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                                              K.!. SAWYER AFB
                                                     MICHIGAN




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                                    ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD
                                              COVER SHEET




                                           AR File Number '353
                       r?tdck 'A-/5       File:         I
                                          Nit. /Z Z4T
                            558       I



                 FINAL
           RCRA CLOSURE PLAN

          Project No. LWRC94-0028
      Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range
     K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan




                 JUNE 1995

Wa
                                                 r,rg   L




                  FINAL
            RCRA CLOSURE PLAN

            Project LWRC 94-0028
                  EOD Range
             Delivery Order No. 8




                 Prepared for:

      K.!. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan
  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District




                 Prepared by:
RUST ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE, INC.
           111 North Canal Street
                  Suite 305
           Chicago, Illinois 60606
               (312) 902-7100




                   June 1995
    Final RCRA Closure Plan                                         8   3
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                     Revision 0


                                     TABLE OF CONTEP4TS

                                                                              PAGE

    LIST OF ACRONYMSIABBREVIATIONS                                                 iv

    1.0    INTRODUCTION                                                           1-1

    2.0    DESCRIPTION OF FACILITY                                                2-1
           2.1   Description of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range                 2-1
                2.1.1 Open Bum Containers                                         2-2
                2.1.2 Open Detonation Pits                                        2-2
           2.2 Past Data Collection Activities/Current Status                     2-2
           2.3 Environmental Setting                                              2-3
—
    3.0    ORDNANCE WASTE CHARACTERISTICS                                         3-1
           3.1 Chemical and Physical Characteristics                              3-1
           3.2 Waste Analysis Plan                                                3-2
                3.2.1 Parameters and Rationale                                    3-2
                3.2.2 Test Methods                                                3-3
                3.2.3 Sampling Methods                                            3-3

    4.0    ORDNANCE AND EXPLOSIVE WASTE REMOVAL                                   4-I
           4.1 Ordnance and Explosive Waste Location                              4-1
           4.2 Unexploded Ordnance Search Mcthodology                             4-1

    5.0    DESCRIPTION OF RESIDUE WASTE REMOVAL EFFORTS                           5-1

    6.0    FIELD SAMPLING OPERATIONS                                              6-1
           6.1   Field Sampling Objectives                                        6-1
            6.2 Quality Assurance Objectives                                      6-1
           6.3 Sampling Procedures                                                6-i
                6.3.1 Investigative Soil Sampling                                 6-2
                6.3.2 Waste Characterization Soil Sampling                        6-3
                6.3.3 Clean Closure Verification Soil Sampling                    6-3
           6.4 Groundwater Sampling Procedures                                    6-3
           6.5 Sample Handling, Storage and Shipment                              6-4
           6,6 Documentation and Sample Custody                                   6-4
           6.7 Laboratory Operations                                              6-4
           6.8 Data Reduction, Validation and Reporting                           6-4




    nA6flRtTERCS8l2673RF.P61                      1                         June 1995
    Final RCK4 Closure Plan
    Project LWRC94-0028
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                                                                     U'-)         I    Revision   0


                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)

                                                                                         PAGE

    7.0      DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES                                                      7-1

    8.0 CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS AND INVESTIGATiVE-DERIVED
             WASTE                                                                           8-1
             8.1 Air Emissions                                                               8-1
             8.2 Management of Investigative-Derived Wastes                                  8-1
                  8.2.1 Soil Cuttings                                                        8-1
S                 8.2.2 Decontamination and Well Development and Purge Water                 8-1
                  8.2.3 Non-Regulated Waste Disposal                                         8-2
                  8.2.4 Personal Protective Equipment                                        8-2

    9.0      PERSONNEL SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION                                            9-1

    10.0 SCHEDULE FOR CLOSURE                                                               10-I

    11.0 CERTIFICATION                                                                      11-1

    12.0 STATUS OF FACILITY AFTER CLOSURE                                                   12-1


                                         LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure                                                                      Follows Section

    2-1      Base Location                                                                   2.0
    2-2      Site Location                                                                   2.0
    2-3      EOD Range Topography                                                            2.0
    2-4      Munitions Burial Pit Location                                                   2.0
    6-1      Proposed Confirmatory Soil Sampling/Monitoring Well Location Map                6.0
    10-1     Proposed Closure Schedule                                                      10.0


                                         LIST OF TABLES

    Table                                                                       Follows Section

    2-1      Waste Inventory and Treatment Summary                                           2.0
    3-I      Basic Explosive Compositions                                                    3.0
    3-2      Typical Explosive Ordnance to be Demilitarized                                  3.0
    4-I      Cleanup Levels for Soil Remediation                                             4.0
    6-I      Sampling Summary - Soil Analyses                                                6.0
    6-2      Sampling Summary - Groundwater Analyses                                         6.0


    n:6. I RTERCS8t2673RF.P6I                     ii                                  June 1995
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    Final RCRA Closure Plan                                   558   5
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                 Revision 0


                              TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)


    APPENDICES

    A      Burn Residue Analysis Results
    B      Type B Criteria (MERA Operational Memorandum #8)
    C      Quality Assurance Project Plan
    D      Sampling Grid Calculations
    F      Site Safety and Health Plan
    F      Clean Closure Certification Checklist




     n:6.1lRTERCS82673RFP6I                  III                        June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
                                                                   rr
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                Revision 0


                               LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

AFB              Air Force Base
CERCLA           Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CFR              Code of Federal Regulations
DRMO             Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
EOD              Explosive Ordnance Disposal
HARM             Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology
MEl              High Explosive Incendiary
MMIX             Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine
IRP              Installation Restoration Program
MAC              Michigan Administrative Code
MDNR             Michigan Department of Natural Resources
MERA             Michigan Environmental Restoration Act
MM               Millimeter
MSL              Mean Sea Level
NEW              Net Explosive Weight
NPL              National Priorities List
OB               Open Burn
OD               Open Detonation
OEW              Ordnance and Explosive Waste
OSHA             Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PCBs             Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PID              Photoionization Detector
PPE              Person Protective Equipment
QA               Quality Assurance
QAPP             Quality Assurance Project Plan
QC               Quality Control
RCRA             Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RDX               Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine
Rust              Rust Environment & Infrastructure
SARA              Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SSHP              Site-Specific Safety and Health Plan
SVOC              Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
SWMU              Solid Waste Management Unit
TCLP              Toxicity Characteristic and Leaching Procedure
TERC              Total Environmental Restoration Contract
TNT               Trinitrotoluene
Tetryl            Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine
USACE             U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USAF              United State Air Force
USEPA             Environmental Protection Agency
USGS              United States Geological Survey
UXO               Unexploded Ordnance
VOCs              Volatile Organic Compounds
WMD               Waste Management Division
WWTP              Wastewater Treatment Plant

,,:16.1 RtTERCS82673RrF. P61                    iv                                 June 1995
    Final RCRA Closure Plan                                               558          7
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                                        Revision 0


                                      1.0 INTRODUCTION
    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has contracted with Rust Environment &
    Infrastructure, Inc. (Rust) to investigate and prepare final closure documents for an Explosive
    Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Facility at K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base (AFB) in Marquette, Michigan.
    This work is being carried our under the Total Environmental Restoration Contract Program,
    under Contract No. DACW45-94-D-0001, Delivery Order No. 8, Project No. LWRC 94-0028.

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan describes the steps to be
    taken by K. I. Sawyer MB to complete final closure of the EOD Facility. The closure is to be
    carried out in a manner that: (1) minimizes the need for further maintenance and (2) controls,
    minimizes, or eliminates (to the extent necessary to protect human health and the environment)
    post-closure migration of hazardous wastes, hܱäidäüI wasie constituents, leachate, or waste
    decomposition products to groundwater, surface water, or to the atmosphere.

    This Closure Plan will be submitted to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR)
    for review and approval at least 60 days before the anticipated start of final closure activities, as
    addressed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.112 (d)(1). A U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency (USEPA) identification number of MI-0571 924760 was granted to K.I. Sawyer
    AFB for the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste. The EOD area was identified
    as a RCRA Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMIJ) during the 1992 Federal Facilities
    Assessment at the base. Thus, the Closure Plan will serve to implement the RCRA corrective
    action process. Once this Closure Plan is approved, closure activities will commence. In
    accordance with closure plan guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR 265.112 regarding interim-status
    facilities and the rules and regulations of Michigan's Hazardous Waste Management Act Part 111
    of Public Act 451, a current copy of the approved Closure Plan and all revisions to the plan will
—   be maintained at the base until final facility closure is completed and certified.

    The EOD Facility treated unserviceable munition items to be demilitarized by burning with fuel
    (open burning) in a metal kettle or by open detonation (OD) with a charge in sandpits. OD
    operations may have resulted in unexploded ordnance being buried or driven downwards from
    detonation. After completing open burning (OB) or OD treatment, the residual materials were
    disposed in munitions residue burial pits within the EOD Range boundary. The burial of
    munitions residue was discontinued in approximately 1988. These wastes were subsequently
    managed in accordance with RCRA and Michigan Public Act 451, Part 201. The EOD Range
    is not currently active, and the last OB/OL) óerations were conducted in March 1994.

    The purpose of this document is to describe the necessary steps and documentation needed for
    the EOI) Range to receive clean closure certifleátion The initiation of a two-phased process will
    allow for the safe and timely completion of field tasks which are condensed into the following
    activities:




    pi:I6.JtRtTERCS8t267jRF.P61                     1-1                                        June 1995
Final RCRJ4 Closure Plan                                               558         8
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                         Revision 0


        1)      Ordnance and Explosive Waste Removal:

                a.     Buried ordnance residue pits are to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below
                       the last item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

                b.     The open detonation area is to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the
                       last item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

                c.     The remainder of the EOD Range is to be cross-tipped (i.e. - combing) using
                       a bulldozer equipped with three-foot tines. The cross-ripped area will be
                       inspected by EOD personnel for evidence of any munition residue or
                       explosives. If any residuals/explosives are revealed as a result of cross-
                       ripping, the respective area will be cleared to a depth of 4 feet below the last
                       item found.

                d.     Any soil excavated for the purpose of explosive clearance will be returned
                       to the original location, unless there is obvious visual evidence of
                       contamination.

        2.      RCRA Closure Field Efforts:

                a.     33 soil samples, using grid formation layout, will be obtained from a depth
                       of 1 to 3 feet and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-
                       volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), herbicides, inorganics (i.e. metals),
                       and explosives.

                b.     5 monitoring wells will be installed.

                c.     Groundwater samples will be collected from 5 monitoring wells and analyzed
                       for VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and explosives.

The preceding field tasks are discussed at length in Sections 4.0 through 6.0 of this RCRA
Closure Plan.

According to USEPA regulations, within 90 days after approval of the Closure Plan, all recovered
waste will be removed from the facility and disposed of in accordance with this Closure Plan,
as addressed in 40 CFR 265.113(a). Closure of the EOD Range will be completed within 180
days of initiation of closure, as outlined in 40 CFR 265.113(b). If a longer closure period is
needed, an extension will be requested at least 30 days before the 90- and 180-day deadlines
expire, according to the requirements of 40 CFR 265.113. Upon completion of closure, an
independent professional engineer (registered in Michigan) will submit closure certification.

Post-closure care is not anticipated for the EOD Range since no hazardous wastes or waste
constituents will be left in place at the facility after closure is completed. Accordingly, this plan
does not contain provisions for a post-closure plan, contingent post-closure plan, post-closure cost
estimate, or post-closure financial assurance mechanism. However, pre-closure soil and

,,:t6.JLRTERCS8267jR.F.P6i                        1-2                                       June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                                 558               Revision 0
Project LWRC94-0028


groundwater assessments will be performed according to the requirements of Michigan Public Act
451, Part 201, R 299.9611 regarding environmental monitoring.

This plan was prepared using requirements for closure of a licensed hazardous waste management
unit specified by the following Michigan Administrative Code (MAC) and CFR regulations:
                                                                                              -
        STATE REGULATIONS

        Public Act 451, Part 201 Regulations

        Section              flfle
        R 299.5515           Remedial Action Plan
        R 299.5517           Operation & Maintenance Plan
        R 299.5519           Monitoring Requirements
        R 299.5706           Remedial actions; protection of public health and environment required;
                             degree of cleanup; combination of types; review and approval of
                             proposed type; type of modification during implementation; aquifers;
                             unacceptability of remedial action plan.
        R 299.5707           Compliance with Type A Criteria for all environmental media.
        R 299.5709           Compliance with Type B Criteria for all environmental media.
        R 299.5711           Compliance with Type B Criteria for soils.
        R 299.5713           Compliance with Type B Criteria for surface water.
        R 299.5715           Compliance with Type B Criteria for air quality.
        R 299.5717           Compliance with Type C Criteria for all environmental media.
        R 299.5719           Additional requirements for certain Type C remedial actions.
        R 299.5721           Evaluation of data to establish compliance with Type A, B or C
                             Criteria.

        Public Act 451. Part Ill Regulations

        Section              Lije
        R 299.9611           Environmental Monitoring
        R 299.9612           Groundwater Monitoring
        R 299.9613           Closure and Post-Closure
        R 299.9620           Requirements for Miscellaneous Units


        FEDERAL REGULATIONS

        40 CFR Section je
        265.91               Groundwater Monitoring System
        265.92               Sampling and Aniliii
        265.112              Closure Plan; Amendment of Plan


n.-t6.flRlTERCS8267JRF.P6J                        1-3                                     June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRCQ4-0028
                                                                 58       10
                                                                                    Revision 0


       265.113            Closure; Time allowed for closure
       265.114            Disposal or Decontamination of Equipment, Structures, and Soils
       265.115            Certification of Closure
       265.117            Post-Closure Care and Use of Property
       265.118            Post-Closure Plan; Amendment of Plan
       265.119            Post-Closure Notices
       265. 120           Certification of Completion of Post-Closure Care
       265. 142           Cost Estimate for Closure
       265. 143           Financial Assurance of Closure
       265. 147           Liability Requirements




n.6.ItRTERCS82671RF.?61                      14                                     June 1995
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    Final RCRA Closurç Plan      :                                        558       11
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                                       Revision 0


                               2.0      DESCRIPTION OF FACILITY

    K.I. Sawyer AFB is located approximately 13 miles south of the city of Marquette and three
    miles east of Gwinn in the north-central region of Michigan's upper peninsula in Marquette
    County, as shown in Figure 2-1. K.I. Sawyer AFB encompasses 8.3 square miles (approximately
    5,200 acres) consisting of airfield operations facilities, industrialldisposal facilities, housing
    facilities, recreational facilities, and undeveloped lands. The base is currently undergoing closure
    activities with an expected shutdown date of September 30, 1995. The general location of K.I.
    Sawyer AFB is illustrated in Figure 2-2.

    Since 1956, the base has provided support and maintenance for Air Force aircraft. Routine
    maintenance, supply, transportation, and fire training activities at the base have involved the use
    of organic-based cleaning compounds and fuels and rièéèsiitàtèd the use, iccumulation, treatment,
    and disposal of hazardous materials, including ordnance. Historical evidence indicates that
    releases of hazardous constituents to the environment may have occurred as a result of past
    handling, disposal, and training practices.

    2.1      DESCRIPTION OF EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL RANGE

    The EOD Range is located at the northeast corner of K.L Sawyer AFB, and is represented
    topographically in Figure 2-3. It is located east of the primary runway between taxiway F and
    G, and is approximately 12 acres in surface area. The range consists of an open detonation (OD)
    area, an open burn (OB) facility including a burn kettle, and four closed munitions residue burial
    sites.

    The EOD Range has been in operation since the late I 960s. The operation consisted of burning
    unserviceable munitions with fuel (OB) in a metal burn kettle, or by detonating (OD) with a
    charge in sand pits. OB in pits has not been practiced since at least 1987 and may have ceased
    earlier. From approximately 1987 to 1989, a buried tank with a large hole cut in the top was
    used for OB operations. This operation may have contaminated the surrounding soil, as holes
    were observed in this tank during its subsequent removal. OD operations may have buried
    unexploded ordnance which was driven downward during detonation of the charge. The central
    unforested portion of the EOD Range has been used for OD sandpits, with pits being periodically
    backfilled so the areas could be reused. Operating records for all ordnance OB and OD activities
    from 1990 through 1993, listing type of ammunition, total amount of ammunition, disposal
    method, total net weight of explosive matérial, and total weight of the ammunition disposed, are
    shown in Table 2-I. Typically, OB was used for small-anns ammunition, while OD was used
    for larger explosives.

    Once OB/OD treatment was canceled, non-explosive residues were disposed of in a munitions
    residue burial site. Two pits have been documented on the eastern portion of the Range (lower
    burial pits) as being operated from appro,dmatel5[17 through 1978. Two additional residue
    burial pits have been documented near the npflherncental portion of the Range (upper burial
    pits) as being operated from 1979 through 1989. Burial pit locations at the EOD Range are
    shown in Figure 2-4. On-site burial of residual QD/QB waste ended in 1990 when all debris was
    contained and analyzed for disposal at an appropriate, permitted off-site hazardous waste disposal


    n:6.IRTERCS8267JR.F.P6J                         2-!                                       June 1995
                                                                       rr.Q
                                                                       '.' L'       '7
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                      Revision 0


facility. Prior to 1977, the EOD area was used for the disposal of construction debris, consisting
primarily of asphalt and concrete.

2.1.1 Open Burn Container

The containment system used for OB consisted of a square metal structure with an access door
on one side and a feed chute on the top. The unit was located approximately 250 feet northwest
from the center of the unforested portion of the Of) area and had the capacity for burning up to
27 pounds net explosive weight (NEW) of unserviceable munitions at each operation. Typically
small ordnance was disposed of during OB activities. A concrete wall, one foot thick and
approximately 10 feet high, separated the input end of the feed chute from the burn kettle. A
275-gallon aboveground tank to ftiel the OB was located approximately 40 feet from the wall on
the side opposite the bum kettle.

The unit was designed to burn small ammunition that could not be safely handled by any other
means. Unit dimensions were 3 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet, and the metal structure was made of
3/8-inch plate steel. The burn containment unit was a totally enclosed, welded fabrication with
latching access doors. The smokestack had a cover to prevent rain or snow from entering. The
fuel from the tank flowed into a burning pan below the chamber containing the munitions items.
The fuel was ignited, and the munitions items were incinerated.

In late 1991 a fuel leak was discovered near the burn kettle unit. Approximately 30 cubic yards
of contaminated soil was removed from this area in October 1993. Confinnatory soil samples
were taken from the excavation walls and floor; all analytical findings indicated no detections.
OB operations using fuel oil were stopped in an effort to expedite cleanup tasks and to convert
the fuel system to liquid propane gas.

2.1.2 Open Detonation Pits
The OD area was used for larger items which were difficult to burn, such as 20-millimeter (mm)
high-explosive incendiary (EEl) rounds and fuses that Air Force technical guidance instructed not
to burn. Areas used for OD purposes covered various portions of the unforested EOD Range,
and the exact location of these pits is unknown. Due to the unknown extent of Of) boundaries,
the entire unforested portion of the EOD Range will be investigated during closure investigation
activities. The OD area is located on relatively level terrain and is only affected by precipitation
that falls directly on the area.

2.2    PAST DATA COLLECTION ACTIVITIES/CURRENT STATUS

An Installation Restoration Program (IRP) was implemented in 1984 to identify, evaluate,
investigate, and clean up hazardous substances and waste disposal sites at K.I. Sawyer AFB. The
program was established to follow the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation
and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
irrespective of whether the sites are on the National Priorities List (NPL). None of the sites at
K.!. Sawyer AFB are on the NPL. For non-NFL sites, it is Air Force policy to assume the role



n:61tThTERCS8l2671RF.P61                        2-2                                      June 1995
    Final RCRA Closure Plan
    Project LWRC94-C028
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                                                                       "-' Q     13
                                                                                           Revision   0


    of the lead agency and final authority for cleanup. The Air Force then involves the appropriate
    state and federal agencies to obtain regulatory concurrence.

    An initial evaluation of potential contamiated sites was performed during Phase I of the IRP
    using the Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology (HARM), developed by the Air Force. This
    Phase I preliminary evaluation determined a low potential for contamination, thus the site was
    not scored. Phase TI/Stage I of the IRP was conducted in 1986 and 1987 by the U.S. Geological
    Survey (USGS) in Lansing, Michigan. A supplemental Phase lI/Stage 2 study was conducted in
    1988 at several sites not addressed during Stage 1. The USGS completed Phase 11/Stage 2 of the
    IRP in April 1992. Furthermore, CH2M Hill, Woodwárd-Clyde aiiakuiiaothplited additional
    investigations and produced vanous documents including remedial investigative reports

    K.I. Sawyer AFB submitted a "Part B, Subpart X Permit Application" with background site
    information and a Closure Plan to the MDNR, but this document was not reviewed. After
    determining that K.I. Sawyer AFB was scheduled for closure, the MDNR decided to not review
    the permit application, but instead to review Rust's EOD Range RCRA Closure Plan. Portions
    of the Part B, Subpart X Permit Application were used in this document.

    2.3      ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

    In general, the land surface in the vicinity of K.!. Sawyer AFB is a sandy plain ranging in
    altitude from 1,140 to 1,210 feet above mean sea level (MSL). The surface continues as a plain
    for some distance south and west of the base but breaks away into highly dissected terrain to the
    northeast. Surface runoff on much of the western part of the base drains to the Escanaba River,
    a south-flowing stream about two miles wet ofthiLbse, The northern and east-central parts of
    the base are drained by the northeastward-flowing Big and Silver Lead Creek, which are
    entrenched about 100 feet below the land sqrface and flow to the Chocolay River. The
    southeastern part of the base, which is pockmarked with kettles and kettle lakes as much as 70
    feet deep, receives only a small amount of surface runoff (Woodward-Clyde, Chemical
    Acquisition Plan - K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, prepared for U.S. Department of the Army Corps
    of Engineers, Omaha District, 1991).

    Generally, stream flow is greatest in spring and early summer and lowest in late summer and
    winter. A slight increase in flow is observed after the first frost, due to the decrease in
    evapotranspiration associated with frost. The highly permeable sandy soils in the area around the
    base capture most of the rainfall not lost to evapotranspiration. Constant groundwater discharge
    into streams maintains stream flow during low precipitation periods.
—
    Bedrock and glacial deposits are the major geologic units present at the base. Although no
    bedrock crops out at the base, there are a few outcrop locations within one mile of the base and
    at many locations about five miles west. The bedrock slopes sharply towards Lake Superior in
    the northern and eastern parts of the base. Bedrock observed at the EOD Range has been
    documented as Compeau Creek Gneiss, which is highly impermeable relative to the outwash
    deposits.




    ii:16, flRlTERcS8l2671R..P6I                  2-3                                      June 1995
FinalRCRAClorurePlan                                               558       14
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                      Revision 0


The surface glacial deposits consist predominantly of a fine to coarse sand outwash except in the
northeastern portion of the base where a sandy clay till is present. The surface contact between
till and outwash coincides approximately with the contact at depth with the metamorphic and
sedimentary rocks. This contact consists of till of the Outer Marquette Moraine overlying
Jacobsville Sandstone in the extreme eastern portions of the base. On the remainder of the base,
outwash of the Outer Marquette Moraine overlies the Compeau Creek Oneiss (Woodward-Clyde,
1991).

Glacial outwash deposits are the principal aquifers present beneath the base area and range from
100 to 150 feet in thicluess. However, northeast of the base, where glacial deposits are thin and
contain more clay, water for domestic used is produced from the sandstone aquifer. In the
eastern part of the base, the till is interbedded with outwash and divides the outwash aquifer into
upper and lower units. Groundwater generally flows to small streams that drain either to Lake
Superior or Lake Michigan. The regional direction of groundwater flow is predominantly in an
easterly direction. The potentiometric surface ranges in elevation from 1,090 to 1,146 feet above
MSL (Woodward-Clyde, 1991).

Bedrock underlying glacial deposits on the base generally conduct and store groundwater in
fractures. Fracturing, however, is not extensive enough in most places to allow for large
quantities of groundwater flow (Woodward-Clyde, 1991).




                                               2-4                                       June 1995
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                                                                                               RCRA CLOSURE PLAN
                                           FIGURE    2—1
                                          BASE LOCATION                                  K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
                                      PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                                  MARQUEI IE, MICHIGAN
                                                                                                               —   —




                                                                    —   ——

                                                          I    —-
                                                          t—




                             W3C   STDAGE
                               AREA




                                                   - £4
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                                                                                                       PROJECT -0028




                                       —    ———I                                                                                                 z    —
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LEGEND                                                                                                                                                        2871r22a.dgn

         PAVED ROADWAY                                                                                                           ACRA CLOSURE PLAN
         PROPERTY BOUNDARY                                                    FIGURE 2—2                               K.   I.
                                                                                       LOCATION                                  SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
                                                                             PROJECT        94 -0028                             MARQUEI IE, MICHIGAN
                                                                               rro 1
                                                                               'J3o 11




        LEGEND
                                                                      I=:_ z: —=---
                   CI SAWYER AFB PROPERTY BOUNDARY                    a                   400
                   EXTENT OF UNFORESTED EOD RANGE AREA
                                                                          SCALE IN FEET
      —1160— CONTOUR INTERVAL (FT. MSL)
                   ROADWAY
_______________________________________________________                                    2S71r'23.d9n

               FIGURE 2—3                                       ACRA CLOSURE PLAN
           EOD RANGE TOPOGRAPHY                           K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
           PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                              MARQUETTE, MICHIGAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rro                              18



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          LEGEND
                                   KI SAWYER AFB PROPERTY BOUNDARY                                                                                                                                                                                 .—
                                   EXTENT OF UNFORESTED EOD RANGE AREA                                                                                                                                      o                                                400

                                   CONTOUR INTERVAL (FT. MSL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SCILE IN FEET
                                   ROADWAY


 I
           c:                      APPROXIMATE BURIAL PIT LOCATION                                                                                                                                                                                                25 1r24o.cqn


                     FIGURE 2—4                                                                                                                                RCRA CLOSURE PLAN
1        MUNITIONS BURIAL FIT LOCATION                                                                                                                   K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
           PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                                                                                                                                            MARQUETT E,MICHIGAN
I   I   I                 I                 I         I          I                  1      1!           1                         1   4   L




                                                                         TABLE 2-1

                                                     Waste Inventory and Treatment Summary
                                                          1990- 1993 Operating Record

                                                           K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                                Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan
                    Source ofHazardous Waste               Treatment                       Total Net         Total     Residual
                                                            Method                      Explosive Weight    Weight     Weight
                                                                                                (lh)         (Ib)        (Ib)
            20MM, HEI, M-56A3 —                            Detonation       3500                1.00        35.00        0.00
            5.56 MM, BLANK, M-200                         Open Burning 10,015.00                11.02       156.23      145.22
             CTG, 7.62MM BLANK, XM-82                     Open Burning  196.00                  0.43         6.29        86
             CTG,CAL.22                                   OpenBurningi i,981.00                 039          14,66      14.07
             5.561vTh4 BALL, XM-196                       OpenBurning   907.00                   3.72       23.22        19.50
             5.56MMBALL, M-I93                            OpenBurning  17,852.00                73.19       457.01      383.82
             7.62 MMBALL, M-80                            OpenBurning   152.00                   1.02        8.51        7.49
                    BALL, XM-882                          OpenBurning   120.00                  0.11          3.25       3.14
             5.56 MMBALL, BLANK                           OpenBurning    38.00                   0.04         0.59       0.55
             4OMM,HE, M-406                                Detonation   461,00                  35.96        230.50      0.00
             40 MM PRAC, M-781                             Detonation     1.00                  0.01          0.45       0.00
             FUZE BOMB, FMIJ-54 A/B                    -_Detonation         27.00               9.72         91.26       0.00
             BDU-48           -___________________       Detonation         2.00                0.00         20.00       0.00
             GRENADE, HAND SMOKE, AN-M8, HC               Open Burning      3.00                3.60          4.88       1.28
             PELLET, CN                                   Open Burning      47X10               0.00          0.10      0.00
             SIGNAL, ILL M-131                            Open Burning      6.00                0.71          7.26      6.58
             SIGNAL, SMJC &ILL MK-13 MODO                 OpenBuming       322.00           974.25          1,864.00   876.08
             PERSONNEL SIGNALKIT                           Detonation      29.00            226.06          410.40     284.34
             SIMULATOR,PROJO M-1 15A2                      Detonation       1.00             2.26             4.80      2.54
             SIGNAL, ILL M-127A1                          Open Burning      1.00             2.88            20.88      17.92
             FLARE, ALA-I7/A                              Open Burning      7.00            313.60          476.00      69.60             ci
             FLARE, ALA-I7/A                               Detonation       3.00            134.40          204.00                        Cl
                                                                                                                       62.60
             SIGNAL, SMOKE                                Open Burning      6.00                1.20         45.12     43.92
             FLARE, ALA-17/B                               Detonation       9.00            187.20          612.00     208.8!
             FLARE, ALA-17/B                              Open Burning      1.00            44.80            68.00     23.20              cc'
            [JGNAL, SLAP FLARE                             Detonation       1.00                10.04        20.80      1076
                                              TABLE 2 - I (continued)

                                    Waste Inventory and Treatment Summary
                                         1990 - 1993 Operating Record

                                                    K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                   Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan

       Source of flazardousWaste         Treatment        Quantity          Total Net                     Total
                                           Method                        Explosive Weight                 Weight          Weight
                                                                               (lii)                        (Ib)            fib)
CHARGE, DEMO FLEX, 500 GPF                Detonation       2.00                914                         36.57          27.43
                                                           2.00               0.09                         0.70      .     061
CAP, BLASTING ELECTRIC                    Detonation —
CART,DELAY, MK-4 MOD2                                                         0.84                         3.61            2.77
                                         OpenBurnthgfll76.00                                               4.20            4.15
ACTUATOR KIT, DEPLOYMENT                 Open Burning   6.00                  0.05
CART IMPULSE, CCU-1 i/B                   Detonation        1.00              2.76                         4.80            2.04
CART IMPULSE, CCU-11/B                Open Burning          2.00              5.52                         9.60            4.08
 EXPL KIT                             Open Burning          2.00               5.01                       360.00          354.99
 CART, IMPULSE, ARID 446-I            Open Burning         212.00             93.62                       254A0,          13ft78____
 CART, IMPULSE, ARD 863-I                                  it6.00             28.12                        166.86         13&72
                                    — Open Burning
 CATAPULT, M-3A1                       Detonation           4.00              28,80                       1,600.00        1,571.20
 CATAPULT, M-4A1                                            2.00               5.12                        224.00          218.88
                                    — Detonation
 INITIATOR, M-28                         Open Burning       5.00               0.40                        16.00            15.60
 CART, AJC FIRE EXT                                        22.00               032                         21.12            21.46
                             —      —-   OpenBurning '
 INITIATOR                               Open Burning       2.00               0.03     ——
                                                                                                            9.60            9.57
                                         Open Burning       4.00               0.51                        57.60            57.09
'IITL&TOR, M-26
 INITIATOR, M-27                         Open Burning       6.00               0.48                        48.00            47.52
 THRUSTER, M-16                           Detonation        2.00               0.03                        51.20
                     --    -
 CTG KIT BOMB, MLU-12/C                  Open Burning       3.00               0.09                         12.02          11.93
 THRUSTER, M-1A2                                                                                           307.20    -J   306.53
                                     _R19L.±!2P                                                                                        c--i
                                                                                                  .   —
                                                                                                           160.00          159.01
                                                                                             .f
 ACTUATOR ASSY____                   _s±_2L_L.....__        6.00               0.86                         86,40          85.54       Ct)
 INITIATOR, M-5A2                        Open Burning
                                                                                                                     1
 INITIATOR, M-3A2                        Open Burning      18.00               026                         259.20         258.94
                                             —-—.——-                                                                 -
 THRUSTER, M3A3                           Detonation        4.00               0)1                          64.00          63.49
                             -.                                                                                                        C)
 CTG, IMPULSE, BBU-35/B                                                                                     27,12          26,46
 CART, AC STRTR, MXU-4AIA
                                          PJ9•J__J6J,,
                                                J        - 2P.2                                           3,600,00        1,040,00
 CTG, BOOSTER                            L2PPIPI L J2°               i
I   I   I                                 I           I          4
                               I                                               I     ¶           4      t.          I   I              I               I   I         I,
                                                                          TABLE 2 - I (continued)

                                                             Waste Inventory and Treatment Summary
                                                                  1990 - 1993 Operating Record

                                                                      K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                                           Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan
                      Source of HazardousWaste                        Treatment     Quantity            Total Net            Total         Residual
                                                                       Method                        Explosive Weight       Weight          Weight
                                                                                                 —        Qb)                (Ib)             (Ib)
            ACTUATOR KiT                                             Open Burning     49.00               1.41              34.08            327
            CARTDELAY4sEC                                            OpenBurning         1.00             0.01               1.60            1.59
                                                                                                 —
            CART DELAY 4 SEC
                                                                J     Detonation         12.00            0.10               19.20            0.00
            DETONATOR, ELECTRIC                                  -_Detonation            2.00             0.00                0.00            0.00
            DETONATOR, ELECTRIC                                   Open Burning           2.00             0.00                0.00            0.00
            INITIATOR, ISEC DELAY                                   Openburning          5.00             0.56               72.00           71.44
            CART,DELAY 1.0 SEC                                      OpenBurning          1.00             0.01                0.16           0.15
            CTG, IMPULSE .5 CAL                                     Open Burning         1.00             0.39                2.76            2.37
            DYNAMITE                                                 Detonation       11.00               16.00              16.00           0.00
            GRENADE, HAND THERMJTE,AN/M14                            Detonation          1.00            27,20                0.00           0.00
            IGNITER, M60                                             Detonation       50.00               0.08                               0.00
            40MM HIGH EXPLOSIVE, M-406                               Detonation      379.00              472.50             3,024.00       2,551.50
            DISPENCER,RIOT MI VI                                     Detonation       99.00               0.00                0.00           0.00
            ADAPTER BOOSTER, M147                                    Detonation          1.00             14.08               0.00           0.00
                                     TOTAL                                          33,605.00           5,315.59        15,340.24          10,024.65

            Source: K. I. Sawyer AFU ExplosiveOrdnance Disposalinventory Log


            n:\tercs8\2673r2is.wk4
                                                                                                                                                               c-i
                                                                                                                                                               Cl
Final RCRI4 ClosurePlan
                                                                    rr) q-
                                                                    "'JO       C.z..
Project LWRCQ4-0028                                                                      Revision 0


                            3.0 ORDNANCE WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

The following sections are derived from the Part B, Subpart X Permit Application regarding EOD
Range closure activities completed by K.T. Sawyer AFB. This document was submitted to the
MDNR in May of 1990.

3.1       CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Ordnance wastes which are to be treated at the EOD Range will generally be hazardous by virtue
of their reactive properties. The items to be treated are explosive ordnance items and are usually
physically intact. Table 3-1 presents a list of basic explosive compositions for standard energetic
materials in general use at K.T. Sawyer AFB.

The reactive munitions which are treated by OB/OD generally consist of a variety of explosive
chemical fill materials along with associated metal casings, projectiles, and primer components.
The metal components account for a majority of the munitions mass. Generally, the reactive
materials are less than 20 percent of the gross munitions weight. A number of energetic
compounds are present in the munitions. These compounds fall into five general classes:
pyrotechnic compositions, propellants, priming compositions, initiating explosives, and high
explosives. Propellants, pyrotechnic and priming compositions are materials which react by
deflagration. The initiating and high-explosives reactions are manifested in the form of
detonations. When the munitions are treated in the OB/OD unit, miscellaneous combustion and
detonation products are formed. These products are no longer explosive but may result in
environmental impacts due to toxicity characteristics. Due to the nature of the reactions, the
primary treatment products are gaseous in nature. For this reason, the air impacts are generally
the primary concern.

The pyrotechnic compositions are mixtures of compounds which are designed to emit smoke or
light. These munitions consist primarily o1 a mixture of fuel and oxidizer compounds. The fuels
are one of a variety of metal powders including magnesium, aluminum, titanium, or zirconium.
Typical oxidizers consist of metal nitrates, ammonium or metal perchlorates and chlorates, or
metal peroxides. Secondary constituents which are also present in pyrotechnic mixtures are
binders, ignition agents, retardants, and colorants. A variety of chemical compounds are present
in these additives. Typical minor components include black powder, chlorinated organics, waxes,
sugar, asphalt, polyvinyl chloride, and vegetable oils, Pyrotechnic Compositions contain no free
liquids. The thermal treatment of these devicesresulis in gaseous combustion products and solid
particulates.

The propellant mixtures are typically classified as single base or double base. Single-base
propellants consist mainly of nitrocellulose. Double-base propellants are mixtures of
nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. A number of miscellaneous chemical compounds are added to
the propellant charge to control the deflagration characteristics or to promote stability during
storage. These additives include miscellaneous nitrourganics, petrolatum, metals, or metal salts.
The additives incorporated in the propellant fuCIs generally account for three percent of the
mixture and are oxidized during the deflagration reaction. All of the components of military
propellants are in solid form and contain no free liquids.


n:16. flRITER C58t2671 RrF. P61                3-1                                       June 1995
Final RCRJ4 Closure Plan
Project LWRC94—0028
                                                                      rc
                                                                      tJU'.)    J
                                                                                9            -   -
                                                                                          Revision 0


Priming compositions are mixtures that are very sensitive to shock or friction and are used to
provide a source of ignition for pyrotechnics, propellants, or explosives. Primers are a mixture
of fuel, oxidizer, and explosive compounds. Typical fuels are antimony sulfide and lead
thiocyanate. Oxidizers include barium nitrate and potassium chlorate, while the primary
explosives are lead azide and lead styphanate.

Initiating explosives are used to initiate a detonation in insensitive high explosives. These agents
include lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate (rarely). Priming compositions and
initiating explosives are minor constituents in munitions.

High explosives are typically nitrated organic materials which generate large quantities of gaseous
reaction products as a result of detonation. The most common high explosives are trinitrotoluene
(TNT), cyclotrirnethylenetrinitramine (RDX), trinitrophenylniethylnitramine (tetryl), cyclotetra-
methylenetetranitramine (FIMX), and various mixtures thereof Minor additives to high-explosive
ordnance include waxes and aluminum powder. All high-explosive constituents are in the solid
form.

A representative list of ordnance to be demilitarized along with the reactive contents is shown
in Table 3-2. Obsolete and off-specification items are assumed to have the same characteristics
as currently acceptable items. Explosive content by weight and type may vary by model. The
items which constitute the majority of waste munitions to be treated at the EOD Range are
designated with an asterisk (*) in Table 3-2. Other ordnance items are not treated on a routine
basis.

3.2      WASTE ANALYSIS PLAN

All of the wastes to be treated at the K.I. Sawyer EOD Range are standard military end items
with detailed specifications for the physical and chemical characteristics of the item. Therefore,
detailed waste analyses requirements are not applicable for the input waste stream. The existing
published data for the munitions of concern meet the general waste analysis requirements.

It is important to note that any delay in treating reactive munitions can result in severe safety
problems from the standpoint of handling and treatment. For this reason, delays caused by time-
consuming sampling and analysis requirements could be counterproductive. The additional
chemical data will be useless if an ignition or detonation occurs during sampling or while
awaiting lab results. Sampling may be impossible in some extreme cases.

3.2.1 Parameters and Rationale
The munitions burial residues will be sampled and analyzed for the original waste characteristics
of reactivity. In addition, the nature of the munitions indicates that some concentration of toxic
metals are potentially present. A portion of soil samples will be saved by Quanterra
Environmental Services, an analytical company located in Arvada, Colorado, and a toxicity
characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) metals analysis performed at a later date, if needed.

3.2.2 Test Methods

                                                 3-2                                      June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                                r, r 8    24
Project L WRC94-0028                                                                      Revision 0


The analytical parameters for recovered ordnance residuals will be inorganics. reactivity, toxicity,
polychiorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticide characteristics. These sampling methods are being
initiated for landfill disposal requirements.

3.2.3 Sampling Methods

The sampling methods used will depend upon the form of waste residue encountered. To ensure
that a representative sample of the residue is achieved, a statistical methodology for determining
an adequate number of samples will be used. Section 6.0 discusses sampling rationale to be used
for site-specific activities.




n:16.J RtTERCS82671RWJFP6J                     3-3                                       June 1995
                                                                                    rro r—
                                                                                    '-'Jo ci
                                               TABLE 3-1

                                    Basic Explosive Compositions

                                       K. I. Sawyer AFB
                           Project LWRC-94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan


                                         General or typical
          Type of Waste               concentration or amount                     Comments


   Propellant                                     52-98%                         Nitrocellulose
                               2-43% traces of other chemicals to retard burn    Nitroglycerin
   Black powder                                    75%                              Potassium
                                                                                   (or sodium)
                                                                                      nitrate
                                                   15%                              Charcoal
                                                   10%                                Su!fiir

   Illumination mixture                          36-40%                          Sodium nitrate
                                                 53-56%                           Magnesium
                                                  4-8%                          Polymeric binder
   Tetryl                                          ND                              C7 I-l N5 0

  TNT (Trinitrotoluene)                            ND                              C7 H3 N3 06


  RDX (Cyclonite)                                  ND                              C3 I-lb N606


  Lead Azide                                       ND                                 PbN6


  Lead Styphnate                                   ND                             PbCJLN3O9

  Nitrocellulose                                   ND                               CH6N308


  1-1-6                                            45%                               RDX
                                                   30%                               TNT
                                                   20%                             Aluminum
                                                    5%                             D-2 Wax
  Comp B (Composition B)                          60%                                RDX
                                                  40%                                TNT
                                                   1%                                Wax
  fncendiaiy mix                                  35%                             Ammonium
                                                                                  Perchiorate
                                                  52%                             Aluminum
                                                  1.9%                          Calcium stearate
                                                  9.7%                               Other
ND: No data
n:\tercs8\2673r3 la.p61
                                     TABLE3-2                                   558   26
                    Typical Explosive Ordnance to be Demilitarized

                                K. I. Sawyer AFB
                     Project LWRC94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan

          Type of Waste                  Constituents       General or typical
                                                            concentration or
                                                                amount
 LUtJ-2 flare                            Sodium nitrate           36-40%
 (22 Ibs)                                 Magnesium             53-56%4-8%
                                        Polymeric_binder
tAlC 45 flare                            Black powder             10 grams
                                          Magnesium              17.6 grams


ALA 117*                                Illuminating Mix             2.8 lbs.

Target practice ammunition
   20 mm*                                Nitrocellulose               75%
   30mm                                    Charcoal                  12.5%
   40mm                                      SulFur                  12.5%
   40 mm*                                   Graphite                 Trace

Thermite Grenade*                           Thermite                 1.7 lbs
                                            Nitrates                 Trace
Detonation Cord*                            PETN                      ND
                                            RDX                       NT)


Safety ffise*                            Black powder                 ND


MK-4 Spotting                            Black powder            3 grams
charge                                  Red phosphorous          10 grams
                                          Zinc Oxide             10 grams
                                           Titanium               1.5 oz
                                         Tetrachloride
Fuzes
 M 904                                  Lead Styphnate            Trace
 M 905                                   Lead Azide               Trace
 MK 339                                     Tetryl             Trace- 5.6 oz
 fl,4J 54*                                  CH-6               Trace -4.4 oz
 FMIJ 110                                   PETN                  Trace
 FMU 113                                    RDX                   Trace
 FMU 139


20mm Buflet*                                RDX                  2 grams
1-ugh explosive                           Ammoniurn              4 grams
Incendiary filler                         Përéhlorate
                                       Aluminum powder           6 grams
                                        Calcium stearate          Trace
                           TABLE 3-2 (continued)
                                                                   558     27
              Typical Explosive Ordnance to be Demilitarized

                           K. 1. Sawyer AFB
                Project LWRC94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



           Type of Waste             Constituents       General or typical
                                                        concentration or
                                                            amount
30 nun Bullet                             RDX                  7.5 oz
I ugh explosive                       Black powder             41 oz
Incendiary filler                         HMX                  7.5 oz

40 mm projectile                         Comp B                 I I oz
high explosive                            RDX                   Trace


Rocket Motor, 2.75'                    double base             6-8 lbs
                                         ballisite
                                      Black powder              Trace
                                     Boron-potassium            Trace
                                         Nitrate

Rocker Motor, 2.75"                       RDX                   60%
high explosive                            TNT                   40%
(4-8lhs)                                  Wax                    1%


lOS mm projectile                       Comp B                  6 lbs
high explosive                           TNT                   1.1 lbs
TOW Missile Warhead                      Octol                 5.3 lbs
                                         PBX                   Trace
                                       Lead azide              Trace
                                        LX-14-0                4.5 lbs
                                      Black powder             Trace

S-Il Missile Warhead                Cyclotol/RDXTI'NT          5.7 lbs
                                       Lead azide              Trace
                                          Tetryl               Trace
                                       Double-base
                                        propellant
                                         • E-6                 12.1 lbs
                                   S E-SBIack powder           12. I lbs
                                                               Trace

Blasting Cap*                        Lead styphnate              ND
                                       I,ead azide               ND
                                    Mercury fulminate            ND
                                          PETN                   ND
                                          Tetryl                 ND
                                       TABLE 3-2 (continued)
                                                                                                8 28
                            Typical Explosive Ordnance to be Demilitarized

                                        K. I. Sawyer AFB
                             Project LWRC94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



                   Type of Waste                     Constituent               General or typical
                                                                               concentration or
                                                                                   amount
         Fuse igniter*                                Black powder                         ND


         Starter Cart*                                Black powder                         8 lbs


         Ejector Carts*
          446                                         Black powder                   0.0276 lbs
          863                                                                        0.0090 lbs
         Small Arms*
          0.38 cal                                      dual base                    0.0006 lbs
           9mm                                                                       0.0006 lbs
           0 .45 cal                                                                 0.0008 lbs
           7.62mm                                                                    0.0067 lbs
         Smoke Grenade                             Chloracetophenone,                  12.5 oz
                                                       Solid (CN)
                                                        Initiator                    6.1 grams

    Note: * :  Represents the majority of the waste munitions treated at the £01) Range.
          ND: No data were available.

—   n:\Tercs8\267r32a.p61
Final RCRI4 Closure Plan                                             C   r8    29
Project L WRC94-0028                                                                     Revision 0


                 4.0 ORDNANCE AND EXPLOSIVE WASTE REMOVAL

Before Rust's field sampling operations can start, the EOD Range must be cleared of ordnance
and explosive wastes (OEW). As previously mentioned, OD operations may have resulted in
unexploded ordnance being buried. Due to these potential subsurface hazards an explosive
ordnance disposal organization will be contracted to safely locate, identify, transport to disposal
area and destroy all OEW contamination located within the EOD Range boundaries. A design
package consisting of detailed drawings and specifications will be completed by the contracted
FOD organization before closure tasks begin.

4.1     ORDNANCE AND EXPLOSIVE WASTE LOCATION

Site areas where subsurface actions are required will be characterized by the contracted EOD
organization, using visual and geophysical surveys.          The following basic methods for
investigating the sites will be used:

        Visual Survey - Field personnel will visually scan the surface terrain. In areas where
        visual search techniques are obstructed by vegetation, metal detectors will be used to
        locate metal contacts.

        Geophysical Survey - Using magnetometers and metal detectors, field personnel will
        examine the surface and subsurface areas in a non-intrusive manner, marking the location
        of ferrous and non-ferrous contacts encountered, and recording positions for excavation
        and characterization. Geophysical surveys will identi& the locations of subsurface ferrous
        and non-ferrous contacts from the surface.

Prior site documentation indicates the presence of steel rebar reinforced asphalt and concrete
rubble. Due to the unknown vertical and horizontal extent of this rubble debris, the effectiveness
of a geophysical survey is questionable. Areas which appear to be favorable for a geophysical
investigation are the four residue burial pit lOcations.

4.2     UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE SEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology to perform unexploded ordnance (UXO) tasks is detailed in the following
paragraphs The EOD contractor will conduct asUFfäce sseep of the area to remove visual
ordnance debris and related material. In ad&ifóiii5ffiè ordnance, personnel will remove all other
trash, metal objects, and debris that would interfere with soil screening. If needed, vegetation
will be cleared and small trees and brush within the boundaries of the EOD area will be removed.
Removal of trees larger than six inches in diameter will require prior approval of the USACE
Resident Engineer. A chipper will be used to reduce the trees and brush to wood chips.

