report, 1994
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                 CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
  Japanese Auto Industry Used Concurrent Engineering To
Make Design Changes Earlier Than U.S. Auto Industry with Reduced Cycle Time

                                                                 Japanese/U.S. Engineering Change Comparison
                         Number of Engineering Product




                                                                           U.S. Company
                              Changes Processed




                                                         Japanese
                                                         Company




                                                                         90%
                                                                  Total Japanese
                                                                 Changes Complete

                                                                                          Months




                                                                                                                   Months
                                                            Months




                                                                                Months




                                                                                                        Job #1
                                                            20-24




                                                                                14-17




                                                                                           1-3




                                                                                                                     +3
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                 CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                      The Quality Engineering Process
                                          provides Recomposition



                                                              Knowledge Feedback



                                    Seven        Quality                   Robust         Statistical
  Customer                        Management     Function             Design Methods      Process
                                  and Planing   Deployment             (Taguchi, Six -     Control
                                     Tools                              Sigma, DOE)
                                     Off-Line      Off-Line                 Off-Line        On-Line

                                                • Identify               •Variation        •Hold Gains
                                   •Needs       Important                Experiments
                                                                                           •Continuous
                                                Items
                                                                         •Make             Improvement
                                                                         Improvements



          Having heard the “voice of the customer”, QFD prioritizes where improvements
          are needed; Taguchi provides the mechanism for identifying these
          improvements
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                     Lean Principles as Guiding Principles for
                          Modern Systems Engineering
          • Establish and Specify value: Value is defined by
            customer in terms of specific products & services,
            preferably as a Benefits to Cost Ratio (BCR)
          • Identify the value stream: Map out all end-to-end linked
            actions, processes and functions necessary for
            transforming inputs to outputs to identify and eliminate
            waste (Value Stream Map or VSM)
          • Make value flow continuously: Having eliminated
            waste, make remaining value-creating steps ―flow‖
          • Let customers pull value: Customer‘s ―pull‖ cascades all
            the way back to the lowest level supplier, enabling just-
            in-time production
          • Pursue perfection: Pursue continuous process of
            improvement striving for perfection
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                    CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu Womack and Daniel T. Jones, Lean Thinking (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996).
      Source: James
              Relationship of Lean Principles to Systems and
                      Quality Engineering Activities
              • Value is established based on Systems Engineering activities, such as
                requirements definition and functional analysis and allocation, and
                Quality Engineering activities, such as use of the seven management &
                planning tools and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to Define the
                Problem and Establish Value, through the identification of an Overall
                Evaluation Criterion (OEC)
              • The Value Stream is next determined through system synthesis &
                analysis for Generating and Evaluating Alternatives for establishing
                customer focused life cycle activities along a timeline, often domain or
                agency specific
              • Make Value Flow through decision-making to track, system analyze
                and control the OEC periodically along the life cycle process, e.g.
                earned Value,
              • Let Customers Pull Value to apply the Lean Principles throughout the
                System Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to sub-contractors, vendors
                and suppliers, e.g. the Supply Chain Integration
              • Pursue Perfection is to apply robust design and 0ptimization
                approaches for Process Improvement toward attaining Six Sigma,
                which is accomplished by shifting the mean to the target and
                variability reduction , e.g. Statistical Process Control techniques
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                               The Relationships between Requirements, DoD
                              Acquisition, RDTE, and Industry Design Processes
            Operational                  MNS     Phase 0                     Phase I          ORD        Phase II                      Phase III
            Req’ts. Documents
                      Mission Area               Concept                Program Definition             Engineering and             Production,            Demilitarization
                   Analyses (MAAs)   }          Exploration                    &
                                                                         Risk Reduction
                                                                                                        Manufacturing
                                                                                                        Development
                                                                                                                                 Deployment and
                                                                                                                                Operational Support
                                                                                                                                                                 &
                                                                                                                                                            Disposal
           DoD Acquisition
           Process Phases            M.S. 0                    M.S. I                        M.S. II                     M.S. III




                                                                                             Advanced Concept Technology
                                                                                               Demonstrations (ACTDs)

                                                                          Advanced Technology                     Manufacturing
                                                                          Demonstrations (ATDs)                                        (7.8)
                                                                                                                   Technology

           S&T Categories
           and RDT&E
                       6.1                         6.2                       6.3                            6.4

                        Basic                   Exploratory              Advanced                      Engineering
                       Research                Development              Development                    Development



                                                                               Industry Design Phases

           Product                              Conceptual                Preliminary                     Detailed
           Design Phases                          Design                    Design                        Design

                                                     Increasing Fidelity of Analysis and Test


           Process                                System                   Parameter                     Tolerance                  Statistical Process
           Design Stages                          Design                    Design                        Design                          Control

                                                                                                       Off Line                             On Line
                                                                                                       Quality                              Quality

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
               Interaction Between the Defense Acquisition System, the
                   Requirements Generation System, and the PPBS
                                                               (Latest DoD 5000.2)


                                  FUNDING & REQUIREMENTS
                                                                            Full funding commitment occurs when systems-
             Technology
           Opportunities &                                                   level work commences
           User Challenges                                                  Maintain requirements flexibility early to facilitate
                                                                             cost-performance trades



                                         X          D
                                                     Advanced
                                                                  D
                                                                    System
                                                                                 D
                                                                                 System
                                                                                        C      Production
                                                                                                                IOC
                                       Concept      Development   Integration     Demo        Readiness &
                                                                                                                Production &        Support
                                      Exploration
                                                                IPR              IPR              LRIP          Deployment
                                                                                                               IPR
                                                    Risk Reduction & Demonstration
                           Funding      BA 2 or 3       BA 3       BA 4                BA 5        BA 5/Prod            Production/O&M
                Research Category        6.2/6.3a       6.3a       6.3b                6.4          6.4

                                      Exploratory        Advanced            Engineering        Production           Production
                                      Development       Development          Development        Readiness/
                                                                                               IOT&E, LRIP

                Requirements              MNS              Initial ORD                       ORD


    BA:        Budget Activity
    MNS:       Mission Need Statement
    ORD:       Operational Requirements
               Document                         Full Program Funding
    LRIP:      Low Rate Initial Production
    IOT&E:     Initial Operational Test and       through outyears
               Evaluation



Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                     NASA’s Life Cycle Process Model
                                   (2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Solicitation)

                 Phase 1                                                  Phase 2                                  Production Operations

                                                                     Effectiveness Issues
                      Requirement Issues            Design Issues                            Verification Issues

                                                     Design                                                           Accepted
                                                                                                 Selected
                                                     Reqmts                                                           Product
               NASA                                            System                 Detailed   Design
                                          Reqmt                                                          Verification         Operations
               Commercial                Analyses              Design                 Design
               DOD
                                  Customer                                                       Baseline
                                  Reqmts                                                                            Approved
                                                           System                         Technology                Design
                                                                           System
                                                           Model          Analyses        Performance
                                                                                          Measures    Production




                        Safety
                     Reliability                                                            Define Scale,              Enable Full
                                                                    Define Priority
                                              Refine for                                    Fidelity, Test               Scale
                   Affordability             Commercial
                                                                         Risk
                                                                                            Environment               Development
                                                                     Reduction
                    Mission                  Convergence                                      for Tech                  With 20%
                                                                        Needs
                                                                                               Demos                     Margin
                  Performance


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                               CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                A Value Example: Military Transport Aircraft
                    Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC)



                                         ( Ai )   ( MCI )   ( Si )
                                  OEC 
                                                    ( LCC )

                        Ai 
                               MTBF
                                                       MCI 
                                                                         
                                                               Payload  Dis tan ce
                                                                                      Time
                                                                                             
                             MTBF  MTTR                             WEmpty  WFuel



                  Si = 1 - PDPHPK                    LCC = RDTE + PC + O&S +DC


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                              CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
        Coninuous RDS along the System Life Cycle to link the
       “fuzzy front end” to the “process capability approaches”
                                                                                             Continuous Product Improvement / Innovation
                                                Uncertainty                                                               Risk Management/Reduction

                     Overall                Fuzzy Front End

                   Evaluation
                    Criterion                                                                                                                                 Upper Specification
                     (OEC)
                     Response

                             OEC Target

                                                                                                                                                             Lower     Specification

                                                                                                        Bring the Development Process                  Approach Six-Sigma,
                                                                      Define Distributions                 Under Control, C    p =1                       1<C p <2



                                            System Definition
                                                                                    System Design                       System Integration                            Manufacturing
                                                    &
                                                                              (Preliminary/Parameter)                   (Detail/Tolerance)                           (On-Line Quality)
                                           Tech. Development
                                          (Conceptual/System)




                                           Traditional C        p    and C     pk                 Approach for Continuous, On-line Process Improvement
                      Overall                                                                                                      Upper Specification

                    Evaluation
                     Criterion
                      (OEC)
                      Response                                                                                                                                                  OEC Target
                                                                                                                                 Lower       Specification

                                                                                                                            Six-Sigma Achieved,
                                                                                                                                 Cp = 2


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                              Initial Distribution                                      Reduced Variability and Improved Mean Response
                                                                                                                                                                  CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu                                                                                         Time
                     The VSLCDE- Key Characteristics
                   The purpose of VSLCDE is to facilitate design decision-
                   making over time (at any level of the organization) in the
                  presence of uncertainty, allowing affordable solutions to be
                  reached with adequate confidence. It is a research testbed.

     Virtual . . . Simulation-based system life-cycle prediction
     Stochastic . . . Time-varying uncertainty is modeled; temporal decision-making
    Life-Cycle . . . the design, engineering development, test, manufacture, flight test,
             operational simulation, sustainment, and retirement of a system. The operational
     simulation includes virtual testing, evaluation, certification, and fielding of a vehicle in the
     existing infrastructure, and tracking of its impact on the economy, market demands,
     environment.
    Design . . . Implies that the environment’s main role is to provide knowledge for use by
     decision-makers, especially for finding robust solutions
    Environment . . . Implies the support of geographically distributed analyses and people
     through collaboration tools and data management techniques
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                              CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Concept Exploration
                                             Alternative Concepts
                                            Analysis of Alternatives
           M                              System Level Requirements                        O
           N                                                                               R
           S                                                                               D
                                                                  System Analysis
                                   Requirements                     and Control
                                     Analysis                        (Balance)
                                        Requirements
                                            Loop
                                                  Functional Analysis
                                                      Allocation
                                                              Design
                                                               Loop
                                   Verification
                                                                        Synthesis




                                                                             Tech
         MS 0                                                               Review        MS 1

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  What is IPPD?
     • Integrated Product/Process Development (IPPD) is a
       management methodology that incorporates a systematic
       approach to the early integration and concurrent application of
       all the disciplines that play a part throughout a system‘s life cycle
       (Technology for Affordability: A Report on the Activities of the Working Groups to
            the Industry Affordability Executive Committee, The National Center for Advanced
            Technologies (NCAT), January 1994)
     • IPPD evolved out of the commercial sector‘s assessment of what
       it took to be world class competitive in the 1980s
     • The DoD has required IPPD and the use of IPTs where practical
       throughout the DoD Acquisition Process for Major Systems
       (DoD 5000.2R)
     • Conduct of IPPD requires Product/Process Simulation using
       Probabilistic Approaches

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                           CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
            Traditional Design & Development Using only a Top Down
                   Decomposition Systems Engineering Process




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
              Life Cycle Cost Gets Locked In Early for Complex
                Systems using only Systems Engineering Decomposition




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                   Concurrent vs Serial Approach




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
 IPPD Requires the Computer Integration of Product and Process Models and
      Tools for System Level Design Trades and Cycle Time Reduction

                                                                        CONCEPTUAL
                                                                          DESIGN
                                                                         (SYSTEM)
                                                     SYSTEM                                 SYSTEM
                                                    PROCESS                               FUNCTIONAL
                                                  RECOMPOSITION                          DECOMPOSITION
                                                                  Process      Product
                                                                  Trades       Trades
                                       PRELIMINARY                                                        PRELIMINARY
                                          DESIGN                                                             DESIGN
                                       (PARAMETER)                                                        (PARAMETER)




                                                                       INTEGRATED
                                   COMPONENT      Process                PRODUCT                             COMPONENT
                                                                                                Product
                                    PROCESS       Trades                 PROCESS                             FUNCTIONAL
                                                                                                Trades
                                  RECOMPOSITION                       DEVELOPMENT                           DECOMPOSITION




                                          DETAIL                                                             DETAIL
                                          DESIGN                                                             DESIGN
                                       (TOLERANCE)                                                        (TOLERANCE)
                                                                  Process      Product
                                                                  Trades       Trades
                                                      PART                                    PART
                                                    PROCESS                                FUNCTIONAL
                                                  RECOMPOSITION                           DECOMPOSITION
                                                                     MANUFACTURING
                                                                      PROCESSES
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                 CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
       Georgia Tech Generic IPPD Methodology
                                                        COMPUTER-INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT
                                        QUALITY                  TOP-DOWN DESIGN                SYSTEMS
                                  ENGINEERING M ETHODS      DECISION SUPPORT PROCESS      ENGINEERING M ETHODS


                                      7 M&P TOOLS AND                                      REQUIREMENTS
                                                                    ESTABLISH
                                     QUALITY FUNCTION                                       & FUNCTIONAL
                                                                     THE NEED
                                     DEPLOYMENT (QFD)                                          ANALYSIS




                                                                                                                    PRODUCT DESIGN DRIVEN
          PROCESS DESIGN DRIVEN




                                                               DEFINE THE PROBLEM      SYSTEM DECOMPOSITION
                                                                                                  &
                                                                                       FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION
                                                                    ESTABLISH
                                                                      VALUE


                                      ROBUST DESIGN            GENERATE FEASIBLE
                                      ASSESSMENT &                                        SYSTEM SYNTHESIS
                                                                 ALTERNA TIVES              THROUGH MDO
                                       OPTIMIZATION

                                                                   EVALUATE
                                                                  ALTERNA TIVE

                                      ON-LINE QUALITY
                                                                                          SYSTEM ANALYSIS
                                      ENGINEERING &               MAKE DECISION                  &
                                        STATISTICAL
                                         PROCESS                                              CONTROL



Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                   CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                Georgia Tech Generic IPPD Methodology
     •         Methodology provides a procedural design (trade-off iteration)
               approach based on four key elements:
              – Systems Engineering Methods and Tools (Product design
                          driven, deterministic, decomposition approaches; MDO is usually based
                          on analytic design approach)
              –           Quality Engineering Methods and Tools (Process design driven,
                          nondeterministic, recomposition approaches; MDO is usually based on
                          experimental design approach)
              –           Top Down Design Decision Process Flow (Provides the design
                          trade-off process required for Complex Systems)
              –           Computer Integrated Design Environment(Information
                          Technology driven to provide a collaborative interactive environment)
     •            Methodology has been implemented through Robust
                  Design Simulation (RDS) for a number of applications
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                               CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
       Georgia Tech Graduate Program in Aerospace
                Systems Design & Analysis
     • Initiative kicked of in the early 1990s based on IPPD Approach
     • Education executed in the School of Aerospace Engineering and
       research program executed through the Center for Aerospace
       Systems Analysis (CASA) and its two major Laboratories, The
       Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) and The Space
       Systems Design Laboratory (SSDL)
     • Currently has approximately 140 graduate students with over 80
       % U.S. citizens – top students from top universities
     • Research Program currently at approximately $6M per year
       including four faculty and 15 research engineers, plus 100 GRAs
     • Program is built on probabilistic approaches for implementing
       IPPD through Robust Design Simulation
     • Goal is to develop, verify and validate, in collaboration with
       industry and government, a Virtual Stochastic Life Cycle Design
       Environment (VSLCDE)
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
           A System Integration and Practice-Oriented M.S.
           Program in Aerospace Systems Design & Analysis

                     Semester I                  Semester II                       Summer

                           Design Methods/Techniques                                        ISE/PLMC
                   Aerospace             Disciplinary           Propulsion                  Development
                    Systems               Electives              Systems
                  Engineering                                     Design
                                                                                                   Special
                                                                                                   Project
                      Applied
                      Systems                               Applied
                                                            Systems
                      Design II
                      Design                                Design II
                                                            Design II
                                                                                                   Safety
                                                                                                  By Design
                     Advanced           Advanced             Product
                      Design              Design            Life Cycle
                     Methods I          Methods II         Management
                                                                                                 Internship
                            Design Tools/Infrastructure
                 Mathematics (2 Required)                                    Other Electives

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage         Legend:            Core Classes                         Elective Classes
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Aerospace Systems Design Integrated
                                   Education & Research Philosophy
                                                                                            Industry
                                   Government
           Partners:              • Methods Formulation                          Relevant       Partners:
             ONR                  • Supports Basic Research                      Problems        GEAE
            NASA                  • Implementation of Methods                                     RRA
                                                                                Data & Tools     LMTAS
            AFRL
            NRTC                          Funding                                                Boeing
                                                                                  Funding       Sikorsky


                                                       Aerospace Systems
                                                       Design Laboratory




                                      Methods                                    Students
                                                     Classroom Implementation




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                            CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
         Complex System Formulation initially taught In Aerospace
        Systems Engineering using an Integrated Set of Simple Tools

                                                                        Tech. Alternative
     QFD                                                                   Identification
                                  HOWs                  alt. concepts          Engine Type
                                                                                                Baseline
                                                                                                 MFTF
                                                                                                                1 st Option
                                                                                                              Mid-Tandem
                                                                                                                                2 nd Option
                                                                                                                              Turbine Bypass
                                                                                                                  Fan
                                                                               Fan               3 Stage        2 Stage           No Fan




                                             criteria
                                                                               Combustor      Conventional        RQL              LPP
                                                                               Nozzle         Conventional   Conventional +    Mixer Ejector
                                                                                                             Acoustic Liner        Nozzle
                                                                               Aircraft           None         Circulation    Hybrid Laminar
                                                                               Technologies                      Control       Flow Control
                                  Weights                                               Morphological Matrix