Subsurface geophysical anomalies located during the sweeps and investigation will be examined
by qualified UXO personnel performing explosive ordnance removal procedures. Anomalies that
cannot be excavated manually will be marked, recorded and identified for follow-up mechanical
excavation.



n6. 1RlTERCS82671RrF.P6I                       4-1                                       June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94OO28                                                        8      30         Revision   0


Correspondence with explosives and hazardous materials specialists from Shaw Air Force Base,
South Carolina, indicate that a generalized strategy for OEW removal follows three basic steps:

        I)    Buried ordnance residue pits are to he excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the last
              item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

        2)    The open detonation area is to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the last item
              found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

        3)    The remainder of the EOD Range is to be cross-ripped using a bulldozer equipped
              with three-foot tines. The cross-ripped areas will be inspected by FOD personnel
              for evidence of any munition residuals or explosives. If any residuals/explosives are
              revealed as a result of cross-ripping, the respective area will be cleared to a depth
              of 4 feet below the last item found.

Any soil excavated for the purpose of explosive clearance will be returned to the original
excavation, unless there is obvious evidence of contamination. The contracted ordnance disposal
organization will address in a closure plan the strategy specific to the removal of OEW. This
will be done before on-site field tasks begin.

Initially, soil will be manually excavated to allow visual inspection, identification, and appropriate
hazard assessment of the debris. UXO qualified personnel are responsible for determining if the
debris is suspected to be UXO or munitions-related (explosive, chemical, propellant or
pyrotechnic).

After the preliminary assessment, soil will be excavated using a front-end loader and transported
by truck to the designated on-site area for mechanical screening and sifting. The soil will be
stockpiled at the screening site and loaded into the hopper by front-end loader. During the
mechanical screening, all metal objects larger than ¼-inch will be separated from the soil. All
recovered metals will be stockpiled, with unexploded ordnance contained in a separate storage
location for reactive wastes. Any reactive wastes which can be safely shipped, will be shipped
for treatment. Other reactive wastes will be treated at the EOD Range. Although K.I. Sawyer
AF'B Will no longer have interim status for any hazardous waste storage facilities or miscellaneous
treatment units at the time of the EOD Range closure, treatment is permitted in conjunction with
closure, provided the treatment occurs at the site of generation and is authorized by an approved
closure plan. K.T. Sawyer AFB will keep their interim status permit until the completion of EOD
Range clearance.

Unexploded ordance recovered during screening operations and determined unsafe for shipping
will be treated at the range. Treated residues recovered during screening operations or generated
by any required OD activity will be managed in accordance with RCRA and Part III of Public
Act 451. All screened soils will be stockpiled and analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides,
inorganics, and explosives. Analytical results for metals will be compared with background levels
as shown in Table 4-1. Upon receiving analytical verification below Michigan Type B Criteria
values, the soil will be returned to the EOD area, compacted, and regraded to original
topography. The site will then be reseeded. If analytical documentation indicates contamination


n:6. I RTERCS8267lRrF.P6J                        4-2                                        June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                                            I
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                      Revision 0


levels above the accepted Type B Criteria, soils ll be disposed of according to appropriate state
guidelines. Specific soil sampling and stockpiling protocol is discussed in Section 6.0.

The EOD site is enclosed by a dirt road. In order to transport the soil to the sifting location,
vehicles will be required to transport soil that has been disturbed by previous operations. The
EOD Range has one personnel shelter and three small munitions holding bunkers, which do not
contain any munitions residue, but will be removed to expedite RCRA closure tasks. Contingency
planning includes the possibility of building an access road into the area if weather conditions
cause the previously disturbed soil to soften and prevent vehicle traffic.

As previously mentioned, prior to 1977, the EOD area was used for the disposal of construction
debris, primarily asphalt and concrete rubble. The actual extent of asphalt and concrete is
unknown. During the OEW removal, it is anticipated that operations will be slowed due to the
time-consuming task of stockpiling the rubble. Upon completion of the OEW removal, Rust
intends to reuse all accumulated rubble as fill material in the POD area, in compliance with the
guidelines as referenced in Part 201 of Michigan Public Act 451. All necessary documentation
will be completed and submitted to MDNR before OEW removal starts.

During all phases of soil handling, from excavating through the screening operation to the return
of the soil and reseeding, UXO specialists will monitor operations and visually inspect the soil
for evidence of ordnance contamination. Air monitoring for particulate and dust concentrations
will be conducted as outlined in the Site Safety and Health Plan (SSHP).

Treated residues recovered during screening operations, or generated by any required OD activity,
will be managed in accordance with RCRA and Michigan Act 451. Metal debris that is not
ordnance-related will be placed in containers, certified "free from explosive material," and turned
over to an approved disposal facility by the contracted ordnance disposal organization. Rocks
and other non-metallic debris will be returned to the site and placed in the excavation.

Rust will conduct air monitoring for cadmium, lead and asbestos during earth-moving operations
in the area. This monitoring is intended to establish baseline concentrations, if dust suppression
controls are not effective. Air-purifying respirators w i!l be worn during earth-moving operations
until the baseline has been established. The baseline will be the average value obtained for
metals after three days of air monitoring. The use of respirators may be discontinued if the
baseline airborne metal levels are below designated levels. All personnel working in the
unforested ROD area will be tested for pre- and post-work blood lead and cadmium levels.




n:16.JIRtTERCS8t267IRZr.P61                    4-3                                       June 1995
                                                                                                                       558       32
                                                     TABLE 4- 1
                                          Cleanup Levels for Soil Remediation
                                                    K. I. SAWYER AFB
                                         Project L%VRC94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



               Analyte                Michigan Background                  Michigan Act 307                      Cleanup Level
                                      Default Concentration                Type B Cleanup                             (b)
                                               (a)                              Criteria
                                             (mg/kg)                          Soil (mg/kg)                         (mg/kg)
   Aluminum                                     6,900                                1                              6,900
   Antimony                                                                       0.048                             0048
   Arsenic                                        5.8                            0.0004                               5.8
   Barium                                         75                                48                                75
   Cadmium                                        1.2                              0.07                               1.2

   Chromium (total)                               IS                                                                  18

   Cobalt                                        6.8                                                                 6.8
   Copper                                         32                               20                                 32
  Iron                                         12,000                               6                               12,000
  Lead                                            21                              0.08                                2!

  Manganese                                      440                                1                                440
  Mercury                                       0.13                             0.042                              0.13
  Nickel                                         20                                II                                20
  Selenium                                      0.41                               0.7                               0.7
  Silver                                          1                               0,66                                1

  Sodium                                                                         3,000                              3,000
  Thallium                                                                       0.012                              0.012
                                                                                          .


  Vanadium                                                                         1.2                               1.2

  Zinc                                           47                                46                                47

(a) Michigan default background concentrations are from Michigan DNR MERA Operational Memorandum #15, 9/30/93,
(b) Background as defined in Rule 701(c) is used as the cleanup criterion if it is hier than Type B criteria
mg/kg milligrams per kilogram.




n:\tercs8\2673r41 a.p6 I
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94-U028                                                558       33         Revision   0


             5.0 DESCRIPTION OF RESIDUE WASTE REMOVAL EFFORTS

According to prior EOD Range surveys, four burial pit locations have been identified. All
ordnance burial pits will be excavated and cleared to a depth of approximately four feet below
the last item found. Buried munitions residue from past operations will be separated from
excavated soils by sifting and placed in a container for analyses and disposal. These materials
will be stored on the FOD Range until appropriate disposal tasks are completed. As previously
mentioned, there is one personnel shelter and three small munitions holding bunkers on the EOD
Range. These facilities do not contain munitions residue and do not require any RCRA actions.
However, these obstacles will be removed to facilitate UXO operations.

Two existing OD pits will also be cleared to a depth of 4 feet below the last item found. The
remainder of the range, to include any remaining hardfill areas, will be cross-ripped using a
bulldozer equipped with three-foot tines. The tines are pushed/pulled across the range in one
direction, and the range is subsequently walked and inspected by EOD personnel; this process is
then repeated in the other direction. Cross-ripping essentially leaves the soil in-place. If any
munition residues/explosives are revealed as a result of cross-ripping, the respective area will be
cleared to a depth of 4 feet below the last item found. Any soil excavated for the purpose of
explosive clearance will be returned to the excavation, unless there is obvious evidence of
contamination. Subsequent site investigation activities that will disturb the soil below the
explosive clearance limits described above will include appropriate precautionary measures.

Verification sampling will be performed on the soils at the EOD Range, as well as the soils in
any exposed excavations. An example of metals testing is shown in Appendix A, which indicates
the required forms and laboratory analytical findings necessary for hazardous waste disposal. The
soil sampling will be performed as described in Section 6.0. The results of the sampling program
will be compared to Type B criteria established in the Michigan Environmental Restoration Act
(MERA) Operational Memorandum #8, as shown in Appendix B. However, if Type B Criteria
levels are exceeded, the site will be placed into the Air Force IRP and a remedial
investigationlfeasibility study (RI/FS) will be performed. Decontamination of equipment used
during closure activities, and management of generated residuals is described in Section 7.0 of
this Closure Plan.




n:6. I tRITER CSSI267IRZZF.P61                 5-1                                      June 1995
     Final RCRA Closure Plan                                                  558    34
     Project LWRC94-0028                                                                        Revision 0


                                     6.0   FIELD SAMPLING OPERATIONS

     6.1      FIELD SAMPLING OBJECTIVES

     The main objective of the field sampling to be performed during implementation of this Closure
     Plan is to provide the appropriate data required to perform a clean closure of the POD Range.
     The purpose of this section is to assure that reliable data are collected for all field and analytical
     activities. The EOD Range will be subjected to a detailed soil and groundwater investigation to
     collect verification samples that will be used to assess subsurface impacts from past operations.

     The following field tasks will be performed to meet the sampling objectives:
              •      Soil sampling will be conducted to characterize the materials through visual
                     classification, field screening and chemical analyses.
              •      Groundwater monitoring wells will be installed to perform a site groundwater
                     assessment including flow direction, flow rate, and water quality.

     6.2      QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES

     The quality assurance objectives associated with the field sampling activities are described in
     Section 4.0 of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP).

     6.3      SOIL SAMPLING PROCEDURES

     Due to the long EOD history and limited documentation, it is unknown where exact POD
     operations took place. Therefore, the entire unforested portion of the POD Range will be
     subjected to soil sampling as shown in Figure 6-1. The existence of POD Range contamination
     will be evaluated, by the consultant, through soil and groundwater sampling and analysis. The
     soil sampling and analytical portion of this plan is prepared in accordance with all applicable
     guidance and regulations including the most current version of USEPA Publication "Test Methods
     for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemicar Mélifod? (SW-846) and "Verification of Soil
     Remediation Guidance Document," April 1994.

     The Rust geologist will be responsible for coordinating with the appropriate utility companies in
     locating any potential underground and aboveground pipes, water lines, electric, and telephone
     lines before any drilling takes place. The drilling contractor will be responsible for obtaining all
     necessary permits for drilling. If the presence of utilities or other obstructions require a proposed
     monitoring well location to be relocated, a new location will be selected by the Rust geologist
     to ensure that field objectives are still met. The new location will be cleared for utilities before
     drilling activities begin. The remainder of this section provides the rationale for selecting the
     number of samples to be collected, sample locations, and sample collection procedures to meet
     closure objectives.



-r
     nA6. I tRITERCS8 267IRThF.P61                     6-1                                      June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
                                                                          58       5      Revision 0
Project LWRC94-0028


6.3.1   Investigative Soil Sampling

A total of 33 investigative soil samples will be obtained with a hand auger within the EOD Range
as shown in Figure 6-1. Grid spacing and the number of sampling points were based on the
Wurtsmith Air Force Base RCRA Closure Plan (March 30, 1994), which exhibited similar
contaminants and operational histories. Calculations used to determine the spacing grid and
number of soil sampling points were based on the USEPA's method for evaluating the attainment
of cleanup standards (EPA PB89-234959 Standards Vol. 1, Soils & Solid Media), with
calculations being shown in Appendix D. Twenty-nine soil samples will be collected from a 100-
foot by 100-foot grid location, with cell perimeters being indicated with stakes. These composite
samples will be obtained at depths of 0-3 feet below ground surface (i.e. - depth of cross-ripping).
This depth was chosen because of the low mobility of metals.

Soil samples obtained from pre-sifted burial pit locations will be composite samples obtained
from the surface to the final depth of excavation. Four samples will be obtained at the two lower
EOD residual burial pit locations.

Samples will be manually collected using a hand auger. Immediately upon collection, all soil
samples will be field screened for the presence of VOCs with a hand-held photoionization
detector (PID). This field screening device will he calibrated daily in accordance with guidelines
given in the QAPP, which is shown in Appendix C. In addition to the field sampling results, the
following information will be recorded into the field notebook during sampling:

        •      Sample interval and description including soil or material composition and
               approximate moisture content
        •      Sample identification and time collected
        •      Sample depth (measure with measuring tape)
        •      Visual observations
        •      Odor
        •      Field screening readings
        •      Color
        •      Texture and description (soil classification if appropriate)

Chemical analysis of the investigative soil samples will include VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides,
inorganics, and explosives as shown in Table 6-1. Samples will be collected according to the
procedures described in Section 8.0 and Attachment II of the QAPP which presents the field
sampling forms and procedures, along with chemical parameters and methods by which these
samples are to be analyzed.

All sampling will be conducted by a Rust geologist, with the analysis performed by Quanterra
Environmental Services of Arvada, Colorado, following a quality assurance/quality control
(QAIQC) plan which has been approved by USACE, MDNR, USEPA, and USAF. The
laboratory results will be validated by the consultant performing the soil sampling. Analytical
results will then be compared to cleanup goals as required by Michigan Act 451 Part 201, Type
B criteria (in the case of organic compounds). Metals concentrations will be compared against
levels established by MERA Operation Memorandum #15 or the pre-established concentration


n:6.JiThTERCS8l2671Rr.F.P61                       6-2                                     June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                               58      36
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                      Revision U


levels (shown in Table 4-I), whichever is higher. If analytical results indicate that soil in
sampled areas is "clean," then no further soil sampling will be required as part of this Closure
Plan. If contaminants are above cleanup levels, additional waste characterization soil sampling
and analyses will be conducted.

6.3.2 Waste Characterization Soil Sampling

As previously mentioned, if investigative soil samples are above cleanup levels, waste
characterization sampling and analysis will be conducted. In an effort to characterize which
volume of soils located in a specific grid are above cleanup levels, an extension and analysis
program will be initiated. Subcells will be divided into 33-foot by 33-foot staked areas. This
will clarify the total volume and extent of contaminated soils disposed of at an appropriate
landfill. One composite soil sample will be obtained (per subcell) for laboratory analyses, with
parameters including VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and explosives.

6.3.3 Clean Closure Verification Soil Sampling

MDNR's "Guidance Document for Verification of Soil Remediation - April 1994" will provide
guidance for sampling soils to verify that contaminated soils have been removed. Subcell
locations which require soil removal will be grab-sampled, according to the aforementioned
MDNR guidance document guidelines. For characterization samples from cells and subcells
which indicate no contamination, Rust recommends that initial soil sample findings be honored
for clean closure evaluation, (if these results are below cleanup levels). Chemical analysis of the
closure verification samples will include, VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and explosives
as shown in Table 6-1.

Verification of soil clean-up efforts will identify the specific location and number of samples
chosen. This information will be included in the Clean Closure Certification Document. The
certification document will follow MDNR's clean closure certification checklist as discussed in
Section 11.0 of this Closure Plan.

6.4     Groundwater Sampling Procedures

Five new monitoring wells are proposed at select locations within and around the perimeter of
the EOD Range to obtain groundwater samples from the uppermost aquifer. Ordnance and
explosive waste removal efforts are considered to be an important first step before initiating
monitoring well installation tasks. After the EOD range is deemed safe from explosive wastes,
the designated field activities as described in the following sections will commence.

The groundwater monitoring system will be installed per 40 CFR 265.97 and Part 201 of Public
Act 451 guidelines. Split-spoon soil samples obtained during monitoring well installation will
be taken at five-foot intervals to a depth of 30 feet below grade, followed by sampling at 10-foot
intervals to the end of boring. Appropriate soil samples will be submitted for investigative
analysis, as shown in Table 6-1. The proposed location of wells, as shown in Figure 6-1, is
based upon an expected easterly groundwater flow direction, obtained from the November 1994
Rust water level measurements conducted for remedial investigations at various sites at the base.


n.i6.JlRtTERCS8t267IRFP61                       6-3                                      June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                             558       37
Project LWRC94-0028                                                                     Revision 0


Before permanent monitoring wells are installed, local groundwater flow directions will be
confirmed using water level measurements from existing on-base wells.

Once the direction of groundwater flow is verified, the exact locations of the six new monitoring
wells will be determined. Four of the wells will be placed around the perimeter of the site.
There will be a total of two downgradient perimeter wells, and one upgradient perimeter wells.
The remaining two monitoring wells will be placed next to and/or downgradient of areas where
wastes have been removed. Rust will adjust monitoring well locations accordingly, based upon
a visual elevation of the topography. Field analyses of groundwater will include specific
conductance, pH and temperature. Laboratory groundwater analyses will include VOCs, SVOCs,
herbicides, inorganics, and explosives as shown in Table 6-2.

A Rust hydrogeologist will perform groundwater sampling, with the chemical analysis being
conducted by Quanterra Environmental Services according to an approved QA/QC plan. Actual
QA/QC analysis such as matrix spikes, method blanks and spike duplicates will be included in
the analytical reports prepared by the laboratory. The laboratory results will be validated by the
consultant performing the groundwater sampling in the form of a Data Quality Control ReporL

6.5    Sample Handling, Storage and Shipment
All sample handling, storage and shipment activities will be performed in accordance with the
procedures presented in Sections 4.0 and 6.0 of the QAPP. Potential hazardous wastes are to
be analyzed, stored at the EOD Range, and disposed of accordingly.

6.6    Documentation and Sample Custody

All documentation procedures presented in Section 5.0 of the QAPP will be followed during
sample collection and analysis.

6.7    Laboratory Operations

The analytical laboratory is responsible for conducting analyses of all samples collected during
field activities and for maintaining custody procedures throughout this procedure. All analytical
activities for soil and groundwater sampling will he performed in accordance with the procedures
specified in Section 8.0 of the QAPP.

6.8    Data Reduction, Validation and Reporting

As discussed in Section 9.0 of the QAPP, data reduction, quality control review, and the
preparation of data reports will be the responsibility of the analytical laboratory. Data
assessment, including a formal data validation procedure, will be conducted by Rust; this is
discussed in Section 13.0 of the QAPP.

The field QA/QC procedures for the closure activities described above are detailed in the QAPP
presented in Appendix C. This document will be used to ensure that closure activities meet or
exceed regulatory requirements. Upon achieving the clean closure status, excavations at the site


n:6flRTERCS8I267IRF.P61                        6-4                                      June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94-0028
                                                               rt   o
                                                               '-' U 0
                                                                         n
                                                                         30          Revision 0


will be backfllled with on-site materials. Vegetation viil be established across the disturbed
portion of the site using conventional seeding or hydroseeding techniques.




n:t6. IIThTERCS8I267IRWFP6J                  6-5                                     June 1995
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         PROP. GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELL LOCATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -                                                                                             2Edr6lo.dgn
  A      PROP. SOIL SAMPLING LOCATION                                                                                            --
         EXTENT OF UNFORESTED EOD RANGE AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                      -                                                                                                      FIGURE 6—i
         CONTOUR INTERVAL (FT. MSL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     RCRA CLOSURE PLAN
                                                                                                                  4'                                                      K                           --
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PROPOSED COFIRMATORY SOIL SAMPLING!
         ROADWAY                                                                                                                                                                                                         -                                                                                                                                                                                                                     K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
                                                                                                                                                                               -.                                                                                           MONITORING             WELL LOCATION MAP
         APPROXIMATE BURIAL PIT LOCATION                                                                'I,                                                                                                                                                                                 PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                                                                                                                                     MARQUETTE, MICHIGAN
        I              I            I!             I         I          I                         I            I            I            I             I           I               I      I         I


                                                                                       TABLE 6-I
                                                                             Sampling Summary - Soil Analyses

                                                                                K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                                                     Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



                                                                                                                    Approximate                                  Alwroximate
                                                                 Analyte                                                                     Approximate                                Arwoximate
                   Tier                                                                            Reporting         Number                                        Number
                                                                                                                                             Number 1                                     Number
                                                                                                      Units                                                       Equipment
                                                                                                                     Samples                   Blanks                                  Dup/Rep Blanks
                                                                                                                                                                       Blanks
                        I                       Volatile Organic Compounds                            pig/kg              33                      3                       2                   2

     Investigative Sampling                     Semivolatile Organic Compounds                        pg/kg               33                      -                       2                   2

                                                Herbicides                                            pg/kg               33                      -                       2                   2

                                                Inorganics                                            pg/kg               33                      -                       2                   2

                                                Explosives                                            pig/kg              33                      -                       2                   2

                       II                       Volatile Organic Compounds                                                                       °                        (I)                 (I)
                                                                                                      pig/kg

     Waste Characterization                     SemivolatileOrganic Compounds                                              (°                                             (I)                 (I)
                                                                                                      pig/kg

                                               Herbicides                                                                                        (I)                      (I)                 (I)
               Sampling                                                                               Mg/kg

                                                                                                                                                 °                        (I)                 (I)
                                               Inorganics                                             jig/kg
                                                                                                                          (                      (                        (I)                 (I)
                                               Explosives                                             pig/kg

                       III                     VolatileOrganic Compounds                              pigfkg              33                     2                        2                   2

            Closure Sampling                   SemivolatileOrganic Compounds                          pig/kg              33                      -                       2                   2
                                                                                                                                                                                                        c-I
                                               Herbicides                                                                 33                      -                                                     c-fl
                                                                                                      pig/kg                                                              2                   2         cx,

                                               Inorganics                                             pg/kg               33                      -                       2                   2

                                                                                                                          33                      -
                                                                                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                                                                        C
                                               Explosives                                             pig/kg                                                              2                   2
Note:         °l'his set of sanwling will be perfonned usrng a 30 feet — spacing on cells, where concentrationsofthe analytes exceeds the cleanup levels during tier I
                                                                                                                                                                         sanwing
              jig/kg         micrognms   per kilcmni

n:'iercsf2673s6I.p61
                                                            (          I           I           I   I        I




                                                                      TABLE 6-2
                                                         Sampling Summary - Groundwater Analyses I)

                                                                    K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                                         Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



                                                                                   Approximate     Approximate                         Approximate
                            Analyte                               Reporting         Number         Number Trip   ApproximateNumber   Number Dup/Rep
                                                                    Umts                                          Equipment Blanks
                                                                                    Samples          Blanks                              Blanks     —
   Volatile Organic Compounds                                        pig/I                 6            1                1                 1


   Semivolatile Organic Compunds                                     sg/I                  6            -                1                 1



   Inorganics                                                        pig/I                 6            -                I                 I

  Herbicides                                                                               6            -                I                 I
                                                                     pig/I

   Explosives                                                        pig/I                 6            -                I                 I

          Nit:       01Gnmdwatnsançlmgwill be conductedonce closuitsançla are collected.
                     us/I =naotm
n:klercs2\2673r62tp6 I




                                                                                                                                                        c—i
                                                                                                                                                        Cl

                                                                                                                                                        a
    Final RCRA Closure Plan                                                   -
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                           58   4 2 Revision 0


                                  7.0 DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES

    A decontamination facility will be located at a designated location in the EOD Range. The
    facility will be used for the initial decontamination of the drill rig. Equipment used during
    sampling activities will be decontaminated on a plastic sheet located downwind of each sampling
    location. Sampling equipment will be washed between sampling events in a Liquinox soap
    solution, rinsed in clean, potable water, and then rinsed with deionized water and allowed to air
    dry on a clean, plastic tarp. Rinse water generated during the decontamination of sampling
    equipment will be collected within the decontamination containment area, characterized for
—
    hazardous constituents as described in Section 8.0 of this document, and transferred into
    containers for appropriate handling.

    During drilling activities, drilling equipment and trucks will be decontaminated on-site on a
    temporary lined decontamination pad located near the eastern perimeter of the EOD Range. A
    portable steam cleaner will be placed beside the decontamination pad and used to decontaminate
    drilling equipment (e.g., augers, drill bits, tubing) between borings. The drill rig along with any
    support vehicles and equipment will be decontaminated before leaving the site in order to prevent
    contaminant migration. Previous field documentation procedures were accomplished at the waste
    water treatment plant (WWTP), which may be a viable option for closure field tasks. At the
    completion of closure activities, the temporary pad will be decontaminated on-site, rolled up,
    wrapped in plastic, and removed from the site.




    n:16.J(RtTERCS8t267IRrF.P61                     7-1                                      June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94-0028                                                     58      43       Revision   0


                             8.0 CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS AND
                                INVESTIGATIVE-DERIVED WASTES

8.1     AIR EMISSIONS

Appropriate water misting and respiratory controls will be used during all closure activities in
order to minimize odors and dust emissions. Specific infonnation regarding air monitoring is
given in Section 7.0 of the SSFIP, which elaborates on appropriate action levels, air sampling
objectives and instrumentation.

8.2     MANAGEMENT OF INVESTIGATIVE-DERIVED WASTES

The following sections indicate appropriate protocol for the collection, containment, and disposal
of soils and groundwater derived from drilling, decontamination, and monitoring well developing,
purging, and sampling.

8.2.1 Soil Cuttings

Soil will be collected, placed in 55-gallon drums and stored pending analytical testing results.
The general procedure for labeling drums is discussed in Section 6.3 of the QAPP. The drums
will be held at the EU!) facility until analysis results from the soil samples are received. Soils
will be sampled and analyzed for the same constituents analyzed in soil samples collected at the
site, as was shown in Table 6-1. Solid residuals with contaminant levels as revealed by analysis
to be less than MDNR Type B levels will be spread over the location from which the samples
were collected. Solid residuals with contaminant levels found to be greater than MDNR Type
B levels will be disposed at an approved off-site permitted waste disposal facility, or incorporated
into the site remediation if required.

Samples with constituent concentrations greater than 20 times the corresponding TCLP limit will
be considered suspected hazardous waste and subjected to TCLP testing for proper disposal. A
portion of soil samples will be saved by the lab, and TCLP analyses conducted at a later date,
if needed. All other material will be disposed as non-hazardous in accordance with State of
Michigan requirements and as directed by the Base Representative. Decontamination residuals
to be shipped off-site will be accompanied by the appropriate signed manifests, which include
all necessary documentation pertaining to Land Disposal Restriction regulations of 40 CFR 268.

8.2.2 Decontamination and Well Development/Purge Water

Developmentlpurge water will be collected, placed in containers, and stored on-site pending
analytical testing results. Analysis will be for the same parameters analyzed for during
groundwater sampling and shall be compared to Type B criteria. Clean or uncontaminated water
may be disposed of at the site of generation. Contaminated waters will be disposed of at the
WWTP if in accordance with all permit limits and applicable state and federal regulations.
Contaminated waters not disposed of at the WWTP may be subject to additional testing for
disposal in accordance with applicable state and federal requirements at an off-site location.
Before disposing of wastewaters on-site, K.!. Sawyer AFB will contact the MDNR's Waste


rtl6JIRtIERCSB(2671RaF.P61                      8-1                                       June 1995
FY,& RCRA Closure Plan
Prof cci LWRC94-%28                                                uU8       44          Revision   0


Management Division (WMD), Marquette District Office, to provide the opportunity to review
analytical results and approve the disposal method.

Decontamination/rinse water will be collected, placed in containers, and stored on-site pending
analytical testing. Analysis will include appropriate hazardous waste characteristics. Clean or
non-hazardous rinse waters may be disposed of at the site of generation. Hazardous rinse waters
will be managed as hazardous waste. Before disposing of wastewaters on-site, K.l. Sawyer AFB
will contact the MDNR's WMD to provide the opportunity to review analytical results and
approve the disposal method.

8.2.3 Non-Regulated Waste Disposal

Non-regulated waste materials (i.e., boxes, paper, and general refuse) will be bagged arid disposed
of in the base waste receptacles.

8.2.4 Personal Protective Equipment

All personal protective equipment (PPE) waste generated during the investigation will be stored
in 55-gallon drums and placed on wooden pallets at the EOD facility. Disposal will be in
accordance with both state and federal regulations, as discussed in the SSHP.




,r16. ItRtItRCS8t267IR72F.P6J                  8-2                                       June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan                                          rr8
                                                                 L'        4r
Project LWRC94-0028                                                   --
                                                                                        Revision U



                    9.0 PERSONNEL SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

All closure activities will be conducted in accordance with an approved SSHP and all appropriate
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements for worker health and
safety, including medical monitoring, personal protective equipment, air monitoring, personnel
decontamination procedures, and emergency procedures. The SSHP addresses these issues and
will be implemented during closure activities. Fire prevention procedures will be addressed in
a task-specific SSHP generated by the contracted explosive ordnance disposal organization. An
appropriate health and safety professional will monitor all closure activities and will make
determinations as to the appropriate level of personal protective equipment. In addition, areas
undergoing closure will be isolated to limit access.

The existing safety rules from OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Will be followed by cleanup personnel at all
times during closure activities. Appendix E presents the 5SF!? for all proposed closure activities
with specific documentation regarding asbestos and metals.




n:I6.JRlTERCS8267IR7ZF.P6J                                                              June 1995
Final RCRA Closure Plan
Project LWRC94-0028
                                                                        j
                                                                        rrQ       Ar
                                                                                  q Revision 0

                              10.0 SCHEDULE FOR CLOSURE

The tentative closure schedule provided in Figure 10-1 presents the estimated time needed to
close the EOD Range. This schedule includes time needed for intervening closure activities (e.g.,
inspections) which allow the progress of final closure to be tracked.

An application for an extension to the 180-day deadline will be filed for no later than 30 days
before the deadline (40 CFR 265.113 (c)2), if closure activities will require a longer time to
complete (e.g., if in the event that groundwater and soil verification findings indicate
contaminants exceeding Michigan's Type B Criteria). In accordance with 40 CFR 265.113(b),
an extension may also be requested if it is demonstrated that closure activities would be
incompatible with any continued operations such as the need for additional LOD treatment, and
steps have been and will be taken to ensure the protection of public safety and the environment.

In the event that soil verification and groundwater samples indicate the presence of contamination
as a result of the sampling effort, the MDNR will be notified. The site will be further
investigated and evaluated under the existing IRP, within 45 days of making this determination.
USAF will submit to MDNR an assessment plan describing the procedures for addressing the
problem. Ultimately, these data will be used to evaluate the needs for further action. If
appropriate, a remedial action plan will be developed and submitted to the MDNR for approval.




n:l6.1tRI7ERC38267IR72F.P61                   JO-I                                      June 1995
-J


cr1




 10-1 FIGURE                                     L:\WNPR-DAT\2673R.AAB.MPP

                                                      Milestone Up Rolled                                  Milestone




                                                 ;-
                                                                                                                                                    6/9/95 Date:
                                                          Task Up Rolled                                    Progress
                                                                                                                                              55152.000 Project:
                           Progress Up Rolled                  Summary                                          Task




                                                                       9w                   Engineer) (Prof. Closure of Certification of Submission        28

                                                                       26w                               (estimated) Completion Closure                    27

                                                                       1w                         necessary) (if Extension for Application                 26

                                                                       155d                              (Rust) Extension with Closure Site                25




                       t
                                                                       Ow                                                                    OR            24

                                                                                                        Closure of Certification of Submission             23
                                                                               .

                                                                       Sw            (Rust) Subission and Preparation Document Closure                     22

                                                                       6w               (Rust) Sampling and Installation Wells Monitoring                  21

                                                                       3w                (Quanterra) Analyses Sample Soil Confirmatory                     20


                                                                       1w                      Sampling Soil Confirmatory Clean-Closure                    19

                                                                       2w           (Rusts [Sub-cells] Contam.Soils of Disposal & Excav.                   18


                                                                       3w                                     (Rust) Evaluation Data Lab                   17


                                                                       3w           (Quanterra) Analyses Sample Characterization Waste            -        16

                                                                       2w             (Rust) [Sub-cells] Sampling Characterization Waste                   15


                                                                       3w                                     (Rust) Evaluation Data Lab                   14


                                                                       3w                              (Quanterra) Analyses Sample Soil                    13

                                                                       1w                 (Rust) samples] [33 Sampling Soil Investigative                  12

                                     '1                                13w          (Dep Ordnance/Residue Unexpi, of Disposal & Permit                      11


                                                                       130d                          (Rust) ExtensIonNo with Closure Site                  10
           V.
                                                                       260d                                                    (Rust) Closure Site    -     9

                                                                       94d                       Conditions Winter to Due Suspended Activity                8

                                                                       4W          Excavation & Combing - Ordnance Unexploded of Removal                    7

                                                                       2w                     Removal Ordnance Unexploded for Mobilization                  6

                                                                       4w                      Removal Ordnance for Service of Procurement                  5

                                                                       144d             Force) Air the of (Dep. Removal Ordnance Unexploded                 4

                                                                       13w                                                 (MDNR) Review Agency             3
      'V                                                                                                         Implementation Plan Closure RCRA           2
                                                                   r   4d 51

                                                         46/12         Ow                            (Rust) Submission Plan Closure
                                                                                   ____________________ ___________________ RCRA Final                      1

      IkIAIH    IAISI0NID H jFJMAMJ J MrTrTIKfI1OINID
                   —
                                ___________________
                              1996
                                                    —
                                                            1995
                                                                        Duration                                                             Name Task      ID



                                                   LWRC94-0028 PROJECT
                                                    SCHEDULE CLOSURE




— — — — —                       p          — —              —                      — — — —
                                                                           5r8
    Final RCRA Closure Plan
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                              48      Revision   0
—


                                       11.0 CERTIFICATION
    Within 60 days of closure completion, certification will be submitted by both an independent
    professional engineer (registered in Michigan) and the owner that the facility hazardous waste
    operations have been closed in accordance with the procedures in the approved Closure Plan as
    required by 40 CFR 265.115 and MAC R299-961 3(2). The certification document will follow
    MDNR's clean closure certification checklist as provided in Appendix F and at a minimum will
    include this Closure Plan and the following information:

            •     A certification statement (see below for example).
            •     The approved Closure Plan or reference to the approved plan.
            •     The estimated volume of waste treated.
            •     All correspondence regarding closure activity after MDNR approval.
            •     Details of sampling and analysis methods.
            •     Laboratory records.
            •     A narrative describing all activities during closure.
            •     Post-closure cleanup documentation (if needed).
            •     Signature of owner/operator and of a qualified, independent, registered, professional
                  engineer.

    The certification statement presented by a Professional Engineer will include the following
    wording:

            "I certify under the penalty of law that this document and all attachments were
            prepared under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed
            to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate the information
            submitted. Based on my inquiry of the persons who manage the system or those
            persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information
            submitted is to the best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete.
            I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information
            including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations."




    n:l6.JIRTERCS8(267JRrF.P6I                      11-1                                     June 1995
    Final RCRA Closure Plan                                            -
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                5G8                 Revision   0


                          12.0 STATUS OF FACILITY AFTER CLOSURE


    Assuming that the unexploded ordnance were effectively removed, and no soil or groundwater
    contamination is identified during sampling activities described in Section 7 0 of this Closure
    Plan, the EOD Range at K.I. Sawyer AFB will be considered clean closed as is, with no
    restrictions on future use of this area. The land, which is currently being leased from the State
    of Michigan, will revert back to the State with no restrictions on future use at the time of base
    closure.




S




    n.-I6.ItRTERCS8t267JRF.P61                     12-I                                     June 1995
I   C   I   C        I   C   I    I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I




                                 uI




                Ct
                                                                  C:'
                                                                  C..,
                                                                  a,
                                                              01
                                                              CD
                                -
                                                 66US WASTWflwfltflhl&P
                                    -                       --—_                     pAnt,
—    A. GENERAL INFORMATION
                                                                                     WASTE PROFILE NO. Arc 64 —                    '7o a
            ISSUE    DATE: &tS 92                                                                                                                   4—f--

     I.GLNERATOR NAME
            KISAWYER.AFB                    .               .                                                                       558 51
                                                                                                          3. GENERATOR USEPA £0
     2. FACILITY AoDRESS4,,0;5.4 /              tev'                        BLDG NO           4o1
               -       _k_r:.sAER.Ayu, HI                                            —    .                           }IT   0571924760
                                                                                                          4.GENERATOflSTATEIO
                                                                                                          -
    .C /6on
     S. TECHNICAL CONTACT
                                            .
                                                                        }SZWCCDE 49843
                                                                        -
                                                                                 -
                                                                                                      -   7. TITLE
                                                                                                                       N/A
                                                                                                                                            PHONE
                                                                                                                                                     ...1S.;,L.
                                                                                                                                                      .j,.1AU


                                    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT                                               410 SPTG/DEV                     'I9O63462342
                                                                                                                                                -
     . I.NAMEOFWASTE MO.4JiríoQ 'es/bpp                                                                                                               •1



        S. USEPAi..ISTATE WASTE CODEiS)              L-'OO          .                g.
        .PROCESSCENERATINGWASTE TH&PitIAL' baiwucTlo,U oF oDAJ4$JCE -
        4.PROJECTEDANNUALVOLUMC/UNITS                     ICC i L_95              5.MOOEOFCOLLECTION
        1.15 TIllS WASTE A DIOXIN LISTED WASTE AS DEFINED IN 40 CPA 21t.31 (•.j, P020. FOil. P022. P023. P02G. P027. OR
                                                                  -
            rozai DYES
        7. IS 11413 WASTE RESTRICTED FROM LAND                              CPA 21531 *YES 0 NO
          HAS AN EXEMPTION BEEN GRANTED? 0DI5PD$440
                                            YES     NO
          DOES THE WASTE MEET APPLICABLE TREATMENT STANOAROS? 0 YES                                   NO REFERENCE STANDARDS

                                                                                     PARTII
     1. MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION                                                             4. MATERIAL COMPOSITION
        (OPTIONAL.NOTREOUIREDOAtAj                                                                                      -      ——_____
                                                                                                 COMPONENT                  CONCENTRATION            RANGE
     COLOR
                                                                                 -                            .
     DENSITY                                    BTU/LG
     TOTAL SOLIDS                               SI( CONTENT
     LAYERING: 0 MULTILAYERED 0 OILAYERCO 0                        SINGLE PHASE

     2. RCRA CHARACTERISTICS
     'HYSICAL STATE:          50L10 0 L,UUIO 0 SEMI.SOLID
                          0 GAS 0         0TIl(T
     TREATMENT GROUP: 0 WASIEWATER     NCN.WASTEWATER                                                             .
    o  IGNITABLE (0001)          0 RF.ACTIVE (DOO3)
       FI.ASH POINT ('I             0 WAlER REACTIVE                                                                  -. —                    —
        o  HIGH tOC I> 10%)            CYANIDE flEACTIVE                                      TOTAL                              iOO%
       o LOW TOG 1< 10%)                           0
                                       ZULtIOE REACTIVE
                                                                                              S. SHIPPING INFORMATION
    o   CORt%OSIVE (0002)
                                                XTOXICITYCHAI1ACTERISTIC
        o   CORRODES    STEEL


     3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (ppm or mg/LI
                                                   (SEE RE 'EP( PCI? LISP/NC)                 DOT I4AZARDOUS MATERIAL?
                                                                                                  WAzAeCbOuc
                                                                                              PROPER ShIPPING NAME
                                                                                                                                  YES 0 NO
                                                                                                                                        I   t,,      .u.oS.

                                                                                                                    UN.or ,
    COPPER
    NICKEL
                                        PIIENOLICS
                                        TOTAL HALOGENS
                                                                                              IIAZARDCLASS O1i'4 E e.NO. w/b9
                                                                                              ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION
    ZINC                                VOLATILE ORGANICS                    -
                                                                                              METII000FSHIPMENT 0 SULK
    CIIROMIUM.IIEX                      ('to,                                                 CErICLA REPORTABLE OLIANTITV (AOl  %oRui.iD ER:
    IOTI4ER)                                                                 —
                                                                                              EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDE PAGE
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    NoAMnLrAa( MOTACC(tT(O sr rg(oauo.                                                        SPECIAL IIANDLING INFORMATION

S   G. GENERATOR CERTIFICATION


    *
    OASIS FOR INFORMATION

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         CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (ATr.acIr TESTRESULTS!             .              -

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            Oct 3&.-
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                                                                                                                    5E8 52              L
                                               EFFECTIVE 2$ SEP 90. tAnGE QUANTITY GENEIIATORS
                                                         23MAR91 . SMALL QUANTITY GENERATORS



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                                                               PART III
                                                          FOR ORMO USE ONLY
                                                           ORMO VERIFICATION

 I. OATE VERIFIED



 2. RESULTS.. 0 A TFACHEO



   oH ________________ FLASI4 POINT                             SPECIFIC GUAVITY                      14*110(5 ITOXI




  R(ACTIVITY WATER REACTIVIfl ____________ CYANID(5 ____________ SULFIOCS ____________
                                                                                                                                        b

  TCIF
                                                                                    ccP' r.
                                                DEPART}CNT OF ThE AIR FORCE                558     53
                                                       410TH WING (SAC)
—                                   LI.   SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE, MICHIGAN 49843-5300
     "    1




ThTTNOF: Ala              5..L/PJ1V_                         Waste Control

    ;uBJEcT: Waste Sampling Request                          Waste Strean IDS


         TO:   410 CES/DEV (2342)
               410 KEDGP/SGPB (2904)
               Ill-TURN

               1.     Request the following item be sampled by SGPB for proper identifi-
                    cation. We also request DEV to identify the proper waste disposal
                    action that needs to be taken. After sampling is completed, we re-
                    quest copies of all sampling data be sent to us.

                    2.    Purpose of sampling: JASTC4ARACTEPjZrLD
                    3.    Where is the sampling point located: __i.U-L              0_r7


                    4.    Generator of the Waste/POC: C_'fi_.BLAi                          421
                    5.    Organization/office Symbol: *1Q_.ELJ_c_&
                    e.    Shop Name: EQ
                    Building *.4O               Room *                 Duty Phone
                    Supply Account Code:                   W.I.C.
                    7. Type of process (if known) producing waste: TRgZAL.
                TA1-MEftJr P
                    8.    Type of waste: LIQUID)              Quantity of waste:
                    9. Waste physical aescription: LClS%/'Coi$'E&ES?b%JE
                    10.   Analysis requested: T_c


                    11.   The date DEV received the waste: _&
                                                 js3cbjsse
                    12

                                    ft-jgL
                          DEY Comments                                   es1t                    -r ,<.
                                                                                                                                                              I4I-l
                                                                                                                                        rr r
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                                                                                                                                        .JJu

I          BULK MATERIAL SAMPLING DATA
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                         oc sea                   NAZ*ADOVSJTOZIC WASTE                                           C$&ZMOO4JS/IOXIC WASTE



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                                                                                                               a4Sr4 si
COMMENTS



    FORM
     ;• '.                                                                                  ---
                                                                                         itjo     55
                                                      AIR FORCE
                           OCCUPATIONAL AND ENViRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE
                                   BROOKS AFB, TEXAS, 78235-5000
                                              REPORT OF ANALYSIS

    —    BASE    SAMPLE NO: W920134                          DEFt SAtIPLE NO: 92028364

         SAMPLE TYPE:             WASTE, HAZARDOUS/TQXIC/OISPOSAL
         SITE IDENTIFIER:                                    DATE RECEIVED; 920514
         DATE COLLECTED: 920511                              DATE REPORTED: 920624


                                              RESIJL 7$


 —       Test                                      Results          Units            Method

         Arsenic                                   <0.04            mg/L
         Sarium                                    2.0              mg'L
    —Cadmium                             ..$.9 .                    mg/L
         Chromium                                  <0.2             mg'L
        PLead         -                            21.              mg.'L
         Mercury                                   <3.0015          mg'L
         Selenium                                  <0.04            mgL
         Silver                                    <0.4             mg/L
         'lash Point (closed cup)                  NP
         nrrosivity                                SINC
         H.idrogen ion (pH)                        9.1
—        Cyanid. (total)                           <10              mg/kg
         SulFide                                   <lUG             mg/kg
         Copper                                    <0.4             mg'L
         Zinc                                      25               mg'L
         tl.jor Components                         See comment.


         NP               Test Not Performed
—        SINC         : Sample is not corro5tve.             -




         Comments:
         SAMPLE IS SOLID.
         All test methods conForm to SW—B'.6.
           — Signifies none detected and the 5i1Sction limits.

                TO:

                410 rIEDICAL GFQOUP'SGPB                                         PACE    1(Cont'd)
                K I SAWYER AFE, III 49843-5300
        -
                                   AIR FORCE                         58    56
            OCCUPATIONAL AND ENUIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE
                     BROOKS AFB, TEXAS, 78235-5000
                            REPORT OF ANALYSIS


BASE SAMPLE NO: GD920134                  OEHL SAMPLE NO: 92028364

SAJIPLE TYPE:      WASTE, HAZARDOUS'TOXIC'OISPOSAL
SLTE IDENTIFIER:                          DATE RECEIUED: 920514
DATE COLLECTED: 920511                    DATE REPORTED: 920624


                            RESULTS


Test                        Results              Unifl          Method




                        Analyzed    by:   Kernron Encironmental Services




                                          Michael .3. Wantland, MSgt, USAF
                                          NCOIC Technical Operations Branch


                                                   PAGE   2
                                558 57




Ahner Twi Cnfer (4IERA Ogialional
 II      1/

        /kocowdu,n #g)
                                          CLEAILP CRITEflA
                                                                                558    58
     I.     ALffNO&Ifl

     Part    7 of the Administrative Rules (Rules 299.5701 through 299.5727)


     ii.   ucwoum         iNvowctnwi
     Part 7 of the Administrative Rules sets the standards    for final
                                                                   remedial actions.
     It provides a 3-tiered approach to the seTection of final cleanup remedies. The
     following briefly describes the three cleanup lypss provided under the
     administrative rules. All remedies mist be protective of the public health,
     safety, and welfare and the environment and natural resources.

    'Type A    means the degree of cleanup which reduces hazardous substance
    concentrations such that those concsntratlons do not exceed background or the
    method detection limit for a hazardous substance, consistent with the provisions
    of R 299.5707. Type A cleanups will generally apply

             -   to   spills and situations where contamination is relatively
                 limited,
             • when the proposing party wishes to remove contaminants to non-
               detectable levels,
             - to contaminants which have risk-based (Type 8) criteria that are
                 below method detáction huts,
             -   to contaminants where thin is  insufficient data available to
                 establish risk-based criteria,
             -   and to materials that occur naturally in the environment.

    Sites would return to unrestricted use at the completion of the remedial action.

    'Type V means the degree of cleanup which provides for hazardous substance
    concentrations that do not pose an unacceptable risk on the basis of standardized
—   exposure assumptions and acceptable risk levels described in the provisions of
    R 299.5709 to R 299.5715. Type $ cleanups will generally apply at sites where
    the desired outcome is to allow the sits to be returned to unrestricted use at
    the completion of the remedial action although an acceptable concentration of
    contaminant is left in place.

    'Type C' means the degree of cleanup which provides for hazardous substance
    concentrations that do not pose an unacceptable risk considering a site-specific
    assessment of risk as provided                    Type C cleanups will generally
    apply at the largest and most complex sites, and at sites where the uses of the
    property will be limittd at the completion of the remedial action. Rule 299.5719
    describes additional requirements for certain Type C remedial actions.

    The choice of cleanup Type is at the option of the party proposing the remedial
    action, subject to review and approval by the Department of Natural Resources.
    Also, a remedial action plan can incorporate a combination of cleanup Types in
    the affected areas and aedia within th. plan.            Refer to MEM Operational
    Memoradum #4 (provided in the reference section of this chapter) for additional
    guidance on choice of cleanup Types.


    3/93                                                                              0-1
              MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
                                                                            558   59
                          INTEROFFICE COMMUNICATION

                                                               -
                               February 4, 1994



TO:         Environmental Response Division Staff

FROM:       Alan J. Howard, Chief, Environmental Response Division

SUBJECT:    HERA Operational Memorandum #81 RevIsion 3 -- Type B Criteria
            Rules 299.5709, 299.5711(2), 299.5711(5) and 299.5713


The attached table lists Type B cleanup criteria which have been developed
according to the algorithms set forth in the specific rules identified below.
This table replaces the previously issued list of Type B criteria dated July
16, 1993. The criteria were developed using currently available toxicological
and other data and are subject to change as new data become available. These
criteria are presented in two significant figures; reference doses and slope
factors used to generate the criteria were also reported in two significant
figures. Cleanup criteria from the attached table should be compared to
analytical data presented in two significant figures.