                                            Pugh Evaluation Matrix

                                                                            MADM                                Best
                                                                                                             Alternative
                                              Subjective Evaluation
                                            (through expert opinion,
                                                 surveys, etc.)
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                    CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
           Current Complex System Formulation Projects in
           Aerospace Systems Engineering Course (Fall 2003)
   1. AIAA Graduate Student Missile Design Competition “Multi
      Mission Cruise Missile Design”
   2. AHS Student Design Competition for “Design Certification
      Mountain Rescue Helicopter”
   3. NASA Identified Complex System of Systems Problem: “Future
      Air Transportation Architecture - A System of Systems
      Problem‖
   4. NASA Specific Complex System Problem: ―Space Shuttle
      Derivative: What it takes to make it Safe and Flyable‖
   5. NASA Identified Complex System Problem: “Two Stage
      Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) Space Access
      Launch Vehicle”
   6. NASA Aerospace Vehicle Systems Technology Office Student
      Design: “Quiet Supersonic Business Jet and Transport”

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                  CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
           Current Complex System Formulation Projects in
           Aerospace Systems Engineering Course (Fall 2003)
     7.  Homeland Security and Coast Guard Initiative: “Feasibility of
         Accelerating the Integrated Deepwater System (IDS): A
         Network Centric Complex System”
     8. Missile System Technical Committee: “Long Range Liquid
         Target Vehicle (LRLTV)”
     9. University Student Design Competition: “International Micro
         Aerial Vehicle (MAV) Competition”
     10. Complex System Formulation for: “Boeing 7E7
         “Dreamliner” Commercial Transport”
     11. Complex System Formulation for : “Morphing UCAV
         Aircraft”
     12. NASA Aerospace Vehicle Systems Technology Office Student
         Design Competition for: “Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems
         and Technologies: Replacement for Helios”

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Roadmap to Affordability Through
                                     Robust Design Simulation

               Robust Design Simulation
                                                           Subject to

                                                 Design & Environmental
                                                                                        Robust Solutions
Technology                                            Constraints
  Infusion
                                                                                         Objectives:
  Physics-                                                                               Schedule
   Based                                                                   Economic      Budget
                                  Synthesis                  Operational
  Modeling                                    Simulation                   Life-Cycle    Reduce LCC
                                   & Sizing                  Environment    Analysis
                                                                                         Increase Affordability
Activity and                                                                             Increase Reliability
 Process-                                                                                .....
  Based
 Modeling                                 Economic &              Impact of New
                                           Discipline             Technologies-
                                          Uncertainties           Performance &
                                                                  Schedule Risk              Customer
                                                                                            Satisfaction
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                               Synthesis & Sizing
               is the key for translating Mission into Geometry
                                                                    Safety

                                                                    Safety
                                  Aerodynamics                                                   Economics
                                            Aerodynamics                             Economics
                                                                   Geometry

                                                           Synthesis & Sizing
                                       S&C                          Mission                 Manufacturing
              S&C                                                                                                 Manufacturing


                                          Integrated Routines
                                             Table Lookup                                                                Increasing
                                                                                                                      Sophistication and
                                          Structures                                      Performance                    Complexity
                                                       Conceptual Design Tools
                                                             (First-Order Methods)
                      Approximating Functions
                     Direct Coupling of Analyses                  Propulsion
                 Structures                                                                                  Performance




                                                       Preliminary Design Tools
                                                            (Higher-Order Methods)

                                                                  Propulsion
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                             CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
          Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) -
            including Economic Cash Flow Analysis
    AIRCRAFT
    WEIGHTS
    ENGINE                                 RDT & E
THRUST & WGHT.                             COSTS
      LABOR                                                                                                           MANUFACTURER
      RATES
                          AIRCRAFT           UNIT
                                                        CALCULATE                           YES    MANUFACTURER        ROI VS PRICE
                       MANUFACTURING                   MANUFACTURER                                  CASH-FLOW
                                            COSTS
  PRODUCTION
                            COSTS                       CASH-FLOW
   QUANTITY                                                                                             ROI
    LEARNING                               AVERAGE
     CURVES                                  COST

                                                                           NO


                                   AIRCRAFT MISSION
                                     PERFORMANCE                                                                  A i r l in e        P ro d u c ti o n
                                    FUEL, INSURANCE
                                                                                                                  Y i el d              Q u a n t it y
                                  DEPRECIATION RATES      AIRLINE                                           ROI
                                                         OPERATING
                                    LABOR & BURDEN
                                        RATES
                                                           COST

                                                                                                                           P R IC E
                                                                INDIRECT




                                                                                   DIRECT
                                                       COSTS




                                                                           COSTS




                                                                                                      AIRLINE            AIRLINE
                                                               CALCULATE                     YES                       ROI VS PRICE
                                                               AIRLINE ROI                           RETURN ON
                                                                                                    INVESTMENT
                                                                           NO


                                                                 TOTAL
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage                                          OPERATING
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                 COST
                                                                                                             CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
          Risk & Uncertainty are Greatest at the Front
                          Known Unknowns correspond to Risk and Known Probability Distribution




                                                                  KNOWNS


                                     KNOWN-UNKNOWNS




                                     UNKNOWN-UNKNOWNS


                                     CONCEPT VALIDATION       FULL    PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT
                                                             SCALE
                                                          DEVELOPMENT




              UnKnown Unknowns correspond to Uncertainty and Unknown Probability Distribution
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                               CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                     The Five Step RDS Process
                                        2
                                            Determine System Feasibility                                                                              1
                                                                                                                                                                Problem Definition




                                                                                       Design Space Model
                                               Constraint Fault Tree                                                                                       Identify objectives, constraints,
                                                                                                                                 x
                                                         P(feas)
                                                                                                                                 1                        design variables (and associated
 Xi = Design Variable                                                                                                                                        side constraints), analyses,
 Ci = Constraint                                  FPI(AIS) or Monte Carlo                                                        x
                                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                                                          uncertainty models, and metrics
                                                           AND
                                                                                                                                 x
                                                                                                                                 3
                                             C1       C2           C3      C4

                                                                            3
                                                                                  Examine Feasible Space                                                         Constraint
                                                                                                                                                            Cumulative Distribution
                                                                                                                                                              Functions (CDFs)
                                        N         P(feas)       Y
                                                                                                                                                              P




                                                                                                            Design Space Model
                                                  < esmall
                                                                                  x
                                                                                   1
                                                                                                                                        FPI(AMV)                              C1
                5                                                                                                                                             P
                      Decision Making                                                                                                       or
                                                                                  x                                                    Monte Carlo
                                                                                   2
                        • MADM Techniques                                                                                                                                     C2
                     • Robust Design Simulation                                                                                                               P
                 • Incorporate Uncertainty Models                                 x                                                    Relax
                                                                                   3                                                              Y
                                                                                                                                     Constraints?
                                                                                                                                                                              C3

                                                     4
                                                           Technology Identification/Evaluation/Selection (TIES)
                • Technology Selection                   • Identify Technology Alternatives                                                                            Relax Active Y
                • Resource Allocation                                                                                                       Obtain New CDFs            Constraints
                                                         • Collect Technology Attributes
                • Robust Design Solution                                                                                                                                    ?
                                                         • Form Metamodels for Attribute Metrics                                           P                                    N
                                                                   through Modeling & Simulation
                                                         • Incorporate Tech. Confidence Shape Fcns.                                                           Ci
                                                         • Probabilistic Analysis to obtain CDFs for the                                         Old Tech.
                                                                   Alternatives                                                                  New Tech.

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                              CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                        Interactive RDS Environment
                          FPI / MC
                            FPI                                                     CDF




                                                                                                                                                                     or Requirement 2
                                                                                                                                                                        Criterion 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ac
                                                 100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           n Sp
                  DISCIPLINARY RSEs                                                                                                                                                                                    tio




                                                            Probability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pira
                                                                                                                                                                                                               As
                                  Aero
                                                             0%
                           Structures                                                         Objective                                                                                                 JPDM

                             Weights                                                                                                                                                                              Criterion 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                               or Requirement 1
                                  Etc.                                      Concept Space




                                                       Metrics/Objectives
                                          Responses
                                                                                                                                                     Technology
                                                                                                                                                        Space                                              Requirements




                                                                                                                    Metrics/Objectives
                                                                                                       Responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Space
                SYNTHESIS & SIZING




                                                                                                                                                                                   Metrics/Objectives
                                                                                                                                                                      Responses
                                                          Constraints




                                                                                                                       Constraints




                                                                                                                                                                                      Constraints
                                                                                     1




                                                                             TW R
                                                       Dynamic
                                                       Contour                                                                           ² %$/RP M




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage       RSEs                        Plots
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                    -1

                                                                                         -1                               SW
                                                                                                                                                       TO F Lm od
                                                                                                                                                        SL N m od
                                                                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                                                                                    CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                 Two Examples on Application
                   of IPPD Through RDS
                           System of Systems: CDSE Process for FCS
                                               FST Team in Phase I
                           Derivative Program: F-18C Conversion to
                                               F-18E/G


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                               CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  FST Process Methodology
                                      for FCS Phase I
                                    Concept Development
                                   & Systems Engineering
             Methodology Incorporates IPPD Principles, QFD,
          Analysis, Engineering Simulation, Systems Engineering
                   Tools, and Force-on-Force Simulation
                                    (This presentation does not reflect
                                   the current thinking of the FCS LSI)
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                           The Full Spectrum Team(FST):                                                   2408W-C07


                          One of Four Teams in FCS Phase I



                                                       SBA/SMART
                                       Soldier                              C4ISR
                                      Systems


                                  Weapons/             FCS                    Robotics
                                  Platforms

                                                             Deployment /
                                                 O&O         Sustainment




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage                Working Closely With Government Labs
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC        A0042
www.asdl.gatech.edu
          Network Centric System Design of a Lethal Brigade

  The FST Brigade is designed to fight with precision fires and high lethality
         • Diverse, overlapping
           fires and sensor coverage
                                                                                                                      Command
                                                                                                                      Vehicle              Sensor systems
           at all echelons                                                         Tethered UAV             Command
                                                                                                            Vehicle                        HQ                                            External
         • Near and far fires with                                              RSTA
                                                                                                                                                                                         augmentation

           area and precision effects                                           Vehicle         Command                                                       Brigade
                                                                                                Vehicle

         • Multiple layered sensor                                                                                                                            echelon
                                                                                                                                MM Radar
                                                                                                                                                                                       NLOS
           coverage
   Typical Vehicle Sensors              Tethered UAV      Command              MM Radar                                                          BDE Air Defense
   EO/IR sensor/sight                                     Vehicle                                   Scout
                                                                                                    Vehicle     ARV   Marsupial
   laser detectors                                                                                                                                                                              NLOS BG
   glint detectors                                                                                                    UGV
                                                                                                                                                                          NetFires
                                                                                                                             Medium UAV

                                                                                                                                                                                     RSTA Battle Group
                         Marsupial     RSTA                                                  Small UAV                                                   NLOS
                                       Vehicle                                                                                                                                        9 ton variants
                         UGV                                                                                                                             Mortar
                                                 Command
         Marsupial                               Vehicle      Scout                                                        NetFires
         UGV                                                  Vehicle    ARV                                                                    Battle Group
             Infantry                                                                                                                             echelon
             Carrier     Command
                                                                                                   NLOS                 RSTA Battle Unit
                                                                                                   Mortar
 Soldier Systems         Vehicle         ARV

                                                  Stinger BlkIIE
                                                                    NLOS                                                                              Vehicles
    HUMMWV SUV               Soldier
                             Systems
                                                                    Mortar        LOS/BLOS        Assault Battle Unit                      Objective Crew Served Weapon
    command vehicles
    omitted                                                                                           echelon                                           ARV
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
                             Weapon systems
Georgia Institute of Technology
                                                                                                                                                   Common Missile
                                                                                                                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
                                                                                                                                           Objective Crew Served Weapon
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150                                                                                                                                                External
www.asdl.gatech.edu                                                                                                                                                                    augmentation
                            Concept Development & Systems
                             Engineering (CDSE) Process
     • Incorporates key aspects of modern systems engineering
       approaches, and lends itself to iteration
             –     Requirements Flowdown
             –     Engineering Trades / Analysis
             –     Force Effectiveness Modeling and Simulation
             –     Risk Mitigation
     • Allows full exploration of need identification and problem
       definition, concept development, and concept selection—prior
       to system definition and design
     • Facilitates group work and utilizes modern software based
       tools
     • Allows full incorporation of increasingly detailed simulation-
       based analyses and designs
     • Smoothly extends throughout engineering and manufacturing
       phases
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                 CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                  Integration of QFD, Morph and Pugh Products
                                            Into CDSE Process
                              HOWs
 QFD 1-4                                                               Tech. Alternative
                                                                         Identification
                                  HOWs                 alt. concepts                             Baseline       1st Option       2nd Option
                                                                                Engine Type       MFTF         Mid-Tandem      Turbine Bypass
                                                                                                                   Fan
                                                                                Fan              3 Stage         2 Stage           No Fan
                                                          Pugh

                                            criteria
                                                                                Combustor      Conventional        RQL              LPP

                                                        Evaluation              Nozzle

                                                                                Aircraft
                                                                                               Conventional

                                                                                                  None
                                                                                                              Conventional +
                                                                                                              Acoustic Liner
                                                                                                               Circulation
                                                                                                                                Mixer Ejector
                                                                                                                                   Nozzle
                                                                                                                               Hybrid Laminar

                                                          Matrix                Technologies                     Control        Flow Control


                                                                                      Morphological Matrices
                                  Weights

                                                                        Multi Attribute
                                                                          Decision
                     QFD                                                Methodology                              Best
                   “Context”                                                                                  Alternative
                   Rationale
                                              Subjective Evaluation
                                            (through expert opinion,
                                                                                                         Preliminary
                                                  surveys, etc.)
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                      Full Spectrum Team FCS Concept
              Development & Systems Engineering (CDSE) Process

                                                     Selected Force     End                 Start                          1                            2
                                                                              Iteration             Guidance - QFD 1               Guidance - QFD (2-4)
                            Pugh Force                 Concepts
                                                                                                     AUTL                          Missions
                             Concepts                                                                TRADOC Docs                   Tasks
                          Selection Matrix                     MOEs                                  MNS                           Functions

                                                                                                                                    Capabilities



                                                    7
                                       Force                                                                               3
                                                                                                    Design Guidance                    Systems
                                   Effectiveness
                                                                       Alternative 1                 Organizational                  Capabilities
                                    Simulations
                                                                           O&O                       Operational
          Recomposition




                                                                                                                                                              Decomposition
                                                                                                     Engineering

                                                                                                                                     Morph Matrices -
                                                                                        6                                              Selection of
                                                                      Force Concepts                      Pugh Force                 Consistent Sets
                                                                       Alternatives 1                      Concepts                  of Systems and
                                                                                                        Selection Matrix              Technologies
                                                                                                    5
                                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                         Systems                                Concept 2             Technology /
                                                                          Set 1                               Characteristics 1
                                                                                                                    Concept           Subsystems
                                                                                                                 Characteristics        Options

                                  Legend                                 Process is Parallel                                           Technology
                                                                                                                    Missions /
        Products            Decision       Systems Concept IPT
                                                                            and Iterative                           Scenarios             Trees
        Technology IPT
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage      Requirements IPT             All IPTs
                                                                                                                                   CASA/CERT/PLMC
                                                                                                                                                     A0031t
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                                                                                                                  Focus on Requirements
                                                                                                                                  Flowdown through QFD
                                                               AUTL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         QFD4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Commander
  National Imperatives /




                                                              Missions                                                            AUTL Combat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Centric                                                                                      Co-Owned
                                                                                                                                     Tasks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with Concepts IPT
       Army Vision




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Warfare
                                                                                           HOWs (Title)    Customer
                                                                     Customer Importance




                                                                                                          Assessment



                                                     HOQ


                                                                                           How
                                  Direction of Improvement
                                                                                                                                                                                                 HOWs (Title)    Customer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Functions                                                                                                       System


                                                                                                                                                                          Customer Importance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assessment




                                                                                                                                                                                                How
                                                     What




                                                                                                                                                          HOQ
                                                                                                                       Missions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Capabilities                                                                                                     Technologies
                              WHATs (Title)




                                                                                                                        AUTL

                                                                                                                                       Direction of Improvement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HOWs (Title)    Customer




                                                                                                                                                    What




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Customer Importance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assessment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AUTL Combat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        How
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  HOQ
                                                                                                                                   WHATs (Title)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Centric Functions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HOWs (Title)     Customer
                                                   How Much




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Customer Importance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Assessment




                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Direction of Improvement




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        How
                                       Organizational Difficulty                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  HOQ




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tasks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               What




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     System Capabilities
                                   Assessment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Commander
                                    Technical




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           WHATs (Title)
                                                                                                                                                        How Much                                                                                                                                                                                               Direction of Improvement




                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                              Weighted Im portance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What
                                                                                                                                            Organizational Difficulty
                                              Relative Im portance
                                                                                                                                        Assessment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           WHATs (Title)
                                                                                                                                         Technical




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                How Much




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Morpho-
                                                                                                                                                   Weighted Im portance

                                                                                                                                                   Relative Im portance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Organizational Difficulty




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assessment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Technical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                How Much




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Weighted Im portance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Organizational Difficulty

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              logical




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Assessment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Relative Im portance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Technical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Weighted Im portance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Relative Im portance                                                                               Matrix
                            Requirements                                                                                                                                                            CDSE ITERATION 2
                                IPT                                                                                                                                                              Incorporate Four Detailed                                                                                                                                Determine Force
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Characteristics to                                                                                                       Select
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mission Scenarios                                                                                                                                    Perform Functions                                                                                                    Technologies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and Combine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             into Candidate
                            Candidate Concepts
          Criteria / MOEs