This list presents noncarcinogens and carcinogens together; carcinogens are
presented in italics. Chemicals beginning with numbers (such as 1,1,2-
trichloroethane) are incorporated alphabetically within the list. Criteria on
these lists should be considered draft; final cleanup criteria will be
confirmed by Environmental Response Division (ERD) toxicologists and approved
as part of a site-specific remedi& action plan. This table addresses only
those rules which include a specific algorithm or regulatory standard. Staff
are reminded that Type B remedial action plans must address all elements
required by the rules, including those for which specific criteria are not
shown here. Additional guidance for applying the criteria for each rule
follows.

Note that in cases where Type B criteria are less than Type A criteria (either
method detection limits or background), Type A criteria become the cleanup
goal. Type B criteria are not applicable in these cases.

RULE 299.5709 -- GROUNDWATER IN AOUIFERS
Subrules (2)(a) and (b) of this rule specify the criteria for carcinogens and
noncarcinogens, respectively. The values in the first column of the table
were developed using the algorithms in Rules 299.5723 (for carcinogens) and
299.5725 (for noncarcinogens). The values in the second column of the table
were established, where sufficient data are available, to protect against
adverse aesthetic impacts of hazardous substances on groundwater.

The most restrictive of the values in the first two columns of the table is
the cleanup criteria required to satisfy Rule 299.5709. Note that this rule
requires that aquifer cleanup criteria take into account adverse aesthetic
impacts resulting from one or a combination of hazardous substances. If
adverse aesthetic impacts remain when health based criteria have been
achieved, further remedial measures may be required. Consult your Supervisor
if you encounter such a case.
                                                              uuu     53
Environmental Response Division Staff                                   Page 2
MERA Operational Memorandum #8 - Revision 3                   February 4, 1994



                                                               -
RULE 299.5711 -- SOIL
The table presents values for the subrules that are most often expected to be
the controlling factor in determining soil cleanup criteria. However, a Type
8 remedial action plan must include rationale that supports the conclusions
drawn from the assessment of pertinent pathways (i.e., some discussion of each
pertinent pathway must be included which assesses whether more restrictive
criteria are required; See R 299.571](1)(a-e) and Rule Interpretation Memo #5
dated March 8, 1991).

Note that the rules allow for a value higher than twenty times the groundwater
cleanup criteria to be established as the soil cleanup criteria protective of
groundwater through the use of a leachate test (refer to MERA Operational Memo
#12 for guidance on appropriate leachate methods) or other method which better
represents in situ conditions. The "2OX" values in the table are provided for
convenience and are not mandatory if leachate tests or other methods support
the use of a higher value. For certain chemicals which strongly adsorb to
soil and are known not to leach at significant concentrations (i.e., PCBs,
carcinogenic PNAs and some chlorinated pesticides), the direct contact value
is accepted as the soil cleanup criterion to protect groundwater in addition
to the protection against direct contact hazards. Consult an ERO toxicologist
if you have questions about whether other substances may be handled in this
manner.

Staff should be aware that direct contact criteria only consider long-term
exposure from ingestion and dermal contact of contaminated soil
Consequently, direct contact criteria for chemicals that are highly toxic on
an acute basis (but not on a long-term basis) may not be protective against
short-term exposure hazards. In addition, many chemicals at concentrations
nearing saturation would pose a hazard to crops and plants. In these cases,
the Department would be responsible for developing soil cleanup criteria based
on Rule 299.5711(6). If you believe these issues will affect a project you
are working on, consult your supervisor and/or an ERD toxicologist.

RULE 299.5713 -- IMPACTS OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANTS ON SURFACE WATER
The third column in the table lists values based on calculations done by
Surface Water Quality Division (SWQD) in accordance with Rule 323.1057 of the
Water Resources Commission Act, 1929 PA 245, as amended or on the National
Toxics Rule (NTR; Federal Register, December 22, 1992. Vol. 57(246):60848-
60923). For use in ERD programs, the criterion which protects surface water
has been termed the groundwater surface water interface (GSI) value. The
final Cs! value is the more restrictive of the Rule 57 value and the NTR
value, where both are available. Where only one of the two values is
available, that number becomes the GSI value. Those chemicals which have G5I
values based on the NTR are indicated with a footnote. The GSI values are the
criteria used to judge compliance with Rule 299.5713. GSI values are
developed for surface water which is not used as a drinking water source and
also for surface water which serves as a source of drinking water. GSI values
presented in the list are for surface waters not protected as a drinking water
source. If the surface water at a site serves as a drinking water source,
contact an ERD toxicologist to obtain the correct GSI value. In cases where
data are inadequate to calculate a GSI value, the party proposing the remedial
                                                                        558 CI
Environmental Response Division Staff                                   Page 3
MERA Operational Memorandum #8 - Revision 3                   rebruary 4, 1994



action may generate the minimum data necessary to propose a value for
Department review and approval.

Rule 299.5713 requires that the GSI value not be exceeded at a point where
groundwater naturally discharges to surface water. Demonstration of
compliance with this rule may be made by monitoring at the groundwater-surface
water interface or by predictive modeling. It is not necessary that the GSI
value be achieved throughout the aquifer; however, a remedial action plan
which proposes to meet the GSI value throughout the aquifer in lieu of
monitoring at the interface or modeling will be acceptable. Note that the
sixth column on the table will show 20 times the GSI values. This value is
shown for ease of reference in cases where soil is to be remediated to that
level as a source control measure. Rule 299.5711 does not require that soil
meet the "20 times GSI values", as long as the GSI value is not exceeded at
the groundwater-surface water interface.

TARGET METHOD DETECTION LIMITS
The table also includes the target method detection limits for each hazardous
substance, where one has been determined. Jhese target method detection
limits are taken from Operational Memorandum #6, dated February 4, 1994 and
are provided to allow for convenient comparison between Type B criteria and
potential Type A criteria. Consult Operational Memorandum #6 for a full
description of the use of target method detection limits and proper methods
for analysis.

Keep in mind that use of particular methods and detection limits listed in
Operational Memorandum #6 are not mandatory. Other methods or detection
limits may be approved as part of a site-specific remedial action plan.

These target method detection limits are applicable to environmental
investigations and monitoring performed pursuant to Act 307 response
activities. These detection limits may not be applicable to environmental
monitoring activities performed pursuant to other environmental statutes.
Facilities subject to regulation under other environmental statutes should
consult with the appropriate DNR Division for further information regarding
appropriate analytical detection limits.

This memo is intended to provide guidance to Division staff to foster
consistent application of the Michigan Environmental Response Act, 1982 PA
307, as amended, and the Administrative Rules promulgated thereunder. This
document is not intended to convey any rights to any parties nor create any
duties or responsibilities under law. This document and matters addressed
herein are subject to revision.

Questions about values in the attached table should be directed to one of the
ERD toxicologists: Christine Flaga, telephone 517-373-0160, Jeffrey Crum,
telephone 517-335-3092, or Linda Larsen, telephone 517-335-3161. Other
questions about this memorandum should be directed to Lynelle Marolf at 517- ,c)
373-9893.

Attachment                                                           £1
rev.   3                                                             r ft
                ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA FOR GROUNDWATER AND SOIL       ,.
                                        REVISION 3
                                     FEBRUARY 4, 1994
                              LIST OF CHANGES AND ADDITIONS



    Please find below a list of                       which appear on Revision 3
    of Operational Memorandum #8. The changes to Revision 2 which were released
    in a previous memo dated January 7, 1994 have been incorporated into Revision
    3. You may completely replace Revision 2 with Revision 3. Any questions on
    the following list of changes/corrections can be directed to one of our three
    division toxicologists: Christine Flaga, 517-373-0160; Jeffrey Crum, 335-
    3092; and Linda Larsen, 335-3161.

     1.   Acetaldehyde: MDL for soil changedtoS0O ppb.

     2.   Chloride: MDL's changed to 10,000 and 200,000 ppb in groundwater and
          soil, respectively.

    3.    Chiorpyrifos: MDL's changed to 1.5 and 25 ppb in groundwater and soil,
          respectively.

    4.    Cyanide (Free): MDL's changed to ZQaS 500 ppb in groundwater and soil,
          respectively.

     5.   Dacthal: MOL's changed to I and 20 ppb in groundwater and soil,
          respectively.

    6.    ODD, DDE, and DOT: name changed to 4-4'-DDD, 4-4'-DDE, and 4-4'-DDT
          respectively.

    7.    Diazinon: MDL'S changed to 0.5 and 10 ppb in groundwater and soil,
          respect i vely.
—   8.    Diethyl Ether: MDL'S changed to 50 and 100 ppb in groundwater and soil,
          respectively.

    9.    Ethylene Glycol : MDL's changed to 50 and 200 ppb in groundwater and
          soil, respectively.

    10. Hexachlorobenzene (C-66): Footnote CR) substituted for MDL: Two
         different target method detection_hnntar available for this
         chemical. Please refer to Operational Memorandum #6 for details.

    11. Hexachlorobutadiene (C-46): Footnote CR) substituted for MDL: Two
         different target method detection limits are available for this
         chemical. Please refer to Operational Memorandum #6 for details.

     12. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C-56): Footnote CR) substituted for MDL: Two
          different target method detectio limits are available for this
          chemical. Please refer to Operational Memorandum #6 for details.

     13. Hexachloroethane: Footnote (R) substituted for MDL: Two different target
          method detection limits are available for this chemical. Please refer
          to Operational Memorandum #6 for details.
Type B Cleanup Criteria               -2-
List of Changes/Additions
                                                rr8 13       February 4, 1994



 14. 2-Methylnaphthalene: health-based criteria eliminated based on
      reevaluation of the toxicological database and determination that the
                                                               -
      database was inadequate.

 15.   Prometon: MDL changed to 0.5 in groundwater.

 16. Propapchlor: MDL changed to 0.2 in groundwater.

 17. Propazine: MDL changed to 0.5 in groundwater.

 18. Propylene Glycol : MDL's changed to SO and 200 ppb in groundwater and
      soil, respectively.

 19. 2,3,7,8—Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: direct contact value changed to
      0.013 ppb.

20. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene: Footnote CR) substituted for MDL: Two different
     target method detection limits are available for this chemical. Please
     refer to Operational Memorandum #6 for details.

21. Trifluralin: MDL's changed to 1 and 50 ppb in groundwater and soil,
     respectively.

22. The following chemicals have been added
                       Acetic acid
                         n-Butanol
                         n-Butyl Acetate
                         Cycl ohexanone
                         Diiosopropylamine
                         N,N-Dimethylacetamide
                         Dimethyl formami de
                         Dimethyl sul foxi de
                         Ethanol
                         Formic acid
                         1-Formylpiperidine
                         N-Methy-morphol me
                         Piperidine
                         Propionic acid
                         In butyl amine
                                 1         1            1'      I           I      I           1.                     ii          I                         1       1            1




                                         ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA FOR GROUNDWATER AND SOIL                                                                             Feb-94
                                                                                    (REVISION3)

Type B criteria were calculated using currently available toxicologicaldata and the algorithms set forth in the Act 307 Rules. These criteria may change as new toxicity data
become available. They are not necessarily final cleanup standards. Please read the attached introduction for details. Carcinogenicchemicalsare shown in italics. Alt
values are expressed in units of parts per billion (ppb); ug/l in water and ug/kg in sotl, Scientiticnotation is represented by E+ or B a value, for example 2 x 10' is reported
as 2E+6, Please refer to Operational Memorandum#6 for additional information concerning method detection limits.



                                                                       GROUNDWATER            (u!/I)                                            SOIL (tag/kg)
                                                                                                            Target                                                      Target
                                                  Health-Based         Aesthetic                            Method                                                  Method
                                                  Drinking Waler       Drinking Water                       Detection      20X Drinking              Direci Contact Detection
                                                  Value                Value            GSI Value      {A} Limit in        Water Value    20X 051    Value          Limit in
Chemical                                          FR   709(2)(a)(b)J   (A 709(2)(c)(d)J (A 713J             Water    {B}   (A 711(2)J     Value      (A 711(5)J     Soil (B}


Acenaphthene                                      '1,200               NA               (D}                 5              24,000         {D}        4.SE+7             330
Acenaphthylene                                    25                   NA               {D}                 5              500            {D}        9.3E+5             330
Acetaldehyde                                      910                  NA               {D}                 200            16,000         {D}         1.OE+7            500
Acetic acid                                       4,000                NA               (D}                 18,000         60,000         (0)        4.4E+7             9.OE+5

Acetone                                           700                  NA               500                 50             14,000         10,000     7.8E+6             100
Acetonitrile                                      130                  NA               810                 tO             2,600          16,000      1.SE+6            100

Acrolein                                          110                  NA               2.5                 5              2,200          50         1.2E+6             10
                                                  00077                NA               9.1                 0.5            0.15           180        280                5
Ac4qlarntde
Acrylic acid                                      580                  NA               (D}                 NA             12,000         {D}        6.4E+6             NA
                                                  0.063                NA               2.2                 I              1.3            44          700               10
Ac4qLonLttLle
Alaehlwv                                          0.42                 NA               (D}                 I              8.4            {D}         16,000            20
AId/tin                                           0.0021               NA               0.0014(0)           0.01           {G}            {G}         76        ,       1.7
Aluminum                                          ID                   50   (H}         {D}                 20             1,000 {C)      (G,D}       tO                500
A,t.ttint                                         6.3                  NA               4                   20             130            80          2.3E+5            1,700
Anthracene                                        7,000                NA               1.IE+5 (0)          5              l.4E+5         2.2E+6      2.6E+8            330
Antimony                                          2.4 (C}              NA               4,300   {C,0}       5              48 {C}         86,000      91,000            500

                                                                                                                                                                                       c-fl


                                                                                                                                                                                       CD
                                                                                                                                                                                       P.
                                                                                        Ii
                                                                                                                                                                  Feb-94
ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                         GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                           SOIL (uglkg)
                                                                                              Target                                                       Target
                                                                                              Meihod                                                       Method
                                  Health-Based           Aesthetic
                                                                                              Detection          20X Drinking             Direct Contact Detection
                                  Drinking Waler         Drinking Water
                                                                                              Limit in           Water Value    20X 051   Value          Limit in
                                  Value                  Value                051 Value (A)
                                                                                              Water              (H 711(2)1     Value     (H 711(5)3       Soil   (B}
                                  (H 709(2fta)(b)1        [R 709(2)(c)(d)i (R 7131                     {B}
Chemical
                                                                                                                 0.4 (C)        26(C}     720 {C}          100
                                  002 (C)                 NA                  1,4   (CD)
At4senic                                                                                                                                                   50
                                                          NA                                                     3.2            (0)       5800
                                  016                                         {D}
Atnarae                                                                                                                                                    NA
                                                          NA                  (D}             NA                 6,4            {D}        12,000
Azobentene                        0.32
                                                          NA                  630             200                48,000 (C)     12,600     l.8E+7          1,000
                                  2.400 (C)                                          (C}
Barium                                                                                                                                                     10
                                                          NA                  60                                 24             1,200      13.000
8tnrtne                           12
                                                          NA                  00054    (0)    50                                                           5,000
                                  0.00015
Benz-id-Die                                                                                                                                180             330
                                                          NA                  0.31   (0)      S                  {G}            {G}
Ben to (a /anthnaeesie            0.0049
                                                                                              5                                 (G}        ISO             330
                                  0.0049                  NA                  0,31   (0}                         (G}
Benzo(b!6lIJO4aflthtnt                                                                        S                                 (0)        180             330
                                  0.0049                  NA                  0.31   (0)                         (6)
Benzo(h )jtaonanthene                                                                                                                      9.3E+5          330
                                  25                      NA                  {0}             5                  (ci            (G}
Benzo(g,h,i)PerYIene                                                                                                                                       330
                                  0.0049                  NA                  0.31   (0)      5                  (G}
Burro ía )pyene
                                                          NA                                   50                6.2E+5          (0)       IE+9 (9         3,300
BenzoiC acid                       31,000                                      (0)
                                                                               22              50                2E+5           440        1.1E+8           1,300
                                   9,800                  NA
Benzyl alcohol                                                                                                                                             200
                                                          NA                   {D)             0.5               4.2             (D}       2,300
                                   0.21
 Benzy-t     ehlottdt                                                                                                                      ID              330
                                                          NA                                   5                  ID             (D}
                                   ID                                          (D}
 Bis(2chloroethoxy)ethafle
                                                           NA                  4.2                                                                     ,
 ba(2-Chfo4otthqlItth9Jt           0.032
                                                                                               5                  (G}            (0)       92,000           330
                                   2.5                     NA
 bu(2fthq1hetqI/ph.tha/ate                                                                                                                 l,6E+7           2,000
                                                                               (0)             10                 8,400(C)       (D}
 Boron                             420(C)
                                                                                               I                  ID             (D}       ID               10
                                   ID                      NA                  {D)
 Bromobenzene                                                                                                                                               10
                                                           NA                  24              I                  Ii             480       6,200
 &tomotich/onomethafle             0.56



                                                                                                                                                                           0
         I        I           I                      I                    1                                  I
I       I           I        I    I   I         F        I         1        1           1       1        4          I       I            I           I        I


    ACT 307 TVPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVIStON 3)                                                                                                                    Feb-94




                                                             GROUNDWATER Jug/I)                                                       SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                Target                                                        Target
                                          Health-Based        Aesthetic                         Method                                                        Method
                                          Drinking Waler      Drinking Water                    Detection    20X Drinking                    Direct Contact Detection
                                          Value               Value             GSI Value   (A} Limit in     Water Value    20X OSI          Value            Limit in
    Chemical                              n 709(2fta)(b)]     IA 709(2Xc)(dfl   IA 713]         Waler {B}    [A 71l(2)j     Value            IA 711(5))       Soil {B}


    B4omoSoJun                            4.6                 NA                65                  I        92                 1,300        50000            10
    Bromomethane                          98                  NA                11                  I        200            220              1.1E+5           10
    n-Butanol                             910                 NA                {D}             40           18000              (D}          1.0E+7           230
    2-Butanone {MEK}                      320                 NA                4,100           50           6,400          82,000           3.6E+6           100
    2-Buloxyetltanol                      ID                 NA                 {D}             NA           ID             {D)              ID               NA
    n-Butyl acetate                       530                NA                 40              10           11,000         800              5.YE+6           20
    t-Butyl alcohol                       550                NA                 (D}             NA           11,000         {D}              6.1E+6           NA
    Outyl benzyl phthalate                I.l00              NA                 {D}             5            22,000         (0)              4.1E-i-7         330
    Cadmium                               3.5   (C)          NA                 064 {C,E}       0.2          70    {C}      (0)              l.3E+5           50
    Camphene                              ID                 NA                 (D)             NA           'ID            (0)              ID               NA
    Caprolactam                           5,800              NA                 (0)             NA           l.2E+5         (D}              2.2E+8           NA
    Carbondisulbde                        770                NA                 (0)             50           15,000         (D}              86E+6            100
    Catbon tet'rackiothfe                 0.27               NA                 21              1            5.4            420              3,000            10
    Chlo'idane                            0.027              NA                 0.00053         0.02         (G}            {G}              1,000            3.3
    Chloride                              ID                 250,000            (0)             10,000       SE+5 (I)       {D}              ID               2.OE+5
    Chlorobenzene                         130                NA                 71              1            2,600              1,400        t.SE+6           10
                                                                                                                                                          ,
    Chlo'roethane                         9.1                NA                 (D}             1            180                             1E+5             10
                                                                                                                            {D)
    2-Chioroethyl   vinyl ether           ID                 NA                 (D}             10           ID                              ID               100
                                                                                                                            (0)
    Chtoitoomii                           5.6                NA                 43              1            110            860              62,000           10
    Chfo4orie..tliane                     2.7                NA                 (0)             I            54             (0)              30,000           10




                                                                                13
                                                                                                                                                           Feb-94
    ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                        GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                      SOIL (uglkg)
                                                                                              Target                                               Target
                                     Health-Based       Aesthetic                             Method                                                Method
                                     Drinking Water     Drinking Water                        Detection   20X Drinking               Direct Contact Detection
                                     Value              Value               081 Value     (A} Limit in    Water Value    20X 081     Value          Limit in
                                                                            (A 7131           Water (B}   (A 711(2)1     Vatue       (A 711(5)1     Soil   (B}
    Chemical                         (A 709(2)(a)(b)J    (A 709(2)(c)(d)1


                                     43                  NA                 9.8               5           860            200       4.8E+5           330
    2-Chloropheflol
                                     140                 NA                 {D}               1           2,800          {D}       1.6E+6           10
    o-Chlorototuene
                                     21                  NA                 (D}               1.5         420            (0)       7.SE+5           25
    Chlorpyritos
                                     37,000  (C)         NA                 77 (C)            50          7.4E+5         1,500 (C) 3.9E+8           2,500
    Chromium Ill (J}
                                                         NA                                   1           2,400 (C)      150 (C}   1.2E+6           200
    Chromium VI    {J)               120   (C)                              7.3 (C}

                                     0.0049              NA                 0.31 {Q}          5           (0)            (0)         180            330
    Ch.tyene
                                     1,300 (C}           1,000              18 (C,E}          25          20,000 (C)     370 (C)     9.8E+6         1,000
    Copper
                                     9.8                 NA                 (0)                10         200            (0)         3.6E+5         500
    Cyanazine
                                     150                 NA                 5.5               20          3,000 (C)      110   (C)   5.7E+6         500
    CyanEde (Free)
                                                         NA                 (D}               NA          6.4E+5         {D}         3.5E+8         NA
    Cyclohexanone                    32,000
                                                         NA                 (D}                1          11E+5          (0)         2E+8           20
    Dacthat                          5,300
                                     0_is                NA                 0.0084(0)          0.02       (0)            (0)         5,400          3.3
    4-4 '-090
                                     0.1                 NA                 0.0059(0)          0.02       (0)            (0)         3,800          3.3
    4-4'-VP(
                                     0.1                 NA                 0.00023            0.02       (0)            (0)         3,800          3.3
    4-4-VVT
                                     840                 NA                 (0)                5          17,000         (0)         3.1E+7         330
    Di-n-butylphthalate
                                     130                 NA                                    5          2,600          (D}         4.7E+6         330
    Di-n-octyl phthalate                                                    (0)
                                     ID                  NA                 (0)                NA         ID             {D}         ID             NA
    Diacetone alcohol
                                     0.63                NA                                    0.5        13             (0)         23,000         10
    Diazinon                                                                {D}                                                                                     ('1
                                     0.0049              NA                 031   (0)          5          (G}            (0}         lAO            330             c-i
    fJLbenro(a,hanth4acene
                                                         NA                                    5          ID             (D)         ID             330             cc
    Dibenzofuran                      ID                                    (D)

                                                                                                                                                                    C,
                                                                                                                                                                    -3


I                                I                                                    1            J                     i                    Ii      I
    I           I        I         I   I         J     IC




ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUPCRITERIA (REVISION 3)                                                                                                                        Feb-94




                                                            GROUNDWATER                  (ug/I)_                                    SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                   Target                                                   Target
                                           Health-Based     Aesihelic                              Method                                                   Method
                                           Drinking Water   Drinking Waler                         Detection   20X Drinking              Direct Contact Detection
                                           Value            Value                081 Value   {A} Limit in      Water Value    20X 051    Value          Limit in
Chemical                                   (4709(2xa)(b))   I    709(2)(c)(d)]   IA 713)         Water {B}     tR 711(2)1     Value      I    711(5)J       Soil   {B}

Oibnomochfo,wmethant                       042              NA                   29                I           8,4            580        4,700              10
Dibromomethane                             77               NA                   (D}               5           1,500          {D}        8.6E-a-5           10
12-Dichlorobenzene                         600              NA                   7                 1           12,000         140        6.7E+6             10
I,3-Dichlorobenzene                        600              NA                   180               1           12,000         3,600      6.7E+6             ID
l,4-Viehlo.'tobenzene                      1.5              NA                   15                I           30             300        16,000             10
3,3'-t'.ichlo',obenz.cd-the                0077             NA                   0.063             20          1.5            1.3        2,800              2,000
Dichlorodifluorornethane                   1,600            NA                   (D}               1           32,000                    1.8E+7             10
                                                                                                                              {D}
1,1-flichloroettiane                       840              NA                   {D)               1           17,000         {D}        9.3E+6             10
1,t-Viehfoiroethane                        0.38             NA                   560               1           7.6            11,000     4,300              ID
1,1-Dichloroethylene                       7                NA                   32   {Q}          1           140            640                           10
                                                                                                                                         78,000
as-i ,2-Dichloroethylene                   77               NA                                     1
                                                                                 (D}                           1,500          {D}        8.6E+5             10
tran&-1 ,2-Dichloroethylene                120              NA                   300               1                                     1 .3E+6            10
                                                                                                               2,400          6,000
2,4-Dichlorophenol                         21               NA                   34                5           420            680        7.8E+5             330
                        acid
2,4-Dithlorophenoxyacetic                  70               NA                   47                10          1,400          940        2.6E+6             200
I, ?-tkchloitojrnopzne                     0.52             NA                   64                I           10             1,300      5,800              10
l,3-tkchlotoptopene          (KJ           0.2              NA                   3                 1           4              60         2,200              10
                                                                                                                                                        ,
Viehio'rovoi                               0.12             NA                   {D}               0.1         2.4            (D}        4,400              50
Dicyclohexyl phthalate                     ID               NA                   {D}               5           ID             (D}        ID                 330
                                                                                                                                                                            Cr'
Vieldtin                                   0.0022           NA                   3.2E-5            0.02        {G}            (0)        80                 3.3             Cr'
Diethyl ether                              3,500            NA                                     50                                    3.9E+7             100
                                                                                                                                                                            cc
                                                                                 (D}                           70,000         (0)




                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                                                                                    Feb-94
    ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                                  GROUNDWATER (tag/I)                                                                  SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                                Target                                                        Target
                                            Health-Based          Aesthetic                                     Method                                                        Method

                                            Drinking Water        Drinking Water                                Detection         20X Drinking              Direct Contact    Detection

                                            Value                 Value                   GSl Value        (A} Limit in           Water Value    20X 051    Value             timit in
    Chemical                                [R709(2fla)(b))        In 709(2)(c)(d)j       I    713)             Water   {0}       (R 711(2)1     Value      (A 711(5)1        Soil (B)


                                            5,200                  NA                     l.2E+5       (0)      5                 IE+5           2.4E+6     1.9E+8            330
    Diethylphthalate
                                            84                     NA                     {D}                   NA                1,700          (0)        3.1E+6            NA
    Diethylene glycol monobulyl ether
                                            54                     NA                     (D}                   NA                110            (0)        60,000            NA
    Diisopropylamine
                                            lea                    NA                     (D}                   NA                3,600          (0)        1.9E+6            NA
    N,N-Dimethylacetamide
                                            IS                     NA                     (I))                  NA                300            (D}        I.7E+5            NA
    N,N-Dimethylaniline
                                            670                    NA                     3,800                 NA                13,000         76,000     7.5E+6            NA
    Dimethyltotmamide
                                            350                    NA                     31                    5                 7,000          620        1.3E+7            330
    2,4-Dimethylphenol
                                            4,2                    NA                     (0)                   5                 84             (D}        l.6E+5            330
    2,6-Dimethylphenol
                                            9.8                    NA                     (0)                   5                 200            {D}        3.6E+5            330
    3,4-Dirnethylphenol
                                            70,000                 NA                     2.9E+6(0}             5                 1.4E+6         5.8E+7     1E+9(P}           330
    Dimethylphthalate
                                            2.IEI-5                NA                     (D)                   NA                4.2E+6         6644       1.OE+9            NA
    Dimethylsuttoxide
                                            0.052                  NA                     91    (0)             5                 I              1,800       1,900            330
    2,4-Pin.tttotoluene
                                            7                      NA                     0.5    {F}            I                 140            10         2.6E+5            20
    Dinoseb
                                            3.2                    NA                     2,000                 1                 64             40,000     35,000            10
    I,4-V.inane
                                            1.6                    NA                     0.056 (0)             0.01              (0)            (0)        60,000            3.3
    Endosuftan(U
                                            1.2                    NA                     0.0023                0.02              (G}            (0)        44,000        ,
                                                                                                                                                                              3.3
    Endrin
                                            3.5                    NA                     (0)                   5                 70             (D}         39,000           Ia
    Ep.ichfoztohqdtLn
    Ethanol                                 2.2E+6                 NA                     41,000                1,000             4.3E+7         8.2E+5      1.OE+9           1,000
                                            6,300                  NA                     1,000                 NA                1.3E+5         20,000      7E+7             NA
    Ethyl acetate
                                            680                    74                     31                    I                 1,500          620         7.5E+6           10
    Ethytbenzene




I         I                  I          I                     I           I           I                I            I         I            I     I                    I        I
I       I         I           I     I   .1        (         l         It      I             I              I            I          (         I             I           I      I


    ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVtSION 3)                                                                                                                                        Feb-94




                                                                GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                                      SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                           Target                                                             Target
                                             Health-Based       Aesthetic                         Method                                                                      Method
                                             Drinking Water     Drinking Waler                    Detection                 2OX Drinking                       Direct Contact Detection
                                             Value              Value               GSI Value (A} Limit in                  Water Value          20X GSI       Value          Limit in
    Chemical                                 IA 709(2)(a)(b)J    IA 709(2)(c)(d)j         713J             Water      {B}   [A 711(2)1           Value         [A 711(5)1     Soil {B}


                                             000042             NA                  1.1                        I            0.0084               22            4.7            10
    Ethqlene dib-romide
                                             14,000             NA                  68,000                     50           2.8E+5               I.4E+6        52E+8          200
    Ethylene glycol
                                             ID                 NA                  {D}                        NA           ID                   {D}           ID             NA
    Elhylene glycol acetate
                                             ID                 NA                  {D}                        NA           ID                   {D}           ID             NA
    1-EIhyI-2-niethytbenzene
    Fluoranthene                             840                 NA                 370 {Q}                    5            17,000               7,400         3.1E+7         330

    Fluorene                                 840                 NA                 14,000 {C))                5            17,000               2.OE+5        3iE+7          330
    Fluorine (soluble fluoride)              2,100 {C)           2,000              1,900                      NA           42,000     (C}       38,000{C I.6E+7              NA
                                             1.300               NA                 170                        100          26,000               3,400    I .4E +7            500
    Formaldehyde
    Formicacid                               9,800               NA                 (D}                        18,000       2.OE+5               (D}      1.IE+8              9.OE+5
                                             77                  NA                 (D}                        NA           1,500                {D}      8.6E+5              NA
    1-Formylpiperidine
    Gent-ian violet                          035                 NA                 {D}                        NA           7                    (D}      13,000              NA
                                             0.0077              NA                 0.0016                     0.01         (G}                  (6)           280            1.7
    tieptachloir
                                             0.0038              NA                 0.0011       {O}           0.01         (Ci)                 (6}           140            1.7
    lieptacktoir eporide
    n-Heptane                                31,000              NA                 {D}                        NA           62E+5                (0)           3.4E+8         NA
                                                                                                       -
    Hexabromobenzene                         20                  NA                 (D}                        0.1          400                  (D}           1.3E+5         50
    Hexachlonobenzene (C-6o)                 0.022               NA                 0.0018                     (A)          044                  0.036         800                (A)
    Flnachlotobutadiene (C-461               0.46                NA                 500 (O}                    (A)          9.2                  10,000        17,000             (A)
                                             0.0056              NA                 0.13    (Q}                0.01         0.11                 2.6           210                1.7
    alphalkraehlottocqclohexane
    beta -iler.aehlotoeqelohetane            0.02                NA                 0.46(0)                    0.01         0.4                  92            720                1.7
                                             50                  NA                 0.54                       (R}          1,000                11            1   .8E+6          (A)
                            (C-56)
    Hexathlorocyclopentadiene
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cl
                                                                                                                                                                                                 CI


                                                                                                                                                                                                 -J
                                                                                    17
                                                                                                                                                                           reb-94
    ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                             GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                                  SOIL (ughkg)
                                                                                                         Target                                                     Target
                                                                 Aesihetic                               Method                                                     Method
                                          Health-Based
                                                                                                     Detection             20X Drinking               Direct Contact Detection
                                          Drinking Water         Drinking Water
                                                                 Value                 GSI Value (A) Limit in              Water Value    20X 081     Value          Limit in
                                          Value
                                                                 U 709(2)(c)(d)]       IA 713]           Water   {B}       (A 711(2)]     Value       L  711(5)J     Soil {B}
    Chemical                              IA 709(2fta)(b)1

                                          2.5                    NA                    13                (A)               50             260         28,000         (A)
    Weiazchfoiioethane
                                                                 NA                                      NA                58,000         {D}         3.2E+7         NA
    n-I-lexane                            2,900                                        (D}
                                                                 NA                                      50                20,000         (D}         l,IEs-7        100
    2-Hexanone                            961)                                         (DI
                                                                 NA                    031               5                 (0)            (G}         180            330
                 2, 3-cd)pcjnene          0.0049                                               (0)
    Indeno(1,
                                                                                                         100               6,000 (C)      {D}         ID             2.000
    Iron                                  ID                     300   (C)             {D}
                                                                 NA                    {D}               1,000             44,000         (D}         2.SE+7         1,000
    Isobutyl alcohol                      2,200
                                                                 NA                    860               5                 760            17,000      4.3E+5         330
                                          38
    Iaopho'tone                                                                                                                                                      400
                                          450                    NA                    21,000            400               9,000          4.2E+5      5E+6
    Isopropyl alcohol
                                          4 (C,O)                NA                    6.6 (cEo)         3                 80 (C)         130   (C)   4E+5           1,000
    Lead
                                                                 NA                                      0.01              0,54           1.6         1,000          1.7
    L-indane                              0.027                                        0.08(0)
                                                                 50                    (0)               20                1,000 (C)      (D}       1.2E+6           2,004)
                                          110    (C)                  (C}
    Manganese                                                                                                                                                        lao
                                                                 NA                    0.0013 (C)        02                42   (C)       0.026 (C) 78,000
                                          2.1 (C)
    Mercury (Inorganic)                                                                                                                                              800
                                                                 NA                    41,000            800               70,000         8.2E+5    3.9E+7
    Methanol                              3,500
                                                                 NA                                      0.5               700            (0)         I.3E4-6        50
                                          35                                           (0)
    Methoxychlor
                                                                 NA                                      NA                560            (0)         3.IE-f5        NA
                                          28                                           (0)
    2-Methoxyethanol
                                                                 NA                                      0.5               140            (0)         2.6€ i-S       20
                                          7                                            (0)
    2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid
                                                                                       059               20                48             12          91,000         1,700
                                          2.4                    NA
    2-Methyl-4,6-dinilrophenol
                                                                                                         50                               (0)         3.9E+6         tOO
                                          350                    NA                    (0)                                 7,000
    4-Methyt-2-pentanorie (MlK}
                                                                  NA                   380               50                4,600          7,600       2,6E+6         100
                                          230                                                                                                                                       c-I
    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MIBE)
                                                                  NA                                     NA                ID             (D}         ID             NA             (i-i
                                           ID                                           (ID)
     Methylcyclopentane                                                                                                                                                             cx

                                                                                                                                                                                    —1




I          I         I                            4          I                     I                 I       I         I                                               I
I       I         I        I            I     I           I      I           I      j              1              j                   1             1           1       I            C




                                                                                                                                                                                  Feb-94
    ACT 307 TYPE S CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)




                                                                       GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                        SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                         Target                                                         Target
                                                    I-leaIIh-Based     Aesthetic                         Method                                                        Method
                                                                       Drinking Water                   Detection      20X Drinking                     Direct Contact Detection
                                                    Drinking Water
                                                    Value              Value              GSI Value {A} Limit in       Water Value        20X OSI       Value          Limit in

                                                                       IA 709(2)(c)(d))   [A             Water   (B)   (H 7II(2)J         Value         (A 711(5))     Soil (B)
    Chemical                                        iR 709(2)(a)(b)J

                                                    0.035              NA                                1             {G}                (0)           1,300               50
    4,4'-Methyfene.-b.14-2-chlo4oaflLti.flt   fMJ                                         (D}
                                                    4.6                 NA                59             I             92                 1,200         51,000              10
    Aicihylene chlo4Lde
                                                    19                  NA                1.100          NA            380                (D}           2.IE+5              NA
    N-Methyl-morpholine
                                                    ID                  NA                {D}            s             ID                 {D}           ID              330
    2-Methylnaphthalene
                                                    350                 NA                38             5             7,000              760           3.9E+6              330
    2-Methylphenol
                                                    350                 NA                {D}            5             7,000              (D}           1.3E+7              330
    3-Methyiphenol
                                                    35                  NA                24             5             700                460           1:.3+.6             330
    4-Methylphenol
                                                    1,600               NA                {D}            0.1           32,000             (D}           6E+7                20
    Metolachlor
                                                    250                 NA                29             5             5,000              580       9.3E+6                  330
    Naphthalene
                                                    530 (C)             NA                57 (C,E}       50            11,000   (C)       1,100 (C) 2E+7                    1,000
    Nickel
                                                    10,000              NA                {D)            NA            2.OE+5             (D}       6.4E+7                  NA
    Nitrate
                                                    1,000               NA                {D}            NA            20,000             (0)       2.6E+7                  NA
    Nitrite
                                                    3.2                 NA                1,900 {Q}      5             64                 38000         36,000              330
    Nitrobenzene
                                                    0.0049              NA                               5             0.098              (D}           54                  330
    fl-w.(.tito4o-d4.-n-PJIopqlam-cne                                                     {D}
                                                    1                   NA                160      {O}   5             140                3,200         78,000              330
    N-NLtto4othphenqtanu.ne
                                                    840                 NA                               0,1           17,000             {D}           3.1E+7              20
    Pendimethahn                                                                          (D}                                                                       ,


                                                    5.8                 NA                (0)            0.5           120                {D}           2.2E+5              50
    Pentachlorobenzene
                                                    0.29                NA                0.8 (F}        1             5.8                16            11,000              1,700
    Pentachlo'wplvenol
                                                                        NA                               NA            ID                 (0)           ID                  NA
    2-Pentene                                       ID                                    (0)
                                                    25                  NA                               5             500                (D}           9.3E+5              330
    Pt,enanthrene                                                                         {D}




                                                                                               9                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                                                                                Feb-94
ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                                GROUNDWATER (ug/I)                                                              SOIL (uglkg)
                                                                                                         Target                                                           Target
                                            Health-Based        Aesthetic                                Method                                                           Method
                                                                                                        Detection        20X   Drinking                  Direct Contact Detection
                                            Drinking Water      Drinking Water
                                                                 Value                  351   Value {A} Limit in         Water Value      20X GSI        Value          Limit in
                                             Value
                                                                                        (A 7131          Waler (B)       (A 711(2)1       Value          (A 711(5)1       Soil {B}
Chemical                                     IA 709(2fla)(b)j    jA 709(2)(c)(d))

                                                                 NA                     1,100            5               84,000           22,000         4.7E+7           330
Phenol                                       4.200
                                                                 NA                                      NA              62               (D}            34,000           NA
                                             3.1                                        (D}
Piperidine
                                                                 NA                                      0_al            0076             (0)            140              50
                                             0.0038                                     (0)
Pofqb'wminated bJphenyl4
                                                                 NA                     2E-5             0,2             {G}              (G}            1,000            330
                              (NJ            0.018
Polycklotcinated b-iphenqla                                                                                                                              5.7E+6           20
                                             150                 NA                     {D}              0.5             3,000            (D}
Prometon
                                             91                  NA                     (D}              0.2             1,800            (0)            3.4E+6           20
Propachlor
                                                                 NA                                      0.5             3,800            (D}            7E+6             20
                                             190                                        (0)
Propazine
                                                                 NA                                      18,000          2.4E+5           (0)            1.3E+8           9.0E+s
                                             12,000                                     (D}
Propionic acid
                                                                 NA                     8.2E+5           NA              26,000           l.6E+7         1.SE+7           NA
Propyt alcohol                               1,300
                                                                 NA                     1.9E+5           50              2.8E+6           3.8E+6         1E+9{P}          200
Propyleneglycol                              l.4E+5
                                                                 NA                     11,000           5               10,000           22E+5          l.9E+7           330
                                             520
Pyrene
                                             7                   NA                     20               10              140              400            78,000           330
Pyridine
                                             35 (C)              NA                     5 {C,Q}          5               700 (C)          100 {C}        1.3E-t-6         500
Selenium
                                                                  100                   0.1    {C}       0.5             660 (C)          2    (C}       1.2E+6           500
 Silver                                      33 {C)
                                                                 NA                                      NA              3E+6(C}          (0)            1E+9(P}          NA
 Sodium                                       1.5E+5                                    (0)
                                                                 NA                     19                I              24               380            13,000            10
 Stq4ene                                      1.2                                                                                                                     ,
                                                                 2,SE+5                                  NA              5E+6             (0)            ID                NA
 Sulfate                                      ID                                         (0)
                                                                  NA                                     NA              9,800            (0)             1.8E+7           NA
 Tebuthiuron                                  490                                        {D}
                                                                  NA                    0,4              01              48,000           8              8.8E+7            20
 1,2,4.5-Tetrachlorobenzene                   2,400
                                                                  NA                     1   .4E-8        1   E-5         (3)             (G}            0.013            0.001          /t
 2,3, 7,8- Tet4aeklo4odthenzo-p-dioJtbl   (SI 4.6E-7


                                                                                                                                                                                         -J

                                                                                               '
                                                                                    1                I               1                     I         I                      I
I        I       I           I         I      .        I      I'

                                                                                                                                                                          C-
                                                                                                                                                                          a
                                                                                                                                                                      Feb-aid
    ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUP CRITERIA (REVISION 3)



                                                                     GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                      SOIL (ug/kg)
                                                                                                         Target                                                 Target

                                                  Health-Based       Aesthetic                           Method                                                 Method
                                                                                                          Detection    20X Drinking              Direct Contact Detection
                                                  Drinking Water     Drinking Water
                                                                     Value               OSI Value   {A} Limit in      Water Value    20X 051    Value          Limit in
                                                  Value
                                                                                         (B 713)          Water if3)   (P 711(2)1     Value      [H 711(5)J     Soil (B)
    Chemical                                      (B 709(2)(a)(b)J    [B 709(2)(c)(d)]

                                                                      NA                                  1            26             {0}        15.000         10
                                                  1.3                                    {D}
    7,,,!, i-Tetiraehfoiuetltant                                                                                                      640                       10
                                                                      NA                 32               I            3,6                       1,900
    I, !,2,2-Te.tIuzchfo4oe-thane                 0.18
                                                                                         22               1            14             440        7,800          10
                                                  0.7                 NA
    Tetitachfa.kot.thYhflt                                                                                                                                      NA
                                                  230                 NA                 3,300            NA           4,600          66,000     2.6E +6
    Tetrahydrofuran
                                                                      NA                 6.3 {C,Q}        2            12    (C)      130 {C}    22,000         500
    Thallium                                      0.58 (C}
                                                                      790                110              1            16,000         2,200                     10
    Toluene                                       1,500
                                                                                                          NA           3.6            {D}        6,900          NA
                                                  0.18                NA                 {D}
    -Totui4ine                                                                                                                        0.004      350            170
                                                  0.032               NA                 0.0002    {O}    1            0.64
    Toxaphtne
                                                                      NA                                  1            1,800          (0)        3.4E+6         20
    TriaUate                                      91                                     {D}
                                                                                                          NA           200            (D}        1.1E+5         NA
                                                  9.8                 NA                 (0)
    Tributylamlne
                                                                      NA                 22               (A)          2,200          440        1.2E+6         (R}
                                                  110
    12,4.TrichlorobeflZene
                                                                      NA                     120          1            4,000          2,400      2.2E+6         10
    l,1,1.Trichloroethane                         200
                                                                      NA                 65               1            13             1,300       7,000         10
    1,!,?-Tx.Leh&rnoe.thane                       0.63
                                                                      NA                 94               1            44             1,900       24,000        10
    Tu.ch1trnoethqLent                            2.2
                                                                      NA                                      1        48,000         {D}         2.7E+7         10
    Trichlorofluorometharle                       2,400                                      (0)
                                                  700                 NA                     (0)          50            14,000         (0)                  -
    2,4,5-Trichloropheflol
                                                                      NA                     1.5              5        64             30          1.2E+5        330
    ?,4,6-Tiviehloa.ophtnol                       3.2
                                                                                             21               1         1,000         420         I .YE+6        50
                                    acid           52                 NA
    2(2,4,5.Tricttlorophenoxy)prOPiOniC
                                                                                                              1        800             {D)        4.4E+5         10
     1,2,3-Trichloropropane                        40                 NA                     (D}
                                                                                                              NA       3.8E+6          {D}        1E+9{P}        NA
     1,1,2-Trichloro.1,2,2-trifluoroethafle        1.9E+5              NA                    {D}
                                                                                                                                                                         01
                                                                                                                                                                         01



                                                                                         I    Ii
                                                                                                                                                                       Feb-94
ACT 307 TYPE B CLEANUPCRITERtA (REVISION 3)



                                                             GROUNDWATER (ugh)                                                          SOIL (uglkg)            ________
                                                                                                 ________
                                                                                                 Target                                                         Target
                                                                                                 Method                                                         Method
                                         aith-Based          Aesthetic
                                                                                                 Detection          20X Drinking               Direct Contact Detection
                                         nking Water         Drinking Waler
                                                                                                 Limit in           Water Value    20X GSI     Value            Limit in
                                                                                                 Water                             Value           (A 111(5))   Soil   (B}
                                         709(2fla)(b)j        IA 709(2)(cHd)I       IA 713)               {B}       IA 111(2))
    rnicaiTfIT
TnitzaaWt
                                    4.6                       NA                    jD}          I                  92
                                                                                                                    ID
                                                                                                                                   {D}             1.7E+5
                                                                                                                                                   ID
                                                                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                                                                NA
                                    ID                        NA                    {D}          NA                                {D}
2.2,4.Trimethyl-2pefltefle                                                                                          ID                             ID           10
                                                                                                 1                                 (D}
                                    ID                        NA                    {D}
1,3,5.Trimethylbeflzene                                                                                             0.4                            720          NA
                                    0.02                      NA                    (D}          NA                                (D}
au12,3_VihnomopnopsJl)PSlOaPhlLtt                                                                                                  160             2.2E+6       1,000
                                                              NA                    8 {C}        20                 1,200 {C}            {C}
Vanadium                            61(C)                                                                                                          6.8E+6       ioo
                                    620                       NA                    NA           50                 12,000         (0)
Vinyl acetate                                                                                    1                  0.32           62              180           10
                                    0.016                     NA                    3.1
 Vviy/ chloxtde                                                                                  3                  5,600          1,200           1.4E+8       30
                                                              280                   59
                                    13,000
 Xylenes                                                                                         20                 46,000         1,600 (C}       B.6E+7        1,000
                                                                                    81    (CE)                               (C}
                                    2,300 (C}                 5,000   (C)
 Zinc




                                                                                                                                                                       UI
                                                                                                                                                                       Zn


                                                                                                                                                                       -j
                                                                                                                                                                       c-n




                                                         1                      1                               I                              I            I
        I                                                                                 21
   I                    lii               I                   J         1            i         i                                                                  p




Footnotes

(A) Groundwater surfacewater interface (OS!) values are based on Rule       57   of Act 245. The 031 values are presented only to establish groundwatercriteria which are
       protectiveof surface waler.
(B) Acceptable method detection limits for groundwater and soil samples, the latter expressed in ug/kg dry weight.
(C) Background, as defined in Rule 701(c). may be substituted as the cleanup criteria if higher than the Type B cleanup criterion.
(D} Chemical has eilher not been evaluated or an inadequate data base precludes Ihe developmentof a 031 value. MONA should be contacted to determine whether
    a chemical is being evaluated or has been evaluated since this list was prepared. If no value exists, the responsible party (AP) may develop a proposed dsi value
    for MONA review and approval. Guidance can be obtained from MDNR. If a 031 value cannot be developed from data in the scientific literature, the RP can eilher
    perform a Type A cleanup or generate the minimum toxicity data requ red to develop the GSI value.
{E} GSI value    is dependant on water hardness. Value presented   was calculated assuming a hardness of 178 mg/I of CaCO3. If site-specific water hardnessis expected
     to be significantly different, contact an FAD toxicologist.
{F} 031 value is pH dependant. Value was calculated assuming a pH of 7.7, II site-specific pH is expecledto be significantly different, contact an FAD toxicologist.
(IS) Chemical, due to its physicochemical     properties, is not expected to leach through soils to groundwater under most conditions, Therefore, the direct contact soil
     criterion is consideredto be protective of groundwater. However, the presence of organic solvents in the soil may increase the solubility of these chemicals,
     thereby increasingthetr potential to leach from soil to g:roundwater. Under these conditions site-specific leachate testing may be required.
(H) Professional judgemenf used to determinethat 50 ppb of aluminumin drinktng water is protective of human healih.
{l) Criteria is based on agricultural impacts (phytotoxi.city), not 20X groundwater criterion.
(J} Valence-specific chromiumdata (Cr Ill and Cr Vt) must be compared to the same valence-specific        cleanupcriteria. If analytical data are provided for "total"
    chromium only, then values for chromium VI must be applied as the cleanup criteria. Chromium Ill cleanup criteria can only be used at sites where groundwater
    is prevented from being used as a public water suppty, currently or in the future.
                                     can
{K} Criteria for 1 ,3-dichloropropene be applied to the cis- and trans-i ,3-dichtoropropene isomers. The toxicity data used for criteria developmentwas generated using
    a mixture  of both isomers(Telone II).
{L} Criteria for endosulfancan be applied to endosulfanI (alpha-endosulfan) and endosulfan II (beta-endosulfan).