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Concepts




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Best Concepts Determined in Process That Trades
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Technologies, Concepts and Requirements
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                          Representative FCS Trade Studies
      • Communications Trades                                 • Weapons Trades
               –     Peer-to-Peer and Client-Server              –   Guns and Missiles
               –     Islands and Backbones                       –   105 and 120 BLOS/LOS
               –     Frequency Bands and Bandwidth               –   Precision and Area Fires
               –     QoS (Latency, Availability, Bandwidth)
                                                              • Sensor Trades
      • C2 Trades                                                –   Radar, EO/IR, and Ladar
               –     Legacy, New, Organic, Joint                 –   Systems (UAV, UGV, Mast, Tethered)
               –     Initiative and Control                      –   On Board and Off Board Fusion
      • Platform Trades                                          –   ATR and Clutter (False Alarms)
               –     Tracks and Wheels                        • Survivability Trades
               –     Weight Studies (16t, 9t, 6t)
                                                                 –   Active and Passive
               –     Modularity and Commonality Studies
                                                                 –   Collective and Individual
               –     Hybrid and Conventional Propulsion
                                                                 –   Links and Nodes
               –     Turbine and Diesel
               –     Wheel and Body Motors                    • HMI Trades
               –     Active and Passive Suspension               –   Autonomy, Responsibility, Workload
                                                                 –   Commonality, Simplicity
      • Force Trades
                                                                 –   Motion and Maneuver
                – UAVs and UGVs
                – Manned and Unmanned                         • Logistics
                – Mounted snd Dismounted                         –   OPTEMPO and Sustainment
                – BLOS / NLOS / LOS Mix                          –   Deployment (Weights, Times, Pulses)
                –
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage BU Size and Composition                    –   Prognostics, Distribution, Log Support
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                   The Trade Space is Defined
                                  by a Full Spectrum of Scenarios
     Sensitivity                                    Environment
    analysis will                            Scenario 1
    help drive to                             Solution
     “The FCS
     Solution”
                                                        “The      Potential
                                                        FCS         FCS
                                                      Solution”   Solution
                                        Potential
                                                                          Scenario 2
                                          FCS
                                        Solution
                                                                           Solution
                  Scenario 3
                   Solution
                                                                               Threat

                   Mission
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                      CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                       Scenario Driven OMS/MP Development
                                                  Bosnia                          FST concept robustness is tested against a
FST Scenarios:                                    Scenario                        broad range of missions & scenarios which
Forcing Function                       Korean                Desert Storm         gain validity from extensive quantitative &
for Full Spectrum                      Scenario                Scenario
                                                   Chad                           qualitative wargaming & analysis
Force Development
                                                  Scenario
                                                                                         Tabletop
                                                                                          MAPEX
                                                                                            JANUS           Operational
                                  Initial Force                          Four              Wargaming       Examination
                                                                      Four
                                                                      Scenario
                                    Concepts                         Initial                CASTFOREM
                                                                      Specific
                                       1&2                          OMSMPs                   Wargaming
                                                                      OMS/MP
                                                                         Inputs                   Scenario Weighting


                                     Full Spectrum
                                    Force Concepts            Force
                                                             Concept                               Composite OMS/MP
                                                         (Version 4.1)                        (Scenario Specific Consolidation)
                                                                         Wargaming Feedback

           Force Concept Was Developed Iteratively & in Parallel With OMS/MP Refinements
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                          Evolution of FCS Force Concepts
                                  Concept 1                                                         Concept 2
           Heavy reliance on robotic ground vehicles                                  Heavy reliance on NLOS range engmts / UAVs
                 More RSTA and assault                                                Significantly more payload volume
           Deployable by current rotary wing aircraft             2012 FUE                  Mostly 18-ton vehicles

                 Max vehicle weight 10 tons                                           Peer-to-peer information architecture
           Client-server information architecture                                     Based on Small Unit Operations comms tech
           Evolutionary comms and software systems                                          New software services
                                                                  Baseline
                                             Blending of Concept 1 and 2--Robotics and NLOS engmts
                                             6-ton ARVs, 9-ton CVs, 16-ton max vehicle weight
                                             Helo vertical envelopment with smaller vehicles
                           2012 FUE          16 ton limit for C-130 deployment on unimproved runways
                                             Hybrid information architecture
                                                   Peer-to Peer with communication islands

                                             Based on Small Unit Operations comms technology
                                                   New software services


                                                               BLK I / BLK II
                                                   BLK I - Employ available weapons systems
                                                           - Most vehicles manned
                        2008 FUE BLK I                     - 9-ton vehicles become 16 ton
                        2013 FUE BLK II            BLK II – Employ advanced weapons systems
                                                           - Many advanced robotic systems
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                   Same information and comms arch. as Baseline        CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                     Concept Baseline Alternatives Summary

                                               Concept 1                                  Concept 2
  Sensors                         •   Smaller Number of UAVs                •   Larger Number of UAVs
                                  •   Large Number of Modestly Capable      •   Small Number of Highly Capable
                                      Ground Sensors (ARVs)                     Ground Sensors (RSTA Vehicle)
 Information                      •   Client Server                         •   Peer-to-Peer
                                  •   Evolutionary Software                 •   Distributed, Dynamic
  Deciders                        •   Highly Automated                      •   Highly Automated
                                      Commander-Centric                         Commander-Centric
                                      (Unit/Group)                              (Group/Brigade)

  Actors                          •   Full Spectrum, but Weighted for the   •   Full Spectrum, but Weighted for
                                      Red Zone                                  Beyond the Red Zone
                                  •   Robotic ARV, DF, Netfires, NLOS       •   Robotic Netfires, Small UGV
                                  •   Manned C2, CV, and Infantry           •   Manned C2, Infantry Carrier, Direct
                                      Carrier                                   Fire, RSTA and Short Range NLOS
                                  •   CH-47 Transportable (<10 tons)        •   C-130 Transportable (<18 tons)
                                  •   Many Dispersed 4, 6, and 9 Ton        •   Common Chassis with
                                      Vehicles (~650)                           Modules (~340)
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                            CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                                                                                                                                                     Baseline 2012 Concept
                                                                                                                                                               Network Centric Functional Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Soldier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sensors    Organic UAVs, UGVs (EO/IR, FoPen, SAR, MTI)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Organic Manned R&S with Tethered Sensors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Aided Target Recognition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Augmenting UAVs and Satellites
           Service Layer View                                     Distributed Command and Control Services                                                                             Real Time and Hard Real Time Processors


             Actors          Deciders

                             Services Layer

                          Information Layer
                                               Sensors


                                                              S
                                                              e
                                                              c
                                                                     Planning
                                                                      Planning

                                                                               2
                                                                    Air Space CC2
                                                                     Air Space
                                                                                    Execution
                                                                                     Execution


                                                                                     Intelligence
                                                                                      Intelligence
                                                                                                  Information
                                                                                                   Information
                                                                                                  Operations
                                                                                                   Operations
                                                                                                                 Soldier System Interface

                                                                                                                 Warfighter C2 Services
                                                                                                                   Fires &&
                                                                                                                    Fires
                                                                                                                   Effects

                                                                                                      Combat Service
                                                                                                                    Effects

                                                                                                       Combat Service
                                                                                                         Support
                                                                                                          Support
                                                                                                                                   Situation
                                                                                                                                    Situation Reconnaissance && C4ISR Systems
                                                                                                                                  Awareness
                                                                                                                                   Awareness


                                                                                                                                  &&Simulation
                                                                                                                                     Simulation
                                                                                                                                               Reconnaissance
                                                                                                                                                 Surveillance

                                                                                                                              Training, Rehearsal,
                                                                                                                                                  Surveillance

                                                                                                                               Training, Rehearsal,   Nontactical
                                                                                                                                                       Nontactical
                                                                                                                                                       Support
                                                                                                                                                        Support
                                                                                                                                                                 C4ISR Systems
                                                                                                                                                                 Management
                                                                                                                                                                  Management
                                                                                                                                                                      Standard
                                                                                                                                                                       Standard
                                                                                                                                                                     Office Tools
                                                                                                                                                                      Office Tools
                                                                                                                                                                                          Vehicle Mgmt
                                                                                                                                                                                          and Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Organic Multi-Layer Peer-to-Peer Coms
                                                              u                                                   Common C2 Services
                                                                  Synchronization &                                        Navigation &             Distributed
                                                              r      Scheduling
                                                                                    Terrain Reasoning        MCG&I
                                                                                                                            Positioning          Collaborative Ops
                                                                                                                                                                   Personalization

                                                              i
                        Communications Layer



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Opportunistic Ground, UAV, and Satellite Links
                                                                                                 Information Management (IM) Services
                                                              t




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Info System
                                                                                         Common Object
                                                                  Knowledge Base DataStore             Geospatial Data     Plan      Force Structure                 Profile
                                                              y                             Store                                                                                IM(
                                                                                                                                                                                  b)
                                    Radios and networking           Multicast       Proxy
                                                                                                 QoS &
                                                                                                 Policy
                                                                                                          Dissemination Interest Mgmt Component Federation Interoperability IM(a

                                    - kernels                                                                Computing Platform Services
                                                                                                                                                                              )


                                    - controllers                                                         Network / Communications Services                                                           Sensor Arrays and Fusion
                                    - processors



                                                              State- of- the-
                                        Industry Standard and State-of-the-Art Techniques for Heterogeneous Computing
                      App1
                       f1
                                    App3
                                   App3
                                  App1
                                    f2f1
                                     f1
                                                     App2
                                                      f1
                                                            App2
                                                             f2