(M} Also known as MBOCA.
(N} If more than one PCB Aroclor is present, the total PCB concentration must be compared to the PCB criteria.
(0) Higher level may be acceptable if soil concentration is less than 400 ppm and groundwater migrating off-site will not impact adjacent properties. Contact an FAD
     toxicologist for furtherexplanation.
(P) Direct contact criterion is at saturation in soil. Criterionis actuallygreaterthan 100% in soil, hence it is reduced to 100%.
{O} Basis for the 031 value is the National Toxics Rule (NTR). The NTR value was either more restrictive than the Rule 57 value or a Rule 57 value was not available.
{R) Two different analytical methods and target method detection limits are available for this chemical. Please refer to Operational Memorandum #6 for details,
{S) Use 2,3,7,8-TCDD "toxicity equivalence factors" (TFFs) for other chlorinateddibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinateddibenzofurans. Contact an FAD toxicologist for details,'4
 ID = Inadequate data to develop criterion; NA = Not available.




                                                                                         113
                MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
                                                                           558 77
                             (NTEROFFCE COMMUNICATION

                                    June 21, 1994



TO:             Environmental Response Division Staff
FROM:           Alan J. Howard, Chief, Environmental Response Division
SUBJECT:        Addendum to MERA Operational Memorandum #8, RevIsion 3 -- Type B
                Criteria Rules 299.5709! 299.5711(2), 299.5711(5) and 299.5713


The attached document Is the technical justification for the revised Type B
criteria for the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Please
replace the current criteria with the values listed below and attach this
addendum to MERA Operational Memorandum #8.

Historically, MDNR policy has considered all carcinogenic PAHs to be equlpotent
to benzo[a]pyrene. However, current toxicological information suggests that many
of the PAHs are less potent carcinogens than benzo[a)pyrene. The revised PAH
criteria were developed using provisional guidance provided by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which gives estimates of the potential
potency (EPP) of 6 PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene. The Type B health-based
drinking water values (DW) and direct contact values (DCV) are listed below in
units of parts per billion (ppb). GSI values for these compounds will continue
to be based on that of benzo[a]pyrene. Soil 20X drinking water and 20X GSI
values are not provided since these chemicals are not expected to leach through
soils to groundwater under most condtiôns Please contact an [RD toxicologist
if you have questions or need further information: Christine Flaga, 517-373-0160;
Jeffrey Crum, 335-3092, or Linda Larsen, 335-3161.


                                                               DCV

Benzo[a)pyrene                    1.0        0.0049*           180*
Dibenz[a,h)anthracene             1.0        0,0049*           180*
Benzo[a]anthracene                0.1        0,049*            1800
Benzo(b]fluoranthene              0.1        0.049*            1800
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene           0.1        0.049*            1800
Benzo[k]fluoranthene              0.01       Q•49*             18,000
Chrysene                          0.001      49*               180,000
*
      default   to method detection limit of 5 ppb.
**    default   to method detection limit of 30 ppb.




                                                            odl
                     MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

                                  INTEROFFICE COMMUNICATION                 558      78

                                         June 21, 1994


                                    JUSTIFICATION FOR THE
                             ESTIMATED ORDER OF POTENTIAL POTENCY
                          OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANs)


              Current Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Environmental
        Response Division (ERD) policy assumes that all carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic
        hydrocarbons (PARs) are equipotent to benzo[a]pyrene (RAP).   Based on this
        assumption, the oral slope factor developed for SAP has been used to develop
        Michigan Environmental Response Act (MERA) 307 cleanup criteria. This policy was
        based on United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations at
        the time of its implementation.      Advances in the toxicological data base,
        however, have led to the recognition that some of the carcinogenic PAHs are less
        carcinogenic in animal studies than BAP. EPA quantitative risk estimates for
        PANs have not been consistent across all federal programs, with some offices
        using the equipotency approach and others using comparative potencies from
        differing sources.
              In July of 1993, in an effort to resolve the inconsistencies in estimating
        the risks from PAHs, the EPA issued its "Provisional Guidance for Quantitative
        Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons". This document states that
        the equipotency approach results in an overestimation of the carcinogenic risks
        of PANs and presents quantitative estimates of carcinogenic potency of seven
        PAHs   relative   to   the   potency    of  benzo[a]pyrene.       Included   are
        dibenz[a, hjanthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[bjfluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-
        c,d]pyrene, benzo[k)fluoranthene, and chrysene.      These compounds have been
        classified under the U.S. EPA weight of evidence classification system as B2,
        probable human carcinogens. However, the toxicological data base Is insufficient
        to support the development of slope factors for each individual compound.
        Additionally, the interim approach presented in this document does not meet the
        requirements necessary for the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEF)
        similar to those used for assessment of risks from dioxin-like compounds.
        Therefore, the U.S. EPA has chosen to present this approach as an "estimated
        order of potential potency".
              As stated above, the toxicological data base for carcinogenic PARs other
        than BAP is not broad. The available information indicates that carcinogenicity
        is the most sensitive endpoint for PAH toxicity.       Data for noncarcinogenic
        effects is generally lacking, however, immunotoxicty is considered to correlate
        roughly with carcinogenicity. Data is also lacking on the additivity of the
        carcinogenic effects of PAHs.     The U.S. EPA has determined, however, that
        additivity assumptions will yield generally neutral risk estimates (neither
        conservative nor lenient) for compounds which are believed to induce similar
        effects at the same sites of action.
              At this time the provisional guidance is undergoing internal EPA review.
        Several regions, including Region V, have accepted the guidance and are using the
        approachfor risk assessments (RA). An advisory document has been written by
        Jeanine Dinan of the Toxics Integration Branch to provide regional risk assessors
        with direction in the use of the approach. In addition, an expert panel within
        the EPA, headed by Terry O'Brien, has reviewed and classified 104 PAR compounds




R 1Q€
1V93
                                                                             558 79
              f icati   on                  -2-                         June 21, 1994


     as to their carcinogenicity and/or toxicity. The latter document presents a
     qualitative approach rather than the quantitative methodology used in the EPA
     provisional guidance. Unfortunately, neither of these documents are available
     for dissemination outside the EPA. Regional staff have been requested to provide
     convnents on the provisional guidance, the advisory document, and the qualitative
     review. Pending this review, the EPA expects to issue final guidance by early
     1995.   The Carcinogenic Risk Assessment Verification Endeavor (CRAVE) has
     determined that the interim guidance aproach will not be used to develop slope
     factors for listing in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and the
      review pending" message has been removed from the carcinogenic assessment
     section of relevant files.     This decision was based on the failure of the
     provisional guidance to meet the requirements for the development of TEFs and the
     Inadequacies of the existing toxicological data base. It is expected that the
     CRAVE work group will reopen their review following the Internal EPA review of
     the documents listed above.
           The MDNR Toxics Steering Group has the estimated order of potency approach
     under consideration. As part of this review, a literature search was done to
     identify toxicojogical studies which support the use of the estimated potency
     approach.    Nisbet and LaGoy (1992) evaluated several relative potencles
     approaches for PAHs and presented a modified version which differs minimally from
     the U.S. EPA approach. Nisbet suggests a potential potency of 0.01 for chrysene
     as compared to EPA's 0.001. Additionally, Nisbet considers a potential potency
     of 5 more likely for dibenz[a,h]anthracene at the low doses expected to be
     encountered in the natural environment. EPA recommends a potential potency of
     I for dibenz[a,h]anthracene. Nisbet also suggests that many of the PAHs now
     considered to be non-carcinogenic may In fact exhibit some potency in mixtures
     of several PAHs.   This possibility has been explored by other researchers,
     however, no quantitative estimates are avafTable to predict the potency of PAH
     mixtures at this time (Schmahl et al, 1977; Pfeiffer, 1977) and there Is
I-   insufficient evidence to classify these compounds as B2 carcinogens. The EPA
     review predates the Nisbet and Lagoy study and does not include a review of this
     information. However, both the EPA recommendations and those of Nisbet and Lagoy
     rely upon the same toxicological data base.
           Based on the above discussion, ERWtdkicblogists are recommending that the
     estimated order of potential potency approach presented in the U.S. EPA
     provisional guidance be adopted for use in Ad 307 risk isststhints including the
     development of cleanup criteria. In part, this decision is based upon the desire
     to be consistent with EPA recommendations for risk assessments generated under
     federal programs.   Therefore, the alternate relative potencies presented in
     Nisbet and Lagoy will not be adopted. However, if further information becomes
     available which indicates that the potency of dibenz[a,h]anthracene is greater
     than benzo[a]pyrene, the applicable criteria may be adjusted. Criteria may also
     be modified pending the results of the internal EPA review. The MERA Act 307
     health-based cleanup criteria developed under this approach are expected to be
     protective of both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects. As is the practice
     for risk assessments generated under Act 307, the carcinogenicity of the PAHs Is
     assumed to be additive.
           At this time, analytical techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to
     detect concentrations of PAHs at the current MERA Act 307 Type B criteria. ERD
     policy under these circumstances is to default to the method detection limit as
                                                                     558 80
PM Justification                         -3-                         June 21, 1994


the ultimate cleanup goal. Unless new analytical techniques become available,
it is expected that the method detection limit would remain the default criteria
In soils for both dlbenz(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene and in groundwater for
all of the carcinogenic PAHs. Cleanup criteria for the remaining carcinogenic
PAils are calculated by multiplying the slope factor for benzo[a]pyrene (1.3
mg/kg-d) by the recomended estimate of potential potency (EPP). The resulting
Type B health-based drinking water values (OW) and direct contact values (DCV)
are listed below in units of parts per billion (ppb).


                                                               DCV

Benzo[a]pyrene                   1.0           0.0049*         180*
Dlbenz(a,h)anthracene            1.0           0.0049*         180*
Benzo[a]anthracene               0.1           Q•Q49*          1800
Benzo(b]fluoranthene             0.1           0.049*          1800
Indeno[1,2,3-c,d)pyrene          0.1           0.049*          1800
Benzo[k]fluoranthene             0.01          0.49*           18,000
Chrysene                         0.001         4•9*            180,000
*    default   to method detection limit of 5 ppb.
**   default   to method detection limit of 330 ppb.



                                     References

Oman, Jeanine, Toxics Integration Branch, EPA. 1994. personal communication.

McGaugy, Robert, U.S. EPA. 1994. personal communication.

Nisbet, Ian C and Peter K. LaGoy. 1992. Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEF) for
      Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regulatory Toxicology and
       Pharmacology 16, 290-300.

Pfeifer, E.H. 1977. Oncogenic Interaction of Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic
      Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.   In Air Pollution and Cancer in Man.
      IARC (16).

O'Brien, Terry, Toxics Integration Branch, EPA. 1994. personal communication.

Schmahl, D. et al. 1977. Syncarcinogenic Action of Polycyclic Aromatic
      Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust Gas Condensates. In Air Pollution and
      Cancer in Man. IARC (16).

U.S. EPA. 1993. Provisional Guidance for Quantitative Risk Assessment of
       Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (EPA/600/R-93/089).

Van Luen, Pat, U.S. EPA Region V. 1994. personal comunication.
                              558 81




    r1
koendik C uMiPv Arne Prntit
 'I         I          (J
                                                    558 82




       QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN

                Project LWRC 94-0028
                      EOD Range
           Contract No. DACW4S-94-D-0001
                 Delivery Order No. 8




                    Prepared for:

         K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan
—    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District




                     Prepared by:
    Rust ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE INC.
            111 North Canal Street, Suite 305
                Chicago, Illinois 60606
                    (312) 902-7100




                      June 1995
    QAPP
    Project L WRC94-0028                                                    558 83
                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                Pate

    LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS....                                             Iv

    1.0      INTRODUCTION                                                         1-1

    2.0      PROJECT DESCRIPTION                                                  2-1
             2.1      Site History/Background Information                         2-1
             2.2      Objective and Scope                                         2-2

    3.0      PROJECT ORGANIZATION                                                 3-1
             3.1      Agency Participants                                         3-1
             3.2      TERC Participants                                           3-1
             3.3      Base Participants                                           3-2
             3.4      Laboratory Staff                                            3-2

S   4.0      QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES FOR ANALYTICM DATA                      4-1
             4.1      Accuracy, Precision, and Sensitivity of Analysis            4-1
             4.2      Level of Quality Control Effort                             4-1
             4.3      Completeness, Representativeness, and Comparability         4-2

    5.0      FIELD OPERATIONS                                                     5-1
             5.1  Subsurface Soil Sampling .                                      5-1
             5.2      Monitoring Well Installation and Well Development           5-2
             5.3      Groundwater Sampling                                        5-3

    6.0      FIELD DOCUMENTATION AND SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION
             SYSTEM                                                               6-1
             6.1
             6.2
             6.3
                  Daily Quality Control Reports
                  Field Log Book
                  Sample Identification System
                                                          .           .,          6-1
                                                                                  6-1
                                                                                  6-1
             6.4  Sample Labels                                                   6-2
             6.5  Packaging and Shipping        .                                 6-3

    7.0      SAMPLE CUSTODY                                                       7-1
             7.1 Field Custody Procedures                                         7-1
             7.2 Laboratory Custody Procedures                                    7-1
             7.3 Final Evidence Files                                             7-1

    8.0      CALIBRATION PROCEDURES                                               8-1
             8. 1 Field Instruments                                               8-1
             8.2  Laboratory Instruments                                          8-I




    n: tREPORTSTERCSTh26 Z3QZZL P61                 1                        June 1995
QAPP                                                         558      84
Project L WRC94-0028


                              TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)

                                                                     Page
9.0    ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES                                           9-1
       9.1 Field Measurements                                          9-1
       9.2 Laboratory Analysis                                         9-1

10.0 DATA REDUCTION, VALIDATION, AND REPORTING                        10-1
      10.1 Field Data                                                 10-1
        10.2   Laboratory Data                                        10-1

11.0 INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL CHECK                                   11-1
        11.1   Field Quality Control Checks                           11-1
        11.2   Laboratory Analysis                                    11-1

12.0 PERFORMANCE AND SYSTEM AUDITS                                    12-1
        12.1   Field Audits                                           12-1
        12.2   Laboratory Audits                                      12-1

13.0 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE                                           13-1
        13.1   Field Instruments                                      13-1
        13.2   Laboratory Instruments                                 13-1

14.0 DATA ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES                                       14-1
        14.1   Field Data                                             14-1
        14.2   Laboratory Data                                        14-1

15.0 CORRECTIVE ACTIONS                                               15-1

16.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORTS                                        16-1


                                    LIST OF FIGURES

Fizures                                                    Follows Section

1-1    Base Location                                                   1.0
3-1    Project Organization Chart                                      3.0




n:tREPORTSTERCS8\263QZZ1P6/                   ii                 June 1995
—
    QAPP                                                                            558      85
    Project tWRC94QP2fi


                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)


                                         LIST OF TABLES

    Tables                                                                     Follows Section

    2-I      Sampling Summary - Soil Analyses                                              2.0
    2-2      Sampling Summary - Groundwater Analyses                                       2.0
    4-1      Accuracy and Precision Requirements                                           4.0
    4-2      Parameters and Reporting Limits, VOCs, Method 8260                            4.0
    4-3      Parameters and Reporting Limits, SVOCs, Method 8270                           4.0
    4-4      Parameters and Reporting Limits, Herbióides, Method 8150                      4.0
    4-5      Parameters and Reporting Limits, Inorganics, Method 6010                      4.0
    4-6      Parameters and Reporting Limits, Explosives, Method 8330                      4.0
    4-7      Sample Containers, Preservatives, and Holding Times                           4.0
    4-8      Preventive Maintenance                                                        4.0


    ATTACHMENTS

    1.       Quanterra QAPP Section 2, Organization and Responsibility
    11.      Standard Operating Procedures for Field Parameter Measurements
    III.     Quanterra QAPP, Section 5, Sample Custody
    IV.      Quanterra QAPP, Section 8, Data Reduction, Review and Reporting
    V.       Data Quality Control Report Form




    ,v\REPORTS\TERCS8t2673QZZ!P61                Hi                                   June 1995
QAPP
Project LWRC94-0028                                               58     88

                               LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

AFB               Air Force Base
CLP               Contract Laboratory Program
DCS               Duplicate Control Sample
DCQRs             Daily Quality Control Reports
DQOs              Data Quality Objectives
EOD               Explosive Ordnance Disposal
IRP               Installation Restoration Program
IRPIMS            IRP Information Management System
LIMS              Laboratory Information Management System
MDNR              Michigan Department of Natural Resources
MERA              Michigan Environmental Response Act
pig/kg            micrograms per kilogram
                  micrograms per liter
MRD               Missouri River Division
MS/MSD            Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike Duplicate
MSSD              Matrix Spike/Spike Duplicate
NAPLs             Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids
OB                Open Burn
OD                Open Detonation
PID               Photoionization Detector
PVC               Poly Vinyl Chloride
QA                Quality Assurance
QAPP              Quality Assurance Project Plan
QC                Quality Control
QCSR              Quality Control Summary Report
RCRA              Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RPD               Relative Percent Difference
Rust              Rust Environment & Infrastructure
SCS               Single Control Sample
SOP               Standard Operating Procedure
SSHP              Site Safety and Health Plan
SVOC              Semi Volatile Organic Compounds
TAL               Target Analyte List
TERC              Total/Environmental Restoration Contrast
USACE             U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USEPA             United States Environmental Protection Agency
USAF              United State Air Force
VOC               Volatile Organic Compound




iv \REPORTS TERC'58126 3QZZL P61                iv                     June 1995
QAPP                                                                                     558          87
Project LWRC94-0028    I' 4',



                                    1.0   INTRODUCTION


The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requires that all environmental
monitoring and measurement efforts mandated or supported by USEPA participate in a centrally
managed quality assurance (QA) program.

My party generating data under this program has the responsibility to implement minimum
procedures to assure that the precision, accuracy, completeness, and representativeness of its data
are known and documented. To ensure the responsibility is met uniformly, each party must
prepare a written QA Project Plan (QAPP) covering each project it is to perform.

This QAPP presents the organization, objectives, functional activities and specific QA and
quality control (QC) activities associated with the closure of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal
(EOD) Range at K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base (AFB) (Project LWRC94-0028). The location of
the project is presented in Figure 1-1. This plan was prepared by Rust Environment &
Infrastructure (Rust) under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Total Environmental
Restoration Contract (TERC), Contract No. DACW45-94-D-000l. This QAPP also describes the
specific protocols which will be followed for sampling, sample handling and storage, chain-of-
custody, and field and laboratory analysis.

All QA/QC procedures will be in accordance with applicable professional technical standards,
USEPA requirements, government regulations and guidelines, and specific project goals and
requirements. The laboratory to be used during this project will be Quanterra Environmental
Services.

l'his QAPP was prepared in accordance with USEPA's Interim Guidelines and Specifications for
Preparing Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans (QAMS-005/80), the USEPA Region V Model
QAPP (1991) and the Region V Model Mini-QAPP (1993). The overall QA objective is to
develop data collection and data reporting procedures that will be representative of EOD Range
conditions and will provide legally defensible results in a court of law.




it REPORTSTERCS8U673QZZLP6I                     1-1                                      June 1995
      T                                                    :T1 -t         L       -l 1
                 41)




                                                              rr. '%.'
                                                               c_s.
                             •

                                       JK.I.SAWYER

                                   2
          CO.

                   6W 1 NN
                                                     wa

ffi
                                                                              0


                                                                                  WaX w IsES


                                                                                        Iocmap2.dgn
                                                                                         sv6?IqlIo

                FIG URE          1—1                                   QAPP
              BASE LOCATION                               K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
          PROJECT LWRC 94-0028
                                                                MARQUEI IE, MICHIGAN
     QAPP                                                                          5
     Project L WRC94-0028


                                     2.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION


     2.1     SITE HISTORY/BACKGROUND INFORMATION

     The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan associated with the QAPP
     describes the steps to be taken by K. I. Sawyer AFB to complete final closure of the EOD Range
     at K.I. Sawyer AEB in Marquette, Michigan. The closure is to be carried out in a manner that:
     (1) minimizes the need for further maintenance and (2) controls, minimizes, or eliminates (to the
     extent necessary to protect human health and the environment) postc1oswe escape of hazardous
     wastes, hazardous waste constituents, leachate, contaminated rainfall, or waste decomposition
     products to groundwater, surface water, or the atmosphere.

     The EOD Range treated unserviceable munitions items by burning them with fuel (open burning)
     in a metal kettle or by open detonation (OD) with a charge in sand pits. OD operations may
     have resulted in unexploded ordnance being buried or driven downwards from detonation. After
     completing open burning (OB) or OD treatment, the residual materials were disposed in
—    munitions residue burial pits within the EOD Range boundary. The EOD Range is not currently
     active, and the last OB/OD operations were conducted in March 1994.

     The purpose of this document is to describe the necessary steps and documentation needed for
     the EOD Range to receive clean closure certification. The initiation of a two-phased process will
     allow for the safe and timely completion of field tasks which are condensed into the following
     activities:

             I.    Ordnance and Explosive Waste Removal:

                   a.   Buried ordnance residue pits are to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the
                        last item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.
I-
                   b.   The open detonation area is to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the last
                        item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

                   c.   The remainder of the EOD Range is to be cross-ripped using a bulldozer
                        equipped with three-foot tines. The cross-ripped area will be inspected by EOD
                        personnel for evidence of any munition residue or explosives. If any residuals!
                        explosives are revealed as a result of cross-ripping, the respective area will be
                        cleared to a depth of 4 feet below the last item found.

                   d. Any soil excavated for the purpose of explosive clearance will be returned to
                       original location, unless there is obvious evidence of contamination.




     n\REPORTS\TERCS8L'673QZZ!P6/                     2-[_                                     June 1995
QAPP
Project LWRC94-0028                                                               558 90
        2.   RCRA Closure Field Efforts:

             a.    33 soil samples, using grid formation layout, will be obtained from a depth of
                   1 to 3 feet and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile
                   organic compounds (SVOCs), herbicides, inorganics, and explosives.

             b.    5 monitoring wells will be installed.

             c.    Groundwater samples will be collected from 5 monitoring wells and analyzed
                   for VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and explosives.

The preceding field tasks are discussed at length in Sections 4.0 through 6.0 of the RCRA
Closure Plan. Laboratory analyses of soil and groundwater samples will include VOCs, SVOCs,
herbicides, inorganics, and explosives, as shown in Tables 2-I and 2-2.

2.2     OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE

The overall objective of the EOD Range closure activities is to address the effects of historic
operational and waste management practices so that human health and the environment are
protected when the base is realigned to civilian use.

This QAPP is an integral part of the RCRA Closure Plan prepared for the EOD Range, and
defines the QA methods and controls that will be used to collect and analyze samples for the
RCRA Closure of the EOD Range performed under TERC. The QAPP is designed to ensure that
the quality, precision, accuracy, and completeness of the data generated meet the established Data
Quality Objectives (DQOs).

The scope and content of this QAPP is based on the procedures and sampling that will most
likely be implemented during the EOD Closure. Should the need for additional sampling occur
during the implementation of the project, the QAPP will be modified accordingly.




nIREPQRTS\TERCS8I2Ô'3QZZI.P61                    2-2                                    June 1995
I            I                I        I            t            I           I            F           I            I             I           C                        I            I        I.          I
                                                                                     TABLE 2-1
                                                                                  K. I. Sawyer ATh
                                                                      Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan
                                                                           Sampling Summary- Soil Analyses
                                                                                                                                                                                                            'I

                                                                                                                                                                Approximate
                                                                                                                    Approximate           Approximate             Number                Approximate
                     Tier                                        Analyte                           Reporting         Number               Number Trip                                     Number
                                                                                                     Units                                                        Equipment
                                                                                                                       Samples               Blanks                                    Dup/Rep Blanks
                                                                                                                                                                    Blanks

                       I                     Volatile Organic Compounds                               .igikg               33                    3                        2                  2

        Investigative Sampling               Semivolalile Organic Compounds                           gig/kg               33                    -                        2                  2

                                             Herbicides                                               pig/kg               33                    -                        2                  2

                                             Inorganics                                               pig/kg               33                    -                        2                  2

                                             Explosives                                               sg4cg                33                    -                        2                  2

                                                                                                                           °                     °)                       (I)                (I)
                       II                    Volatile Organic Compounds                               igikg
                                                                                                                                                 (I)                      (I)                (I)
        Waste Characterization               Semivolatile Organic Compounds                           isg/kg
                                                                                                                           (I)                   (I)                      (I)                (I)
                  Sampling                   Herbicides                                               pig/kg
                                                                                                                           (I)                   U)                       (I)                (I)
                                             Inorganics                                               pig/kg
                                                                                                                                                 (I)                      (I)                )
                                             Explosives                                               JIg/k
                      III                    Volatile Organic Compounds                               pig/kg               33                    2                        2                  2

            Closure Sampling                 Semivolatile Organic Compounds                           pig/kg               33                     -                       2                  2

                                             Herbicides                                                                    33                     -                       2                  2
                                                                                                      jag/kg                                                                                                0,
                                                                                                                                                                                                            01
                                             Inorganics                                                                    33                     -                       2                  2
                                                                                                      pig/kg

                                             Explosives                                               pig/kg               33                     -                       2                  2              Co

    Note:        0'Thisset ofsampling wilt be performed using a 30 feet grid spacing on cdt,, where concentrationsofthe analytes exceet the cleanup leveLs duringtier I saniplth


    n:\tercsS\2671Q2- I wp5
                                                                           TABLE 2-2
                                                                        K. I. Sawyer AFB
                                                             Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan
                                                            Sampling Summary - Groundwater Analyses


                                                                                         Approximate   Approximate                             Approximate
                             Analyte                                  Reporting           Number       Number Trip       ApproximateNumber   Number DurilReri
                                                                        Units                                             Equipment Blanks
                                                                                          Samples        Blanks                                  Blanks

  Volatile Organic Compounds                                                                     6            1                  1                  1
                                                                          wJ1
  Seinivolatile Organic Compunds                                          ig/l                   6                               I                  1



  Inorganics                                                              gg/1                   6                               I                  I

  Herbicides                                                                                     6            -                  I                  I
                                                                          igR
  Explosives                                                                                     6            -                  I                  I
                                                                          jig/I

          Note:      01Grnundw.IeTsainplngwill be conducted once closure samples are collected




n:\tercsS\267l Q2-2.wp5




                                                                                                                                                                01
                                                                                                                                                                Cu
                                                                                                                                                                cc

                                                                                                                                                                Ct




                                                                                  I          I            I          I       I
QAPP
Project LWRC94-O.02,8                                                                    558 93
                             3.0   PROJECT ORGAMZATION

The project organization for the environmental projects at K.I. Sawyer MB performed under
TERC is presented below. A project organization chart is presented in Figure 3-1.

3.1     AGENCY PARTICIPANTS

Michigan DNR Site Coordinator - Mark Petrie has responsibility for overseeing implementation
of environmental projects at K.T. Sawyer MB for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources
(MDNR). MDNR is the lead regulatory agency for the project.

USEPA Remedial Project Manager - Diana Mally has responsibility for representing the interests
of USEPA with respect to the environmental projects at K.!. Sawyer MB. She is the primary
point of contact and communication for the agency.

3.2 TERC PARTICIPANTS

USACE Project Manager - Kenneth A. Williams will be the USACE Project Manager. He will
have responsibility for overseeing implementation of environmental projects performed at K.I.
Sawyer AFB under TERC. He will be the primary point of contact for approving or modifying
the scope of work.

Rust Project Manager - The Rust Project Managetwill hive responsibility for managing the EOD
work at K.T. Sawyer AFB. He will be accountable to the USACE Project Manager for all aspects
of that work (e.g., technical quality, budget and schedule control). He will be the primary point
of contact for formal communications with USACE, the regulatory agencies, and the base. The
Project Manager will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the technical aspects of
the EOD project.

Rust Technical Manager - The Rust Technical Manager will assist the Project Manager with the
technical aspects of the projects, including coordinating efforts and sharing data among the
different projects. He will also be responsible for overseeing audits of field and laboratory work,
including selective independent validation of the data received from the analytical laboratory.

USACE Resident Engineer - The USACE will appoint a Resident Engineer. The Resident
Engineer will be on-site during all field activities to monitor day-to-day performance of the work
and will also be available to coordinate with the Field Team Leaders (see below) to resolve
technical questions that may arise in the course of performing the field investigations.

Field Team Leader - The Field Team Leader will be responsible for implementing the day-to-day
field activities. The Field Team Leader will be responsible for the timely and technically
appropriate performance of the field program, including directing and supervising sampling team
and subcontractors.

Sampling Team - The sampling team will gather and analyze data and prepare various reports.
All of the designated technical staff members will be experienced professionals who possess the


n:tE?ORTSTERCS82673QZZiP61                     3-1                                       June 1995
QAPP
Project L WRC94-0028
                                                                                          558 94

degree of specialization and technical competence required to effectively and efficiently perform
the required work.

3.3     BASE PARTICIPANTS

Mark Hansen will be K.!. Sawyer AFB's point of contact for the environmental projects
perfonned at the base. He, or his designee, will coordinate the various support functions being
provided by the base to the field teams. He will also assist the USACE Resident Engineer and
the Field Team Leaders in resolving technical questions that arise during performance of the field
investigations.

3.4 LABORATORY STAFF

Laboratory analytical services will be performed by Quanterra. Descriptions of the organization,
responsibilities, capabilities, and individual duties of the personnel at the laboratory are presented
in Section 2 of Quanterra's QAPP (see Attachment I of this document). Kevin McHugh will
serve as Project Manager for this work and will be the prime point of contact at the laboratory.




n REPQRTS\TERCS8L'6 3QZZ/ P61                    3-2                                       June 1995
a
                                                             558 95


-a




             RUST Regional
             H&S Specialist
                      —       I




                                        ELi
                          RUST                USACE
                          Safety              Resident
                          Officer             Engineer




                                                         J



                     FIGURE 3-1     RCRA CLOSURE ILAN FOR EOD RANGE
     PROJECT ORGANIZATION CHART        K.I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
         PROJECT LWRC 94-0028             MARQUETTE, MICHIGAN

     267303 A fliT
    QAPP
    Project LWRC94-0O28                                                                 558       96

            4.0   QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES FQR ANALYtICAL DATA

    The overall QA objective is to develop and implement procedures for field sampling, chain-of-
    custody, laboratory analysis, and reporting that will provide results which are legally defensible
    in a court of law. Specific procedures for sampling, chain-of-custody, laboratory analysis, data
    reporting, internal QC, audits, preventive maintenance of field equipment, and corrective action
    are described in other sections of the QAPP. The purpose of this section is to address the
    specific objectives for accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability.

    4.1    ACCURACY, PRECISION, AMY SENSITWITY OF ANALYSIS

    The tbndamental QA objective sth respect to accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of laboratory
    analytical data is to achieve the QC acceptance criteria of the analytical protocols. Accuracy and
    precision will be calculated as described in Section 14.0 of this QAPP.

    The accuracy and precision requirements for laboratQry analytical work for this project are
    presented in Table 4-I; the sensitivity requirements are the reporting limits shown in Tables 4-2
—   through 4-6 The reporting limits presented in Tables 4-2 through 4-6 are consistent with the
    SOP.

    The accuracy, precision, and sensitivity requirements for measuring "field parameters" in aqueous
    samples are specified in the field measurement SOPs contained in Attachment II.

    4.2    LEVEL OF QUALITY CONTROL EFFORT

    Field blank, trip blank, duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate samples will be
    analyzed to assess the quality of the data resulting from the field sampling program. Field blanks
    will consist of deionized water placed in sample bottles at the site using the same (decontaminat-
    ed) equipment that will be used to collect the samples. Field blanks are used to check for
    contamination that may have been introduced as a result of the sampling/decontamination
    procedures and/or from ambient field conditions. Field blanks will be collected at the rate of one
    per 10 or fewer investigative samples.                   only required for aqueous samples that
    are not collected directly with the final sample bottle.

    Trip blanks will consist of deionized water placed in sample bottles in the laboratory. These
    samples will accompany the other (empty) sample bottles to the site, be kept with them in the
    field, and accompany the field sample bottles back to the laboratory. Trip blanks are used to
    assess the potential for VOCs contamination of samples due to contaminant migration during
    shipment and storage. Trip blanks will be us attiztccf one per cooler of aqueous VOCs
    samples shipped.                            -



    Field duplicate samples will consist of sequentIally collected samples obtained from the same
    sampling point. They are analyzed to check for sampling and analytical reproducibility. Duplicate
    samples will be collected at the rate of one per 10 or fewer investigative samples.




    nREPORTSTERCS8t2673QZZtP6/                      4-1                                     June 1995
QAPP
Projeèl LWRCg4-0028                                                           558       97


Matrix spike samples (which are prepared in the laboratory from extra investigative sample
volume collected in the field) provide information about the effect of the sample matrix on the
preparation and analytical measurement methodology. The extra volumes required are triple the
normal volume for VOCs analysis and double the normal volume for other organic analysis.
These extra volumes are in addition to the normal volume requirements for the investigative
sample. All matrix spikes for organic analysis are performed in duplicate and are hereinafter
referred to as MS/MSD samples. MS/MSD samples will be collected (for organic analysis) at
the rate of one per 20 or fewer investigative samples. A matrix spike and laboratory duplicate
for Target Analyte List (TAL) inorganics will be analyzed at the rate of one each per 20 or fewer
investigative samples. These analyses must be performed on an aliquot from the original
investigative sample container; no extra sample volume is required.

The level of QC effort for measurement of "field parameters" in aqueous samples is described
in the field measurement Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) included in Attachment H. The
field parameters include temperature, specific conductance, pH, and turbidity. The level of QC
effort for other measurements made in the field is also specified in Attachment II of this QAPP.

Tables 4-2 through 4-6 show the individual compounds which comprise these parameter
groups/analyses and the reporting limits required. Table 4-7 shows the sample holding times,
containers, and preservatives for different analyses. As shown in these tables, Quanterra will use
analytical methods from "Test Methods of Evaluating Solid Waste, PhysicaL/Chemical Methods,"
SW-846, 3rd Edition. The level of laboratory QC effort will be consistent with the requirements
of individual analytical methods as presented in the Quanterra's SOPs.

4.3     COMPLETENESS, REPRESENTATIVENESS, AND COMPARABILITY

Comvleteness is a measure of the amount of valid data obtained from a measurement system
compared to the amount that was expected to be obtained under normal conditions. It is expected
that Quanterra will provide data meeting QC acceptance criteria for 95 percent or more for all
samples tested using SW-846 methods. The calculation of completeness is described in Section
14.0 of this QAPP.

Representativeness expresses the degree to which data accurately and precisely represent a
characteristic of a population, parameter variations at a sampling point, a process condition, or
an environmental condition. Representativeness is a qualitative parameter which is dependent
upon the proper design of the sampling program and proper laboratory protocol. The sampling
network was selected to provide data representative of site conditions based on previous studies
conducted at the site. Representativeness will be satisfied by ensuring that proper sampling
techniques are used, proper analytical procedures are followed, and holding times of samples are
not exceeded. Representativeness will be assessed by the analysis of field duplicate samples.

Comparability expresses the confidence with which one data set can be compared with another.
The extent to which existing and planned analytical data will be comparable depends on the
similarity of sampling and analytical methods. The procedures used to obtain the planned
analytical data, as documented in this QAPP, are expected to provide comparable data. However,



fl IREPQRTS\TERCS8U6 3QZZJ P61                 4-2                                      June 1995
QAP?                                                                              558       98
,
Project L WRCP4-0028


the new analytical data may not be directly comparable to the existing data because of differences
in procedures and QA objectives.




n:\REPORTS1TERCS52673QZflP6/                   4-3                                      June 1995
                                                                                   558        99
                                           TABLE 4-1
                             ACCURACY AND PRECISION REQUIREMENTS



    Constituent                    Method    Precision         Accuracy        Completeness
    Matrix: Soil                              (RPD)          (% Recovery)        Goal (%)


— VOLATILE ORGANICS                         DCS MSSD        DCS       MSSD

    1,l-Dichloroethene               8260   20     20       65-137   1-234         >95
—   Trichloroethene                  8260   12     20       83-118   71-157        >95
    Benzene                          8260   10     20       80-119   37-151        >95
    Toluene                          8260   12     20       80-119   47-150        >95
    Chlorobenzene                    8260   12     20       80-119   37-160        >95

                                            SQS    Sunog.   SCS      Surrog.

    1,2-Dichloroethane-d4            8260   NA NA           82-112   70-121        >95
    4-Bromofluorobenzene             8260   NA NA           84-109   74-121        >95
    Toluene-dS                       8260   NA NA           90-112   81-117        >95

    SEMI VOLATILE ORGANICS                         MSSD     DCS      MSSD

    Phenol                           8270   19     19       45-107   5-112         >95
—   2-Chlorphenol                    8270   17     17       46-112   23-134        >95
    l,4-Dichlorobenzene              8270   22     22       58-101   20-124        >95
    N-Nitroso-di-n-propylan-iine     8270   18     18       58-101   1-230         >95
—   l,2,4-Trichlorobenzene           8270   24     24       59-103   44-142        >95
    4-Chloro-3-methylphenol          8270   16     16       41-123   22-127        >95
    Acenaphthene                     8270   15     15       54-110   47-145        >95
    4-Nitrophenol                    8270   22     22       30-145   1-132         >95
    2,4-Dinitrotoluene               8270   17     17       51-117   39-139        >95
    Pentachlorophenol                8270   29     29       32-130   14-176        >95
    Pyrene                           8270   20     20       31-142   52-115        >95
                                                                       558 100
                           TABLE 4-1 (Continued)




Constituent             Method      Precision         Accuracy        Completeness
Matrix: Soil                         (RPD)          (% Recovery)        Goal (%)


SEMIVOLATILE ORGANICS (CONT,)             Surrog. SC        Surrog.

Nitrobenzene-d5          8270      NA NA           62-110   23-120        >95
2-Fluorobiphenyl         8270      NA NA           61-114   30-115        >95
Terphenyl-d14            8270      NA NA           49-147   18-137        >95
Phenol-d5                8270      NA NA           60-115   24-113        >95
2-Fluorophenol           8270      NA NA           61-111   25-121        >95
2,4,6-Tribromophenol     8270      NA NA           44-110   19-122        >95


1-IRBICIDES                        DQS MSSD        DCS       MSSD

2,4-D                      8150    36     36       37-100   37-100        >95
2,4,5-TP(Silvex)           8150    29     29       42-107   42-107        >95
2,4.5-T                    8150    29     29       29-118   29-118        >95

                                   ECS    tharmg. SQ        Surrog.

DCAA                       8150    NA NA           42-125   42-125        >95
                                                                                                    558 101
              i:t    [.v-                   TABLE 4-1 (Continued)




    Constituent                        Method           Precision             Accuracy         Completeness
    Matrix: Soil                                         (RPD)              (% Recovery)         Goal (%)


    INORGANICS/METALS - LCS

    Antimony                            6010              CO                    80-120              >95
    Arsenic                             7060              CO                    80-120              >95
    Barium                              6010              CO                    80-120              >95
    Beryllium                           6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Cadmium                             6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Chromium                            6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Cobalt                              6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Lead                                7421              <20                   80-120              >95
    Mercury                             7471              <20                   75-125              >95
    Nickel                              6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Selenium*                           7740              <20                   80-120              >95
    Silver                              6010              CO                    80-120              >95
    Copper                              6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Zinc                                6010              <20                   80-120              >95
    Thallium*                           7841              <20                   80-120              >95
a   Vanadium                            6010              <20                   80-120              >95

    Cyanide                          9010/9012            <20                   75-125              >95
    Sulfide                          9010/9012            <200                  0-120               >95




    * Matrix spike samples are evaluated relative to LCS limits.


—   Note: The QC objectives (limits) for precision and accuracy were obtained from the Quanterra LIMS
    with limits updated from historical data. QC limits are updated periodically depending on the
    population of data available determined by the frequency of tests requested, changes or updates in
    procedures, or as a result of a client request or regulatory need. Enseco's goal is to update it's limits
    every six months or when 30 data points are available. The only exception to this approach is for metal
    and wet analyses for aqueous samples. The limits of 75 to 125 for accuracy and 0 to 20 for precision
    were derived from the CLP and generally reflects limits more conservative or narrower limits than those
    derived from internal studies.
                                                                           558 102
                                TABLE 4-1 (Continued)




Constituent                  Method      Precision         Accuracy        Completeness
Matrix: Aqueous                           (RPD)          (% Recovery)        Goal (%)


VOLATILE ORGANKS                               MSSD     DCS       MSSD

1,1-Dichloroethene             8260     20     20       70-130   70-130        95
Trichloroethene                8260     12     20       70-130   70-130        95
Benzene                        8260     10     20       70-130   70-130        >95
Toluene                        8260     12     20       70-130   70-130        >95
Chlorobenzene                  8260     12     20       70-130   70-130        >95

                                        EQS    Surrog. EQS       Surrog.

l,2-Dichloroethane-d4           8260    NA NA           80-120   80-120        >95
4-Bromofluorobenzene            8260    NA NA           86-115   86-115        >95
Toluene-dS                      8260    NA NA           88-110   88-110        >95

SEMIVOLATILE ORGANICS                   12Q5   MSSD     DCS       MSSD

Phenol                          8270    29     29       45-109   5-112         >95
2-Chlorphenol                   8270    29     29       47-111   23-134        >95
1,4-Dichlorobenzene             8270    28     28       32-103   20-124        >95
N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine      8270    24     24       49-107   1-230         >95
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene          8270    27     27       44-102   44-142        >95
4-Chloro-3-methylphenol         8270    27     27       50-115   22-127        >95
Acenaphthene                    8270    24     24       47-109   47-145        >95
4-Nitrophenol                   8270    51     51       40-127   1-132         >95
2,4-Dinitrotoluene              8270    22     22       46-118   39-139        >95
Pentachlorophenol               8270    34     34       30-136   14-176        >95
Pyrene                          8270    23     23       52-115   52-115        >95
                                                                               558 103
              t(Jr sd          TABLE 4-1 (Continued)



S
    Constituent             Method      Precision          Accuracy         Completeness
    Matrix: Aqueous                      (RPD)           (% Recovery)        Goal (%)



    SEMIVOLATILE ORGANICS (CONT.'                       Surrog.   SQ.S          Surrog.

— Nitrobenzene-dS            8270      NA NA            49-113    23-120        >95
    2-Fluorobiphenyl         8270      NA NA            43-104    30-115        >95
    Terphenyl-d 14           8270      NA NA            33-139    18-137        >95
    Phenol-d5                8270      NA NA            42-100    24-113        >95
    2-Fluorophenol           8270      NA NA            50-94     25-121        >95
    2,4,6-Tribromophenol     8270      NA NA            33-123    19-122        >95

    HERBICIDES                         DCS MSSD         DCS        MSSD

    2,4-D                      8150    33     34        36-126    23-122        >95
    2,4,5-TP (Silvex)          8150    28     32        52-135    41-127        >95
    2.4.5-T                    8150    34     32        41-158    15-151        >95

                                       SCS    Surrog.   SQ.S      Surrog.
    DCCA                       8150    NA NA            63-129    63-129        >95
                                         TABLE 4-1    (Continued)
                                                                                      558 104



Constituent                         Method           Precision           Accuracy       Completeness
Matrix: Aqueous                                       (RPD)            (% Recovery)      Goal (%)


INORGANICS/METALS - LCSt

Arsenic***                           6010               20               80-120             >95
Cadmium***                           6010               20               80-120             >95
Chromium                             6010               11               80-116             >95
Leadtt                               6010               20               80-120             >95
Mercury                              7470               20               75-125             >95
Nickel                               6010               10               80-114             >95
Seleniumt                            6010               20               80-120             >95
Copper                               6010               10               80-120             >95
Zinc                                 6010               13               80-120             >95



*         Matrix spike samples are evaluated relative to LCS limits.
*4        Matrix spiking is not applicable to this analysis.
         Analyzed by Trace ICP
                                                        558 105
                     TABLE 42

                  VOLATILE ORGAMCS
                     METHOD $260


                                 Aqueous         Soil
Parameter                        Rrd
                                Limit tug/fl
                                               Reporting
                                                 Limit
                                                (ugIkg'
thchlotodifluoTomethane             1.0           10
Chiorornethane                      1.0           10
Vinyl chloride                      1.0           10
Bromomethane                        1.0           10
Chioroethane                        1.0           10
Trichlorofluoromethane              1.0           10
1,l-Dichloroethene                  1.0          5.0
Methylene chloride                  1.0           10
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene            1.0          5.0
1,1-Dichioroethane                  1.0           10
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene              1.0          5.0
2,2-Dichloropropane                 1.0          5.0
Brornochlorornethane                1.0          5.0
Chloroform                          1.0           10
1,1,1-Trichioroethane               1.0           10
1,1-Dichloropropene                 1.0          5.0
Carbon tetrachloride                1.0           10
1,2-Dichloroethane                 1.0            10
Benzene                            1.0            10
Trichloroethene                    1.0           5.0
1,2-Dichloropropane                1.0           10
Dibrornomethane            --      1.0           5.0
Bromodichloromethane               1.0           10
cis-1 .3-Dichloropropene                         5.0
                                               558 106
                 TABLE 4-2 (continued)


1 ,2-Dichlorobenzene               1.0   10

DBCP (1,2-Dibrorno-3-              10    5.0
chioropropane)
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene             2.0   5.0
Rexachlorobutadiene                2.0   5.0
Naphthalene                        5.0   330

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene             2.0   5.0
                     TABLE4-3                            558 107
     PARAMETERS M4D REPORTING LIMITS
             SEMTVOLATflI ORCANI Cs
                       IThOD 8270

                                Aqueous       Soil
Panrneter                       Reporting   Reporting
                             I mit (ugIL      limit
                                             (uy/kg
1,2,4-Trichiorobenzene             10         330
I ,2-Dichlorobenzene                1          10
I ,3-Dichlorobenzene                1          10
I ,4-Dichiorobenzene                1          10

2,4,5-Trichlorophertol             50         1700

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol              5           330

2,4-DichIorophenol                 5          330
2,4-Diniethylphenol
2.4-Dinitrophenol
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
                                   5
                                   50
                                   5
                                               330
                                              1600
                                               330
                                                     r
2,6-Dinitrotoluene                 10         330
2-Chloronaphthalene                10          330

2-Chlorophenol                     5          330

2-Methytnaphthalene                5          330

2-Methylphenol                     5          330
2-Nitroaniline                     50         1600

2-Nitrophenol                      10         330
3,3-Dichiorobenzidine              20         2000
3-Nitroaniline                     50         1600
4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol         50         1600
4-Bromophenylphenyl ether          tO         330
4-Chloro-3-methylphenol            10         330
4-Chloroaniline                    10         330
4-Chiorophenyl phenyl              10          330
ether
4-Methyiphenol                      5          330
                                              558 108
               TABLE 4-3 (contInued)


Hexachlorocyclopentadiene       10     330
Hexachjoroethane                10     330

Indeno(1.2.3-cd)pyrene          5      330

Isophorone                      5      330

N-Nicroso-di-n-propylamine      5      330
N-Nitrosodiphenylaxnine         5      330

Naphthalene                     5      330
Nitrobenzene                    5      330

Pentachlorophenol               1      1700

Phenanthrene                    5      330
Phenol                          5      330
Pyrene                          5      330
                                                                                  558 109
                                       TABLE 4-4

                            PARAMETERS AND REPORTING LIMITS
                                     HERBICIDES
                                     METHOD 8150

                Parameter           Reporting limits (ugh)    Reporting limits (ug/kg)
                                         Aqueous                      Soil

    2,4-1)                                  2.0                        40
    2,4 -DB                                 5.0                        100

    2,4,5-T                                0.50                        10

    2,4,5 - TP (Silvex)                    0.50                        10

    Dalapon                                 5.0                        100

    Dicamba                                0.50                        10

    Dichloroprop                            1.0                        20

    Dinoseb                                 1.0                        20

    MCPA                                   250                        5000

    MCPP                                   250                        5000




—
                                                                                                                                    558 hO
                                                                   TABLE 4-5

                                              PARAMETERS AND REPORTING LIMiTS
                                                       INORGAMCS


             Parameter             Method                      Reporting Umits (tag/fl                          Reporting LImits (tag/kg)
-s                                                                                                                       Soil
                                                                      Aqueous
       Arseaic                       6010                                0.01                                             1


       Barium                        6010                                0.01                                             6
       Cadmium**                     6010                               0.005                                            0.5
       Chromium                      6010                                0.01                                             1


       Lead                          6010                               0.003                                            0.3
                                       w
      Mercury                                                          0.0002                                            0.1

       Selenium*                     6010                               0.005                                            0.5
       Silver                        6010                                0.01                                             1


      Copper                         6010                                0.02                                             2
      Zinc                           6010                               0.02                                              2
     Note:      'This element will be analyzed by CVAA analyses
                  Laboratory method for mercury are method 7470 for soil and method 7471 for aqueous samples.
                "These elements will be analyzed by Trace IC?
                All other elements listed will be analyzed by IC?




—




a



     n:\tercs8\rcra_cl\2671 q4-4.wp6
                                                                                558 iii
                                          TABLE 4-6

                               PARAMETERS AND REPORTING LIMITS
                                        EXPLOSIVES
                                        METHOD 8330

                   Parameter           Reporting Limits (ugh)    Reporting Limits (uglkg)
                                            Aqueous                      Soil

     I-IMX                                      0.8                       2.2

     RDX                                        0.84                      1.0
                                            -
     1,3,5 - TNB                                0.26                     0.25

     1,3 -DNB                                   0.11                     025

     Tetryl                                     0.8                      0.65

     ND                                         0.25                     0.26
     2,4,6 - TNT                                0.11                     0.25

     4-Am-DNT                                   0.06                      n/a
     2-Ani-DNT                                  035                       n/a

     2,4 - DNT                                  0.02                     0.25
     2,6 - DNT                                  0.31                     0.26
     2 - NT                                     0.25                     0.25
     3 - NT                                     0.25                     0.25
     4 - NT                                     0.25                     0.25

-   Note:
—
    n/a:      not applicable




    n:\tercs8\rcra_cE'2671 q4-4.wp6
                                                                  TABLE 4-7
                                                                                                                          558 112
                                       Sample Containers, Preservatives, and Holding Times




                                                                                                                                       Sample
                Parameters                            Method               MatS               Sample                    Sample
                                                                                             Containers              Preservatives     Holding
                                                                                                                                        Times

                                                                                            Glass-Amber
  Semivolatile Organic Compounds                  SW846-8270              Aqueous                                         Cool 4° C   7 days
                                                                                                2 x IL
                                                                                             Glass-VOA                    Cool 4° C
  Volatile Organic Compounds                      SW846-8260              Aqueous                                                     14 days
                                                                                              3 , 40                     HCL to pHC
                                                                                            Glass-Amber
  Herbicides                                      SW846-8150              Aqueous               2 IL                      Cool 4°C    7 days

                                                                                            Glass-Amber
  Explosives                                      SW846-8330              Aqueous              2 x 1L
                                                                                                                          Cool4°C     7 days

                                                 601017471                                       Poly                                 6 months
  Inorganics                                                              Aqueous               500 ml               HNO3 to p14<2

                                                                                                 Glass
  Semivolatile Organic Compounds                  SW846-8270                 Soil                                         Cool 4°C    14 days
                                                                                                I x4oz
                                                                                                Glass
  Volatile Organic Compounds                      SW846-8260                 Soil                                         Cool 4°C    14 days
                                                                                               2 x Soz

                                                                                                Glass
  Herbicides                                      SW846-81 SO                Soil                                         Cool 4°C    14 days
                                                                                               2 x Soz

                                                                                                Glass
  Explosives                                      SW846-8330                 Soil                                         Cool 4°C    14 days
                                                                                               2 x Soz
                                                                                                Glass
  Inorganics                                     6010/7470                   Soil                                         Cool 4°C    6 months
                                                                                               2 x 8oz

  TCLP - Organics*                                                                              Glass                                 14/7/40
                                                  1311 /SW846                Soil                                         Cool 4°C
                                                                                               2 x Soz                                days

  TCLP - lnorganics                                                                             Glass
                                                  131 l/SW846                Soil                                         Cool 4° C   6 months
                                                                                               2 x 8oz

'TCLF for organics and inorganic's will be analyzed for grid locations, wben tier I sampling detactad elevated levels.




n:\ttrcs8\263q47pGl
                                           TABLE 4-8
                                                                                 558 113
                              PREYENTATWE MA INTENANCE

         Instrument                           Activity                         Frequency
Atomic Absorption Furnace       Clean furnace Qhidôws              Daily
                                Check plumbing connections         Daily
                                Change graphite tube               As needed
                                Check gas                          Daily
                                Check autosasnpler and tubing      Daily
ICAP                            Clean filters                      Monthly
                                Check gas flow                     Daily
                                Change tubing                      As Needed
                                Clean nebulizer                    As Needed
                                Check autosanipler and tubing      Daily
Gas Chromatograph-Volatiles     Check Hall propanol flow           Daily
                                Check Hall furnace temp.           Daily
                                Check ND sensitivity               Daily
                                Change lamp                        As needed
                                Rinse purge devices                Daily
                                Bake purge devices                 Daily
                                Check carrier gases                Daily
                                Change carrier gases               As needed
                                Check column flows                 Daily
                                Check for gas leaks                At each cotumn change
                                Replenish electrolytic             As needed
                                conductivity detector solvents
                                Clean transfer tines               As needed

Gas Chrornatograph-             Change seprum                      Every 100 shots or as needed
Sernivolatiles                  Check carrier gas                  Daily
                                Change carrier gas                 When pressure reaches 250 psi
                                Change in-line filters             Every 6 mos. or as needed
                                Remove first foot of capillary     As needed
                                col urnn
                                Clean ECD                          As needed
                                Clean Nitrogen.Phosphorous         As needed
                                detector
                                Check system for gas leaks         At each column change
                                Replace column                     As needed
                                Clean FID                          As needed
                                Replace capillary injection        At column change or as needed
                                port liner
                                Replace capillary injection port   At column change or as needed
                                seal
                                Measure gas flow                   After changing column
                      .
                                Check syringe                      Daily
                                Change syringe                     As needed
                           TABLE 4-8 (continued)
                                                                   558 114

         Instrument                  Acaivity                      Frequency
Gas Chromatograph-Mass   Change septum                  BNA.Daily; VOA-Weekly
Specuomaer               Check carrie gas               Daily
                         flange carrier gas             7When pressure reaches 100 psi
                         Change gas filten              Semiannually as needed
                         Change wap on Tekznar          As needed/poor sensitivity
                         Change OC column               As needed/poor sensitivity
                         Clean MS source                As needed/poor sensitivity
                         Check pump for leaks           Monthly
                         Leach check septum             As needed/when leak suspected
                         Check gas flow                 As needed
                         Ciean VOA purge glassware      (Disposal glassware)
                         Cut capillary column           As needed
                         Replace liner                  As needed/contamination susp.
                         Replace BNA seal               As needed/contamination susp.




                             Preventative Maintenance
                                   (Continued)
    QAPP                                                                                 558 115
—   Project LWRC94-0028


                                      5.0 FIELD OPERATIONS


    As previously mentioned, the purpose of this document is to describe the necessary steps and
    documentation needed for the EOD Range to receive clean closure certification. The initiation
    of a two-phased process will allow for the safe and timely completion of field tasks which are
    condensed into the following activities:

            1.   Ordnance and Explosive Waste Removal:

                 a.   Buried Ordnance Residue Pits are to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the
                      last item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

                 b. The Open Detonation Area is to be excavated to a depth of 4 feet below the last
                      item found, sifted for ordnance, and returned to the original location.

                 c. The remainder of the EOD Range is to be cross-ripped using a bulldozer
                      equipped with three-foot fines. The cross-ripped area will be inspected by EOD
                      personnel for evidence of any munition residue or explosives. If any residuals!
                      explosives are revealed as a result of cross-ripping, the respective area will be
                      cleared to a depth of 4 feet below the last item found.

                 d. Any soil excavated for the purpose of explosive clearance will be returned to
                      original location, unless there is obvious evidence of contamination.

           2. RCRA Closure Field Efforts:

                 a.   33 soil samples, using grid formation layout, will be obtained from the surface
                      to 3 feet below grade and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
                      semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC5), herbicides, inorganics, and
                      explosives.

                 b.   5 monitoring wells will be installed.

                 c.   Groundwater samples will be collected from 5 monitoring wells and analyzed
                      for VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and explosives.

    The preceding field tasks are discussed at length in !c9'! 4.0 through 6.0 in the RCRA Closure
    Plan Ordnance and explosive waste removaLc4wties will be completed by a contracted
    ordnance disposal company, with the Rust Field Team Leader providing oversight during this
    task. MI RCRA closure field efforts wilIbc completed by Rust personnel and are described in
    the following sections.

    5.1    SUBSURFACE SOIL SAMPLING




    n:REPOR7YTERCS8t2673QZZt?6/                     S-i                                       June 1995
QAPP
Project LWRC94-0028                                                               558 116

A total of 33 soil samples will be obtained with a hand auger, within the EOD Range area.
Twenty-nine soil samples will be collected from a 100-foot by 100-foot grid location. These
samples will be obtained at depths of 1-3 feet below ground surface, or immediately below
asphaltlconcrete rubble. This depth was chosen because of the low mobility of metals. Four
samples will be obtained at the two lower EOD residual burial pit locations.

Samples will be manually collected using a hand auger. Immediately upon collection, all soil
samples will be field screened for the presence of VOCs with a hand-held photoionization
detector (PID). This field screening device will be calibrated daily in accordance with guidelines
given in the SOPs, as shown in Attachment II.

Chemical analysis of the soil samples will include VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics, and
explosives as shown in Table 2-1. Samples will be collected according to the procedures
described in Attachment II of this QAPP.

All sampling will be conducted by a Rust geologist, with the analysis performed by Quanterra
Environmental Services with a QAIQC plan which satisfies USACE, MDNR, USEPA, and U.S.
Air Force (USAF) requirements. QA/QC analysis will be included in the analytical reports
prepared by the laboratoiy. The laboratory results will be validated by the consultant performing
the soil sampling. Analytical results will then be compared to cleanup goals as required by
Michigan Act 451, Part 201 criteria (in the case of organic compounds) or the default background
for metals as established by Michigan Environmental Response Act (MERA) Operational
Memorandum #15. If analytical results indicate that soil in sampled areas is "clean," then no
further soil sampling will be required as part of the Closure Plan.

5.2     MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION AND WELL DEVELOPMENT

Five monitoring wells will be completed across the water table at an approximate total depth of
55 feet. Prior conversations with the former EOD operator implied a static water table less than
40 feet below grade. Actual water levels will be field verified before monitoring wells are
installed.

The wells will be constructed of two-inch-diameter Schedule 40 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flush-
jointed riser and continuously wire-wound screen with 0.010-inch slots, Screen length will be
 15 feet, with the placement of the screen at a minimum of three feet and a maximum of five feet
above the water table. The wells will be constructed in accordance with all applicable federal,
state and local requirements. Well-construction specifications and well-construction field forms
are contained in the monitoring well installation SOP in Attachment II.

Monitoring well designation will be in sequential order of installation, as required by the USACE.
Well designation will begin with the 400 series; each well will be assigned a number by the Field
Team Leader who will maintain a daily log of all well installations occurring at all project areas.

Well development will occur within one week after the well has been installed, but no sooner
than 48 hours following grouting. Development will consist of manual surging and bailing for
a minimum of two hours until little or no sediment enters the well. Following surging, the well


n:kREPORTSTERCS8Uo73QZZJP6J                    5-2                                       June /995
—
    QAPP                                                                                 558 1.7
    Project L WRC94-0028                                I
                                                            --




    will be continuously pumped using an electric submersible, pneumatic drive positive
    displacement, or a bladder pump. Field parameters of temperature, conductivity, pH and turbidity
    will be monitored at routine intervals throughout the well development process. Pumping will
    continue until these parameters have stabilized (less than 0.2 pH or a 10 percent change in the
    other parameters) and the water is clear and free of fines. If stabilization has not occurred after
    four hours of continuous pumping, well development will be stopped and the USACE will be
    notified for further direction.   Detailed procedures for well development are in the well
    development SOP in Attachment II.

    Well development and purge water will be temporarily collected in 55-gallon drums and field
    screened with a PID to determine the appropriate method of disposal, as detailed in Section 8.2.2
    of the RCRA Closure Plan.

    5.3    GROUNDWATER SAMPLING

    One groundwater sample will be collected from each of the five new monitoring wells. Positive
    pressure will be used to fiJter groundwater samples, as disposable in-line filters will be used.
    Newly installed monitoring wells will require a two-week stabilization period following well
    development before samples can be collected.

    At all well locations, the field sampler will initially determine the depth to water and total well
    depth using an electronic water-level indicator. These measurements will be used to calculate the
    total volume of water to be purged from the well. Prior to purging, an electronic interface probe
    will be used to determine the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at the top and
    bottom of the water column. Field forms for groundwater purging and sampling are contained
    in the well purging and the groundwater sampling SOPs, both in Attachment II. Appropriate
    safety and health guidelines to be implemented at each well location are specified in the Site
    Safety and Health Plan (SSHP).

    Purging will be performed using properly decontaminated purge pumps (Keck pumps) or hand
    bailers. Field parameters (temperature, conductivity, pH and turbidity) will be measured and
    recorded at the start of purging and twice per casing volume removed, as shown in the SOPs in
a   Attachment II. A minimum of three times the submerged volume of the well will be removed,
    and removal will continue until field parameters have stabilized. All purge water will be
    collected as previously discussed in Section 5.2.

    Chemical analysis of the groundwater samples will include VOCs, SVOCs, herbicides, inorganics,
    and explosives as shown in Table 2-2. Samples will be collected according to the procedures
    described in Attachment II of this QAAP.




    iv \REPORTSTERCS8U673QZZ!P61                   5-3                                       June 1995
QAPP -
Project LWRC94-0028                                                           558 118
      6.0    FIELD DOCUMENTATION AND SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

6.1      DAILY QUALITY CONTROL REPORTS

During the field investigation activities, Daily Quality Control Reports (DQCRs) will be provided
to the USACE representative weekly. If any problems occur, the USACE representative will be
notified immediately and the DQCRs will be provided on a daily basis until the problem has been
corrected. DQCRS forms have been developed and can be found in Attachment V.

6.2      FIELD LOG BOOK

The field activities associated with the environmental projects performed at K.I. Sawyer AFB and
subject to this QAPP will be documented in field log books. Information to be recorded in the
log books includes basic site conditions, sequence and duration of events, dates related to well
installation and groundwater sampling, and field measurements. Log book entries will be
described in as much detail as possible so that persons going to the site could reconstruct a
particular situation without reliance on memory.

Field log books will be comprised of various forms designed for the efficient collection and
subsequent entry of field data into electronic databases. At the beginning of each day, each field
team member will assemble the forms needed for that day and bind them in an expandable
hardcover binder (one using metal tabs that are folded over and locked in place with sliding
clips). At the end of each day, the completed forms and pages will be removed from the binder
and filed in the field office. The log books will only be opened in the field office. Log books
will be stored in a centralized secured location in the office when not in use.

At the beginning of each day of work, the date, start time, weather, field personnel present, level
of protection being used, work to be done for the day, and the signature of the person making
the entry will be entered. The names of visitors to the site and the purpose of their visit will be
recorded in the field log book.

Entries will be made in indelible ink, with no erasures. If an incorrect entry is made, the
information will be crossed out with a single strike mark, initialed, and dated. The number and
type of samples collected each day are typically noted in the field log book, while a detailed
description of the sampling location is recorded on the appropriate field forms. For photographs,
the roll number, frame number, date, direction and description will be recorded in the field log
book.

6.3      SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Each sample will be identified using the identification systems described below. These numbers
will be used to complete such sample documentation as sample labels, and chain-of-custody
forms. Examples of this documentation are listed below. Documentation will be completed by
the Field Team Leader.




n tREPORTSI TERCS8 L'o 73QZZJ P6)               6-1                                      June 1995
                     2
                                                                                   558 119
QI4PP
pjecI LWRC94-0028


The sample identification will be 10 characters long and will include a combination of digits and
alpha-codes.

A two-digit designation followed by a two-digit designation will be used to identify the project and    I
site where the sample was collected. The two-digit designation for Project LWRC94-0028 RCRA
Closure EOD Range will be 28. The two-digit designation for site number AOC-27 will be 27.
                                                                                                        1
Each sample will be identified by an alpha-code corresponding to the sample matrix, followed by a
two-digit saniple location number, a two-digit sample depth number, and an alpha-code describing
the sample type. The alpha-codes are as follows:

        Sample Matrix
        B - soil
        G - groundwater
        R - decontamination water


        N - normal
        F - field duplicate
        M - matrix spike
        D - matrix duplicate
        T - trip blank
        B - field blank
        X - matrix spike/matrix spike duplicate
        R - field replicate (USACE split)

An example of a project-specific sample identification follows:

        2827B0603N =         Project LWRC94-0028, Site Number AOC-27, Soil Boring #6, interval
                             was 0-3 feet, normal sample.

Sample split with the USACE Missouri River Division (MRD) will also be identified with the
Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) number. The LIMS number for this project
is 3421.

6.4     SAMPLE LABELS

Sample labels are adhesive with unique numbers printed on them, Sample labels will be affixed to
each sample container to avoid misidentification of samples. Sample labels will include the following
information:

        -   Sample identification code
        -   Signature of collector
        -   Date and time of collection
        -   Analyses requested



W\55/52\WTh28.EOD\QAPP\QAPP13P!)                  6-2                                      June 1996
QAPP                                                                         558 120
Project L WRCQ4-0028


       -    Preservatives used, if any
       -    The labels will be printed before the project starts

6.5    PACKAGING AND SHIPPING

The sampling will be performed by personnel from Rust who will ship the samples directly to
Quanterra within 24 hours of collecting the sample. The Field Team Leader will be personally
responsible for the care and custody of the samples until they are shipped to Quanterra A
sample custodian will assist the Field Team Leader with sample custody, labeling, packaging and
shipping.

The samples will be packaged for shipment by placing each container in a separate ziplock
storage bag. The bags will then be placed in a cooler with sufficient nonabsorbent packing
material to adequately protect the containers from breakage, and with sufficient ice or other
coolant materials to maintain the temperatures required for proper preservation of the samples.

Separate chain-of-custody forms will be completed for each cooler of samples. Properly
completed chain-of-custody forms will show sample number, location, number and kind of
containers, and intended analysis, along with the project name and signatures of the samplers.
Each cooler will be closed and secured with strapping tape, and custody seals will be placed
across the right-front and left-back of the cooler lid. When transferring the possession of
samples, the individuals relinquishing and receiving will sign, date and note the time on the
chain-of-custody form. On the day of shipment, a copy of the chain-of-custody form will be
faxed to the laboratory to notify them that the samples are in transit.

Shipping and contact information for the project laboratory is as follows:

       Mr. Kevin McHugh
       Quanterra Environmental Services
       4955 Yarrow Street
       Arvada, Colorado 80002
       Phone:      303-421-6611 (main nwxber, receptionist)
                   303-421-1025 x320 (automated switchboard)
       Fax:        303-421-7171

Shipping and contact information for the MRD laboratory is as follows:

        U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
        Missouri River Division (MRD) Laboratory
        Ann: CEMRD-ED-LC Co. (D.Taggart)
        420 South 18th Street
        Omaha, Nebraska 68102

The appropriate LIMS number will be included on all correspondence (chain-of-custody forms)
sent to the MRD laboratory.



n:tREPORTS\TERCS826'3QZZ1P6/                    6-3                                   June 1995
     QAPP
                                                                                   558 121
a    Project L WRC94-0028


                                       7.0   SAMPLE CUSTODY

     It is USEPA and Region V policy to follow the USEPA Region V sample custody, or chain-of-
     custody protocols as described in 'TNEIC Policies and Procedures," EPA-330/9-78DD1-R, Revised
     June 1985. This custody is in three pans: sample collection, laboratory analysis, and final
     evidence files. Final evidence files, including all originals of laboratory reports and purge files,
     are maintained under document control in a secure area.

     A sample or evidence file is under custody if they:

            •    are in possession;
            •    are in view, after being in possession;
            •    are in possession and placed in a secured location; or
            •    are in a designated secure area.

     7.1    FIELD CUSTODY PROCEDURES

     The procedures for sample documentation, labeling, packaging and shipment were summarized
     in Section 6.0, while the laboratory custody and fmal evidence files are discussed in the following
     sections. The Field Team Leader will review all field custody documentation to assess whether
     appropriate procedures were followed during field work and include the findings of this
     assessment in the QA reports (see Section 16.0).

     7.2    LABORATORY CUSTODY PROCEDURES

     Laboratory custody procedures are to be described upon the acquisition and contracting of a
     certified CLP laboratory. These procedures will be clarified before any closure activities. A
     sample of CLP laboratory custody procedures are included in Attachment III.

     7.3     FINAL EVIDENCE FILES

     Custody of the final evidence files will be maintained by the Project Manager. The files, which
     will include original field forms/notes arid original laboratory reports, will be kept in a secured,
     limited access area.




-a




     ii: EPORTSTERCS826 'JQZZJ.P61                   7-1                                       June 1995
QAPP
Project L WRC94-0028


                                  8.0 CALIBRATION PROCEDURES

This section describes procedures for maintaining the accuracy of all the instruments and
measuring equipment which are used for conducting field tests and laboratory analyses. These
instruments and equipment will be calibrated before each use or on a scheduled, periodic basis.

8.1      FIELD INSTRUMENTS

Calibration procedures for instruments used to measure t!fleld parameters" in aqueous samples are
specified in the field measurement SOPs contained in Attachment II. Calibration procedures for
other instruments used to make field measurements are also presented in Attachment II of this
QAPP.

8.2      LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS

Calibration procedures for laboratory instruments will be those specified in Quanterra's SOPs.




n. kREPORTSTERCS8126 73QZZJ P61               84                                       June 1995
     QAPP                                                                         558 123
     Project L WRC94-0028


                                      9.0 ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES


     9.1     FIELD MEASUREMENTS

     Reportable measurements of temperature, specific conductance, pH, and turbidity will be
     performed in the field immediately upon sample collection. The analytical procedures for
     measurement of these field parameters are specified in the field measurement SOPs contained in
     Attachment II.

     9.2     LABORATORY ANALYSIS
—
     The analytical procedures for laboratory testing will be based on SW-846 methods as presented
     in Quanterra's SOPs. Analyte lists given in Table 4-2 through 4-7 and Table 2-1 present the
     analytical parameters and the approximate nwnberpf samples for each parameter, respectively.
     To the extent possible, the most current promulgated methods will be used (i.e., depending on
     whether Quanterra has been validated by USACE).




I-




     ,, tREPQRTS TERCS8U6'3QZZ! P6]               9-1                                     June 1995
    QAPP
    Project L WRC94-0028
                                                                                   558 124

                    10.0 DATA REDUCTION, VALIDATION, AND REPORTING


    10.1 FIELD DATA
    Raw data from field measurements and sample collection activities will be recorded in the field
    on standardized forms. These data will be summarized in tabular form for attachment to the
    technical memoranda and project reports. Any further reduction of the data for evaluation
    purposes in the reports will be documented therein.

    10.2 LABORATORY DATA

    Quanterra will perform in-house data reduction and validation in accordance with the
    requirements of the individual analytical methods as presented in Quanterra's SOPs. Additional
    information on Quanterra's data reduction, review and reporting procedures is presented in
    Section 8 of their QAPP. which is found in Attachment IV of this document.

—   Data reporting by Quanterra to Rust will include sample, MS, MSD, and blank data; duplicate
    and surrogate control sample data; initial and continuing calibration data; and electronic data
    compatible with the Installation Restoration Program Information Management System (IRPIMS)
    requirements.

    Twenty-five percent of the analytical data received from the laboratory will be validated by a
    chemist in accordance with the following USEPA guidance documents:

             •    National Functional Guidelines for Organic Data Review; EPA -    5401R - 94/012,
                  February 1993.
             • USEPA Contract Laboratory Program National Functional Guidelines for Inorganic
                Data Review EPA - 540/R - 94 -013, February 1994.

    A Rust chemist and the Rust Technical Manager will identify any out-of-control data points and
    data omissions and interact with the laboratory to correct data deficiencies. Decisions to repeat
    sample collection and!or analyses may be made by the USACE Project Manager in conjunction
    with the base, MDNR, and USEPA based on the extent of the deficiencies and their importance
    in the overall context of the project.




    I,: \REPORTSTERCS8U6 73QZZJ. P61              10-1                                     June 1995
    QAPF                                                                              558 125
—   Project L WRC94-0028


                           11.0   INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL CHECK


    11.1 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS

    Quality control checks on potential impacts to precision and accuracy from sample collection will
    be assessed through collection and analysis of field duplicates and field blanks in accordance with
    the applicable procedures described above in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0.

    QC checks for measurement of "field parameters' in aqueous samples and other field
    measurements are limited to the following: (1) checking the reproducibility of the measurement
    by obtaining multiple readings on a single sample/standard or location, and (2) calibrating the
    insirument at the beginning of the day, at noon, and at the conclusion of the day's sampling or
    measurement efforts.

    11.2 LABORATORY ANALYSIS

    QC checks for laboralory analysis will be those specified in Quanterra's SOPs. In addition,
    Quanterra maintains a QAPP, the stated objective of which is to provide legally and scientifically
    valid laboratory services. The program directs organizational adherence to a system of mandatory
    operating practices and procedures which ensure that all generated laboratory data are
    scientifically correct, legally defensible, and fulfilling of applicable regulatory requirements.




    n.REPORTSTERCS8t2673QZZJP6!                     11-1                                      June 1995
—
    QAPP                                                                            558 126
    Project L WRC94-0028


                           12.0 PERFORMANCE AND SYSTEM AUDITS


    Performance and system audits of both field and laboratory activities will be conducted to verify
    that sampling and analysis are performed in accordance with the procedures established in the
    QAPP. The audits of field and laboratory activities include two separate independent parts:
    internal and external audits.

    12.1 FIELD AUDIT S

    Internal audits of field activities (sampling and measurements) will be conducted by the Rust
    Technical Manager. The audits will include examination of field sampling records, field
    instrument operating records, sample collection, handling and packaging in compliance with the
    established procedures, maintenance of QA procedures, chain of custody, etc. These audits will
    occur at the onset of the project to verify that all established procedures are followed. Follow-
    up audits will be conducted to correct deficiencies and to verify that QA procedures are
    maintained throughout the field investigation activities. The audits will involve review of field
    measurement records, instrumentation calibration records, and sample documentation.

    External audits may be conducted by USACE staff at the discretion of the USACE Project
    Manager.

    12.2 LABORATORY AUDITS

    Internal performance and system audits of Quanterra may be conducted in accordance with the
    terms and requirements of their mutual contractual arrangement. The systems audits, which
    would be done on an annual basis, would include an examination of laboratory documentation
    on sample receiving, sample log-in, sample storage, chain-of-custody procedures, sample
    preparation and analysis, instrument operating records, etc.

    The performance audits may be conducted during the performance of environmental projects at
    K.J. Sawyer MB subject to this QAPP. Blind QC samples will be prepared and submitted along
    with project samples to the laboratory for analysis throughout the project. A Rust chemist will
    evaluate the analytical results of these blind performance samples to ensure that the laboratory
    maintains good performance.

    External performance and system audits of Rust are conducted by the USACE Missouri River
    Division Laboratory on a routine basis for validation of its laboratory work on USACE projects.
    The most recent completed audit was performed in September 1994.




    iv tREPORTSTERCS8U673QZZ!P6/                  12-1                                     June 1995
QAPP
Project L WRC94-0028
                                                                                   558 127

                               13.0   PREVENTIVE             NAN CE

13.1 FIELD INSTRUMENTS

The specific preventive maintenance procedures to be followed for field instruments are those
recommended by the manufacturers in their operation and maintenance manuals. Field
instruments will be checked and calibrated in the warehouse before they are shipped or carried
to the field. These instruments will be checked and calibrated daily before use.

Calibration checks of field instruments will be performed three times daily and will be
documented in a log book specifically dedicated to field instrument calibration.

Critical spare parts such as probes, electrodes, batteries and standards will be kept on-site to
minimize instrument downtime. Backup instruments will be available on-site or within one-day
shipment to avoid delays in the field schedule.

13.2 LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS

As part of their QAJQC program, a routine preventive maintenance program is conducted by the
laboratory to minimize the occurrence of instrument failure and other system malfunctions. An
internal laboratory group to perform routine scheduled maintenance, and repair or coordinate with
the vendor for the repair of all instruments.

All laboratory instruments are maintained in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and
the requirements of the specific analytical methods being used. The maintenance will be carried
out on a regular, scheduled basis, and will be documented in the laboratory instrument service
log book for each instrument. Quanterra's specific maintenance procedures are outlined in Table
4-7.




ntREPORTSITERCS8I2673QZZJP6J                  13-1                                     June 1995
QAPP          -                                                                   558 128
Project L WRC9-OO28


                         14.0 DATA ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES


143 FIELD DATA
Field data will be assessed for accuracy, precision, and completeness by the Technical Manager.
Accuracy will be assessed using instrument-calibration and calibration-check data obtained on a
daily basis. Precision will be assessed on the basis of reproducibility by comparing multiple
readings from a single sample. At a minimum, multiple readings will be obtained from every
fifth measurement. Data completeness will describe the number of valid data measurements
obtained as a percentage of the total number of data measurements planned.

14.2 LABORATORY DATA

All analytical data will be evaluated for precision, accuracy, completeness and sensitivity. The
acceptability of the analytical precision and accuracy will be determined by comparing them to
the control limits recommended m the analytical methods bemg used for tbs project as presented
in Quanterra's SOPs.

Data determined to be insufficiently precise or accurate will be subject to the corrective action
prescribed by the appropriate analytical method. The QC samples used in the determination of
precision and accuracy have been described in Section 10.0. Specific equations used to calculate
precision, accuracy, and completeness are presented below:

Precision will be expressed in terms of relative percent difference (R.PD).

       RPD =                    Concentration 1 - Concentration 2     x 100
                              (Concentration I + Concentration 2)12

Accuracy as determined from the analysis of an external reference standard will be expressed as
percent recovery (%R).

                                    Measured Concentration     x 100
                                     Actual Concentration

Accuracy as determined from the analysis of a spiked sample will also be expressed as percent
recovery.

                      Spiked Samole Concentration - Sample Concentration x 100
                                Concentration of Spike Added




iv REPORTSTERCS8U673QZZLP61                   14-1                                     June 1995
QAPP
Project L WRCP4-0028
                                                                                558 129

Completeness will describe the number of usable analytical results as a percentage of the total
number of samples submitted for analysis.

        % Complete =               Number of usable results       x 100
                                 Number of samples submitted


Analytical sensitivity, or the achievement of method detection limits, depends on matrix effects.
Instrument sensitivity will be monitored to ensure the data quality through constant instrument
performance. The instrumental sensitivity will be monitored through the analysis of method
blanks, calibration check samples, and laboratory control samples.




n. REPORTSTERCS8k26'3QZZ/.P61                  14-2                                     June 1995
    QAPP
    Project LWRC94-0028                                                                  558 130

—                                  15.0   CORRECTiVE ACTIONS


    Corrective actions must be taken any time a situation develops that threatens data quality.
    Corrective action may be required if field or laboratory audits reveal unacceptable deviation from
    approved procedures. Corrective action may also be required any time duplicate or spiked sample
    analyses exceed the QC limits or when blank analyses indicate unacceptable levels of contamina-
    tion.

    Corrective action may include immediate resampling and/or reanalysis of a few samples, or the
    cessation of all analyses with the subsequent resampling and/or reanalysis of all samples upon
    resolution of the problem.

    Specific corrective action for field measurements may include the following:

             •  Repeat the measurement to check the error.
             • Check for all proper adjustments for ambient conditions such as temperature.
             • Check the batteries.
             • Check the calibration and adjust as necessary.
             • Replace the instrument or measurement devices.
             • Stop work (if necessary).

    Specific corrective actions for analytical measurements are described in Quanterra's SOPs.
    Corrective actions are required whenever an out-of-control event or potential out-of-control event
    is noted. The investigative action taken is somewhat dependent on the analysis and the event.

    Laboratory personnel are alerted that corrective action may be necessary if:

              • QC data are outside the warning or acceptable windows for precision and accuracy.
             •   Blanks contain target analytes above the acceptable levels.
              • Undesirable trends are detected in spike recoveries or RPD between duplicates.
              • There are unusual changes in detection limits.
              • Deficiencies are detected by the QA department during internal or external audits or
                 from the results of performance evaluation samples.
              • Inquiries concerning data quality are received.

    A QC problem that cannot be solved by immediate corrective action must be thoroughly
    investigated to determine the extent of the problem and to ensure that all samples affected by the
—
    problem are identified and analyzed.




    n   REPORTSTERCS82673QZZLP6I                   15-1                                      June 1995
QAPP
Project L WRC94-0028


                             16.0   QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORTS


Analytical data will be validated in accordance with the following USEPA guidance documents:
        •   National Functional Guidelines for Organic Data Review: EPA - 540/R - 94/0 12,
            February 1993.

       • USEPA Contract Laboratory Program National Functional Guidelines for Inorganic
          Data Review: EPA - 5401R - 94 - 013, February 1994.

A Quality Control Summary Report (QCSR) will accompany the analytical results for each
individual project performed at K.I. Sawyer MB. These reports will include an assessment of
data quality based on the QC data, as well as an account of any significant QA problems
encountered and corrective action taken. A Rust chemist and the Technical Manager will be
responsible for preparing these reports. The QCSR. reports and analytical data will be issued to
the USACE Project Manager by the Rust Project Manager.




ntREPORTSTERCS8U673QZZiP61                   16-1                                     June 1995
         558 137




    r1
w
                                       558 133




S
      r1
    4+wns I   /Anterra t24Y2 Sec lion 2
                         and
          ó4arSfcn           spo45/ b; ('y
2.0 PROGRAM ORGANIZATION ANT) RESPONSIBILiTY                                                      558 134

     This section gives an oveMew of the Enseco quality assurance orgsainrion and stases program-specific key

     personnel, their responsibilities, and the lines of communication between these persons.



     Responsibilities and Authorities



     The Enseco quality assurance organization has four main levels: the corporate level, the regional level, the

     facility level, and the analyst level. At the corporate level, the quality assurance efforts are administered by

     the Director of Technology & Quality Assurance who reports directly to the President of Enseco. Reporting

     to the Director of Technology and. Quality Assurance is the Corporate Quality Assurance Director. The

     Corporate Quality Assurance Director nunages the Corporate Quality Assurance Office and has responsibility

     for quality assurance aspects of the laboratory operations. The Corporate Quality Assurance Director

     operates independently of all areas generating analytical data to ensure objectivity In the evaluation of

     laboratory operations and quality issues. Regional implementation of the quality assurance program is

     administered by the Regional Quality Assurance Directors. The Regional Quality Assurance Directors report

     indirectly to the Corporate Quality Assurance Director and to the regional General Managers. Each

    laboratory facility may have a Quality Assurance Manager or coordinator who monitors the day'to-day quality

    assurance activities of that facility and reports to the Regional Quality Assurance Director and to the facility

    laboratory manager.



    All sciettists, analysts. and supervisory personnel within the laboratory play a vital role In ensuring the

    program specific and general quality of the envfronment.t analyses they perform. Each laboratory Associate

    has the authority to request stop-work for any data that has suspected quality problems. The request         be

    made to their Group Tn.4r or Manager, or directly to the Quality Assurance Team. Once a stop-work

    request has been made, the Group ln4n, Manager, or Quality Assurance Team is obligated to take the

    quality issue to resolution.



Rust E&l QAPP                                           Ii.                                       12894 Original
                                             558 135




     r1
Aliadins Ir SSS Oeidia Pr0ec61 pe for
           field ararne*" fr'asurer11cflt3
                                                                                    558 136
1.   Title: Standard Operating Procedure for the Measurement of Temperature in
     Water

2.   Location

             This SOP may be used anywhere on or off the site as long as the requirements of
             the SOP are met.

3.   Purpose
             This SOP will be used to measwtthQlemperature of groundwater, and surface
             water samples.

4.   Scope

             This SOP describes the calibration and use of an alcohol, bimetallic, or electronic
             thermometer to measure the temperature of groundwater, and surface water
             samples. A thermometer which has been properly calibrated may also be used to
             indicate ambient temperature.

5.   References

             None.

6.   Sample Handling and Preservation

             Temperature measurements must be made in-situ, or as soon as possible after a
             portion of the sample is transferred to a beaker, to avoid temperature changes due
             to environmental factors.

7.   Apparatus and Materials

             1.      alcohol, bimetallic, or electronic thermometer with a range of at least 0°C
                     to 100°C, with at least 0 1°C intervals
             2.      ice bath
             3.      boiling water bath
             4.      small (100-200 ml) beakers
             5.      Chemwipes or equivalent

8.   Analytical Procedure
             I.      Ensure that the thermometer has been calibrated within one day of use.
                     If not, perform the following (l.a to 1.c) steps prior
                     to use.
                                                                          558 137

     Title: Standard Operating Procedure for the Field Measurement of pH in water

2.   Location

             This SOP may be used anywhere on or off the site as long as the requirements of
             the SOP are met.

3.   Purpose
             This SOP will be used to measure pH of groundwater, and surface water samples.

4.   Scope
             This SOP describes the use of a portable, temperature compensating
             pH/conductivity meter for field use. The instrument is calibrated using
             commercially available buffer reference solutions at or near 25°C, and the
             instrument reading is adjusted to equal the pH of the standard at 25°C.

5.   References

             1.     "Test Methods of Evaluating Solid Wastes", Third Edition (1986), SW-
                    846, Procedure 9040.

             2.     Cole Parmer Model DspH-3 Operating Instructions.

6.   Sample Handling and Preservation
             This procedure can be used to measure the pH of the water samples in-situ or in
             a beaker which has been triple-rinsed with distilled water and at least once with
             sample. If the measurement is to be made at some time later time, the sample
             must be placed in a laboratory supplied bottle, filled to overflowing, and capped
             immediately to avoid dissolution of atmospheric gases. In such cases, the sample
             should be stored at 4°C and analyzed within 24 hours.

             Standard pH buffers should be stored below 30°C to minimize the likelihood of
             error due to evaporation or microbial growth. The standard should be discarded
             if the expiration date is past, or if color, turbidity, or visible microbial growth
             develops.

7.   Apparatus and Materials

             1.    Cole Parmer pR/Conductivity meter (Dsp-3) or equivalent
             2.    pH 4, 7, and 10 buffer solutions
             3.    distilled water
             4.    small screw driver
             5.    distilled water
                                                                         558 138
           I
                       TemneratureAdjusted Buffer pH Values


Temp (Beg. C)       pH 4 Buffer*      pH 7 Buffer*      pH 10 Buffer**


   0                  4.01              7.12
   1                                    7.11
   2                                    7.11
   3                                    7.10
   4                  4.01              7.10
   5                                    7.09
   6                                    7.08
   7                                    7.08
   8                                    7.07
   9                                    7.07
   10                 4.00              7:06                  10.15
   11                                   7.06                  10.14
   12                                   7.05                  10.13
   13                                   7.05                  10.12
   14                                   7.04                  10.11
   15                 4.00              7.04                  10.10
   16                                   7.04                  10.09
   17                                   7.03                  10.08
   18                                   7.03                  10.07
   19                                   7.02                  10.06
   20                 4.00              7.02                  10.05
   21                                   7.02                  10.04
   22                                   7.01                  10.03
   23                                   7.01                  10.02
   24                                   7.00                  10.01
   25                 4.01              7.00                  10.00
   26                                                         9.99
   27                                                         9.98
   28                                                         9.97
   29                                                         9.96
   30                 4.01


*Cole Parmer Instruments
t4VWR Scientific
                                                                                        558 139
           6.    beakers (100 ml or larger)
           7.    bottle labeled "waste p1-I buffer solution"


8.   Analytical Procedure

           1.     Slide back the electrode compartment to release pH and electrodes.

           2.     Deploy electrodes in either the 90 or 180 degree measurement position.

           3.     Remove the bottom section of the protective pH probe cap.

           4.     Thoroughly rinse the pH probe and remaining parts of the probe cap with
                  distilled water.

           5.     Energize the instrument by depressing the on!off switch once. (Ensure the
                  instrument is in the pH mode by pressing the pH/PPM microswitch as
                  needed).

           6.     Slide back the bottom compartment cover to the first stop, exposing the
                  adjustment pots.

           7.     Transfer enough pH-7 buffer solution to cover at least 1/2 of the pH probe
                  into a beaker that has been either triple-rinsed with distilled water and
                  once with the same buffer solution, or a disposable beaker that has been
                  rinsed once with the buffer solution. Measure the buffer temperature and
                  record. Using the attached Table, record the corresponding temperature-
                  adjusted pH value.

           8.     Immerse the sensing portion of the probe at least 1/2 its length into the
                  buffer solution. Allow the reading to stabilize while slightly agitating the
                  solution.

           9.     Adjust the CAL pot until the instrument indicated the correct temperature-
                  compensated p1-I value.

           10.    Remove the probe from the test solution and rinse with distilled water.

           11.    Discard the used pH buffer into the collection bottle for subsequent
                  disposal.

           12.    Select the appropriate p1-14 or pH 10 buffer solution (choice of buffers
                  should be such that this buffer and the pH7 buffer bracket the sample pH).

           13.    Immerse the sensing portion of the probe at least 1/2 its length into the
                  buffer solution. Allow the reading to stabilize while slightly agitating the
                                                                                558 140

I. Title:     Standard Operating Procedure for the Field Measurement of Conductivity in
              Water

2. Location
      This SOP may be used anywhere on or off the site as long as the requirements of the
      SOP are met.

3. Purpose
      This SOP will be used to measure conductivity of groundwater and surface water samples.
      This SOP is not applicable to solid samples.

4. Scope
      This SOP describes the use of a portable, temperature-compensating p1-I/conductivity
      meter for field use. The instrument is calibrated using a commercially available KCL
      references solution at or near 25°C, and the instrument reading is adjusted to be equal
      to the conductivity of the standard (at 25°C). A zero-conductivity adjustment is also
      made.

      Because field measurements may be made at temperatures other than 25°C, and the
      temperature coefficient of the internal compensator may be different than the sample
      being measured, the temperature of the water sample shall be measured and recorded as
      well as the conductivity.

5. References

       "YSI Conductivity Calibrator Solutions Instructions, "YSI Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio.

      Cole Parmer Model DspH-3 Operating Instructions.

      "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 16th Edition (1985),
      Method 205.

       "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste," Third Edition 91986, SW-846, Procedure
      9050.

6. Sample Handling and Preservation

       This procedure can be used to measure the conductivity of water samples in-situ or in a
       beaker which has been triple-rinsed with distilled water and at least once with sample
       water. If the measurement is to be made at some later time, the sample must be placed
       in a pre-cleaned laboratory bottle, filled to overflowing, and capped immediately to avoid
                     • ':                                                             558 141
      dissolution of atmospheric gases. In such cases, the samples should be stored at 4°C and
      analyzed within 24 hours.

      Conductivity standards should be stored below 30°C to minimize the likelihood of error
      due to evaporation or to microbial growth. The standard should be discarded if the
      expiration date is past, or if color, turbidity, or visible microbial growth develops.
      Standards should be discarded within one month after opening.

7. Apparatus and Materials

      1      Cole Parmer pI-IlConductivity meter (DspI-I-3) or equivalent
      2.     conductivity standards
      3.     small screw driver
      4.     Chemwipes or equivalent
      5.     beakers (100 ml or larger)
      6.     laboratory supplied sample jars with labels and seals

8. Analytical Procedure

      1.     Slide back the electrode compartment to release pH and conductivity electrodes.

      2.     Deploy electrodes in either the 90 or 180 degree measurement position.

      3.     Remove the plastic cap.

      4.     Rinse the conductivity probe thoroughly with distilled water.

      5.     Pat   dry the probe with a chemwipe.

      6.     Energize the instrument by depressing the on/off switch once. (Ensure the
             instrument is in the conductivity mode). For each range change desired, depress
             the pH/PPM microswitch once. The YSI unit utilizes3 ranges for conductivity.
             The range sequence is pH-200K-20K-21C In most cases the 2K range will be
             used. Only the 200K range               a enwiciator.
      7.     Slide back the bottom compartment cover to the first stop, exposing the
             adjustment pots.

      8.     The dried probe should read 0 in air; if not, adjust the ZERO pot until the
             instrument reads 0. If the conductivity meter cannot be adjusted to zero, it may
             indicate dried solids on the sensor. If so, clean the probe with a mild detergent
             solution, thoroughly rinse with distilled water, let the probe air-dry, and repeat this
             step.
                                                                                 558 142
      9.     Immerse the probe in a solution of known conductivity (normally 1000+7- 0.5%
             umhos/em), and record the value. Also measure and record the temperature of the
             conductivity standard.

      10.    Adjust the SPAN pot until the instrument indicates the conductivity value of the
             known solution.

      11.    Remove the probe from the test solution and thoroughly rinse with distilled water
             and pat the probe dry.

      12.    Rinse the probe with the sample by placing the probe into a beaker containing an
             aliquot of the sample and dip in and out several times. Then, place the probe into
             another aliquot of the sample.

      13.    Read the sample conductivity. If the value exceeds the value of the calibration
             standard by more than a factor of 10, repeat the instrument calibration (Steps 9
             through 10) using a standard conductivity solution in the same range as the
             sample, then repeat Steps 11 through 12. Also measure the sample temperature
             to the nearest °C.

      14.    Record the measured conductivity reading and sample temperature.

      15.    Rinse the probe thoroughly with distilled water.

      16.    If no further measurements are being made, de-energize the instrument, remove
             the probe and replace the protective cap.

9. Quality Control

      This procedure is specifically designed for survey-type field measurements, and is not
      capable of generating results of high precision or accuracy. If results of higher quality
      are desired, measurements must be made at 25+7-0.1°C using a calibrated conductivity
      meter-cell combination. Method 9050 of SW-846 is appropriate for those cases.

      Calibration data should be maintained and made available for reference or inspection.
      Recalibrate the instrument per project requirements. Duplicate samples should be
      measured per project requirement.

10.   Data Analysis

      Since this meter is a direct-reading instrument, the data is recorded directly.

11.    Documentation

      Record all measurement values.
           I3    Hr                                                                           558 143



     1.   Title: Standard Operating Procedure for the Field Measurement of Turbidity in Water

     2. Location
             This SOP may be used anywhere on or off the site as long as the requirements of the
             SOP are met.

     3. Purpose
             The purpose of this procedure is to provide general reference information concerning the
             measurement of turbidity in groundwater samples collected during field investigations.

     4. Scope

             This procedure gives overall technical guidance for measuring turbidity in groundwater
             samples.

     5. Requirements                                                   -




             Groundwater   turbidity measurements can be made in the field as an indication of
             completeness of well development, to determine the need to filter a sample for TAL
             analysis, and of the effectiveness of screen characteristics.

     6. References

             Bates and Jackson 1987.         Glossary of Geology, American Geological Institute,
             Alexandria, VA. 788 pp.

     7. Definitions

             Turbidity - The state, condition, or quality of opaqueness or reduced clarity of a fluid, due
             to the presence of suspended matter.
U-

             Nephelometer - An instrument designed to measure the amount of cloudiness of a
             medium esp. to determine the concentration or particle sizes of a suspension by
             measuring, at more than one angle, the scattering of light transmitted or reflected by the
             medium.

     8. Responsibilities
             Field Team Leader - has overall responsibility for obtaining turbidity measurements. The
             field team leader shall specify the number of samples and locations at which turbidity
             data is to be acquired.
                                                                               558 144
      Field Personnel - must have a basic familiarity with the equipment and procedures
      involved in obtaining a turbidity measurements, and must be aware of any project-specific
      requirements.

9. Equipment
      The equipment used to make water level measurements consist of the following:

      -      HF Scientific Model DRT-15 Portable Turbidity Meter or equivalent
      -      Sample vials
      -      Calibration standard
      -      Battery Charger

10.   Procedure

      The DRT-15 Portable Turbidity Meter is a dual photo-diode system used to detect the
      light scattered by the suspended matter in a liquid. The light from a filament source is
      passed through the sample and the scattered light is detected on two sides of the light
      beam.     The light rays produced are electronically processed and displayed in
      nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs).