                                              “Middle Ware”/Operating System Services:
                                                                                      App3
                                                                                       f1                    App4
                                                                                                              f1
                                                                                                                                              App4
                                                                                                                                               f2
                                                                                                                                                            App5
                                                                                                                                                                                                       TOOLS
                                                                                                                                                                                                   AND STANDARDS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Integrated Software/Hardware Open Architecture
                                                                                                                                                             f1
                                         Implementation of the REAL TIME COMPUTING                                                                                                                Meta-H environment




                          and Procedures
                                                 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT



                          SEI and Emerging Processes
                                                                                                 Industry Standards and
                                                                                                                                                                                                        SAGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                         UML
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Autocoders
                                                                                                                                                                                                   M&S simulations
                                                                                                                                                                                                   System Integ Lab
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Distributed Warfighter Services
                                                                                                 established protocol




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NLOS                LS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Deciders Brigade, Battle Group, Battle Unit
               BDE
               HQ
                                                                     RSTA
                                                                     Group
                                                                                                                                                                                               Battle
                                                                                                                                                                                               Group                              Group               Group                 Common Relevant Operating Picture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Decision and Planning Aids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Precision and Area NLOS Fires
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Actors    Precision BLOS / LOS Weapons
                                                                                                                                                                                               Net Fires
                                    Soldier
                                    System
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Armed Reconnaissance Vehicles                   OCSW on all Combat Vehicles
                                                                                                                              105 NLOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mix of Manned and Unmanned Platforms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Infantry / Soldier Systems
          120mm Mortar NLOS                                                                                                                                                                                                      Infantry Carrier /
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C2 / CV                               Large Number of Stowed Kills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
              Systems
                               105 LOS / BLOS
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  FCS Phase I Results
           • Talented team pulled together through a generic
             IPPD methodology extended to address the
             ‗system of systems‘ problem for FCS CDSE
           • An integrated set of simple tools proved useful for
             the first iteration through the process
           • Success of the Concept Development and Systems
             Engineering (CDSE) Process developed and
             utilized is summarized by the rankings by the
             government‘s independent assessment team
           • Elements of the process are being continued by the
             Boeing-SAIC Lead System Integrator (LSI)
             through the current FCS Phase
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                      CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Future Combat System (FCS)
                                  Government Independent Assessment Team’s
                                  Phase 1 competitive scores (awarded Nov 2001)




                                                                 Full              Gladiator FocusVision
                                             CONCEPT CATEGORY Spectrum Boeing (Lockheed/ (GDLS/
                                                                Team                 TRW)     Raytheon)
                                             Deployment           1st    2nd (tie)  2nd (tie)  2nd (tie)
                                             Situational          1st       4th     3rd (tie)  3rd (tie)
                                            Understanding
                                             Lethal Effects       1st    2nd (tie)  2nd (tie)  2nd (tie)
                                             Protection        1st (tie)    4th     1st (tie)    2nd
                                             Sustainability       1st    2nd (tie)  2nd (tie)     4th
                                             Transition to New    1st      4th        2nd         3rd
                                            Mission
                                             OVERALL              1st      4th        2nd         3rd




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                  CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  F/A-18 Example
                      Example Application
        • Link the appropriate aircraft sizing/synthesis and economic tools plus probabilistic methods
        to create testbed environment; model the F/A-18C (using substantiation data for validation)

        • With F/A-18E/F requirements (Ref. AIAA Paper 98-4701) as drivers, look at relation of
        technology metrics on requirements mathematically




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                 CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
     Expanding Missions: The F/A-18E/F
                                                                            Air
            Maritime                Air                         Close                   Day/           All
                                            Fighter                      Defense
              Air                 Combat              Recce      Air                   Night         Weather
                                            Escort                       Suppres-
           Superiority            Fighter                      Support                 Attack        Attack
                                                                           sion


                   F-14D                                F/A-18                                 A-6F
                   NATF                                 A/B/C/D



                                                       F/A-18 E/F


                                                                             Ref. Young, et.al. AIAA-98-4701, 1998.


                                      How can such multi-role vehicles be
                                    examined as potential solutions for the
                                    war-fighter with respect to technologies,
                                     requirements, and design constraints ?
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                                 Process
                      The traditional process of identification of an overall objective to be
                                 optimized is replaced by the following process:

              1) Using Response Surface Method to mathematically represent combined
              requirements-technology-configuration space

              2) search for alternatives (configuration changes plus technology infusion) that
              satisfy requirements and constraints (TIES method)

              3) simultaneously, optimize on desirements within this feasible space
              (continuous) or set (discrete) then, perform sensitivity studies to show the
              perturbation of the solution due to possible changes in requirements and design
              variables.

     Thus, the customer/decision maker has information with regards to the choice between
       tolerating a relaxation in requirements or accepting achievable performance levels


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  F/A-18C Basic Geometry




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                Primary Mission- Fighter Escort
                                                                                                          Actual
                                                                                                          Modeled ( )
   Intermediate Thrust Climb
                                                 Cruise at Optimum Mach and Altitude
                                  42,550 ft
                                                                                           (39,910 ft)
                     (40,000 ft)                                                                              41,300 ft
                                                            (37,796 ft)                                        39,300 ft
                                                                                            (38,904 ft)
                                              38,100 ft




Reserves:
20 minutes Loiter at S.L.
plus 5% of T/O Fuel                                                                            Combat at 10,000 ft
                                              Start & Taxi, Accelerate to Climb Speed          2 minutes at Maximum Thrust
                                              4.6 minutes at Intermediate Thrust, SLS          Mach 1.0 (missiles retained)




                                                                  Combat Radius =311 nmi
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                             CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                      Alternate Missions- Addressing Multi-role
                                                     Capability
                                      • Requirements can include performance against a wide variety of missions

   • Vehicle sizing proceeds based on a primary mission and then fallout performance of the sized vehicle on
                                   alternate missions is computed and tracked
                 Metrics/Objectives
    Responses




                                                             Primary
                    Constraints




                                                             Mission
                                                            Responses


                                                           Alternative
                                                             Mission
                                                           Responses
 Example: Given a vehicle sized
for Air Superiority (A-S) mission,                         Constraints
  compute the performance for
    Interdiction mission as A-S
       requirements change                                                         Requirements, Vehicle Chars., or Technologies


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                           Alternate Mission: Hi Hi Hi
                                                                                                   Actual
                                                                                                   Modeled ( )
Intermediate Thrust Climb                     Cruise at Optimum Mach and Altitude
                           43,200 ft
                       (40,000 ft)
                                       38,550 ft
                                                                                                     40,600 ft
                                                   (37.911 ft)                                       (40,000 ft)




Reserves:
20 minutes Loiter at S.L.
plus 5% of T/O Fuel                                                                        Combat at Best Altitude
                                          Start & Taxi, Accelerate to Climb Speed          5 minutes at Maximum Speed
                                          4.6 minutes at Intermediate Thrust, SLS          Mach 1.0 (missiles retained)




                                                                 Combat Radius =505 nmi
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
        Correlation of Drag Polars for Varying Mach Numbers
                                  Altitude = 36,089 ft




           Cl




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Propulsion Modeling
                                  F404-GE-402 Augmented Turbofan Engine

• The F404-GE-402 is an increased                      General Specifications:
  performance derivative of the F404                   • Thrust:         17,700 lb
  and is used in the F/A-18C                           • SFC (max A/B): 1.74 lbm/lbf-hr
• Features a dual-spool mixed flow                     • SFC (IRP):      0.81 lbm/lbf-hr
  turbofan architecture, 3X7X1X1
  turbomachinery configuration                         • Airflow (SLS): 146 pps
• F404 Engine performance deck                         • Weight:         2,282 lb
  based on installed engine data for                   • Length:         159 in
  the F/A-18C                                          • Diameter:       35 in
• Engine performance data source:
  “F/A-18C Substantiating
  Performance Data with F404-GE-
  402 Engines” Report
  MDC91B0290
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                          CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                   Weight Breakdown- Validation
                                                  F/A18C Weight Breakdown Comparison
                                                   Group                  F/A18C     Baseline Model
• Sizing/Synthesis Code Used:     Wing                                     3,919         3,918
FLight OPtimization System        Tail Group                               1,005         1,006
                                  Body                                     5,009         5,009
(FLOPS)                           Alighting Gear                           2,229         2,228
                                  Propulsion Group
                                                                 Engines   4,420         4,417
• F/A-18C Baseline Modeled in                                Engine Section
                                                                    Gear Box     921      922
FLOPS calibrated against actual                                      Controls
                                                             Starting System
substantiation data from                                        Fuel System     1,078    1,078
manufacturer                      Flight Controls                               1,061    1,062
                                  Auxiliary Power Plant                          206      206
                                  Instruments                                     84       84
• Highly accurate model (errors   Hydraulics                                     351      352
                                  Electrical                                     592      592
in weights less than 1%)          Avionics                                      1,864    1,864
                                  Armament, Gun, Launchers, Ejectors             948      948
                                  Furnishings, Load/Handling, Contingency        631      631
                                  Air Conditioning                               641      642
                                  Crew                                           180      180
                                  Unusable Fuel                                  207      207
                                  Engine Fluids                                  114      115
                                  Chaff, Ammunition                              252      252
                                  Miscellaneous                                   58       58
                                                  Operating Weight Empty        25,770   25,771
                                  Missiles                                               1,410
                                                                (2) AIM-7F      1,020
                                                                (2) AIM-9L       390
                                  Mission Fuel                                  10,860   10,857
                                                   Takeoff Gross Weight         38,040   38,038
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                         CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Economic Assumptions
      • MALCCA (Military Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis) in-house
        code used to determine notional aircraft economics