      Perform calibration of the instrument in accordance with the instructions in the operations
      manual prior to collecting samples at each new location. Collect a sample of water from
      the well into a dedicated or pre-cleaned cuvette. Wipe excess moisture off the outside
      of the cuvette and insert the cuvette into the proper position in the meter. Record the
      reading on the digital display after stabilization of the meter has occurred.

11. Attachments

      No attachments.
     i,i '                                                                               558 145
                            MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                    1 OF 7

                                         1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to establish acceptable methods for proper monitoring well
design and construction. This procedure is applicable to the construction of permanent
monitoring wells.
                                  2.0 REQUIREMENTS

The objectives for each monitoring well and its intended use must be clearly defined before the
monitoring system is constructed. Within the monitoring system, different monitoring wells may
serve different purposes and, therefore, require different types of construction. During all phases
of well construction, attention must be given to clearly documenting the basis for construction
decisions, the details of well construction, and the materials used.

Sizing of monitoring wells shall be performed afler a preliminary estimation of the hydraulic
gradients and groundwater flow direction. In most cases, these can be determined through review
of geologic data and the site terrain. The wells should be constructed according to all applicable
federal, state and local requirements.

                                   3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1    SITE GEOLOGIST

The Site Geologist is responsible for ensuring that the well is installed by the drilling contractor
according to the Sample and Work Plan (SWP). The Site Geologist is responsible for selecting
the well casing and screen materials, the screen length and placement, and the filter pack and seal
materials to be used for each monitoring well.

                                       4.0 EQUIPMENT
1.     Field log book and Indelible Ink Pens
2.     Folding or Retractable Engineers Rule
3.     Weighted Tape
                                                                                 558 146
                           MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                   2 OF 7

                                      5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

5.1.1 Monitoring Well Depth, Diameter and Screen Length

1.     Standard well diameters are two, four, six, or eight inches. For the K.I. Sawyer project,
       unless otherwise specified in the project specific work plans, two-inch wells will be
       installed.

2.     In specifying well diameter, sampling requirements must be considered. The standing
       water in the monitoring well available for sampling after complete recharge is dependent
       on the well diameter as follows:


         Casing Inside                Standing Water                    Total Depth of
         Diameter (in)                Depth to Obtain                  Standing Water
                                    One Gallon Water (ft)            For Four Gallons (ft)
               2                               6.13                             25


3.     The borehole diameter should be at least four inches larger than the well riser pipe
       diameter.

5.1.2 Riser Pipe and Screen Materials

5.1.2.1 Well Screens

Well screens will be constructed of the same size and strength material as the well riser. The
screen material will be noncontaminating continuous wrap design. The slot size will be
determined by the Site Geologist based on subsurface conditions. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
screens and risers must be decontaminated before using.

5.1.2.1 Well Riser

The well riser will consist of PVC pipe. PVC pipe will be new, threaded, and flush joint, and
at a minimum conform to the requirements of ASTM F480-81 SDR 13.5 (Schedule 40). Riser
sections will be joined by threaded flush-joint couplings, to form water-tight unions. Adhesives
or solvents will not be used to join the casing sections. The use of Teflon tape on threaded joints
is acceptable and will be noted on the well construction log.
—                                                                                      558 147
                                MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                    3 OF 7

    5.1.3 Annular Materials

    Material placed in the annular space between the borehole and well-riser pipe includes a gravel
    pack when necessary, a bentonite seal, and cement grout. In general, all of these should be
    installed via a tremie pipe placed in the annular space.

    5.1.3.1   Filter Pack

    The "filter pack" is usually a fine- to medium-grained uniform sand. The quantity of sand placed
    in the annular space is dependent upon the length of the screened interval, but should always
    extend two to four feet above the top of the screen and one foot below. The grain size of the
    filter pack which is used should be included in the final report plans and shown on the well
    construction log. A grain-size distribution curve for all filter pack material will be submitted by
    Rust in the final Site Inspection (SI) report along with the well construction diagrams.

    5.1.3.2 Bentonite Seal

    At least two to three feet of 3/8-inch bentonite pellets should be placed above the gravel pack.
    Bentonite expands by absorbing water and provides a seal between the screened interval and the
    annular space and formation. The seal will be composed of commercially manufactured sodium
    bentonite pellets or granules. The bentonite seal will be allowed to hydrate a minimum of four
    hours before grouting begins. If the bentonite seal is positioned above the water table, granular
    bentonite will be installed in six-inch lifts, with each lift hydrated a minimum of 30 minutes
    between lifts before proceeding. Clean, potable water will be added to hydrate the bentonite.
    After placement of the final lift, the granular bentonite seal will be allowed to hydrate an
    additional two hours before grouting begins.

    5.1.3.3 Cement Grout

    Cement grout is placed on top of the bentonite to the surface. The grout effectively seals the
    well and eliminates the possibility of surface runoff reaching the screened interval. Grouting also
—
    replaces material removed during drilling a djf'iñts Tible collapsiàñd subsidence around the
    well. Cement grout should be placed above the bentonite seal to the ground surface. The cement
    grout should consist of a mixture of Portland Cement (ASTM Cl 50) and water in the proportion
    of not more than seven gallons of approved water per bag of cement (94 pounds). Additionally,
    three percent by weight of sodium bentonite powder should be added unless prohibited by state
    or local regulations. To prevent bridging and to provide a better seal, grout shall be placed by
    pumping from the bottom of the hole upward through a side-discharging tremie pipe, with the
    lower end of the tremie pipe located within thieë Thet of the top of the bentonite seal The Site
    Geologist should calculate the volume of grout necessary to fill up the borehole to the surface.
    This volume should be mixed and pumped down the borehole via a tremie pipe. If the level of
    the grout does not read to the frost line, then the rest of the annular space will be backfilled with
    bentonite chips and hydrated. Pumping should continue until undiluted grout flows from the
    boring at the ground surface.
                                                                                    558 148
                           MONITORJNG WELL INSTALLATION                                   4 OF 7

5.1.4 Protective Equipment

When the well is completed and grouted to the surface, protective steel casing, extending two to
three feet above ground level and set an equal distance below the ground surface into the cement
grout backfill, will be placed over the top of the well. This casing generally has a hinged cap
and can be locked to prevent vandalism. With the exception of wells installed to monitor or
extract vapors, a vent hole will be provided in thc riser pipe just below the cap to allow venting
of gases and maintain atmospheric pressure as water levels rise or fall in the well. The protective
casing, which has a larger diameter than the well, is set below the first line to preclude it from
being heaved up by frost action.

Three steel guard posts, two inches diameter are usually placed around the protective steel riser
pipe. All locks should be brass (non-rusting) and keyed alike. Three duplicate keys should be
provided, one to the USACE-TM and two the base personal. A concrete pad, measuring a
minimum three foot by three foot square and four inches thick, sloped away from the well,
should be constructed around the well casing, with the top outer edge at the final ground level
elevation. Three steel posts two inches or more in diameter should be equally spaced around the
well and cemented in place outside the concrete pad. The ground immediately surrounding the
top of the well should be sloped away from the well.

Some wells may be required to be finished flush with the ground or pavement if they are in areas
of heavy traffic. This requirement will be stipulated in the project-specific work plans. Flush
finished wells will also be equipped with a lock and will be protected from the entry of surface
fluids into the well. Protective posts will not be required on flush finished wells.

5.2    MONITORING WELL CONSTRUCTION

5.2.1 Predrilling Activities

       1.    Underground utility maps for the immediate vicinity of the drilling site will be
             reviewed.
       2.    Proposed drilling locations will be staked in the field for inspection.
       3.    The screen will be inspected to insure that no damage has occurred during shipment
             and decontamination. In addition, the type and class of material and screen slot size
             will be recorded.

5.2.2 Post-Drilling Activities

        I.   The well casing and screen will be assembled and the material placed in the
             borehole. A sump or sampling cup device 1 to 2 feet long may be attached to the
             bottom of the well casing to aid in collecting fine-grained sediments and to capture
             dense contaminants for analysis.
  •
                                                                                    558 149
                           MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                     5 OF   7

        2.   The depth of the bottom of the borehole, the bottom of the well, the top of the
             screen, and the screen length will be recorded in the field log book.

5.2.3 Placement of Filter Pack and Annular Seal

The drilling subcontractor will perform the following tasks:

        1.   The monitoring well filter pack will be placed via a tremie pipe by slowly pouring
             filter pack material directly into the pipe between the well screen and the open
             borehole wall. If the borehole will not stand open, filter pack material should be
             placed directly into the annulus between the auger wall and the well casing and
             screen. The auger string should then be gradually pulled back in small increments
             (2 feet at a time) to allow the sand to settle around the screen below the augers.
             Care should be taken to prevent filter pack material from bridging between the
             borehole wall or augers and the well screen and riser pipe.

        2.   The filter pack material will be placed from the bottom of the well to a nominal two
             feet above the top of the screen. (The Site Geologist will record the depth to the
             top of the sand pack and note the number of bags of sand used in the field logbook.)
             The sand will be tremied into place to avoid bridging and insure a continuous filter
             pack.

        3.   Tremie bentonite granules (not powder) will be placed onto the top of the filter pack
             to form a minimum two-foot seal. The depth should be checked with a weighted
             tape. The bentonite pellets should not exceed one-half inch diameter. The bentonite
             pellet seal should be allowed to hydrate a minimum of four hours before grouting
             begins. If the bentonite seal is positioned above the water table, granular bentonite
             should be installed in six-inch lifts, with each lift hydrated a minimum of 30
             minutes between lifts before proceeding. Clean, potable water should be added to
             hydrate the bentonite. After placement of the final lift, the granular bentonite should
             be allowed to hydrate an additional two hours before grouting begins.

        4.   A cement-bentonite grout will be placed above the bentonite seal by pumping it
             through a tremie pipe (with the bottom opening set about one foot above the top of
             the well seal to prevent disturbance of the seal during pumping activities). Grout
             should be allowed to rise in the borehole annulus to the bottom of the frost line.

The site• geologist will record the depth to the top of the bentonite seal, the number of
buckets/bags of bentonite used, and the amount of water added for hydration in the field log
book.
                                                                                 558
                          MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                   6 OF 7

5.2.4 Aboveground Well Completion

       1.   The north side of the well casing should be notched with a hacksaw or file. The
            notch will be the point from which surveys and subsequent water level
            measurements will be measured. Care should be taken to ensure no filings or PVC
            shavings enter the well.

       2.   For wells that are completed above the ground surface, the finish casing should
            extend approximately 2-3 feet above the land surface with a protective steel casing
            equipped with a hinged, loose-fitting cap that can be locked to prevent unauthorized
            entry. Sufficient space must be allowed between the protective casing lid and the
            top of the well casing for a well cap. The minimum casing size for a two-inch well
            is six inches.

       3. A concrete pad should be constructed around the protective casing. The pad should
            slope away from the casing in all directions.

5.2.5 Monitoring Well Completion and Borehole Records

The Site Geologist will record the lithology and complete a Hazardous Toxic Waste (HTW)
Drilling Log Form for all drilling locations (a copy of the form can be found in Appendix C of
the SWP). The Site Geologist is also responsible for recording the required information in the
field log book. Suitable diagrams detailing the as-built configuration of each monitoring well
should be prepared for inclusion in the SI report (Well Installation Diagram Form). The
diagrams should be prepared by a qualified geologist present during all drilling operations. Two
legible copies of each field well installation diagram will be completed and sent to the USACE
within five days of completion of each well (a copy of the form can be found in Appendix C of
the SWP). The well will not be accepted by the USACE before the drill logs and installation
diagrams are received and approved. Information provided on all diagrams must include but not
be limited to the following:

       1.    Project and site names, well number and the total depth of completed well.
       2.    Depth of any grouting or sealing, the amount of cement andlor bentonite used, and
             the total boring depth.
       3.    Depth and type of well casing.
       4.    Static water level upon completion of the well and after well development.
       5.    Installation date or dates, and name of the driller and the geologist installing the
             well. Each installation diagram shall be signed by the preparer.
       6.     All pertinent construction details of monitoring wells, such as depth to and
              description of all backfill materials installed (such as gravel pack, bentonite, and
              grout); gradation of gravel pack; length, location, diameter, slot size, material
              (PVC, etc.), and manufacturer of well screen(s); position of centralizers; and
              location of any blank pipe installed in the well.
                                                                          558 151
                        MONITORING WELL INSTALLATION                                7 OF 7

      7.    Description of surface completion, including protective steel casing, protective
            pipes, and concrete surface seal.
      8.    A description of any difficulties encountered during well installation.
      9.    Surveyed coordinates and elevation of top of ground and top of well riser.
      10. A brief stratigraphic log presented on the well installation diagram also, showing
            depths to and descriptions of major lithologic changes encountered in the well
            boring.


                                  6.0 REFERENCES

6.1   Driscoll, Fletcher 0. 1986. Groundwater and Wells, 2nd Edition, Johnson Division, St.
      Paul, Miimesota, 1089 pp.

6.2   USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Preliminary Assessments and Site Inspection,
      K.I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW4S-94-D-000l, Appendix A3, General
      Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer AFB.


                                 7.0 ATTACHMENTS

HTW Drilling Log Form
Well Construction Diagram Form
                                                                                       558 152
                                   WELL DEVELOPMENT                                 Page 1 OF 5

                                         1.0   PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to define the requirements for developing monitoring wells to
increase permeability and ensure a representative sample of groundwater obtained from the
aquifer. This procedure applies to development of wells by either the bailing or pumping
tecimique.


                                    2.0 REQUIREMENTS

Within one week after each well has been constructed, but no sooner than 48 hours after grouting
is completed, Rust personnel will direct a program for the development of the well without the
use of dispersing agents, acids, or explosives. The purpose of well development is to stabilize
and increase the permeability of the gravel pack around the well screen, and to restore the
permeability of the formation which may have been reduced by drilling operations. The selection
of the well development method will be made by the site geologist and is based on the drilling
methods, well construction and installation details, and the characteristics of the formation in
which the well is screened. Any equipment introduced into the well during development should
be decontaminated in accordance with the project-specific work plan.

Each monitoring well will be developed by bailing or pumping. Development will consist of
mechanical surging and bailing until little or no sediment enters the well. This will continue for
a minimum of two hours. Sediment that enters the well during this process will be removed.
At the end of that time, the well will be continuously pumped using an electric submersible, or
pneumatic drive positive displacement or bladder pump. Physical and chemical parameters
including temperature, p1-I, specific conductance, and turbidity of the water will be measured
during well development. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and turbidity shall be
monitored during pumping (I reading per well volume). Pumping will continue until these
parameters have stabilized (less than 0.2 pH units or a 10 percent change for the other parameters
between four consecutive readings) and the water is clear and free of fines. If these parameters
have not stabilized after four hours of continuous pumping, then the USACE will be contacted
for further direction.

If the addition of water is required to facilitate surging and bailing, only formation water from
that well should be used. If this is not practical due to tightness of the formation, then only
bailing should be done. In all cases, the utmost care will be taken not to collapse well screens
during development activities and at least as much water as was introduced during drilling will
be removed from each well. The Site Geologist wifl ebTlect approximately one liter of the last
water withdrawn from the well during devélopméñi in a clear glass jar, label and immediately
photograph it with a 35 mm color photo, and submIt the photo as part of the Well Installation
Diagram (Attachment to Well Installation SOP). The photograph will be a suitably back-lit close
up which shows the clarity of the water. Fines remaining in the water will not be allowed to
settle before the photograph is taken. The depth of any sediment which collects in the bottom
of the jar after the sample is allowed to settle should be noted on the Well Installation Diagram.
                                                                                   558 153
                                    WELL DEVELOPMENT                                 Page 2 OF 5

The turbidity of the water will be determined in accordance with ASTM D-1889 and shown on
the final well installation diagram. Part of well dcvelopment should be the washing of the entire
well cap and interior of the well casing above the water table using only water from that well.
The result of this operation should be a well casing free of extraneous materials (grout, bentonite,
sand, etc.). This washing should be conducted during development, not after development is
completed. This washing should not be performed where free-phase contaminants (e.g.,
petroleum products) are present.

The development water will be containerized and properly disposed. Balers and pumps used for
development must be decontaminated in accordance with appropriate decontamination procedures.


                                   3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1    SITE GEOLOGIST

The Site Geologist is responsible for withdrawing sufficient water to clarify the well, and for
performing physical measurements such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity
to ensure proper development. All data should be entered into the field log book.


                                       4.0 EQUIPMENT

       1.   Pumps
       2.   Pump suction lines
       3.   Swabbing equipment (as necessary)
       4.   Bailers
       5.   Steel retractable engineer's measuring tape calibrated to 0.01 foot
       6.   Water level indicators
       7.   pH meter
       8.   Specific conductance meter
       9.   Turbidity meter
       10. Mercury thermometer
       Ii. Drums to contain the development water
        12. Field logbook
        13. Well purging and sample collection log


                                       5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1     DEVELOPMENT

        I.   Open and check the condition of the well head. Check for organic vapor.
                                                                                         558 154
                                     WELL DEVELOPMENT                                Page 3 OF 5
—

          2.   Measure the water level in the well before development begins. Record these values
               to the nearest 0.01 foot in the field book and log. Measure and record the bottom
               of the well before and after development.
          3.   Mechanically surge and bail the well (as discussed in Section 2.0).
          4.   Pump or bail the well (as discussed in Section 2.0).
          5.   Collect development water sample (as discussed in Section 2.0).

    5.2   DEVELOPMENT METHODS, RESTRICTIONS, AND LIMITATIONS

    5.2.1 Overpumping and Backwashing
          I.   This method develops the well by drawing the water level down at a given rate and
               then reversing the flow direction so water is passing from the well into the
               formation.

          2.   The acceptable method of backwashing is accomplished by starting and stopping the
               pump intermittently.

    5.2.2 Surge with a Surge Plunger
          1.   A surge plunger (also called a surge block or swab) is approximately the same
               diameter as the well casing and is used to agitate the water. Swabbing is a process
               in which a plunger-type device, called a surge plunger or surge block, is moved up
               and down within the well screen to force groundwater to alternately flow in and out
               through the sand pack. This back-and-forth movement of water facilitates removal
               of fines from the formation immediately adjacent to the well, while preventing
               bridging (wedging) of sand grains.

          2.   In formations with a high yield, a solid plunger is the most effective.

          3.   In formations with a high yield, a valved surge plunger may be preferred, as it is
               designed to create greater inflow than outflow during surging.

    5.2.3 High-Velocity Jetting
          1.   Water used in high-velocity jetting should be of known quality (i.e., a sampled
               source).
          2.   The amount of water added should be recorded in the field log book.
          3.   Jetting should be used only if other methods are ineffective.
          4.   The jetting tool should be rotated and slowly raised and lowered along the length
               of the screen to insure complete development.

    5.2.4 Compressed Air
                                                                                  558 155
                                   WELL DEVELOPMENT                                  Page 4 OF 5

       1.    For the closed-well method (i.e., increase air pressure in a sealed well forcing water
             out, then releasing pressure and allowing water to flow back in), care must be taken
             not to lower the water level below the top of the screen.

       2.    At no time in the open-well method should air be injected directly into the screened
             interval.

5.3    WELL DEVELOPMENT RECORDS

A well development form will be prepared and completed for each monitoring well installed.
The form will be prepared by the Site Geologist present during the well development operations
(a copy of the form can be found in Appendix C of the SWP). Copies of the completed field
well development records will be included in the draft and final Site Inspection (SI) Reports;
computer-generated well development records shall be submitted in the final SI Report.
Information provided on the well development record will include, but not be limited to the
following:

       I.    Name of project and site, well identification number, and date(s).
       2.    Date, time, and elevation of the static water level and bottom of well before
             development.
       3.    Method used for development, to include equipment, size, type and make of bailer
             andlor pump used during development.
       4.    Time spent developing the well by each method, to include the typical pumping rate
             if pump was used during development.
       5.    Volume and physical character of water removed, to include changes during
             development in clarity, color, particulates, and odor.
       6.    Volume and source of any water added to the well, and chemical analysis of the
             added water.
       7.    Volume and physical character of sediment removed, to include changes during
             development in color and odor.
       8.    Clarity of water before, during, and after development, including a backlit final
             development photo, and depth of any sediment which settles to the bottom of the jar
             containing the last one liter of water withdrawn from the well during development.
       9.    Total depth of well and the static water level immediately after, and 4 consecutive
             hours      after development.
       10. Readings of pH, specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity taken before,
            during, and after development.
       11. Name(s) and job title of individual(s) developing well.
       12. Name and/or description of the disposal facility/area for the waters removed during
            development.
                                                                              558 156
                               WELL DEVELOPMENT                             Page 5 OF   5

                                 6.0 REFERENCES

6.1   Driscoll, E.G., 1986, Groundwater and Wells: Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesota,
      1108 p.
6.2   USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Preliminary Assessment & Site Inspection,
      K.I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW4S-94-D-0001, Appendix A3, General
      Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer AFB.


                                7.0 ATTACHMENTS


Well Development Form.
                                                                        558 157
                                       WELL PURGING                                       1 OF 4

                                        1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to provide general reference information on well purging by
various methods prior to the sampling of groundwater wells, The methods and equipment
described are for purging water samples from the saturated zone of the subsurface. This
procedure applies to purging relatively large volumes of water in shallow to medium-depth wells.


                                    2.0 REQUIREMENTS

Methods for purging from completed wells include the use of pumps, bailers, and various types
of samplers. The primary considerations in obtaining a representative sample of the groundwater
are to avoid collection of stagnant (standing) water in the well and to avoid physical or chemical
alteration of the water due to sampling techniques. In a non-pumping well, there will be little
or no vertical mixing of water in the well pipe or casing, and stratification will occur. The well
water in the screened section will mix with the groundwater due to normal flow patterns, but the
well water above the screened section will remain isolated and become stagnant.

After development, all wells should be allowed to stabilize for a minimum of two weeks prior
to sampling. For all wells the field team will determine (measure and record) depth to water and
the total well depth using an electronic water level probe to determine the water volume to be
purged. Before purging, the presence of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) at the top and
bottom of the water column should be determined. If NAPLs are present, the USAGE-TM must
be contacted for further instructions. The well will then be pumped or bailed with clean
equipment to remove a quantity of water equal to at least three times the submerged volume of
the casing, or until turbid-free samples are cOlléct&L The same parameters as specified in Section
2.0 in the Well Development SOP will be measured and recorded during the purging process.
Field parameters will be measured at the start of purging and twice per casing volume removed.
Purging should continue beyond three casing volumes until these parameters have stabilized (0.2
pH units or a 10 percent change for the other parameter between four consecutive readings).


                                  3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1 FIELD TEAM LEADER

The Field Team Leader (FTL) is responsible for reviewing the purging procedures used by the
field crew and for performing in-field spot checks for proper purging procedures.
                                                                                558 158
                                       WELL PURGING                                       2 OF 4

3.2 SITE GEOLOGIST

The Site Geologist is primarily responsible for the proper well purging techniques. The Site
Geologist will be responsible for purging of wells, performing necessary physical measurements
and observations, and containment of purged water. He/she must record pertinent information
including amount of water purged, pH, specific conductivity, temperature, and turbidity in the
field log book.


                                      4.0 EQUIPMENT

     I.   Purge pump
     2.   Power source
     3.   Steel retractable engineer's measuring tape (Calibrated to 0.01 foot)
     4.   Water level indicators
     5.   Swabbing equipment (as necessary)
     6.   pH meter
     7.   Specific conductance meter
     8.   Nephelometer
     9.   Mercury thermometer
     10. HNu photoionization detector
     11. Containers for the development water
     12. Field log book


                                      5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1 GENERAL
     1.    The amount of flushing a well should receive before sample collection will depend on
           the intent of the monitoring program and the hydrogeologic conditions.

     2.    An alternative method of purging a well is to purge continuously (using a low-volume
           low-flow pump) while monitoring specific conductance, pH, and water temperature
           until the values stabilize.

5.2 CALCULATIONS OF WELL VOLUME

To ensure that the proper volume of water has been removed from the well before sampling, it
is first necessary to determine the volume of standing water in the well pipe and the volume of
water in the filter pack below the well seal. The volume can be easily calculated by the
following method. Calculations will be entered in the field log book:

      1.   Obtain all available information on well construction (location, casing, screens, etc.).
    dr:j )7
                                                                           558 159
                                        WELL PURGING                                    3 OF 4

       2.   Determine well or casing and diameter.

       3.   Measure and record static water level (depth below ground level or top of casing
            reference point).

       4.   Determine depth of well.

       5.   Calculate number of linear feet of static water (total depth or length of well pipe
            minus the depth to static water level).

       6.   Calculate the volume of water in the casing.
                 =     it (di/2)2 (TD-I-I) (7.48)

       Where:

                 =     total volume, gallons
            di   =     inside diameter of casing, feet
            TD =       total depth of well, feet
            H=         depth to water, in feet, from ground surface

       7.   Determine the minimum number of volumes to be evacuated before sampling.

    5.3 WELL PURGING BY PUMPING

       1.   Lower the purge pump into the well until it is submerged. NOTE!!: If resistance is
            encountered when lowering the pump into the well, WITHDRAW THE PUMP FROM
            THE WELL and inform the FTL.

       2.   Direct the pump discharge hose into the receptor bucket and start the pump in
            accordance with the manufacturer's operations manual.

       3.   Record total volume of water removed.
—
       4.   Collect at least three samples during purging and measure physical parameters
            including pTM, conductivity, temperature, and turbidity.

       5.   Purging will continue until the required volume of water has been removed and the
            physical parameters have stabilized so that p1-I is 0.2 standard units, conductivity
              10 Rmhos, temperature is 1°C, within four successive intervals.

       6.   Decontaminate the bailers or pump per the Sample and Work Plan.
                                                                           558 160
                                   WELL PURGING                                   4 OF 4

                                  6.0 REFERENCES

6.! United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1989.        Groundwater Handbook:
     EPA/625/6-8710 16.
6.2 USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Preliminary Assessment & Site Inspection, K.I.
     Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW45-94-D-0001, Appendix A3, General
     Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer AFB.
            1
                                                                                        558 161
                                     GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                       1 OF 8



—                                            1.0   PURPOSE

    The purpose of this procedure is to obtain groundwater samples that are representative of the
    source from which they are taken and minimize sampler exposure to groundwater contaminants.
    The methods and equipment described are for the collection of water samples from the saturated
    zone of the substrata. This procedure provides information on proper equipment and techniques
    for groundwater sampling. The techniques described should be followed whenever applicable,
    noting that site-specific conditions or project-specific work plans may require adjustments in
    methodology.

                                         2.0 REQUIREMENTS

    Generally, wells should be sampled within three hours of purging. However, wells with poor
    recharge should be sampled within 24 hours of purging. Poor recharge wells are those that
    cannot recharge 80% of the original volume within 8 hours. If the well does not recharge fast
    enough to permit removing three casing volumes, the well should be pumped or bailed dry and
    sampled as soon as sufficient recharged. Applicable preservatives must be added to the sample
    containers before the samples are collected.

                                       3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

    3.1    FIELD TEAM LEADER

    The Field Team Leader (FTL) is responsible for reviewing the sampling procedures used by the
    field crew and for performing in-field spot checks for proper sampling procedures.

    3.2    SITE GEOLOGIST

    The Site Geologist is primarily responsible for the proper acquisition of the groundwater samples.

    3.3    SAMPLE CUSTODIAN

    The Sample Custodian will complete, sign and date chain-of custody and sample traffic control
    forms. He/She will receive samples from the field team and package them for shipment
    according to the procedures specified in the Field Swnpling Plan (FSP).


                                           4.0 EQUIPMENT

    Sample containers will conform to U.S. EPA regulations for preservation of appropriate
    contaminants. Ideally, sampling equipment should be completely inert, economical, easily
    decontaminated, easily sterilized, reusable, able to operate at remote sites in the absence of power
                                                                                  558

                                GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                      2 OF S



sources, and capable of delivering variable rates for well flushing and sample collection. The
sample withdrawal equipment (evacuation devices) to be used on this project are submersible
pumps. Other equipment to be used include:

       1.      Sample packing and shipping equipment
       2.      Coolers for sample shipping and cooling
       3.      Chemical preservatives
       4.      Appropriate packing cartons and filler
       5.      Labels
       6.      Chain-of-custody documents
       7.      Thermometer
       8.      pH meter
       9.      Portable HNu photoionization detector
       10.     Specific conductivity meter
       11.     Water-level indicator
       12.     Flow meter
       13.     Field sampling logbooks
       14.     Pails

                                      5.0 PROCEDURE

SI GENERAL
To be useful and accurate, a groundwater sample must be representative of the particular saturated
zone of the substrata being sampled. The physical, chemical and bacteriological integrity of the
sample must be maintained from the time of sampling to the time of testing in order to keep any
changes in water quality parameters to a minimum.

The groundwater sampling program should be developed with reference to ASTM D-4448-85A,
Standard Guide for Sampling Groundwater Monitoring Wells. The ASTM guide is not intended
as a monitoring plan or procedure for a specific application, but rather as a review of methods.

The primary considerations in obtaining a representative sample of the groundwater are to avoid
collection of stagnant (standing) water in the well, and to avoid physical or chemical alteration
of the water due to sampling techniques. In a non-pumping well, there will be little or no
vertical mixing of water in the well pipe or casing. Stratification may occur. The well water in
the screened section will mix with the groundwater due to normal flow patterns, but the well
water above the screened section will remain isolated and become stagnant. To safeguard against
collecting non-representative stagnant water in a sample, the following approach should be
followed during sample withdrawal:
                                                                            558 163
                                GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                       3 OF 8



       I.      All monitoring wells will be purged prior to withdrawing a sample. Evacuation
               of three volumes (minimum) is recommended for a representative sample.

       2.      For wells that can be purged dry, the wells should be evacuated and allowed to
               recover prior to sample withdrawal.

       3      For high-yield monitoring wells which cannot be evacuated to dryness, there is no
              absolute safeguard against contaminating the sample with stagnant water. The use
              of a pump and certain techniques of sample withdrawal may minimize this
              possibility.

Stratification of contaminants may exist in the groundwater either in terms of concentration
gradients as a result of mixing and dispersion processes in a homogeneous layer, or due to layers
of variable permeability into which a greater or lesser amount of the contaminant plume has
flowed. Excessive pumping can dilute or increase the contaminant concentrations in the
recovered sample compared to what is representative of the integrated water column at that point.
This can result in the collection of a non-representative sample. Water produced during purging
will be collected and containerized for future proper disposal.

5.2 CALCULATIONS OF WELL VOLUME

To ensure that the proper volume of water has been removed from the well prior to sampling,
it is first necessary to determine the volume of standing water in the well casing and the volume
of water in the filter pack below the well seal. The volume can be easily calculated by the
following method. Calculations should be entered into the field log book:

       1.     Obtain the available information on well construction (location, casing, screens,
              etc.).
       2.     Determine well or casing diameter,
       3.     Measure and record static water level (depth below ground level or top of casing
              reference point).
       4.     Determine depth of well.
       5.     Calculate number of linear feet of static water (total depth or length of well casing
              minus the depth to static water level).
                                                                              558 164
                                GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                      4 OF 8



       6.     Calculate the volume of water in the casing as follows:

              V1 = it (di/2)2(TD-H)(7.48)

              Where,

              Vt     =        Total volume, gallons
              di     =        inside diameter of casing, feet
              TD =            total depth of well, feet
              H        =
                              depth to water, in feet, from ground surface


       7.     Determine the minimum number of volumes to be evacuated before sampling.

5.3 GENERAL

The amount of purging a well should receive prior to sample collection will depend on the intent
of the monitoring program and the hydrogeologic conditions. For defining a contaminant plume,
a representative sample of only a small volume of the aquifer is required. These circumstances
require that the well be pumped sufficiently to remove the stagnant water but not long enough
to induce significant groundwater mixing.

5.4 SAMPLING

5.4.1 Sampling Methods

The collection of a groundwater sample is made up of the following steps:

 I.    Record the sample location, site, anticipated sample time, and field sample number using
       an indelible pen. Fill out sample labels for each of the required sample containers and
       place labels onto the appropriate sample containers. Labels must be waterproof to prevent
       water damage. The following information must be included on the sample label:

              •        Site name;
              •        Field identification or sample station number;
              •        Date and time of sample collection;
              •        Type of sample (matrix) and a brief description of the sampling location;
              •        Printed full name of the sampler;
              •        Sample preservative used; and
              •        Types of analyses to be performed.

       If a sample is split with another party, sample labels with identical information should be
                                                                              558 165
                               GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                        5 OF 8



      attached to each of the sample containers.

 2.   Open the well cap and use a volatile organic detection meter (HNu) to monitor the
      escaping gases at the well head to determine the need for respiratory protection.

 3.   Sound the well for total depth and water level (using decontaminated equipment) and
      record these data in the field notebook. Calculate the fluid volume in the well.

 4.   Calculate depth from the casing top to the midpoint of the screen or well section open to
      the aquifer. Any dry wells encountered must be noted.

 5.   In the event that recovery time of the well is very slow (e.g., 24 hours), wait to collect
      samples until a sufficient recharge has occurred. If the well has been purged early in the
      morning, sufficient water may be standing in the well by the day's end to permit sample
      collection. If the well is incapable of producing a sufficient volume of sample at any
      time, take the largest quantity available and record in the log book.

6.    Ensure that groundwater samples are representative of actual conditions by minimizing
      the loss of groundwater contaminants and the introduction of foreign contaminants. To
      prevent contamination of samples, open the sample bottles only when receiving sample
      preservatives or groundwater samples and close them immediately afterwards.

      Quickly add the sample into the sample containers, while minimizing aeration and loss
      of volatile contaminants, Collect samples for analysis of volatile constituents first,
      followed by all other samples including those constituents which require field filtration
      or field determination after collection of volatile organics. Divide additional water from
      the well among the remaining sample bottles. For analysis that requires filtered samples,
      it is preferred that the samples be allowed to settle in a separate sample container,
      followed by decanting and then filtration, Consult the specific analytical procedure for
      details. Large-volume samples for extractable organic compounds, total metals, etc.,
      should be collected last.

      When a sample bottle is filled, tightly cap the bottle as soon as possible.

7.    Use efficiency and care to obtain reprsentatiye samples for volatile organic analysis.
      Unnecessary delays or poor sampling technique will lead to loss of the volatile
      constituents from the sample. Add the repiiièd preservatives to the sample containers
      immediately after collecting the sample, label all containers, and stage the collection setup
      before collecting the sample to minimize sampling time.

      Prevent unnecessary stripping of volatile constituents from the sample by minimizing
      turbulence and aeration when filling the sample container. Quickly fill the sample
                                                                                 558 165
                               GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                      6 OF 8



       container until a positive meniscus is achieved above the rim of the container and cap the
       container immediately. Gently tap the sample container to dislodge any air bubbles and
       verify that no bubbles are present. If bubbles are detected, immediately uncap the sample,
       add additional sample from the bailer until a positive meniscus is reestablished,
       immediately recap the sample and check the sample for bubbles. Repeat this step until
       the sample contains no bubbles and all required samples are obtained.

8.     After sampling, replace the well cap.

9.     As soon as all samples are collected, promptly prepare the samples for shipment in
       accordance with the FSP, and store the samples collected for volatile organic analysis in
       a cooler with pre-packaged ice.     Attach a custody seal to the shipping package as
       described in the FSP. Make sure that the chain-of-custody forms are properly filled out
       and enclosed or attached.

10.    Record all sampling information in the field log book.

11.    Decontaminate all equipment.

5.4.2 Sample Containers

Use the laboratory-supplied sample containers which are pre-cleaned and appropriate for the
analytical method for which you are sampling.

5.4.3 Preservation of Samples and Sample Volume Requirements

Sample preservation techniques and volume requirements depend on the type and concentration
of the contaminant and on the type of anaiysis to be performed. The QAPP describes the sample
preservation and volume requirements for the chemicals that will be analyzed.

5.4.4 Field Filtration
In general, preparation and preservation of water samples include some form of filtration. All
filtration must occur in the field immediately upon collection. Filters must be pre-rinsed with
organic-free water. Samples for organic analyses must never be filtered.
                                                                            558 167
                                GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                     7 OF 8



5.4.5 Handling and Transporting Samples
After collection, samples should be handled as little as possible. It is preferable to use self-
contained "chemical" ice (e.g., "blue ice") to reduce the risk of contamination. If natural ice is
used, it should be bagged and steps taken to ensure that the melted ice does not cause sample
containers to be submerged and possibly cross-contaminated. All sample containers should be
enclosed in plastic bags or cans to prevent cross-contamination. Samples should be secured in
the ice chest to prevent movement of sample containers and possible breakage.

5.4.6 Sample Holding Times

Holding times (i.e., allowed time between sample collection and analysis) for routine samples are
given in the QAPP.

5.5 RECORDS

Records will be maintained for each sample that is taken. Record the following information:

       •       Sample identification (site name, location, project number; sample name/number
               and location; sample type and matrix; time and date; sampler's identity).
       •       Sample source and source description.
       •       Field observations and measurements (appearance; volatile screening; field
               chemistry; sampling method).
       •       Sample disposition (analyses to be run; number and size of bottles; preservatives
               added).
       •       Additional remarks - (e.g., sampled in conjunction with regulatory authorities;
               samples for specific conductance value only; samples for key indicator; etc.).


                                      6.0 REFERENCES


6.1    ASTM, 1986. Annual Book of ASTMS(qndqrds, Section 11. Volume 11.04, D-4448-
       85A.
6.2    Barcelona, M.J., J.P. Gibb and R.A. Miller, 1983. A Guide to the Selection of Materials
       for Monitoring Well Construction andGroundwater Sampling, ISWS Contract Report 327,
       Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL.
6.3    Johnson Division, UOP, Inc., 1975. Groundwater and Wells, A Referrice Book for the
        Water Well Industry. Johnson Division, UOP, Inc., Saint Paul, MN.
6.4    Nielson, D.M. and G.L. Yeates, 1985. A Comparison of Sampling MechanismsAvailable
       for Small-Diameter Groundwater Monitoring Wells. Groundwater Monitoring Review
       5:38-98.
                                                                      558 168
                             GROUNDWATER SAMPLING                                 8 OF 8



6.5   Scalf, MR., J.F. McNabb, W.J. Dunlapp, R.L. Crosby and J. Fryberger, 1981. Manual
      of Groundwater Sampling Procedures. R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory,
      Office of Research and Development, USEPA, Ada, OK.
6.6   USEPA, 1980. Procedures Manual for Groundwater Monitoring at Solid Waste Disposal
      Facilities. Office of Solid Waste, United States Environmental Protection Agency,
      Washington, D.C.
6.7   USEPA, 1986. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,
      EPA SW-846.
6.8   USEPA, 1987. Groundwater Handbook, EPAJ62S/6-87/016.
6.9   USEPA, 1987. A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods, EPAI54O/P-
       87/001.
6.10 USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Remedial Investigation.Feasibility Study. K.I.
      Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW45-94-D-000l, Appendix A3, General
      Geology Requirements, K.!. Sawyer AFB.
            "                   WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT
                                                                         558 169
                                                                                          I OF 3


                                          1.0 PURPOSE

    The purpose of this procedure is to describe the standard procedure for measuring water levels
    in monitoring wells. This procedure describes equipment and field procedures necessary to
    collect water level measurements.

                                      2.0 REQUIREMENTS

    The method for measuring water levels in monitoring wells described in this SOP is by using an
    electronic water level indicator. An interface probe should be used when the well is suspected
    of having NAPLs.


                                     3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

—   3.1   FIELD TEAM LEADER

    The Field Team Leader (FTL) is responsible for reviewing the water level measurement
    procedures used by the field crew and for performing in-field spot checks for proper well
    measurement procedures.

    3.2 SITE GEOLOGIST

    The Site Geologist is primarily responsible for the proper water level measurement techniques
    and will be responsible for performing the measurements and observations, and decontamination
    of measurement equipment. He/she must record pertinent information including depth to bottom,
    water level, in the field log book and for completing the Monitoring Well Inventory Form
    (attached) for each well.

                                         4.0 EQUIPMENT

           1.     Solinst Model 101 water level meter or equivalent
           2.     Deionized or distilled water
           3.     Steel retractable engineer's measuring tape (Calibrated to 0.01 foot)
           4.     HNu photo ionization detector
           5.     Equipment decontamination supplies including (Alconox, methanol, potable water,
                  distilled, water buckets, paper towels, sponges )
           6.     Appropriate health and safety equipment
—
           7.     Monitoring Well Inventory Form
           8.     Field log book
                                                                                558 tIe
                             WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT                                      2 OF 3


                                      5.0 PROCEDURE

5.1 GENERAL

This section presents the sequence of events to follow when measuring water and NAPL levels.
Appropriate health and safety equipment, as described in the Site Health and Safety Plan should
be worn during well opening, well measurement and decontamination. An interface probe will
be used in all monitoring wells suspected of having NAPLs (see Interface Probe Measurements
SOP).

        1.    Decontaminate the water level indicator before use in each monitoring well. See
              Section 5.2 of this SOP for decontamination procedures.

        2.    Approach the well from upwind, and unlock and remove the well cap.

        3.    Document observations concerning the well pad, surface, or protective casing and
              other well conditions in the field log book and on the Monitoring Well Inventory
              Form.

        4.    Use an electric water level meter to measure the depth of the static water level and
              the total depth of the well. The measuring point for all the wells should be the
              north rim of the top of the PVC or steel monitoring well casing. or a reference
              mark, if present. Record the water level in the field log book and on the
              Monitoring Well Inventory Form.

        5.    Where NAPLs are known or suspected, use the interface probe. Refer to the
              Interface Probe SOP.

        6.    The depth to water, in feet below the measuring point, will be subtracted from the
              measuring point elevation to determine the elevation of the static water level. The
              resulting elevation will be checked in the field to see that is reasonable and that
              the subtraction was performed correctly. If there are discrepancies, the well will
              be measured again.

        7.    After measurement is taken, decontaminate the water level indicator as described
              in Section 5.2.

5.2     DECONTAMINATION

The water level indicator must be decontaminated before use, between wells, and at the
conclusion of measurements. The indicator will be decontaminated as follows:

        I.    Personnel will dress in suitable safety equipment to reduce personal exposure as
—                                                                                   558 171
                                   WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT                                      3 OF 3


                     required by the HASP

           2.        Equipment that will not be damaged by water will be placed in a wash tub
                     containing Alconox or low-sudsing detergent along with potable water and
                     scrubbed with a bristle brush or similar utensil. Equipment will be rinsed with tap
                     water in a second wash tub followed by a methanol, then deionized water rinse.
                     Gross contamination on equipment will be scraped off at the sampling site.

           3.        Equipment that may be damaged by water will be carefully wiped clean using a
                     sponge and detergent water and rinsed with deionized water. Care will be taken
                     to prevent any equipment damage.

           3.        Triple rinse with deionized water and allow to air dry.

           4.        Used wash and rinse solutions must be contained in 55-gallon drums and placed
                     on wooden pallets in a central storage location pending disposal in accordance
                     with applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

           5.        All PPE will be contained in 55-gallon drums and placed on wooden pallets in a
                     central storage location pending appropriate disposal. Disposal will be in
                     accordance with both sate and federal regulations.

    Following decontamination, equipment will be placed in a clean area or on clean plastic sheeting
    to prevent contact with contaminated soil. If the equipment is not used immediately, the
    equipment will be covered or wrapped in aluminum foil to minimize potential airborne
    contamination.

    5.3    DOCUMENTATION

    The Monitoring Well Inventory Form and the field log book will be completed during each
    measuring event. The forms includes date, time, well number, total well depth, water level, static
    water elevation, and comments. A field log book will also be kept during water level
    measurement activities describing decontamination procedures, calibration procedures, and other
    observations. Both the inventory sheets and the field log book will be neat and legible, and will
    be signed and dated by the person completing the page.

                                            6.0 REFERENCES

    6.1    United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1989.      Groundwater Handbook:
           EPA/625/6-87/016.
    6.2    USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Remedial Investigation.Feasibility Study, K.T.
           Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW45-94-D-000l, Appendix A3, General
           Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer AFB.
                                                                                      558 17?
                                  AQUIFER SLUG TESTING                                     I OF S


                                         1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to define the requirements for performing the slug test, which
is a single well hydraulic test to determine the transmissivity of an aquifer. The horizontal
hydraulic conductivity (Kh) can then be calculated using the formula T = Kb, where T =
transmissivity, Kh = horizontal hydraulic conductivity and b = length of the screened interval.
The slug test method is recommended for unconflned aquifers. This method can be used to
determine estimates of transmissivity for an aquifer in the immediate vicinity of the tested well.
The value of transmissivity determined from slug testing will apply only over the screened
interval. The test can be performed using either a rising-head or a falling-head method.


                                    2.0 REQUIREMENTS

Before testing is conducted, the well should be thoroughly developed and water levels allowed
to stabilize. Tests performed after extended periods of pumping or water addition may yield
inaccurate results. Slugs should be decontaminated before and immediately after the slug test is
performed according to appropriate decontamination procedures.


                                      3.0 DEFINITIONS

Hydraulic Conductivity (K) - A quantitative measure of the ability of porous material to
transmit water. Volume of water that will flow through a unit cross-sectional area of porous
material per unit time under a hydrostatic gradient. Hydraulic conductivity is dependent upon
properties of the medium and fluid. Also referred to as "permeability."

Transmissivity (T) - A quantitative measure of the ability of an aquifer to transmit water. It is
the product of the (hydraulic conductivity) x (saturated thickness).

Slug-test - A rising-head or falling-head test. A slug test consists of adding a slug (of water, or
a solid cylinder) of known volume to the well to be tested or removing a known volume (of
water, or a solid cylinder) and measuring the rate of recovery of water level inside the well.

Rising-head test - A test used in an individual well within the saturated zone to estimate the
hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding formation by lowering the water level in the well and
measuring the rate of recovery of the water level. The water level may be lowered by pumping
or bailing. Also known as a bail test. If a well is partially screened in the water table, only the
rising-head portion of the slug test will be ahalyzed.

Falling-head test - A test used in an individual well to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the
surrounding formation by raising the water level in the well by inserting a slug or quantity of
water, and then measuring the rate of drop in the water level.
                                                                           558 173
                                  AQUIFER SLUG TESTING                                    2 OF 5


                                   4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

4.1 FIELD TEAM LEADER

The Field Team Leader (FTL) will be responsible for ensuring that complete documentation is
available for boreholes to be tested and for overall implementation of this procedure. The FTL
will also supervise the slug tests to ensure that valid results are obtained.

4.2 SITE GEOLOGIST

The Site Geologist will be responsible for plaiming and overseeing the in-situ hydraulic
conductivity (slug) tests. The wells to be tested and the testing methods to be used should be
determined by the FTL.


                                       5.0 EQUIPMENT

        I.     Slugs
        2.     Nylon rope
        3.     Water level indicator
        4.     Pressure transducer-sensor
        5.     Automatic data recording instrument
        6.     Field log book


                                      6.0 PROCEDURE

Aquifer transmissivity tests (slug tests) are accomplished by either removing a quantity of water
or slug (rising head) or introducing of a slug or quantity of water (falling head), and then
allowing the water level to stabilize. Water level measurements are taken at closely spaced
intervals.

6.1 PREPARATION FOR TEST

I.      All equipment will be decontaminated according to appropriate decontamination
        procedures.

2.      The well should be opened. When wells are located within the 100-year flood plain, and
        equipped with water tight caps, the well should be opened at least 24 hours before testing
        to allow the water level to stabilize.

3.      Record the following information before beginning the test:
                                                                              558 174
                                  AQUIFER SLUG TESTING                                     3 OF 5


              •       Borehole/well number
              •       Project number
              •       Project name
              •       Aquifer testing team
              •       Distance from pumping wells (if appropriate)
              •       Ground surface elevation
              •       lop of well casing elevation
              •       Measuring equipment being used
              •       Page number
              •       Static water level
              •       Date

4.     After recording the measurements of the well, the transducer should be measured and
       lowered down into the wells to insure that it will not be disturbed when a slug or bailer
       tube is lowered into the well or pulled out. Securing the transducer is done by taping it
       to the protective casing so it will not move. If a transducer is not used, then a water level
       indicator with an accuracy to 0.01 foot must be used to record changes in water level data
       (only used in cases of slow recovery wells).

6.2    FALLING-HEAD TEST

All equipment will be decontaminated according to appropriate decontamination procedures.

1.     Determine the water level by using an electronic water level indicator, as in the rising-
       head test.

2.     An appropriate transducer should be placed into the well and the displaced water allowed
       to return to its static level. A solid cylinder (slug) should be selected that has a diameter
       which allows removal from the well without displacing the transducer.