      • Baseline File created starting with defaults based on the military
        aircraft assumptions (primarily sourced from F-15 and F-16 data)

                                       Inflation Factor          3.3%
                                         Dollar Year             1994
                                  Year of Program Initiation     2000
                                  Final Year of Production       2023
                                   # Operational Vehicles      2530 units
                                   System Economic Life        20 years
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                      CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                                     Wind Over Deck
                               Recovery Wind Over Deck                                           Launch Wind Over Deck

                                             Wind Over Deck                                                  Wind Over Deck




                                                                               Aircraft Weight
             Aircraft Weight




                                 Aircraft                     Arresting Gear                                                  Cat Plus
                                                                                                  Airspeed
                                 Touchdown Speed              Performance                                                     A/C Thrust
                                                                                                  Required




                                             Speed
                                                                                                             Speed



                               •Aircraft Touchdown Speed = 1.05 * Vapp
                               •Airspeed Required = Calculated Liftoff Speed
                               •Arresting Gear Performance Calculated at Limit Capacity

Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
      Responses/Desirements                               Responses and Top Level Requirements
                                                                                                                    Example Responses:
                                                    R1
                               Metrics/Objectives




                                                                                                                    Gross Weight
                                                    R2
                                                                                                                    Probability of Survival
                                                    R3                                                              Lethality
                                                                                                                    O+S
                                                    R4                                                              Acquisition Cost

                                                    R5                                                              Approach Speed (constraint)
                                                                                                                    TOFL (constraint)
                               Constraints




                                                    R6

                                                    R7
                                                                                                                    T/W and W/S may belong in
                                                                                                                    either the requirements or the
                                                         Req.1   Req.2 Req.3   Req.4 Req.5 Req. 6 Req.7     Req.8
                                                                                                                    responses section - depending
                                                         Range   Payload PS    tloiter turn rate fW wtW   Mach    on how the programs are set up
                                                                      Top Level Requirements
                    This approach de-emphasizes the geometry of an aircraft, and instead focuses on the mission requirements.
                    However, it does require a baseline aircraft configuration. Geometry and Technologies are fixed, while
                    Requirements vary. Each vector of top level requirements maps to a specific mission.


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                   Requirement RSEs for Notional F/A-18C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Performance                                                                                                               Capabilities                                                                                                  Weights                                                                                  Economics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Takeoff                                                             Landing
                                                                                                                                                 Alternate Combat Specific Combat                                                                                               Combat                          Approach Landing Field Takeoff Field Wind Over                                                           Wind Over                                                     Takeoff Gross Operation &                                         First Unit                                                              RDT&E
                                                                                                          Wing Loading Thrust/Weight Wing Span Mission Range                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Life Cycle Cost
                                                                                                                                                             Excess Power Turn Rate                                                                                           Turn Radius                        Speed      Length       Length        Deck                                                                Deck                         Empty Weight                      Weight     Support Cost                                          Cost                                                                   Cost
                                                                                                             (lb/ft2)                   (ft)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cents
                                                                                                                                                   (nm)          (ft/s)    (deg/s)                                                                                                (ft)                            (ft/s)      (ft)         (ft)        (ft/s)                                                              (ft/s)                          (lbs)                           (lbs)      (mil. $/yr)                                         (mil. $)                                                               (mil. $)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     #AC * hr * lb


                                                                                                                  95.89077




                                                                                                                                                                        37.03584




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               740.7152
                                                                                                                                             0.841592




                                                                                                                                                                                                   1364.336




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     11844.52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           3.746093




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4088.045
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  152.8745




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4184.198




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   17.36432




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30061.56




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 42958.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -0.99871

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             42.98329




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5330.668




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62.87922




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.792245




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4380.113
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -7.06871




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4841.269


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5885.437




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3777.587
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -39.8082




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.866574
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.749297




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4897.278
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              45.0536




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             36214.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23727.3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       31626.8



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            55799.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1014.9
                                                                                                                                                                                          1062.1


                                                                                                                                                                                                              1787.6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       53.187
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16241
                                                                                                                             137.2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           72.927
                                                                                                                                     0.666




                                                                                                                                                                33.67




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2.732
                                                                                                                                                        1.088




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       510.8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        128.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.891




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             182.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9072




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2708
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3137


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5776




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9345
                                                                                                           68.1




                                                                                                                                                                                   40.3
                         -5%
                            Radius
                                  +40% -10%
                                       Ult. Load Fact. Combat Mach #
                                                 +10% -10%       +10% 0 500 1000 -5%
                                                                       Payload
                                                                         (lbs)
                                                                                    Thrust
                                                                                           +40% -5%
                                                                                                   Area
                                                                                    +30% 0
                            stealth
                             (lbs)

                                                                                      500 1000 0
                           # Aux. Tanks
                               (lbs)


                                                                                       2244 4488
                                        Fuel Consumption


                                                                                               -15%
                                             Specific
                                                                                       0%




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
       Requirements Exploration: F/A-18C Design Contours
                                  Horiz Vert Factor             Current X    Grid Density Update Mode
                                             Radius               -0.8888     20 x 20      Immediate
                                             ULF                         0
                                             CmbMach                     0
                                             DPayld
                                             Thrust
                                                                        -1
                                                                  -0.8888
                                                                                                           Slide bars control variable values
                                             Area                  -0.857
                                             DStealth                   -1
   Response                                  Auxtnk                     -1
                                             SFC                         1
   contours may                       Response              Contour Current Y       Lo Limit    Hi Limit
                                      O&S                     5500 5031.4066              ?       5500
   be set here                        TOGW                   40000     37137.19           ?      40000
                                      LDWOD                      15 4.8129793             ?          15              Constraints are set here
                                      TOWOD                       0 -20.93512             ?           0
                                      Vapp                     153 152.42056              ?        153
                                      Ps                       695 700.21755            695           ?
                                      AltRng                   920 1238.6386            920           ?

                                    21420                                                                     Vapp



                                                                                                                           Takeoff
                                                                                                                           Wind Over Deck


                                  Thrust                                                                                                Ps
                                   (lbs.)
                                                                                                                               Landing
                                                                                                                               Wind Over Deck


                                                                                                                               TOGW
                                    14535
                                            360                                            Area (ft^2)                                       520
                                             White area indicates available design space, while filled areas
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
                                                      indicate areas which violate set constraints CASA/CERT/PLMC
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                           Effects of Increase in Combat Radius Req.
                              21,420                       Vapp



                                                                                                TOWOD

                            Thrust                                                      LDWOD

                                                                                        Ps

                                                                                                TOGW

                              14,535
Decreasing                           380       Area                                                    520   Increasing
 Feasible                    21,420                          Vapp


  Space
                                                                                                              Combat
                            Thrust
                                                                                                TOWOD          Radius
                                                                           LDWOD

                                                                           Ps
                                                                                                               Reqmt.
                                                                                                TOGW
                             14,535
                                   380         Area                                                    520
                             21,420
                                                                    Vapp




                           Thrust                                               TOWOD
                                                 LDWOD

                                                      Ps

                                                                      TOGW
                             14,535
                                   380         Area                                                    520
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
     Horiz     Vert     Factor                        Current X        Grid Density           Update Mode
                        Radius                              0.964          20 x 20              Immediate
                        ULF                                  0.71
                        CmbMach                                 0
                        DPayld                                 -1
                        Thrust                         0.88888
                        Area                                0.857
                        DStealth                               -1


                                                                                                                      Exploring the Space:
                        Auxtnk                                 -1
                        SFC                                0.3333
             Response                            Contour       Current Y             Lo Limit         Hi Limit


                                                                                                                    Capturing the F/A-18E/F !
             O&S                                    5130      5475.7833                    ?                  ?
             TOGW                                 45000       47224.344                    ?                  ?
             LDWOD                                    30      26.563468                    ?                 30
             TOWOD                                    15      13.613377                    ?                 15
             Vapp                                    151       150.2058                    ?                151
             t_Radius                            12656.5      10828.741                    ?                  ?
             t_Rate                               3.8115      4.0987387                    ?                  ?
             Ps                                      780      807.60615                 780                   ?
             AltRng                                 1540      1545.1224                1540                   ?


             21420                                                                                                                               TOWOD


                                                                                                                                Vapp             Alternate
                                                                                                                                       Ps        Range
                                   Turn Radius
                                                                                 Turn Rate
                                                                                                                                                 TOGW

      Thrust
       (lbs.)




                                                                                                                       O&S
         14535
                        380                                                                                       Area (ft^2)                            520
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
              RDS Example: TOGW Req. for Notional F/A-18 (1)
   Scenario 1: Conservative tech. improvements gives low confidence of meeting requirement
                                                   k_CDo
                                                    k CDo
                                                                                                                               k_CDi
                                                                                                                                k CDi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      k_WingWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       k W in g W t.




                       - 0 .0 6        - 0 .0 5       - 0 .0 3          - 0 .0 2     0 .0 0          - 0 .0 6     - 0 .0 5         - 0 .0 3   - 0 .0 2            0 .0 0              - 0 .1 3             - 0 .1 0          - 0 .0 7    - 0 .0 4     - 0 .0 1




                                                  k_FusWt
                                                   k F u sW t.
                                                                                                                             k_HTWt
                                                                                                                               k HT W t.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      k_VTWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        k VtW t.




                       - 0 .1 2        - 0 .0 9       - 0 .0 6          - 0 .0 3     0 .0 0          - 0 .1 1     - 0 .0 8         - 0 .0 5   - 0 .0 2            0 .0 1              0 .0 0               0 .2 5            0 .5 0       0 .7 5      1 .0 0




                                                                 Ov erlay Chart                                                                                                                        Forecast: Ov erlap

                                                  Frequency Comparison                                                                        10,000 Trials                                               Cumulativ e Chart                                                 1 Outlier
    .025                                                                                                                                                 1.000                                                                                                              10000


                                                                                                                 Achieved
                                                                                                                TOGW
    .019
                                                                                                                 TOGW
                                                                                                                                                          .750             Probability of Satisfying
                                                                                                                                                                             TOGW Req. =~1%
    .013                                                                                                                                                  .500



    .006                                                                                                        Anticipated                               .250
                                                                                                                Anticipated Req.
                                                                                                                TOGW Req.
    .000                                                                                                                                                  .000                                                                                                              0

           31,500.00              32,375.00                 33,250.00              34,125.00   35,000.00                                                         -1,000.00            0.00                            1,000.00             2,000.00              3,000.00

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Certainty is 99.99% from -1,000.00 to +Infinity


Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
              RDS Example: TOGW Req. for Notional F/A-18 (2)
   Scenario 2: Aggressive tech. improvements gives higher confidence of meeting requirement
                                         k_CDo
                                           k CDo
                                                                                                                          k_CDi
                                                                                                                           k CDi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        k_WingWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         k W in g W t.




                   - 0 .1 0   - 0 .0 9        - 0 .0 7        - 0 .0 6   - 0 .0 4               - 0 .1 0      - 0 .0 9        - 0 .0 7    - 0 .0 6             - 0 .0 4                       - 0 .1 7       - 0 .1 4       - 0 .1 1              - 0 .0 8   - 0 .0 5




                                         k_FusWt
                                           k F u sW t.
                                                                                                                         k_HTWt
                                                                                                                           k HT W t.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         k_VTWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          k VtW t.




                   - 0 .1 7   - 0 .1 4        - 0 .1 1        - 0 .0 8   - 0 .0 5               - 0 .1 6      - 0 .1 3        - 0 .1 0    - 0 .0 7             - 0 .0 4                       0 .0 0          0 .2 5         0 .5 0               0 .7 5     1 .0 0




                                                          Ov erlay Chart                                                                                                                      Forecast: Ov erlap

                                           Frequency Comparison                                                                          10,000 Trials                                              Cumulativ e Chart                                                   19 Outliers
    .023                                                                                                                                             1.000                                                                                                               10000


                                                                                                            Achieved                                                      Probability of Satisfying
    .017                                                                                                   TOGW                                       .750
                                                                                                            TOGW                                                           TOGW Req. =~45%

    .011                                                                                                                                              .500



    .006                                                                                                   Anticipated                                .250
                                                                                                           Anticipated Req.
                                                                                                           TOGW Req.
    .000                                                                                                                                              .000                                                                                                               0

           31,500.00          32,250.00                  33,000.00            33,750.00   34,500.00                                                          -1,500.00              -625.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0 250.00                      1,125.00              2,000.00




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                            CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
  RDS Example:O&S $ as an Anticipated Requirement (1)
   Scenario 1: Conservative tech. improvements gives low confidence of meeting requirement
                                                        k_CDo
                                                         k CDo
                                                                                                                                                  k_CDi
                                                                                                                                                   k CDi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     k_WingWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      k W in g W t.




                            - 0 .0 6        - 0 .0 5       - 0 .0 3                  - 0 .0 2     0 .0 0              - 0 .0 6      - 0 .0 5          - 0 .0 3    - 0 .0 2              0 .0 0                - 0 .1 3    - 0 .1 0           - 0 .0 7     - 0 .0 4             - 0 .0 1




                                                       k_FusWt                                                                                 k_HTWt                                                                                 k_$O&S
                                                        k F u sW t.                                                                              k HT W t.                                                                               k $O &S




                                                                                                                                                                                                               - 0 .0 7   - 0 .0 6          - 0 .0 4    - 0 .0 3           - 0 .0 1
                            - 0 .1 2        - 0 .0 9       - 0 .0 6                  - 0 .0 3     0 .0 0              - 0 .1 1      - 0 .0 8          - 0 .0 5    - 0 .0 2              0 .0 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Forecast: Overlap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P(Achieved-Anticipated)
                                                                      Overlay Chart
                                                                                                                                                                 5,000 Trials                                             Cumulative Chart                                                            189 Outliers
                                                       Frequency Comparison
                                                                                                                                                                             1 .0 0 0                                                                                                                  5 00 0
    .0 2 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Probability of Satisfying
                                                                                                                                  Achieved                                    .7 5 0                    $O&S Req. =~2%
    .0 1 7                                                                                                                       $ O& S/ fl th r
                                                                                                                                    $O&S
                                                                                                                                                                              .5 0 0
    .0 1 1


                                                                                                                                                                              .2 5 0
    .0 0 6                                                                                                                       Anticipated
                                                                                                                                 A n tic ip a te d R e q.
                                                                                                                                 $O&S Req.
                                                                                                                                                                              .0 0 0                                                                                                                   0
    .0 0 0
                                                                                                                                                                                        -1 0 0 .0 0     0    1 00 . 00               3 00 . 00                 5 00 . 00                  7 00 . 00
             6 ,5 0 0. 00              6 ,7 7 5. 00                   7 ,0 5 0. 00              7 ,3 2 5. 00   7 ,6 0 0. 00




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                 Example: $O&S as an Anticipated Requirement (2)
   Scenario 2: Aggressive tech. improvements gives higher confidence of meeting requirement
                                             k_CDo
                                               k CDo
                                                                                                                                          k_CDi
                                                                                                                                           k CDi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 k_WingWt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  k W in g W t.




                       - 0 .1 0   - 0 .0 9        - 0 .0 7         - 0 .0 6   - 0 .0 4                      - 0 .1 0       - 0 .0 9          - 0 .0 7    - 0 .0 6            - 0 .0 4                    - 0 .1 7     - 0 .1 4       - 0 .1 1             - 0 .0 8     - 0 .0 5




                                             k_FusWt
                                               k F u sW t.
                                                                                                                                         k_HTWt
                                                                                                                                           k HT W t.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  k_$O&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   k $O &S




                       - 0 .1 7   - 0 .1 4        - 0 .1 1         - 0 .0 8   - 0 .0 5                      - 0 .1 6       - 0 .1 3          - 0 .1 0    - 0 .0 7            - 0 .0 4                    - 0 .1 1     - 0 .0 9        - 0 .0 8              - 0 .0 6      - 0 .0 5




                                                             Overlay Chart                                                                                                                            Forecast: Ov erlap
                                                                                                                                                                                                   P(Achieved-Anticipated)
                                                 Frequency Comparison                                                                                   5,000 Trials                                           Cumulativ e Chart                                                     9 Outliers
    .0 2 0                                                                                                                                                          1.000                                                                                                            5000

                                                                                                                                                                                        Probability of Satisfying
                                                                                                                       Achieved                                      .750
                                                                                                                                                                                          $O&S Req. =~50%
    .0 1 5                                                                                                             $ O& S/ fl th r
                                                                                                                        $O&S
    .0 1 0                                                                                                                                                           .500




    .0 0 5                                                                                                             Anticipated                                   .250
                                                                                                                       A n tic ip a te d R e q.
                                                                                                                       $O&S Req.
    .0 0 0                                                                                                                                                           .000                                                                                                            0

             6 ,5 0 0. 00         6 ,7 5 0. 00               7 ,0 0 0. 00            7 ,2 5 0. 00   7 ,5 0 0. 00                                                            -600.00            -300.00               0.00                        300.00                 600.00




Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu
                                  Summary and Conclusions
           • Systems Engineering has its roots in Aerospace
           • Modern Systems Engineering must reflect the Quality Revolution
           • The Five Lean Principles should serve as guiding principles for
             a Modern Systems Engineering Approach
           • Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) required in
             the Fuzzy Front End to Establish Value for subsequent principle
             implementation: Value Stream, Process Flow, Customer Pull,
             and Perfection
           • Georgia Tech has developed an IPPD through Robust Design
             Simulation (RDS) environment that allows a Probabilistic
             Approach for the Fuzzy Front End
           • The transition of the IPPD through RDS to a Virtual Stochastic
             Life Cycle Design Environment is necessary for full
             implementation of the Five Lean Guiding Principles
Dr. Daniel P. Schrage
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
                                                           CASA/CERT/PLMC
www.asdl.gatech.edu

				
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