3.     Recording of data by the logger should be initiated while instantaneously lowering the
       slug into the well, displacing the water column.

4.     When the water level has returned to its static level, the falling-head test can be stopped
       and immediately followed by a rising-head test to allow for a check on the test results.
       At the end of both tests data recording should be stopped, the transducer removed from
       the well, and the data downloaded from the logger onto a computer for analysis.


6.3    RISING-HEAD TEST

A rising head slug test will be conducted by "instantly" (as rapidly as possible) withdrawing a
quantity of water. This will be accomplished by using a solid cylinder (slug) to remove a volume
                                                                               558 ilb
                                 AQUIFER SLUG TESTING                                       4 OF 5


of water. The volume of water should be 'removed" from the well by lowering in the slug,
allowing static water levels to be re-established, and the "instantly' withdrawing the slug.

1.            Before initiating the test, the pressure transducer should be lowered into the well
              and placed at the desired depth below the water table. The water level should be
              allowed to stabilize before starting the test. For this purpose, a data logger should
              be used to record the changes in water level data since these changes can be
              instantaneous. The slug should be lowered into the well until the slug is under the
              water table. The water level should be allowed to stabilize before pulling the slug
              out. If the falling-head test is performed first, then the slug is already below the
              water table and waiting for the water to stabilize may not be necessary. The data
              logger should be started and the slug removed.

2.            Immediately after the slug test is initiated, the pressure transducer and data logger
              will record changes in the water level using pre-established logarithmic-scale
              intervals. In case of a slow recharge well, direct water level measurements can
              be collected using the water level indicator. The top of the surface casing will be
              used as the reference point. One person will call out the times for measurements
              and another person will measure water levels and mark the tape. Measuring and
              marking of the tape should continue until the well water returns to its initial level.

3.            When the water level has returned to its static level, data recording should be
              stopped, and the transducer removed from the well and cleaned.

4.            The values should be plotted on semi-log paper as follows:
              •     Logarithmic scale: time
              •     Arithmetic scale: ratio of H/Fl0 - [depth to measured head/depth to initial
                    (static) headj


                                     7.0 REFERENCES

7.1    American Society for Testing and Materials, 19877. ASTM Method D4630-86 and
       D463l-86, Annual Book of Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
7.2    Bouwer, H. and R.C. Rice, 1976. A Slug Test for Determining Hydraulic Conductivity
       of UnconfinedAqufers With Completely or Partially Penetrating Wells, Water Resources
       Research, Vol. 12, No. 3.
7.3    Cedergren, HR., 1977. Seepage, Drainage, and Flow Nets (2nd Edition), John Wiley and
       Sons, Inc., New York.
7.4    Cooper, Hilton H., Jr., John D. Bredehoeft, and Stavros S. Papadopulos, 1967. Response
       of a Finite-Diameter Well to an Instantaneous Charge of Water, Water Resources
       Research, Vol. 3, No. 1.
7.5    Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
F



                                                                         558 176
                                    AQUIFER SLUG TESTING                                 5 OF 5


    7.6    In-Situ, Inc., 1985. Hermit Environmental Data Logger Model SEI000B Owner's
           Manual, Laramie Wyoming.
    7.7    Lohman, S.W., 1972, Ground-Water Hydraulics, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional
           Paper 708.
    7.8    Papadopulos, Stavros S., John D. Bredehoeft, Hilton H. Cooper, Jr., 1967. On the
          Analysis of 'Slug Test' Data, Water Resources Research, Vol. 9, No. 4.
    7.9   U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, 1974. "Designation E-18, Field
          Permeability Tests in Boreholes" in Earth Manual, 2nd Edition, U.S. Government Printing
          Office, No. 2403-00079.
    7.10 USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Remedial Investigation.Feasibility Study, K.I.
          Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW45-94-D-000l, Appendix A3, General
          Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer AFB.
                                                                                558 177
                   OPERATION AND CALIBRATION OF 1-INU MODEL
                       P1-101 PHOTOIONIZATION DETECTOR                                  1 OF 4


                                    1.0 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this procedure is to define the steps necessary for calibration, operation and
maintenance of the HNu Model P1-101 photoionization detector (PID). This procedure applies
to the calibration, operation and mainten4nce of the 1-INu Model P1-101 photoionization detector
(PID) during a field investigation. This procedure may also be used, in conjunction with the
manufacturer's instruction, for other photoionization detectors.

                                   2.0 REQUIREMENTS

Measurement of organic vapors is an important and necessary requirement during field
investigations for the health and safety of workers. Detection of organic vapors during field
investigations may indicate the presence of contaminants at the site.


                                  3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

The Field Team Leader (FTL) is responsible for ensuring that the necessary equipment is
available for calibration and maintenance. The FTL should also ensure that the calibration
methodology is consistent and that workers have been instructed in the proper use of equipment.


                                      4.0 EQUIPMENT

       1.     1-INu Model P1-101 photoionization detector with appropriate probe assembly lamp
              (10.2 eV or 11.7 eV).
       2.     Calibration test system.
       3.     Battery charger.
       4.     Screwdriver.

                                      5.0 PROCEDURE

The procedure for calibration prior to use, operation, and maintenance of the 1-INu P1-101 PID
is outlined below. The instrument shall be calibrated according to the appropriate standard span
gas and shall be calibrated a minimum of twicdai1y and before use after a long shutdown period
(i.e., lunch breaks, equipment breakdowns, weather-caused breaks, etc.). If using a different
instrument, the owner's manual should be consulted for instructions.

5.1 CALIBRATION

 1.    Before attaching the probe to the readout module, ensure that the function switch on the
       control panel is in the 'OFF' position.
                    OPERATION AND CALIBRATION OF HNU MODEL                         558 178
                        P1-I 01 PHOTOIONIZATION DETECTOR                                   2 OF 4


2.     Attach the probe to the meter by plugging the 12-pin plug into the socket on the readout
       module and rotating it into the lock position.

3.     Turn the 6-position function switch to the "BATTERY CHECK" position. The meter
       needle should read within or above the green battery area on the scale. If it does not, or
       if the red indicator light, located near the function switch, comes on, the battery requires
       charging.

4.     Turn the function switch to any range setting and glance briefly into the end of the probe
       to see if the ultraviolet light is emitting a purple glow. Avoid prolonged exposure to UV
       light; it may cause eye damage.

5.     Set the function switch to the "STANDBY" position and rotate the "ZERO" knob until
       the meter reads zero.

6.     Connect one side of a "1" adaptor to a pressurized container of calibration gas equipped
       with a flow control valve, the second side of the "T" directly to the 8-inch extension tube
       on the photoionization probe, and the third side to a flow indicator or meter, or vent it
       directly to the air.

7.     Open the valve of the pressurized container until a slight flow is indicated on the flow
       meter, if used. The instrument draws in the volume of sample required for detection, and
       the flow on the flow meter, if used, indicates an excess of sample.

8.     Adjust the meter span pot knob so that the instrument is reading the exact value of the
       calibration gas. (If the instrument span setting is changed, the instrument switch should
       be turned back to the "STANDBY" position and the electronic "ZERO" should be
       readjusted as necessary).

The calibration gas should be prepared in the same gas matrix (air, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.)
being measured, otherwise an inaccurate reading may be obtained. Calibration with toxic gases
should be performed in a hood, since the photoionization detector is a nondestructive analyzer.
The increased response that is seen in oxygen-free gases can be attributed to a reduction in the
quenching effect of ions by oxygen and is typical of any PID. The quenching effect of oxygen
is constant from about 10 percent 02 to very high levels.

If a gas standard prepared in nitrogen is used for measurements in air, then fill a 0.5 to 1.0-liter
bag with the standard. Then add 50 or 100 cc of pure oxygen to bring the level up to 10 to 12
percent. Any error between this value and 20 percent oxygen is quite small. The probe on the
photoionization detector is inserted into the neck of the sealed bag and the instrument is
calibrated as discussed above.
                                                                                 558 179
                 OPERATION AND CALIBRATION OF HNU MODEL
        -.           P1-101 PHOTOIONIZATION DETECTOR                                   3 OF 4
             I


5.2 OPERATIONS

     Before attaching the probe to the readout module, ensure that the function switch on the
     control panel is in the "OFF" position.

2.   Attach the probe to the meter by plugging the 12-pin plug into the socket on the readout
     module. Rotate the plug until it is locked into position. Attach the 6-inch metal
     extension tube to the probe handle by screwing it into its socket.

3.   Turn the 6-position function switch to the "BATTERY CHECK" position. The meter
     needle should read within or above the green battery zone on the scale. If it does not, or
     if the red indicator light located near the function switch comes on, the battery requires
     charging.

4.   Turn the function switch to any range setting and glance into the end of the probe briefly
     to see if the ultraviolet light is emitting a purple glow. Avoid prolonged exposure to UV
     light; it may cause eye damage. Note that an HNu can be quickly checked for operability
     by holding a felt tip pen next to the probe. This should induce a response in the
     deflection needle.

5.   Set the function switch to the "STANDBY" position and rotate the "ZERO" knob until
     the meter reads zero.

6.   Switch the function switch to the proper measurement range. (The instrument is
     calibrated to measure 0-20, 0-200, and 0-2,000 parts per million (ppm) benzene in air
     with the span position set at 9.8. For additional sensitivity, the span potentiometer can
     be turned counterclockwise (smaller numbers) to increase the gain. By changing the span
     setting from 10.0 to 1.0, the sensitivity is increased ten-fold. The 0-20, 0-200, and 0-
     2,000 ppm scales become 0-2, 0-20, and 0-200 ppm, respectively.

7.   Insert the end of the probe into the atmosphere to be measured and read the organic vapor
     concentration in ppm directly from the meter. (A small fan is used to draw the vapor past
     the photoionization sensor. While sampling, use caution not to block the inlet of the
     probe. If the extension of the probe has been accidently obstructed, the instrument
     readings or the response time will increase.)
                                                                                   558 18°
                    OPERATION AND CALIBRATION OF HNU MODEL
                           P1-101 PHOTOIONIZATION DETECTOR                                   4 OF 4


5.3 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

After daily use of the FINu PID for field investigations, the unit shall be inspected for cleanliness
and cleaned with soap and water as necessary.

The battery should be recharged after daily use because a low battery will cause the unit to
malfunction. Note that the lamp must be attached in order to charge the unit.


                                       6.0 REFERENCES

Hnu Model P1-101 Instruction Manual.


                                      7.0 ATTACHMENTS

P1-101 PID Operating Manual, select pages.
                                                                                      558 181
                                          SOIL SAMPLING                                    I OF 6

                                           1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to outline the requirements for subsurface soil sampling for
geotechnical and chemical purposes. Soil sampling aids in defining the hydrogeological character
of the substrata, and the nature and extent of soil contamination. Soil samples are collected over
an areal distribution as well as at different depths to characterize the subsurface conditions.

Soil sampling is potentially applicable to any hazardous waste site. A variety of sampling
techniques are available for collecting of soil samples. These include: split-spoon sampling;
collecting auger cuttings; Shelby-tube sampling; pitcher-barrel, pistol, or Dennison sampling; and
single-, double-, and triple-tube core barrel sampling.        Split-spoon sampling is the most
commonly used technique.


                                       2.0 REQUIREMENTS

The collection point should be within two feet horizontally of the identified location. The
accuracy of the soil sampling point location will be determined by the data quality objectives.
Sample collection information should be recorded in the field log book.

Logs will be prepared in the field, as borings are drilled, by a qualified, experienced geologist.
Each log will be signed by the preparer. All log entries should be printed and photo
reproductions should be clear and legible. Illegible or incomplete logs will not be accepted. One
legible copy of each field log should be completed and sent to the USACE within five days of
completing field work. The boring will not be accepted by the USACE before the drilling logs
are received and approved. Borehole depth information will be from direct measurements
accurate to one-tenth of a foot. Logs will be prepared on the Hazardous Toxic Waste (I-ITW)
Drilling Log form provided by the USACE. (A copy of the form can be found in Appendix C
of the SWP).

All relevant information blanks in the log heading and log body will be completed. If surveyed
horizontal control is not available at the time of drilling, location sketches, referenced by
measured distances from prominent surface features, will be shown on or attached to the log.
Log scale should be 1 inch =   1   foot. Each and every material type encountered will be described
in Column C of the log form. (Material types are to be logged directly from samples and
indirectly interpolated using professional judgement, drill cuttings, drill action, etc., between
sampling intervals.)

Unconsolidated materials should be described as outlined below and in the following sequence:

1.   Descriptive USCS classification in accordance with ASTM D 2488-84
2.   Consistency of cohesive materials or apparent density of non-cohesive materials
3.   Moisture content assessment (e.g., moist, wet, saturated)
4.   Color
                                                                                   558 182
                                          SOIL SAMPLING                                        2 OF 6

5.      Other descriptive feature (bedding, characteristics, organic materials, macrostructure of fine-
        grained soils such as root holes, fractures, etc.)
6.      Depositional type (such as alluvium, till, bess)
7.      Plasticity

Rock materials should be described in the sequence outlined below and in accordance with
standard geologic nomenclature, including:

1.      Rock type
2.      Relative hardness
3.      Density
4.      Texture
5.      Color
6.   Weathering
7.   Bedding
8.   Fractures, joints, bedding planes, and cavities, including filling material and whether open
     or closed
9.   Rock Quality Designation
10. Other descriptive features (fossils, pits, crystals, etc.)

Stratigraphic/lithologic changes should be identified in Column C by a solid horizontal line at the
appropriate scale depth on the log which corresponds to measured borehole depths at which
changes occur, and will be measured and recorded to the nearest one-tenth of a foot. Gradational
transitions, changes identified from cuttings, or methods other than direct observation and
measurement will be identified by a horizontal dashed line at the appropriate scale depth based
on the best judgement of the logger. All lines should be drawn with a straight edge, not free-
hand.

Logs should clearly show in Columns E and F the depth intervals from which all samples are
retained. Logs should identify the depth at which water is first encountered, the depth to water
at the completion of drilling, and the stabilized depth to water. The absence of water in borings
should also be indicated. Stabilized water level data should include time allowed for levels to
stabilize. Logs will show borehole and sample diameters, depths at which drilling or sampling
methods or equipment change, and total depth of penetration and sampling. The bottom of the
hole should be clearly identified on the log with the notation "Bottom of Hole." Logs shall
identify any drilling fluid losses including, as appropriate:

I.      Source of make-up water.
2.      Drill fluid additives by brand and product name, and mixture proportions.
3.      Type of filter for compressed air.

Logs should show depths and types of any temporary casing used and identify any intervals of
hole instability.
                                                                                    558 183
                                           SOILSAMPLING                                      30F6
    Any special drilling or sampling problems should be recorded on logs, including descriptions of
    problem resolutions. Logs should include all other information relevant to a particular
    investigation, including but not limited to:

    1.   Odors.
    2.   PID/FAD measurements or other field screening or test results.
    3.   Any observed evidence of contamination in samples, cuttings or drilling fluids.

    Copies of the field logs should be included in the drift RI and final RI Report. Computer-
    generated final boring logs shall be submitted in the final RI Report.


                                       3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

    3.1 SITE GEOLOGIST
—   The Site Geologist directly supervises the sampling procedure, classifies soil and rock samples,
    and directs the packing and sealing of soil and rock samples.


                                           4.0 EQUIPMENT

    The following pieces of equiptheñt may beiiièUid to collect samples:

    1.   Drilling equipment, capable of collecting depth-specific samples.
    2.   TeflonlM tape.
    3.   Stainless steel spatula.
    4.   Stainless steel bowl.
    5.   Organic vapor monitoring device (H14u or OVA).
    6.   Appropriate sampling containers.
    7.   Decontamination supplies as specified in the project-specific work plan.
    8.   Split-spoon sampling equipment, either 1-7/8 inch or 2-1/2 inch I.D.
    9.   Field log book.


                                          5.0 PROCEDURE

    5.1 SPLIT-SPOON SAMPLING

    Split-barrel (spoon) samples are usually obtained in conjunbtion with hollow-stem auger or rotary
    drilling techniques using either a 140- or 340-pound drive hammer (depending on the size of the
    sampler). The drilling subcontractor will operate the split-spoon sampling equipment. The split
    spoon is attached to a metal rod and is driven into the undisturbed soil ahead of the lead auger.
    The drive weight is raised 30 inches and dropped to hammer the split spoon into the ground. The
                                                                                558 184
                                       SOIL SAMPLING                                     4 OF 6

hardness of the soil can be determined by extrapolating the number of blows of the hammer
required to pound the split spoon into the soil six inches. The first six inches of penetration is
considered a sealing drive. The number of blows for the second and third six inches is recorded
to determine the penetration resistance. If a specific interval is great enough to exceed 50 blow
counts per six inches, spoon sampling will be discontinued at that interval and drilling will
resume. The sampler will be advanced at least 18 inches or until refusal. The split spoon is
retrieved from the borehole and opened with the air around the sample monitored using an HNu
portable photoionization detector or other appropriate instrument. Samples for chemical analysis
are taken with a stainless steel spoon, placed in a stainless steel bowl, homogenized, and placed
in the appropriate container. Large pebbles and cobbles should be excluded from samples taken
for chemical analysis. Samples for lithologic description are collected and placed in the
appropriate sampling jar or container. Lithologic samples are described according to the logging
procedures.

The drilling subcontractor will use the following procedures for collecting split-spoon samples:

1.   Decontaminate the split-spoon sampler, and other sampling equipment with a soap
     (Alconox) wash and triple-rinsed with deionized water between sample collection. Hollow
     stem augers and associated drilling equipment including rods and split spoon sampler will
     be steam cleaned between borings.

2.   Attach the split-spoon sampler to the bottom end of the drill rod string which extends from
     the top of the auger or borehole to the bottom of the borehole.

3.   Attach a 140-pound (or other specified weight) hammer to the top of the drill rod string and
     drive the sampler into the soil at the bottom of the borehole. Record the hammer weight
     on the field log form.

4.   To drive the sampler into the soil, alternately raise the hammer on a rope, which passes
     around a rotating cathead, and allow the hammer to free-fall 30 inches by suddenly
     releasing the tension on the rope.

5.   Pull the sampler up from the bottom of the borehole by reversing direction of the rope on
     the cathead, and alternately applying and releasing pressure. Remove from the bottom of
     the drive rod string.

6.   Remove the top assembly and the drive shoe from the sampler. Open the tube by removing
     one-half of the split barrel.

The site geologist will adhere to the following sample collection procedures:

7.    Immediately monitor the length of the sample using an OVA or HNu in order to detect
      organic vapors emanating from the sample.
                                                                                   558 185
                                       SOIL SAMPLING                                      5 OF 6

8.    Record the organic vapor readings in the field log book and boring log.

9.    Fill up a 40 ml vial with septa top for gas chromatograph (GC) analysis (if specified in the
      SWP).

10. For samples to be analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), place soil directly into
     sample containers.

11. For inorganic and nonvolatile samples, mix the soil in a stainless steel mixing bowl and
     evenly subdivide it into the sample containers.

      NOTE: This mixing minimizes the heterogeneity of the soil samples and provides
              representative split and duplicate samples.

12. Describe the samples and record the description on the field log book.

13. Verify that samples have been properly labeled and store on-site in a cooler at 4°C until
     they are packaged for shipping.

14. To minimize off-gassing of the volatiles, the sampler should not be driven until the
      sampling team is ready to accept and process the volatile portion.

15. Repeat this sampling procedure interval through the borehole as specified in the project-
     specific work plan.

16. All sampling equipment, including internal components, will be decontaminated prior to use,
     between sampling events, and prior to demobilization.

6.1.1 Field GC Screening Method

If specified in the SWP, a field GC will be used to screen soil samples.

                                      6.0 REFERENCES

6.1 U.S. EPA, 1987, A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods.
6.2 American Society for Testing Materials, Method D-1586-84. 1989. Standard Method for
    Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils."
6.3 USACE, 1994 TERC Scope of Services for Preliminary Assessments & Site Inspections,
    K.I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan, Contract No. DACW45-94-D-0001, Appendix A3, General
    Geology Requirements, K.I. Sawyer MB.

                                    7.0 ATTACHMENTS

HTW Drilling Log Form
                                                                                                                                           IHOLENO.
                                             HTW DRILLING LOG                                                 558 186
I. COMPANY NAME                                                   2. DRILLING SUBCONTRACTOR                                                 SHEET I

                                                                                                                                            OF         SHEETS
3. PROJECT                                                                          4. LOCATION


S. NAME OF DRILLER                                                                  6. MANUFACTURERS DESIGNATION OF DRILL


7.SIZES AND TYPES OF DRILLING                                                       8. HOLE LOCATION
   AND SAMPLING EQUIPMENT


                                                                                    9. SURFACE ELEVATION



                                                                                    0. DATE STARTED                          I. DATE COMPLETED


12. OVERBURDEN THICKNESS                                                            5. DEPTH GROUNDIATER ENCOUNTERED


13. DEPTH DRILLED INTO ROCK                                                         6. DEPTH TO WATER AND ELAPSED TIME AFTER DRILLING CDUPLETED


14. TOTAL DEPTH OF HOLE                                                             I?. OTHER WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS ISPECIFYJ


IS. GEOTECHNICAL SAMPLES                   DISTURBED             UNDISTURBED              9. TOTAL NUMBER OF CORE BOXES


20. SAMPLES FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS           VOC                METALS                OTHER ISPECIFY)       OTHER (SPECIFY)      OTHER SPECIFY)        21. TOTAL CORE
                                                                                                                                                           RECOVERY

                                                                                                                                                                  •1

22. DISPOSITN OF HOLE                   BACKFILLED         MONITORING WELL           OTHER SPECIFY)        23. SIGNATURE OF INSPECTOR




                                                                     FIELD SCREENING       GEOTECH SAMPLE      ANALYTICAL     BLOW
  ELEV.      DEPTH              DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS                     RESU.TS       DR CORE BOX NO.     SAMPLE NO.    COUNTS              REMARKS
    0.        b.                            C.                                 4.                 S.                            0.                    I'




                                 PROJECT                                                                                        NOtE ND.
                             558 18?




-a
     r1
S


          dankrra         $ethn 5
          Si,/c (usfody
S., SAMPtECUSTODY                                                                                         558 188

       The integrity and docwnemation of sample custody suits when cleaned and preservative-prepared sample coSn an

       shipped to the field under custody. Samples shipped to PiitnRflkj from the field are received by a sample cussodia.

       When received, the coo len and samples are thspected for Segrixy and ehS-M-aissody forms an reviewed for asncy

       and completeness. If the samples and documentation an acceptable. each sample cosnSr S assigned a unique hborawry

       identification number from Enseco's Laboratory Information Managemca Systems (LIMS) database. If the samples,

       documentation. or coolers are not acceptable, the Program Manager is informed verbally and with a completed anomaly

       form. The RMAL Program Manager will either resolve the problem internally or contact the cICt for Mstnscnots to

       resolution.



      When LTh4S log-in has been completed, the samples an tnnsfrrred to the appropriate refrigenton. Separate refrigerators

      are used for samples suspected to conab, higb levels of organic compotmds and for samples receivtg analysis for t

      compounds. The sample refrigerators an kept as 4.            and their tempennares an recorded daily w thern
      calibrated against NIST thermometers. The refrigerators storing samples for volatile analysis art monkored for cleanliness

      with refrigerator blanks on a weekly basis.



      Thirty days after a laboratory report has been generated and m.Mto the client the samples an nnsftrnd from cold

      storage to the sample disposal area. All samples an disposed I accordance wits federal and state regulations.



5.1   Sample Control Acthldes




      Upon receipt I the laboratory, the Segriy of the shçping coSr I .144 by vcrifrisg that S n'a-4y aS I r
      broken. The internal cooler xmperanan S measured by meana of a temperance blank or by measflg coot rn .Uac

      directly. The samples an checked for breakage, leakage, damage and the •-———- of S           sh½ipiog c'n' v'uJ.u4
      agauzst   the chali-of-custody *'nnn.n1154t. Doadoeaf dy seal lagrEy. temperance,                                 sample

      preservations an made on the sample wWtl worksheet or '—4i'n upon nafl form. Any ptobCns an £-

      on   the chain-of-custody or I a sample cc&l o..—.m&taro form and the Ris Program Manager I r
      bnmediately.




Rust ELI QAPP                                                 16                                            1-28-94. Ongmal
                                                                                                     558 189
     San,vIe ldentthcadon

     Each sample recrived will be assigned a unique laboratory sample       mzmber by the Enseco-LIMS iytm at the

     e saniples an 0usd . One of the fimctiots of the LUvIS r sass th ncktg samples while they art t the

    dy of the bborawty. Other iiformszioc recorded will Shthe date and tth* of uItg, sample descrçcioc, due

    dazes, and required analytical seats. Samples of sUnDay maths an Irrh,d I lou of 2Oor less at the tUne of sample

    pnparwon or at the tUne or analysis     to preparasioc is required.




RUSt E&J QAP?                                             17                                      1-28-94. OrigInal
    Figure £1 Easeco Sample Procs1ng Flow   Cban
                                                                                 558 190
—


               [ Sample Control                         •   Check and document physical
                                                            condition   of sample and sample
                                                            pre servat ion
                                                        •   Verify documentation and
                                                            parameter assignment
                                                        •   Log into LIMS
                                                        •   Send acknowledgment letter to
                                                            client

               r   Proper Storage                       •   Store   sample    according
                                                            preservation guidelines
                                                                                              to




                   Laboratories                         •   Transfer sample to lab         with
               I                    I
                                                            proper      documentation       (lab
                                                            personnel   reucvea samples from
                                                            Sample Control and signs samples
                                                            on Lab Sample Custody Sheet)
                                                        •   tocument analytical work



                                                        •   Return unused sazçles to Sample
                   Sample Control                           Control
                                                        •   Return sample to client or
                                                            arrange f or sample disposal




    Rust Md QAPP                                   13                            1-28-94, Original
                                    558 191




     r1
Aftachmcat I &1iiItrra               8
        a*a kdezc//th9, Re   w ?t)d A9yor
                                            'i'd
    to DATA RUaION, RZVfl AD RORTG                                                                     558 192

    Li   DMa Reduction



         In st cases CalcUlations from raw data are included in discasions of analytical ptocedures presented in the

         EPA methods. These data reduction and review procedures will not be repeated here. Detaus of data

         reduction, calibration and reporting not addressed elsewhere axe discussed in this section.



         Data reduction calculations used (or this program are typically included on the standard reporting forms

         developed by the laboratories and associated with each individual method or groups of methods. Calczilations

         not present on standard reporting forms include computer-based data reduction programs. The complete

         calculation procedures used in computer-based data reduction programs (e.g.. GC/MS and OC analyses) re

         based on the calculation procedures specified in each method and will not be covered here.



         Some instnimenu are conflgurtd to operate independently without computen. For these, the signal is

         recorded as a snip chart trace, numerical output on a printer snip, or direct r'sAing from a digital or analog

         dial. In such cases, ditional work is required by the analystto reduce the data to a reportable format. The

         original signal must be multiplied by a calibration (actor or compared with a rn'"d au-vt. The aliquot

         result must be divided by the mass or volume of sample to produce $ concentration-based final result. Most

         calculations are carried out on hand-held scientific calculators; simple programs are used for some. All of

         these data are recorded in a dedicated lab notebook orbishS for the particular determination in question.

         Results for single or multiple component tests are hand entered by the analyst in the assigned book.



         Some laboratory tests, such as titritions or sensoty evaluan'ons, do not have thsmimral raw data. For that.

         the   quanutanve result or observation is recorded directly in a bound lab notebook or bench sheet by the

         assigned analyst. Calculations like those described above may be n.tAM; these are recorded in the same lab

         notebook.


—
    Rust EtU QAPP                                          35                                          1-28-94. Original
                                                                                                   558 193
    Data   storage and documentation will be maintained using logbooks and data thetis that will be kept on file.

    Computer acquired data are stored on mapetic tape, floppy disks, or other media. Paper hard copies of raw

    data are kept on file for ten years.



1.2 Data Review Anesnait


    The laboratory system for ensuring valid data includes several levels of review. Each level commands specific

    tion to prevent the unqualified release of erroneous data and to correct any problems discovered during the

    review process.



    All analytical data generated at Enseco are extensively checked for acasry and completeness. The dais

    validation process consists of data generation, reduction, and three levels of review, as described below.



    The analyst who generates the analytical data has the prime responsibility for the correess and completeness

    of the data. All data are generated and reduced following protocols specified in laboratory SOPs. Each

    analyst reviews the quality of his or bet work based on an established act of guidelines. The analyst reviews

    the data package to ensure that:

           •    Sample preparation information is corrt and complete.
           •    Analysis information is correct and complete.

           •    The appropriate SOPs have been foflowed.

           •    Analytical results art correct and complete.

           •    QC sAmples are within established conuol limits; blanks are acptab1e.

           •    Special sample preparation and analytical rtquiitts have been r.
           •    Documentation is complete (e.g., all anomalies In the preparation and analysis have beet
                documented, ow of conifol forms, if required, are complete, holding times are documented, etc.).


    This initial review step, performed by the analyst is designated Level 1 review. The analyst then passes the

    data package to an independent reviewer who performs a Level 2 review.



P.ustE&iQkPP                                           36                                      3-21-94, Original
                                 • .. . . —. __—.•Liy II                     .. .. ——. —— —




                                                                                                    558 194
—
      a          2rwiewisperfodbysppleaderordazanijewwecjaust whoseftmcüonistoprovidec
          independent review of the data package. This review is smaaumd to enne that:


                •    Calibration data are scientifically sotd. appropriate to the method, and completely documented.

                •    QC samples are within established guidelines.

                •    Qualitative identification of sample components is correct.

               •     Quantitative results are correct.

                •    Documentation is complete and correct (e.g., anomalies in the preparation and analysis have been
                     documented, out-of-control forms, if required, are complete, holding times are documented, etc.).

               •     The data are ready for incorporation into the final report.

               •     The data package is complete and ready for data archive.


          Level 2 review is structured so that all calibration data and QC sample results are reviewed, and all of the

          analytical results from 10 percent of the samples are checked back to the bcncb sheet. ii no problems n

          found with the data package, the review is considered complete. If any problems are fomd with the data
—

          package, an additional 10 percent of the samples are checked to the bench sheet. The process continues until

—         no errors are found or until the data package has been reviewed in iuaidmy. Level 2 data review is

          documented and the signature of the reviewer and the date of review recorded. The reviewed data are then

          approved for release and a final report is prepared.



          Before the report is released to the client, the Laboratoty Program Manager who is responsible (or insethcing

          directly with Rust E&I reviews the report to ensure that the data ts the overall objectives of the provn.

        This review is libeled Level 3 review.



          Each step of this review process involves evaluation of data quality based cc both the results of the QC data

          and the professional judgement of those conducting the review. This application of trbnst    wledge nd
        experience to the evaluation of the data Is essential In ensuring that data we consistently of high quality.




    Rust ELI QAPP                                           37                                       1-28-94, Original
                                                                                              558 195
    Procedures for HandlinE Unacceptable Data

    AU QC thIoratio will be recorded in the notebooks and printouts in the sa format used (or ample results.

    his the anaiyst's responsibility to check the QC information against limits for the analysis. When an analysis

    of a QC sample (blank, spike, check standard. replicate, or similar sle) shows that the analysis of that

    batch of samples is not in control, the analyst will immediately bring the matter to the attention of the group

    leader. The group leader will, If necessary, consult with the laboratory QA manager and/or th laboratory

    program rn-.nqer to determine whether the analysis can proceed, or if selected samples should be rerim. or

    specific corrective action needs to be taken before analyzing ditional samples. Out-ofconffol analyses must

    be documented. The analyst or group leader will file an Anornsly Repon with the laboratory QA n2nager

    for lab analysis out of control events that require documentation.



8.3 Data DelJverabl Packages
    It is Enseco's intent to provide a laboratory report which ezs the requirements of our clients and regulators.

    The laboratory report will contain ceptance limits for surrogates, LCL and mathi spikes and will iepon

    method blanks wherever they are used. The laboratory repon will unambiguously link batch quality control

    with samples of thai batch.



    Eb laboratory report has a narrative section to collect all comments pertinent to the sample analysis and

    delivery. The narrative section will be used to docam cuirtuive ct




Rust E&J QAPP                                          38                                        1-22-94, Original
                        558 196




r1
 I GI Oia/v (o/ro/ iccort /rj
           7        1
                                                                               558 197
                     DAILY QUALITY CONTROL REPORT

SITE NAME:___________________                            REPORT NO.            -
PROJECT     NO.__________________                        DATE________________
LOCATION_______________________                          Page____ of _____ Pages
WEATHER:
Air Temp. Range________________________                  Wind Speed/Direction
Weather Conditions:_____________________                 Humidity_____________________


ON-SITE PERSONNEL:
Name:                                                    Coporate/Government Affiliation:




HEALTH & SAFETY PROCEDURES:

Level of Protection/Personal Protective Equipment____________________________________
On-Site Monitoring Activities/Results______________________________________________________
Field Screening Instruments Used:                        Calibration Procedures:




SAMPL[NG SUMMARY:
Matrix/Location: Method                                  No. of Samples Collected




SUMMARY OF WORK PERFORMED:                                             StartlFinish Times:




Deviations from Work Plan/Reasons:


Downtime:
                                                                             558 198

FIELD ANALYSES/TESTS PERFORMED:

Analysis/Test        Eauinment UsedlCalibration or Checks     Results




Personnel:


QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL:
Decontamination

QAIQC Samples & Type_______________________________________

Quality Control Activities_______________________________________________________



PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED/CORRECTIVE ACTION TAKEN:




GENERAL COMMENTS/REMARKS:




ANTICIPATED WORK SCHEDULE FOR FOLLOWING DAY:




Preparer Signature/Title:                       Distribution List:

                                                Base Project Coordinator -
                                                USACE-TM -
                                                RUST Technical Project Manager
                                             558 199




         r1
     /frStK
              I)   Samn I v7t   (A fr/A   I/!n
                           cJ


-S
                                                                                             558 200
Objective:            To calculate grid spacing for soil sampling at the Explosive Ordnance Disposal
                      (EOD) Facility at K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base.

References:           1.     "Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards", Volume I,
                             Soils and Solid Media, February 1989, EPA PB 89-234959.
                      2.     "Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range RCR.A Closure Plan" Rev 1,
                             Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda Michigan. March 30, 1994.

Given:                Area of the EOD range 5.63 acres.

Assumptions: Statistical determination of grid spacing at K.I.Sawyer APE was not possible,
             because there was only one sample collected at this Range. Therefore, statistical
                      values used in the Wurtsmith Air Force Base EOD Closure Plan were used. This was
                      done due to similarities in the type of disposal activities and chemicals of concern.
                      The following statistical assumptions were used from the Wurtsmith AFB Closure
                      Plan:

                             a = 0.05
                             f3
                                  = 0.20
                             t    =0.5

                             Where           a=     false positive rate
                                                  = false negative rate
                                                  = difference in units of standard deviation
Calculations:

                      Sample distance                =       'lAin1

                                      Where: A       =       Area of EOD Range
                                                     =       5.63 Acres

                                             N1
                                                   =      Sample size
                                             From Table A-6 for the given values of a, i and    t
                                             N1
                                                   =      25

                      Sample Distance                =      (5.63 Acres /25)
                                                     —       100   ft (approximately)

                      A grid spacing of 100 feet x 100 feet spacing will be used for sampling purposes.
                      Total Number of Samples                245,450 ft2 1(100 ft x 100 ft)
                                                    =        25
                      Taking the irregular size of the Afféáied FOD Range into consideration, four
                      additional samples will be collected.
                      Total number of samples        =      25 + 4
                                                     =      29 Samples.
n\tzrcs82673id.p6 I
                                                       .
                                                           558 201
                                                             P389—234 959



Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup
Standards. Volume 1. Soils And Solid Media




Westat Research, Inc., Rockville, )'C




Prepared for:
£nvironrental Protection Agency, Washington, DC



Feb89                                              -




                                     fl
                   U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Technical Information Service
                   CHAPTER 5; FELD SAMPLING PROCEDURES
                                                                                  558 202

               Box 5.4 and Figure 5.5 give an example of locadng systematic coordinates
and the resultant sampling locations plotted on a map of the size.




                                            Box 5.4
                             L.ocadng Systernañc Coordinates
                Using the map in Figure 5.1 and a planimeter. the area of the sample
    area is determined to be 14,025 sq. m. If the sample size is 12. the spacing
    between adjacu points is:

                                 14025
                L=                       a 34 rn, rounded to the nearest mett
                     .\/r ,,,J
                Using the procedure in Box 5.1. a random coordinate (X.Y) a(11,60)
    is generated. Stardng from this point, the following sampling points can be

                                         (79,94)     (113,94) (147,94)
                (11,60)    (45,60)       (79,60)     (113,60) (147,60) (181.60)
                           (45.26)       (79,26)     (113,26) (147,26) (181.26)
              These points are shown in Figure 5.5. The intended sample size was
    12; however, because of the random selection process and the irregularity of the
                                                                                                i
    sample area boundary, there are 14 sample points within the sample area. A
     sample will be collected at all 14 locaons.




                                                                                            L




                                               3-9
CHAPTER 6: DETERMThTB4O WHETIffiR THE ?VEAN CONCENTRATION OF THE
              SITE IS LESS THAN A CLEANUP STANDARD
                                                                                     558 203

6.3.2          Formulae for Determining Sample Size

              The equations for determining sample size require the specification of
equations 6.6 and 6.7, given in Box 6.3 and the following quandties: cleanup standard
(Cs), the mean concenu'ation where the sfte should be declared clean witha high probability
(), the false positive rate (a), the faise negative rate (n), and the standard deviation (6).



                                         Box 6.3
                         Fornuiae for Calculating the Sample Size
                              Needed to Estimate the Mean

                                                     +
                                                  zl.p'I,                    (6.6)
                                               Cs-1 j
    where z15 and Z1..          the critical values for the normal disthbudon with
    probabilities of 1- a and I - (Table Al).
                The sample size may also be written in the following equivalent form:


                                               where vs (Cs-it1) .
                                          )2
                         = (z1_8+z1                                          (6.7)


              The term t (Greek letter tau) expresses the difference in units of
    standard deviation. For convenience, the values of n as computed from this
    formula are given in Table A.6 for selóötedviJäS of a, . and 'r.




                                               6-7
                           APPENDD( A: STATISTiCAL TABLES
                                                                                              I
                                                                            558 204
Table £6       Sample sizes rtquired for detecth%g a scaled difference tau of the mean from
               the cleanup standard for selected values of alpha and betae

                                                                                              r
                            p.020                              P.0.10                         I

   .t
                             a                                  a                             I
                0.10          0.05       0.01       0.10         0.05       0.01
                                                                                              r
   0.05          1.798        2,470      4,0W       2,62!        3.422      5.213
   0.10           449            618     1,005        655          856      1,303
   0.15           2(X)           274       447        291          380        579
   0.20            112           154       251        164           214       326
   025              72            99       161        105           137       209
   030              50            69       122         73           95        145
   035              37            50        82         53           70        106
   0.40             22            39        63         41           53         81
   0.45             22            30        50         32           42         64
   0.50             18            25        40         26           34         52
   0.55             15            20        33         22           28         43
   0.60             12            17        22         18           24         36
   0.65             11            15        24         16           20         31
   0.70                9          13        22         13            17        27
   0.75                8          11        18         12            15        23
   0.80                7          10        16         10            13        20
   0.85                6             9      14          9            12        18
   0.90                6             8      12          8            11        16
   0.95                5             7      11          7               9      14
   1.00                4             6      10             7            9      13




 Ses section 6.1 and Box 6.3 for definidons of alpha (a), beta (J3), and zau(t).




                                                                                                  U




                                            A-6
                        MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


                                    NTEOFFiCE COMMUNICATION
                                                                                      558 205


                                                       September 30, 1993


—   TO:          Environmental Response Division Staff

    FROM:        Alan J. Howard, Chief, Environmental Response Division

    SUBJECT: HERA Operational Memorandum #15: Default Type A Cleanup Criteria

—   In order to facilitate cleanup decisions at sites at which naturally occurring
    metals may be of concern, the following acceptable default Type A soil cleanup
    criteria have been established. These values are based on analysis of the
—   database for the Michigan Background Soil Survey (April 1991) which is
    maintained by Waste Management Division (WMD). They represent the mean plus
    one standard deviation for WHO data from combined clay, topsoil and sand
—   categories. The values are presented in two significant figures. Data should
    be rounded to two significant figures for comparison.

                             Table 1: ACCEPTABLE DEFAUlT VAI.UES
                                TYPE A SOIL CLEANUP CRITERIA

                           Acceptable                                 Acceptable
          Substance    Concentration (np/kg)                      Concentration (mq/ko)

    Aluminum             6900                         Iron            12000
    Arsenic                  5.8                      Mercury             0.13
    Barium                  75                        Lithium             9.8
    Cadmium                  1.2                      Manganese         440
    Cobalt                   6.8                      NIckel             20
    Chromium (total)        18                        Lead               21
    Copper                  32                        Selenium              0.41
    Cyanide                  0.39                     Silver                1.0
                                                      Zinc               47

    The default values apply as follows:
—
     1.    :f meas.Arec concentratIons at a site do not exceed the values listec n
           Table 1, site specific samples to establish background are not required.
—   2.     The values apply to all soil types. statewide.

    3. It is acceptable to establish a site-specific background concentration
        higher than the d2fault values. Such sampling should be conducted
        accorcing to requirements in existence before the issuance of this
        memoranaum. Comparison of site values is made against the mean plus
        three standard deviations calculated from background samples as provided
        for in existing ERD guidance regarding verification of soil remediatlon.




                                               C--.
                           558 206




r1
     SOfCfV   S fioYh /3
                                                 558 207




      SITE SAFETY AND HEALTH PLAN

            Project LWRC 94-0028
                   EOD Range
        Contract No. DACW4S-94-D-000I
              Delivery Order No. 8




                 Prepared for:

      K.!. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan
  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District




                 Prepared by:

RUST ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE INC.
       111 North Canal Street, Suite 305
           Chicago, illinois 60606
                (312) 902-7100



                   June 1995
                                                                  558 208

                          SITE SAFETY AND EEALTU PLAN
                       Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan
                                   1(1. Sawyer AFB




                                                          Date.
Prepared by:
               Brett Whittleton, EIT
               RUST Environment & Infrastructure Inc.




                                                          Date:
Approved by:
               Jim Bushnell, CIT-I
               RUST Remedial Services




Reviewed by:                                              Date:
               Richard Tinsley, CSM
               Regional Health and Safety Manager
               RUST Environment & Infrastructure Inc.
Final SSHP
Project LWRC 944028
                                                                         558 209   Revision 0


                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                       Page

LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS                                                            iv

1.0     INTRODUCTION                     ..   SS                                         1—1

          •   I   General Site History and Background                                    1—1

         1.2      General Requirements                                                   1—1

         1.3      Health and Safety Policy                                               1-2
         1.4      Assignment of SSHP Responsibility                                      1-2

2.0     TRAINING REQUIREMENTS                                                            2-1
        2.1       Basic Training Required                                                2-1
        2.2       Site-Specific Training                                                 2-1
        2.3       Safety Briefings                                                       2-2
        2.4       Safety Audits                                                          2-2
        2.5       First Aid and CPR                                                      2-2
        2.6       Documentation of Training                                              2-2

3.0     MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM                                                     3-1

4.0     HAZARD ASSESSMENT                                                                4-1
        4. 1      Waste Description/Characterization                                     4-1
        4.2       Degree of Hazard                                                       4-1
        4.3       Personal Protective Equipment                                          4-2
        4.4       Anticipated Levels of Protection for Site Operations                   4-3

5.0      SITE CONTROL                                                                    5-1
         5.1  Work Zones                                                                 5-1
               5.1.1 Support Zone                                                        5-1
                  5.1.2 Contamination Reduction Zone                                     5-1
                  5.1.3 Exclusion Zone                                                   5-1
         5.2      Site Entry Procedures                                                  5-1
         5.3      Sanitation                                                             5-2

6.0      SITE EMERGENCY PLAN                                                             6-1
         6.1   Emergency Coordinator                                                     6-1
         6.2      Emergency Contacts                                                     6-1
         6.3      Emergency Procedures                                                   6-1
         6,4      Emergency First Aid                                                    6-3
         6.5      Overt Chemical Exposure                                                6-3
         6.6      Adverse Weather Conditions                                             6-4
                  6.6.1 Cold Exposure                                                    6-4
                  6.6.2 Heat Stress                                                      6-5




RITE.RCS8t2671ffT2B.WP5                                                            June 1995
Final SSHP
Project LWRC 94-0028
                                                                    558 210     Revision 0


                              TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd)

                                                                                       Page
7.0    AIR MONITORING                                                                   7-1
       7.1     General                                                                  7-1
               71.1 Suspect Lead/Cadmium Soil Sampling                                  7-1
               7.1.2 Suspect Asbestos Debris and Soil Sampling                          7-1
               7.1.3 Soil Boring and Monitoring Well Installation                       7-I
       7.2     Action Levels                                                            7-2
       7.3     Exposure Monitoring/Air Sampling Program                                 7-2
       7.4     Instrument Calibration and Maintenance                                   7-3

8.0    DECONTAMINATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES                                    8-1
       8,1     Personnel                                                                8-1
       8.2     Equipment                                                                8-1
       8.3     Contamination Prevention                                                 8-2
       8.4     Disposal Procedures . . ..                                               8-3

9.0    GENERAL SAFE WORK PRACTICES AND COMMUNICATIONS -.                                9-1
       9.1     Safety Equipment                                                         9-1
       9.2     Communications                                                           9-]
       9.3     Safe Work Practices                                                      9-I
               9.3.1 General Safety Practices                                           9-1
               9.3.2 Safe Drilling Practices                                            9-2

10.0 DOCUMENTATION                                                                     10-1
        10.1   Training Attendance                                                     10-1
        10.2   Respirator Fit Test                                                     10-1
        10.3   Medical Certification                                                   10-1


                                       LIST OF FIGURES

Figures                                                                  Follows Section

I-I    Base Location Map                                                                1.0
1-2    Site Location Map                                                                1.0
1-3    Organizational Chart                                                             1.0
6-1    Hospital Route Map                                                               6.0




RITERCS8t267JFW2.1T5                            ii                              June   1995
    Final SSHP                                               558 211
—   Project LWRC 94-0028                                                Revision 0


                                           LIST OF TABLES

    Tables                                                        Follows Section

    4-1      Exposure Limits                                                4.0
    6-1      Emergency Response Telephone Numbers .                         6.0
    6-2A Cold Exposure                                                      6.0
    6-2      BHeat Stress                                                6.07-1
             Respiratory Protection for Asbestos                            7.0


    ATTACHMENTS:

             A        Respiratory Protection Program
             B        Field Documentation Forms
             C        Data Sheets for Chemicals of Concern




    R7ERCS8t267ThFTJB. wi's                         Iii                  June 1995
Fin&SSHP                                                  558 212
Project L WRC 94-0028                                                      Revision 0


                        LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS


ACM            Asbestos-Containing Material
ACGIII         American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
MB             Air Force Base
BZ             Breathing Zone
CFR            Code of Federal Regulations
CIH            Certified Industrial Hygienist
CPR            Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CR2            Contamination Reduction Zone
CZ             Control Zone
Dl             Deionized
EC             Emergency Coordinator (RUST)
EOD            Explosive Ordnance Disposal
EZ             Exclusion Zone
f/cc           fibers per cubic centimeter
FTL            Field Team Leader
FIR            Heart Rate
1-IEPA         High-Efficiency Particulate Air
HSM            Health and Safety Manager
MAC            Michigan Administrative Code
sgIm3          micrograms per cubic meter
mg/m3          milligrams per cubic meter
mph            miles per hour
NIIOSH         National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
OEW            Ordnance and Explosive Waste
OSHA           Occupational Safety and Health Administration
01             Oral Temperature
PAM            Personal Air Monitor
PEL            Permissible Exposure Limits
PM             Project Manager
PPE            Personal Protective Equipment
RCRA           Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RHSS           Regional Health and Safety Specialist
SCBA           Self-Contained Breathing Apparatas
SSHP           Site Safety and Health Plan
SSO            Site Safety Officer
SZ             Support Zone
TERC           Total Environmental Restoration Contract
TLV            Threshold Limit Values
TM             Technical Manager
TWA            Time Weighted Average
USACE          U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USEPA          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency



R7ERCSTh2671RZ22WT5                         iv                             June   1995
Fina!SSHP
Project LWRC 94OC28
                                                                        558 213          Revision 0




                                     1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1    GENERAL SITE HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

This Site Safety and Health Plan (SSHP) applies to personnel who participate in field activities
under the Total Environmental Restoration Contract (TERC) No. DACW45-94-D-000 1, Delivery
Order No. 8, for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range (Project No. LWRC 94-0026).
Sections 1.0 through 10.0 and Appendices A through C address general information relating to
K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base (AFB).

K.I. Sawyer AFB is located approximately 19 miles south of the city of Marquette and three
miles east of Gwinn in the north-central region of Michigan's upper peninsula in Marquette
County. K.I. Sawyer AFB encompasses 8.3 square miles (approximately 5,200 acres) consisting
of airfield operations facilities, industrialldisposal facilities, housing facilities, recreational
facilities, and undeveloped lands. Figure 1-1 illustrates the general locatiofl of K.I. Sawyer AFB,
Figure 1-2 illustrates the location of the EOD Rähe.

The EOD Facility treated unserviceable muniton items by burning with fuel (open burning) in
a metal kettle or by open detonation (OD) with a charge in sandpits. OD operations may have
resulted in unexploded ordnance being buried or driven downwards from detonation. After
completing open burning (OB) or OD treatment, the residual materials were disposed in
munitions residue burial pits within the EOD Range boundary. The EOD Range is not currently
active and the last OB/OD operations were conducted in March 1994.

Since 1956, the base has provided support and maintenance for Air Force aircraft. Routine
maintenance, supply, transportation, and fire training activities at the base have involved the use
of cleaning compounds and fuels and necessitated the use, accumulation, treatment, and disposal
of hazardous materials. Historical evidence indicates that releases of hazardous constituents to
the environment may have occurred as a result of past handling, disposal, and training practices.

The objective of this Resource Conservation and eco'ery Act RCRA) Closure Plan, is to
develop a work plan descnbtng the necessary tasks ñiëded to obtain closure at the EOD facility
The intent of the field tasks are to quantify subsurface soil and groundwater characteristics. This
will be accomplished in a two-staged approach beginning with the removal and destruction of
ordnance and explosive waste.

The first stage consists of the following tasks: A contracted ordnance and explosive waste
(OEW) firm will safely locate, identify, transport to a disposal area and destroy all OEW
contamination located within the EODRarii The contracted OEW firm is responsible for
completing the appropriate safety and health protocol for their designated tasks. A copy of the
contracted OEW firm's SSHP will be kept on-site at all times during field activities.

The second stage will consist of the following tasks: Test pit soil sampling, monitoring well
installation and groundwater sampling will be conducted. The accumulation of field data will aid



R7ERCS8267JH.8 WI'S                             hi                                       June 1995
FinoISSHP
Project L WRC 94-0028
                                                                     558 214             Revi.cion 0



in completing closure activities per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CER) 264 and Michigan
Administrative Code (MAC) Act 307 and 64.

1.2    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

This SSHP has been developed in accordance with the following regulations and guidance
documents:

       •      Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards, 29 CFR 1910
              and 1926, including 29 CFR 1910.120.

       •      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) "Standard Operating Safety
              Guides," June 1992.

       •      KISAW944.SOS, "General Health and Safety Requirements K.I. Sawyer AFB,"
              April 1994.
       •      EM 385-I-I, "Safety and Health Requirements Manual," U. S. Army Corps of
              Engineers, October 1, 1992,
        •     Federal Acquisition Regulation, FAR. Clause 52.236-13: Accident Prevention.
       •      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (N1OSH)/OSHAIUSCG/EPA,
              "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
              Activities," October 1985.

1.3         HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY

This SSHP applies to personnel who participate in the field activities described in the Appendices.
It contains guidelines and minimum requirements necessary to protect field personnel from
chemical and physical hazards on this site. The remediation contractor will be responsible for
implementing a SSHP to ensure the safety and health of their employees.

The purpose of the SSHP is to summarize the project organization and responsibilities; establish
procedures for preventing accidents, injuries, and illnesses; identify hazards; discuss the personal
protective equipment (PPE) that may be used at the site; identify personnel health and safety
training requirements; summarize the monitoring techniques to be used; establish emergency
procedures; provide for adequate record-keeping; and establish a schedule for safety inspections.

The SSI-P is based on information available to date and is subject to revision. During site work,
unanticipated conditions may be encountered or new information about the site may become
available. The contents of this SSHP may undergo revision based upon additional information
made available to health and safety personnel, monitoring results, or changes in the technical
scope of work through the use of a SSI-IP Modification Form. A sample SSHP Modification
Form is presented in Appendix A. Any changes proposed must be approved by the remediation



RJERCS8I267JH7JJ3.WP5                           1-2                                       June 1995
FinaISSHP                                                            558 215
Project LWRC 94-0028                                   -                                  Revision   0


contractor's Health and Safety Manager (HSM) for this project. The United States Army Corps
of Engineers Technical Manager (USACE-TM) will also be notified of these changes.

1.4         ASSIGNMENT OF SSUP RESPONSIBILITY

The SSHP will be implemented by the HSM and the Site Safety Officer (SSO) during site work.
Compliance with this SSF1P is required of all personnel who enter the K.I. Sawyer AFB site. The
Project Manager (PM) is responsible for all aspects of the performance of this delivery order.
With regard to SSHP implementation, the PM will be contacted only if a stop work order is
issued by the HSM or the SSO. An organizational chart is presented in Figure 1-3.

Specific duties of those responsible for the SSHP are:

              Regional Health and Safety Specialist (RHSS). The RHSS is responsible for
              developing company safety protocols and procedures necessary for field operations
              and is also responsible for resolving any outstanding safety issues which arise during
              the site work.

              Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIII). The CIT-I will review the final SSHP and
              provide technical assistance throughout the project as needed. The CIT-I is to review,
              sign, and date the SSHP prior to submission to USACE.

              Health and Safety Manager (HSM). The HSM has overall responsibility for
              coordination and technical implementation of this SSHP. The P1155 will approve
              any changes to this plan due to modification of procedures or newly proposed site
              activities. Health and safety-related duties and responsibilities will be assigned only
              to qualified individuals by the HSM. - Before personnel may work on-site, a current
              medical examination and acceptable health and safety training must be received by
              the HSM.

              Site Safety Officer (SSO). The HSM will direct on-site health and safety efforts
              through an SSO. The SSO will be responsible for technical implementation of
              theSSFIP on-site and will serve also the role as site Emergency Coordinator (Section
              6.1). The 550 may direct or participate in on-site activities as appropriate when
              this does not interfere with primary SSO responsibilities. The SSO has stop-work
              authorization which he/she will execute upon determination of an imminent safety
              hazard, emergency situation, or other potentially dangerous situations, such as
              detrimental weather conditions. Authorization to proceed with work will be issued
              by the HSM in conjunction with the PM after such action.

               Field Team Leader (FTL1. The FTL will be responsible for implementing the day-
               to-day field activities. The Field Team Leader will be responsible for the timely and
               technically appropriate performance of the field program, including direction and
               supervision of sampling team and subcontractors.




RIIERCSSI267JITTIS.WPS                           1-3                                       June 1995
  -     -a    —a.     -4    —I       -a    -         -1        -i    -a        —a         —        -        —i        -a             .     -4 -
.Y:.:                                                            •




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                                                                                                                                               267 It 2 Ic. dqn



                                                                                           SITE SAFElY AND HEALTH PLAN
                           FIGURE         1—1
                         BASE LOCATION                                                    K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
                     PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                                                       MARQUE I IE, MICHIGA N
Final SSHP                                                       558 217             Revision 0
                                                                                                  -—
Project L WRC 94-0028


             Samyling Team. The sampling team will gather and analyze data and prepare
             various reports. All of the designated technical staff members will be experienced
             professionals who possess the degree of specialization and technical competence
             required to effectively and efficiently perform the required work.

             Subcontractors. Subcontractors will be used for various tasks at the K.I. Sawyer
             AFB site. Subcontractors shall comply with the requirements outlined in this SSHP
             and in accordance with OSHA 29 CFR 1910 and 29 CFR 1926.




R\IERCS8t267IJIU2,WPS                         1-4                                     June 1995
                                                                                                                  58 218


                                                                      —— —

                                                          ——




                                 I€APGIS STAG€
                                     AREA




                     t
                     t
                                                 -
                         I                           SI
                                                                                   EDO RANGE
                                                                                   PROJECT   0028

                                 —————I




                             I

                                                                                                                 :-   z   '—

LEGEND
                                                                                                    SITE SAFETY AND HEALTh PLAN
         PAVED ROADWAY                                          FIGURE       1—2
-—-—-—   PROPERTY BOUNDARY                                         SITE LOCATION                    K. I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
         CREEK                                                 PROJECT LWRC 94-0028                    MAROULI iE, MICHIGAN
                                                                                 558 219

                            USACE Project Manager




                        Explosive
                        Ordnance
                         Disposal
                        Contractor




                                                                     RUST
       RUST Regional
       H&S Specialist                  roject Manager                QAIQC
                                                                    Specialist



                                     Technical Manager




                                                         USACE
                                                         Resident
                                                         Engineer



                                                                        I
                                                                       J




               FIGURE 1-3                             RCRA CLOSURE PLAN
  PROJECT ORGANIZATION CHART                     K I. SAWYER AIR FORCE BASE
      PROJECT LWRC 94-0026                          MARQIJETTE, MICHIGAN

:b'IHI]A CIT
Final SSHP
Project LWRC 94-0028
                                                                    558 220           Revision 0




                               2.0 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

2.1 BASIC TRAINING REQUIRED

Personnel who are required to work in areas where the potential for toxic exposure exists will
complete 40-hour training or have site experience conforming to the requirements of 29 CFR
1910. 120(e).

The 40-hour training course describes procedures for working at hazardous waste sites. These
procedures include a health and safety program, medical surveillance, decontamination, site
characterization and analysis, protective clothing and monitoring equipment, site control work
documentation, emergency response, engineering md administrative controls to reduce exposure,
and site safety evacuation procedures.

All personnel will also be trained in the site Respiratory Protection Program (Appendix B).

2.2 SITE-SPECifIC TRAINING
Site-specific training of employees to minimize on-site hazards will be provided once and will
address the activities, procedures, monitoring, and equipment for the field operations. This
training will include identifying the names of personnel and alternate personnel responsible for
site safety and facility layout.

In addition, this training, at a minimum, will include the following:

      1.     Site description and history
     2.      Project activities, including coordination with other contr3ctors
     3.      Hazard evaluation
     4.      On-site safety responsibilities
      5.     Site control and work zones
     6.      Personnel training
     7.      Medical monitoring
     8.      Atmospheric monitoring
     9.      Personal protection, clothing, and equipment
    10.      Decontamination procedures
    11.      Emergency procedures
    12.      Review of site-specific chemical data sheets
    13.      Safe work practices

This training will also allow field workers to clarify anything they do not understand and to
reinforce their responsibilities regarding safe operations. Training must include emergency
preparedness, location of evacuation and assembly areas, proper entry and exit procedures for the
exclusion zones, warning systems, location of emergency equipment, and routes to hospital.




Rt7ERCS82671Fi72B.WP5                            2d                                    June i99
FInaISSHP                                                            558 221
Project L WRC 94-0028                                                                   Revision 0


2.3 SAFETY BRIEFINGS

For each project, field personnel will be given briefings by the SSO on a daily or as-needed basis
to further assist site personnel in conducting their activities safely. Briefings will be provided
when new operations are to be conducted, changes in work practices must be implemented due
to new information made available, or if site or environmental conditions change. Briefings will
also be given to facilitate conformance with prescribed safety practices when performance
deficiencies are identified during routine daily activities or as a result of safety audits.

2.4 SAFETY AUDITS

The HSM or designee will conduct at least one safety audit per project of field operations to
review for compliance with health and safety policies and procedures.

2.5 FIRST AID AND CPR

At least two individuals on-site will be trained and qualified to administer first aid and
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

The HSM will identify the individuals requiring this training in order to ensure that emergency
treatment is available during every work-shift from a person qualified in first aid and CPR.
These courses will be consistent with requirements of the American Red Cross and/or American
Heart Association.

2.6 DOCUMENTATION OF TRAINING

All training will be documented in accordance with the procedures outlined in Section 10.0 of
this SSHP.




RmRcs8l267JJfrzR. wi's                         22                                       June 1995
FiPWISSHP                                               558 222
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                      Revision 0



                        3.0 MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

All personnel performing field work at the site will be required to have passed a pre-assignment
and!or periodic medical examination that is consistent with 29 CFR 1910.120(0. A release for
work will be confirmed by the HSM before an employee can begin hazardous site activities.

Additional medical testing may be required in consultation with the company physician if an
overt exposure or accident occurs, or if other site conditions warrant further medical surveillance.

Contractors/subcontractors will maintain the medical records for their own employees, but will
also provide the SSO with written documentation certifying that each employee at the site has
met the requirements of the Medical Surveillance Program. This documentation will be provided
before the first day of work for each employee assigned to the site.

The pre-assignrnent and annual examinations are essentially the same in content and will include:

       •      An updated medical and occupational history
       •      A screening physical examination
       •      Blood and urine laboratory tests
       •      Chest X-ray
       •      Electrocardiogram
       •      Pulmonary function tests
       •      Audiometry
       •      Visual acuity test

The examining physician has the authority to include other tests as deemed necessary.




RtIERCS8I267IHZZU.WP5                           3d                                         June 1995
    Final SSHP
    Project LWRC 94-0028                                  558    22 3                         Revision   0


                                       4.0 HAZARD ASSESSMENT


    4.1 WASTE DESCRIPTION/CHARACTERIZATION

    Asbestos of undetermined type and quantity has been indicated by K.I. Sawyer AFB as being
    present on-site, as a component of starter cartridges. Lead and cadmium have been detected in
    the soils, as documented from previous base invesfigatloiisTthefóllowing chemical information
    is presented in order to identify the types of materials that may be encountered at the site. The
    detailed information on these materials ws obtained from the most recent publication of the
    following documents:
          •    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Threshold
               Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1993-94
          •    Hazardline
          •    Chemical Data Sheets
          •    NTOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

    The following is a list of chemicals and compounds that are potentially found on-site. Chemical
    Data Sheets for each compound listed below, are presented in Attachment C. They provide
    information such as the chemical's characteristics, health hazards, protection, exposure limits, and
    first aid procedures. These chemicals include:

          •    Cadmium
          •    Lead
          •    Asbestos
—
    Waste Types:

                     Liquid_________         Solid   X                Gas__________
                     Sludge__________        Semi-Sbhd________        Other

    Although the ordnance and explosive waste will have been removed and destroyed, field stall will
    continuously check for the possibility of encoüntedng unexploded ordnance. Should any such
    indicators appear, WORK WILL STOP and the SSO will notify the HSM to reevaluate the
    project risks.

    These chemical contaminants cart affect the body if they are inhaled, come in contact with eyes
    or skin, or are ingested. Air monitoring for chemical contaminants will be conducted during the
    sampling events (see Section 7.0).

    4.2 DEGREE OF HAZARD
    On-site hazards include physical and chemical hazards. No radiological, biological or laboratory
    wastes are suspected on-site.                                                            -




    R1ERCS82671HffWP5                               4-1                                       June 1995
Final SSHP                                                           558 224
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                     Revision 0


The contaminants of concern at the site can affect the body if they are inhaled, come in contact
with the eyes or skin, or are ingested. These materials may be released during soil removal and
sampling. The primary concern is for skin exposure and inhalation exposure from contaminated
soils or debris, released during subsurface activities. Exposure to these substances by inhalation
in the breathing zone (BZ) is not anticipated, but initial sampling will be performed using Level
C protection. Atmospheric monitoring, however, will be conducted during sampling of asbestos-
containing material (ACM) and lead/cadmium-contaminated soils with personal air monitors
(PAMs) using separate monitors for each contaminant, Exposure to lead/cadmium by skin
absorption is a low to moderate possibility, but can be prevented by use of proper protective
equipment and good hygiene practices. Exposure to asbestos will be prevented by using proper
protective equipment and respiratory protection.

Soil sampling activities do not provide the potential for encountering buried hazards, If
unexploded ordnance is encountered, the soil sampling activities will be stopped, and the SSO
will contact the USACE Resident Engineer.

Physical hazards which may be encountered at the site during field activities include tripping
hazards associated with building debris. In addition, protruding objects such as metal and other
debris exist at the site. Steel toe and steel shank shoes/boots will be required for all on site
workers.

Depending on seasonal weather conditions, there is some potential for workers on-site to be
affected by heat stress if site activities are scheduled for the summer months or cold exposure if
activities are conducted during winter months. The SSO will monitor for heat stress or cold
exposure in accordance with Section 6.6 of this SSHP

Soil boring installation activities provide the potential for encountering buried hazards. It will
be the FTL's reponsibility to identify underground utilities with a representative from K.!. Sawyer
AFB before intrusive activities begin, If utilities are encountered, activities will be stopped. The
SSO will notify the HSM, FTL, USACE-TM and K.I. Sawyer utility reprsentative. The HSM
and utility representative will formulate an action plan for proceeding. Physical hazards which
may be encountered during field activities include overhead and tripping hazards associated with
drill rig operations.

4.3 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The level of protection to be worn by field personnel will be defined and controlled by the SSO.
Personal protective equipment for general operations will be consistent with the requirements of
29 CFR 1910 Subpart I, "Personal Protective Equipment." Basic levels of protection for
hazardous waste operations will be selected in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR
1910.1 20(g)(3). "Personal Protective Equipment Selection," and Appendix A, "General
Description and Discussion of the Levels of Protection and Protective Gear." Modification to
basic protective equipment ensembles may be necessary for specific operations. In these cases,
further definition will be provided by reviewing specific hazards, conditions, and proposed



Rt7ERCS8t267IffB.WP5                           4-2                                       June I5
     Project   IJWRC 94-0028
                                                               558 225                          Revision 0



               requirements, and by conducting monitoring at the particular operation. Protection
     operational
     may be upgraded or downgraded, as deemed appropriate by the SSO.


     4.4   ANTICIPATED LEVELS OF PROTECTION FOR SITE OPERATIONS

     Listed below are the field tasks and the initial levels of protection which are based on the most
     current information availavie on potential health and safety hazards on the site. Air monitoring
     results will dictate whether the level of protection to be worn can be downgraded or should be
     upgraded.
                                                                              N1TIAL LEVEL
                                         TASK                                 OF PROTECTION
-S
                      •   Residual Ordnance Sampling              Level CID
                          Test Pit Soil Sampling                         Level C/D
                      •   Monitoring Well Installatio.i                  Level C/ID
                      •   Groundwater Sampling                           Level C/D
                      •   Soil and Groundwater Sample Preparation        Level C/D


     Level D personal protective clothing and equipment includes:
                  •   Disposable tyvek coveralls.
                  •   Hardhat (when overhead hazards exist).

                  •   Safety glasses or goggles with fixed side shields or goggles.
                  •   Steel toe, steel shank boots.

                  • Disposable latex gloves - required when handling and collecting soil and water
                      samples.
                  •   Outer nitrile gloves - required when handling and collecting soil and water samples.

                  • Disposable outer boots - required.
                  • Noise protection - as warranted.

     Level C protective clothing and equipment inctudes:
                  •   Full-face air-purifying respirator (NTOSH/MSHA approved) fitted with acid
                      gas/organic vapor/I-IEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter cartridges. These
                      will be equipped with power air. The use and care of respiratory protection will be
                      in accordance with the protocols described in Appendix A.



     R7ERCS8I26711fT28. Wi'S                           43                                       June 1995
Final SSHP                                                         558 226
Project L WRC 94-0028                                                                    Revision 0


             • Disposable tyvek coveralls.

             • Disposable latex inner gloves.
             •   Nitrile outer gloves.

             •   Steel toe, steel shank boots.

             • Disposable outer boots.

While Level B protection is not anticipated for closure tasks at the EOD Range, the following
is a brief description of Level B protective clothing and equipment: Level B PPE includes the
above Level C clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or supplied air-line
respirator in place of an air-purifying respirator. If action levels are exceeded and evaluation of
the conditions indicates Level B respiratory protection is deemed necessary, work activities will
be halted and arrangements for Level B equipment will be implemented.

The 550 may authorize a change in the level of protection based on an evaluation of actual field
conditions after consulting with the HSM. Action levels used to determine if protection levels
need to be upgraded or downgraded are described in Section 7.2 of this SSHP.

Air monitoring data may reveal the presence of organic vapors or other air contaminants above
acceptable levels for the type of respiratory protection being used. If this occurs, work will stop.
The SSO will contact the HSM to evaluate the need to modify the level of protection required
in a particular area and will discuss the results of the evaluation with the PM. If changes in the
level of protection are warranted, the SSO will inform the field personnel of the changes.




R1ERCS8(267IjnI7ZB. WP5                          44                                       June 1995
                                fT: TABLE 41                               558 227
                               EXPOSURE LIMITS
                          (8-Hour Time-Weighted Average)
                                 1(1. Sawyer AFB
                    Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan


                                    TLV                    PEL
Compound       ma/rn3           maim3                      Skin Notation

Cadmium                 0.01         0.05
Lead                    0.15         0.05
Asbestos                        0.2 f/cc 0.2 f/cc



Note: TLV - Threshold Limit Value
                     PEL - Permissible Exposure Limits
                     f/cc - fibers per cubic centimeter
                     mg/rn3 - milligrams per cubic meter

References: OSHA 1989 Amended Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) and Hazardlines 1990.

                        American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
                        (ACGIH), Threshold Limit Values (TLV) and Biological Exposure
                        Indices, 1993 - 1994
Final 55111'
ProjectLWRC94-0028                                            558 228                     Rei4sionO



                                       5.0 SITE CONTROL

5.1 WORK ZONES

The purpose of the site control measures discussed        section are to maintain order at the
EOD Range and to minimize chemical and physical hazards to on-site personnel, visitors, and the
public. Site control zones (CZ) will include exclusion zones (EZ), a contamination reduction
zone (CR2), and a support zone (SZ). Entry and entry control to all CZs will be on the upwind
side of the CZ.

5.1.1 Support Zone
The SZ is considered the uncontaminated area and will be identified by the SSO before field
activities begin. A telephone will be located in the SZ, and hand-held two-way radio units will
be used by each field team for communication with the SZ. Appropriate safety, medical, and
support equipment will be available in the SZ.

5.1.2 Contamination Reduction Zone

Personnel      and equipment decontamination areas will be established on-site. Wash water, soap,
and towels will be provided. The temporary wash areas will be maintained in a clean area
outside the EZ. The CRZs will be identified by the SSO before field activities begin. A main
personnel CRZ will also be established upwind of the large equipment decontamination paid.

5.1.3 Exclusion Zone

An EZ is an area containing or suspected of containing contaminated materials. Only field
personnel wearing the appropriate PPE are allowed in the EZ. EZs include the activity-specific
work zones for the tasks listed in Section 4.4.

5.2 SITE ENTRY PROCEDURES

Visitors are required to report to the FTL and the 550 before accessing the sites, although no
visitors are anticipated The SSO will document decisions regarding their access to the sites If
granted access, visitors must provide the SSO with documented compliance with Section 2.0 of
this SSHP, must comply with other applicable sections, and must satisfy additional conditions
placed on them as deemed appropriate by the SSO to ensure visitor safety. Visitors must sign
in and out daily under the SSO's direction for the duration of their approved visit. Under no
circumstances will visitors be allowed to interfere with or participate in operations within the
scope of the field investigation. All visitors will be escorted throughout the sites by appropriately
trained personnel. Procedures for visitors entering the site are limited to direction from the
USACE-TM and/or USACE Resident Engineer and are expressly followed by on-site personnel.




RITERCS8t267JIIT2B.   ns                         5-1                                      June 1995
Final 551!?
Project LWRC 94-0028
                                                                558 229             Revision 0


As needed, the SSO will establish a designated Level D area as an observation point during
intrusive activities. This designated area will be located to offer proximate viewing of site
operations, and positioned such that visitors in no way may inhibit site access, logistics, or
generaJ operations. Further, the SSO will locate the viewing areas such that visitors are at
minimal risk of exposure to site hazards.

5.3 SANITATION

Sanitary facilities will be provided at the base waste water treatment plant.




R7ERCs8\267iEZ2BWP5                            5-2                                   June i9S
Final SSHP
Project LWRC 94OQ2.       .                                5r8 230                         Revision   0


                                6.0 SITE EMERGENCY PLAN

6.1 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR

The Site Emergency Coordinator (EC) role will be filled by the SSO (Section 1.4), who will
implement the emergency action plan as outlined in 29 CFR 1910.38. The following six items
will be implemented to the extent possible when applicable:

       •     Emergency escape procedures and routes.
       •     Procedures for those remaining for critical operations.
       •     Procedures to account for employees after evacuation.
       •     Rescue and medical duties.
       •     Preferred means of reporting fires and emergencies.
       •     Names, job titles, or departments to contact for additional information or duties.

These items will be discussed during each site orientation meeting conducted on-site by the 550.

6.2 EMERGENCY CONTACTS

The EC/SSO will verify appropriate emergency contacts on-site and off-site and make contact
before beginning work on-site. The EC will inform the emergency contacts about the nature and
duration of work expected on the site and the type of contaminants and possible health and safety
hazards of emergencies involving these contaminants. At this time, the EC/SSO and the
emergency response contacts will make arrangements to handle any emergencies that might be
anticipated.

Emergency contacts and telephone numbers will be conspicuously posted for use in emergency
situations occurring during field activities. These emergency numbers can be found in Table 6-1.

Once the Support Zone is established, and before field activities start, the EC/SSO will drive the
route to the hospital, post directions and/or a map to the hospital, and set up the first aid station.

Due to limited facilities at the K.I. Sawyer AFB hospital, this hospital willS serve only as a
medical clinic. All medical emergencies and traumas, beyond the capabilities of the base
clinic, will be sent to the off-site hospital, Marquette General, in Marquette, Michigan.

Directions to the on-site clinic:    To be given by the 550 during the daily site safety
                                     meetings (Figure 1-2). Safety meetings are discussed in
                                     Section 2.3 of this document.

6.3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

The EC will implement emergency action procedures whenever conditions at the site warrant such
action. The EC will be responsible for coordinating the evacuation, emergency treatment, and
emergency transport of site personnel as necessary, and for notifying emergency response units



RmRCs82671Fraa.WP5                                                                          June 1995
Final SSJIP
Project L WRC 94-0028
                                                                558 231                  Revtc(on 0



and the appropriate management staff. The following conditions may require implementation of
emergency action procedures:
        •     Fire or explosion on-site.
        •
              Serious personal injury.
        •     Release of hazardous materials, including gases or vapors at levels greater than the
              maximum-use concentrations of respirators.
        •     Unsafe working conditions, such as inclement weather.

If a fire or explosion has taken place, emergency steps will include 1) evacuation of work area
and 2) notification of the fire department and other appropriate emergency response groups if
necessary.

If an emergency situation develops at the site, the EC will take the following course of action:

     Notification
              •
                          Notify the proper emergency services (fire, ambulance, police, etc.) for
                          assistance.
              •           Notify any other affected personnel at the site including the USACE
                          Resident Engineer and the K.L. Sawyer AFB contact, Mark Hansen.
                          The USACE Resident Engineer will be responsible for notifying the
                          Contracting Officer.
              •           Notify the Field Team Leader on-site.

     Reporting

Work Related Injuries and/or Illnesses

Injured/ill employee(s) must report to the SSO any injury, regardless how small or illnesses which
are believed to be work-related. It is important that reporting occur on the day and shift during
which the injury occurred or as soon as possible following the onset of symptoms for an illness
that may be work-related.

The SSO must complete an Incident Report. A copy must be faxed to the Health and Safety
Manager.

If the injury requires one-time or more than one-time first aid, the 550 makes entries on the First
Aid Log which remains on-site. For more than one-time aid the SSO must record an entry on
the OSHA 200 Log. The OSHA 200 Log will be forwarded to the HSM.

An Accident Report on ENG Form 3394 must be completed and submitted to the Contracting
Officer in accordance with AR 385-40 and USACE Supplements to that regulation within two
days of the accident/incident,




Th7ERCS8267i!f12a.WP5                           62                                       June
PindlYsifF    :..,                                                558 232
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                    Revision 0


Vehicle/Prooertv/Equipment Claim Procedures

All incidents resulting in property damage or personal injury to or by company-owned, leased or
rented vehicles/property/equipment should be reported immediately to the Fit. The proper forms
for completion will be available in the glove compartment of the vehicles. The Fit is
responsible for notifying the corporate insurance coordinator.

Note:
        •     If someone is injured, make sure medical assistance is pursued immediately.

        •     Note name and badge numbers of officers who are present, or if none present, try
              to have one called to the scene.
        •     Express no opinion as to who was at fault and give no information except as
              required by law enforcement officers.

Emergency equipment that will be on-site with the field personnel will include the following:

        •     First aid kits in compliance with OSHA requirements.
        •     Clean water for emergency wash.
        •     Eye wash.
        •     Fire extinguishers (10-pound Type A/B/C).

6.4 EMERGENCY FIRST AID

Emergency first aid will be administered on-site as appropriate. The individual will then be
decontaminated if possible (depending on the severity of the injury) and transported to the nearest
medical facility if needed.

At least two individuals on-site will be qualified to render first aid and CPR.

6.5 OVERT CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

Typical response procedures

SKIN CONTACT: Use copious amounts of soap and water. Wash/rinse affected area
thoroughly, then provide appropriate medical attention. Eye wash will be provided on-site at the
CRZ and/or SZ as appropriate. Eyes should be rinsed for 15 minutes upon chemical
contamination.

INHALATION: Move to fresh air and/or, if necessary, decontaminate/transport to hospital.

INGESTION: Decontaminate and transport to emergency medical facility.




R7ERCS8t267Hfa.B.   fly                        6-3                                      June 1995
Final 5Sf/P
Project LWRC 94-0028
                                                                       rQ 233
                                                                       U                  Revision 0



PUNCTURE WOUND OR LACERATION: Decontaminate and transport to emergency medical
facility. The SSO will provide medical data sheets to medical personnel as requested.

6.6 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

In the event of adverse weather conditions, the SSO will determine if work can continue without
endangering the health and safety of field workers. Some items to be considered before
determining if work should continue are:

        •      Potential for heat stress and heat-related injuries.
        •      Potential for cold stress and cold-related injuries.
        •      Treacherous weather-related working conditions.
        •      Limited visibility.
        •      Potential for electrical storms.

6.6.1         Cold Exposure

if field activities occur during a period when temperatures average below freezing, the following
guidelines will be followed.

Persons working outdoors in temperatures at or below freezing may be subject to frostbite.
Extreme cold for a short time may cause severe injury to the surface of the body, or result in
profound generalized cooling of the body core, resulting in coma and death. Areas of the body
which have high surface area-to-volume ratio such as fingers,         and       are the most
susceptible.

Two factors influence the development of a cold injury: ambient temperature and the velocity of
the wind. Wind chill is used to describe the chilling effect of moving air in combination with
low temperature. For instance, 10°F with a 15-mile per hour (mph) wind is equivalent to chilling
still air to -18°F. The cooling power of wind is presented in Table 6-2A

As a general rule, the greatest incremental increase in wind chill occurs when a wind of 5 mph
increases to 10 mph. Additionally, water conducts heat 240 times faster than air. Thus, the body
cools suddenly when chemical-protective equipment is removed if the clothing underneath is
perspiration-soaked.

Local injury resulting from cold is included in the generic term frostbite. There are several
degrees of damage. Frostbite of the extremities can be categorized into:

        •       Frost nip or incipient frostbite: Characterized by sudden blanching or whitening of
                skin.

        •       Superficial frostbite: Skin has a waxy or white appearance and is firm to the touch,
                but tissue beneath is resilient.




Rt1ERCS8267iFfflB. WP5                            &4                                      June 1995
Final SSHP
Project LWRC 94-0028                                         558    2 34                   Revision   0


              Deep frostbite: Tissue is cold, pale, and solid; extremely serious injury.

Prevention of frostbite is vital. Keep the extremities warm. We& insulated clothing as part of
one's protective gear during extremely cold conditions. Check for symptoms of frostbite at every
break. The onset is painless and gradual--you may never know you have been injured until it is
too late.

To administer first aid for frostbite, bring the victim indoors and rewarm the areas auickly in
water between 39°C and 41°C (102°F to 105°F). Give a warm drink -- but not coffee, tea, hot
chocolate or alcohol. The victim should not smoke. Keep the frozen parts in warm water or
covered with warm clothes for 30 minutes, even though the tissue will be very painful as it
thaws. Then elevate the injured area and protect it from injury. Do not allow blisters to be
broken. Use sterile, soft, dry material to cover the injured areas. Keep victim wann and get
immediate medical care.

After thawing, the victim should try to move the injured areas a little, but no more than can be
done alone (without help).
        •     Do i rub the frostbitten part (this may cause gangrene).
        •     Do j use ice, snow, gasoline, or anything cold on frostbite.
        •     Do j use heat lamps or hot water bottles to rewarm the frostbitten area.
        •     Do     place the body part near a hot stove.

Systemic hypothermia is caused by exposure to freezing or rapidly dropping temperature. Its
symptoms are usually exhibited in five stages: 1) shivering; 2) apathy, listlessness, sleepiness,
and (sometimes) rapid cooling of the body to less than 95°F; 3) unconsciousness, glassy stare,
slow pulse, and slow respiratory rate; 4) freezing of the extremities; and, finally, 5) death.

Effects arising from cold exposure will be minimized by providing workers with insulated
clothing when the equivalent chill temperature is less than 30°F as defined and presented in the
ACGII'I booklet. Furthermore, field activities will generally be curtailed or halted if the
equivalent chill temperature is below -20°F. The ultimate responsibility for delaying work at
a site due to inclement weather rests with the SSO.

6.6.2       Heat Stress

The SSO will visually monitor personnel to note for.signs of heat stress. Field personnel will
also be instructed to observe for symptoms of heat stress and methods on how to control it.
Table 6-2B indicates the permissible heat exposure threshold limit values, which discuss the
appropriate safe work and rest regimen for a given set of work loads and temperatures, One or
more of the following control measures can be used to help control heat stress:
        •     Provide adequate liquids to replace lost body fluids. Personnel must replace water
              and salt lost from sweating. Personnel must be encouraged to drink more than the
              amount required to satisfy thirst. Thirst satisfaction is not an accurate indicator of



RWERCS8267Hf.B.WP5                              65                                         June 1995
Final SSHP
                                                                           558 235
Project L WRC 94-0028                                                                      Revision 0



               adequate salt and fluid replacement. Replacement fluids can be commercial mixes
               such as GatoradeTh.

          •    Establish a work regime that will provide adequate rest periods for cooling down.
               This may require additional shifts of workers.

          •    Wear cooling devices such as vortex tubes or cooling vests beneath protective
               garments.
          •    Take breaks in a cool rest area (77°F is best).

          •    Remove impermeable protective garments during rest periods.
          •    Do not assign personnel to other tasks during rest periods.

          •    Inform personnel of the importance of adequate rest, acclimation, and proper diet
               in the prevention of heat stress.

One of the following biological monitoring procedures may be followed if a heat stress case
occurs:

          •     Heart rate (I-R) should be measured by the pulse for 30 seconds as early as possible
                in the resting period. The HR at the beginning of the rest period should not exceed
                110 beats/minute. If the HR is higher, the next work period should be shortened by
                 10 minutes (or 33 percent), while the length of rest period stays the same. If the
                pulse rate is 100 beats/minute at the beginning of the next rest period, the following
                work cycle should be shortened by 33 percent.

          •     Body temperature should be measured orally with a clinical thermometer as early
                as possible in the resting period. Oral temperature (OT) at the beginning of the rest
                period should not exceed 99°F. If it does, the next work period should be shortened
                by 10 minutes (or 33 percent), while the length of the rest period stays the same.
                However, if the oral temperature exceeds 99.7°F at the beginning of the next rest
                period, the following work cycle should be further shortened by 33 percent. QI
                should be measured at the end of the rest period to make sure that it has dropped
                below 99°F, At no time shall work begin with the oral temperature above 99 F.




RtThRCS812671J122R. wi's                          66                                        June 1995
                MICHIGAN MAI4QUIcfl'E,
              BASE FORCE AIR SAWYER K.1.                                                                           MAP ROUTE HOSPITAL
              PLAN SAFETY AND HEALTH                                                                                                    6-1          FIGURE
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                                                                                                                                                                     225-3560 (906)
                                                                                                                                                              49855 Michigan Marquette,
                                                                                                                                                               Street Magnetic West 420
.1
                                                                                                                                                     IIOSPFIAL GENERAL MA1tQUE'i"I'E


0.1                                                                                                                                                                 side. IT I RI( on is nec ra ( CII
                                                                                                                                                    EMERGENCY blocks. 1/2 4 for Conlinue
                                                                                                                                                   reel SI Magnetic on (west) LEVI turn He; iii
                                                                                                                                                     3/4 for Street Front on Stay Street. Front
                                                                                                                                                   into (urns I US—4 I. tJS-4 on (north) F] I.E
                                                                                                                                                  turn Street; Cenessee on (east) CIII RI EU (LI
                                                                                                                                                 Street; l)ivlsion on stay Street: i)isislon into
                                                                                                                                                    (urns 1-553 North; 1-553 fake anti I41GIIT
                                                                       Mar                                                                              turn rand, access the of end the at light
                                                                                                                                                 blinking the at gate; am in eiii from Base Exit

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     1



                                                    shpeming and Marquette of Commerce of Chambers the by Sponsored


              — — — — —                        COUNTY
                                                    —                            —_,
                                                                                       MARQUETTE—
                                                                                       --   — —
                                                                                            -
                                                            558 237
                             Table 6-1

                Emergency Response Telephone Numbers
                K.!. Sawyer AFB Project LWRC 94-0026

Site Contact:

Mark Hansen                                   Phone: (906) 372-2342
Environmental Engineer
410 CES!CEV
400 Avenue C, STE 100
K.!. Sawyer AFB. MI 49843-3200


Police/Security:                              Phone: (906) 372-1461


Fire:                                         Phone: (906) 372-1171


Paramedic/Ambulance:                          Phone: (906) 372-2233


Poison Control Center:                        Phone: (414) 266-2222


Base Clinic Contact:                          Phone: (906) 372-2236

410 Strategic Hospital


Emergency Hospital (Trauma Center):           Phone: (906) 228-9440
Marquette General
420 West Magnetic Street
Marquette, MI 49855

Emergency Ambulance Services:                 Phone: (906) 372-2233

Non-Emergency Services:                       Phone: (906) 372-2235
I   I                     1        1        I         I        I          C.                           I      I         I        I           I      I
                                                                           TABLE 6-2A
                                         COOLING POWER OF WIND ON EXPOSED FLESH
                                          EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE
                                                                   (under calm conditions) *
                                                                               Actual Temperature Reading(j')                          _________—
                  Estimated
                 Wind Speed                     50        40        30         20      10          -10
                                                                                                   0     -20    -30                      -40       -50     -60
        ___(inmph)______                                                       Equivalent Chill Temperature UFJ
                      calm                      50        40         30        20     10      0     10    -20J   -30                          40     50     -60
                              5                 48        37         27         16       6        -5       -isj      -26        -36          -47    -57     -68
                              10                40        28         16          4            _:2J33                 46          58          70J3           .95
                              15                36        22          9         -5     -18]     -32 -45              -58    ____-7JE            -99        -112
                              20                32        18          4        -10     -25        39       -53       -67j      -82       -96       -110    -121
                              25                30        16          0        -15     -29       -44       -59       -74       -88      -104       -l IS   -133
                              30                28        13         -2        -18     -33       -48       -63       -79       -94      -109       -125    -140
                              35                27        II         -4        -20     -35       -51       -67       -82       -98      -113       -129    -145
                              40                26        JO         -6        -21     -37       -53       -69       -85      -100     -116        -132  -148
                                                  LIITLE DANGER                       INCREASING DANGER                            GREAT DANGER
             (Wind speeds greater               In <hour with dry skin.                Danger from freezing of                   Flesh may freeze within
            than 40 mph have little               Maximum danger of                    exposed flesh within one            30 seconds.
               additional effect.)               false sense of security.     _______     minute.      _____________________________________
                                                              Trenchfoot and immersionj'oot may occur at anyjoint on this chart.

        •                                 Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA.
            Developed by U.S. Army Research

        Source: "Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, " American Conference   of
                Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1993-1994.


                                                                                                                                                                  CJ1
                                                                                                                                                                  Li'

                                                                                                                                                                  CA)
                                                                      558 239


                              TABLE 6-2B



          Permissible Heat Exposure Threshold Limit Values

                  K.!. Sawyer AFE Project LWRC 94-0026

                                            Work Load
Work-Rest Regimen                     Light     Moderate     Heavy


Continuous Work                        80.0°F   80.0°F       77.0°F


75% Work -                             87.0°F   82.4°F       78.6°F
25% Rest, Each Hour


50% Work -                             88.5°F   85.0°F       82.2°F
50% Rest. Each Hour


25% \Vork -                            90.0°F   88.0°F       86.0°F
75% Rest. Each Hour
Final SSHP
ProjectLWRC94-0028                                                                        R.evrszono
                                                                 558 240

                                   7.0 Am MONITORING
7.1 GENERAL
Since on-site hazards consist of asbestos fibers and potentially contaminated particulates from air-
entrained dust, time-weighted average monitoring of the workers' BZ will be performed during
debris and soil sampling. Personal air monitoring (PAM) pumps (i.e., Alpha 1 or equivalent) will
be used that are equipped with a 25-millimeter diameter 0.8-micron, moxed cellulose ester filter
cassette with antistatic extension cowl. The flow rate will be set between 0.5 and 2.5 liters per
minute for asbestos.

Lead and cadmium in air will be monitored witha separate PAM with a cellulose ester membrane
filter, 37 millimeter diameter with a 0.8 micron pore diameter in a cassette filter holder. The
flow rate will be I to 4 liters per minute.

It will be necessary to monitor the atmospheric conditions during on-site field sampling activities
to determine the possible need to upgrade the personal protection of on-site workers. Separate
PAMs will be used for lead, cadmium and asbestos to provide time-weighted averages for each
potential contaminant. Respirator protection for the suspect asbestos debris and soil sampling will
be determined by the SSO and approved by the HSM. Atmosphere in the BZ at the lead/metals
soil sampling locations is anticipated to be free of volatile components. If sampling indicates the
presence of asbestos in the lead/metals sampling areas, the asbestos sampling protection and
procedures will be followed.

7.1.1       Suspect Lead/Cadmium Soil Sampling

These activities will be initiated in Level C protection with the contingency to downgrade the
level of protection based on the action levels and laboratory analysis of air samples. If the level
of protection is downgraded to Level D from Level C, it will be upgraded back to Level C if
visible dust or the action level for asbestos orlead/cadmium is reached.

7.1.2       Suspected Asbestos Debris and Soil Sampling

Sampling of starter cartridge debris and soil will be conducted in areas documented to contain
asbestos. The general debris location was péiiiiIfdöäiñiented by others as being concentrated
in the residue burial pits, where destroyed starter cartridges may still contain asbestos. Asbestos-
related debris may also be encountered in the open detonation areas of the EOD Range.
Sampling activities will be performed in Level C, when necessary, which requires full-face
respiratory protection with HEPA filters. Two tyvek coveralls may be used to minimize
secondary exposure to asbestos during dry decontamination.

7.1.3       Soil Boring and Monitoring Well Installation

Soil boring and monitoring well installation activities will be initiated in Level D protection with
the contingency to upgrade the level of protection based on the action levels.


RIIERCS8I267LHTZB. WP5                          7-1                                       Junt 1995
FInoZSSHP
Ftoject LWRC 94-0028
                                                             558 241                      Revision 0


7.2   ACTION LEVELS

Asbestos sampling air monitoring will be consistent with the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.58
and Table 7-1 of this SSHP. The asbestos-related PEL is 0.1 f/cc TWA, and the excursion limit
is 1.0 f/cc averaged over 30 minutes.

 Lead and cadmium air monitoring will be consistent with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1025
and 29 CFR 1910.1027 respectively. The action level for airborne concentrations of lead is 30
micrograms per cubic meter (sg'm3) per TWA. The action level for cadmium is 2.5 sgM per
TWA.

The actions levels in this SSHP will apply to all site work during the duration of activities at the
facility. Action levels are as follows:

                                                                Level of Respiratory
                 Action Levels                                   Protection/Action

                 Visible dust                                          Level C
                 Lead (0.03 Isg/m3)                                    Level C
                 Cadmium (2.5 j.zg/m3)                                 Level C
                 Asbestos (0.1 f/cc) (PEL)                             Level C


If visible dust is detected while working in Level D because of the possible presence of lead,
other metals, or asbestos contaminated soils, upgrade to Level C respiratory pmtection is required.

In the event any action levels are exceeded, work activities shall be halted, and an attempt will
be made to identify the contaminants present so that correct respiratory protection can be selected
and action levels may be adjusted higher or more conservatively. The 550 shall notify the
USACE Resident Engineer immediately and prior to upgrading the level of respiratory protection.

7.3 EXPOSURE MONITORING/AIR SAMPLING PROGRAM

Perimeter monitoring will not be conducted during suspect lead/metals soil sampling or asbestos
sampling of ACM unless Level D action levels are exceeded. This will be determined by the
SSO. Based on past investigations, it is not anticipated that migration of contaminants off-site
will be of concern.

Personal monitoring will be conducted during suspected asbestos and metals soil sampling in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.58(f). Personal monitoring for lead exposure will be conducted
in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1025.

7.4 INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE




RtltRCS8i267IJfZlfl. WP5                        7-2                                       JUne   ics
NnaJSSHP
Project LWRC 94-0028
                                                       558 242                     ReWsion 0



Instrument calibration and maintenance will be páfonned iccording to manufacturer's
specifications and documented on Field Instrument Calibration Logs. These specifications will
be maintained on-site and are included as Appendix B of this SSHP. Air monitoring equipment
(PAMs) will be calibrated before and after use each day.




RtThRCS81267IH72B.WP5                        73                                     June 1995
                                                TABLE7-1                                    558 243
                           RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ASBESTOS
                                              1(1. Saner AFB
                             Project LWRC 94-0028 - RCRA Closure Plan



—   Airborne Concentration of
    Asbestos, Tremolite,
    Anthophyllite, Actinolite or a
—   Combination of these Materials                                   Reciuired ResDirator

    Not in excess of 2 f/cc (10 x PEL)                        Half-mask air-purifying respirator, other
                                                              than a disposable respirator, equipped with
                                                              high-efficiency filters.
—   Not in excess of 10 f/cc (50 x PEL)                       Full facepiece air-purifying respirator
                                                              equipped with high-efficiency filters.
—
    Not in excess of 20 f/cc (100 x PEL)                      Any powered air purifying respirator
                                                              equipped with high-efficiency filters.
                                                                    Any supplied air respirator operated
                                                                    in continuous flow mode.

    Not in excess of 200 f/cc (1,000 x PEL)                   Full facepiece supplied air respirator
                                                              operated in pressure demand mode.

    Greater than 200 f/cc (>1,000 x PEL)                      Full facepiece supplied air respirator or
                                                              operated in pressure demand mode equipped
                                                              with an auxiliary positive pressure self-
                                                              contained breathing apparatus.



    NOTE:     a.   Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentration may be used at lower
                   concentrations.
              b.   A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against
                   mono-disposed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger.

—   REFERENCE:      Table reproduced from OSHA 29 CFR 1926.58 TABLE D-4 Respiratory Protection
                    for Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophylliteiand Actinolite Fibers.
RnaZSSHP                -                               558 244
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                   RevIsion   0



            8.0 DECONTAMINATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

The SSO will determine the level of decontamination necessary based on the evaluation of
specific work activities and the potential degree of contamination. Temporary CB2s will be
established at each sampling location.

8,1 PERSONNEL
Personnel will perform decontamination in the personal decontamination area. Decontamination
of personnel in Level D will consist of removing and disposing of coveralls (when worn),
disposable boots, and gloves.

Decontamination of personnel using Level C or Level B protective equipment will consist of:

       •      Washing boots, waders, or other non-disposable protective equipment, (e.g., hard
              hat, safety glasses/goggles) suspected of being contaminated with a soap solution
              followed by a water rinse.

        •     Removing and disposing of boot covers and waders if worn.

        •     Removing and disposing of coveralls.

        •     Removing and disposing of outer gloves.
        •
              Removing, cleaning, and storing respiratory equipment.
        •     Removing and disposing of inner gloves.

8.2 EQUIPMENT
To prevent off-site transport of contamination,_drill rigs and associated equipment and vehicles
will be decontamrnáted at a fixed decibiiiiiñinatio&IdThefore exitmg the £2 Trenchmg and
drilling equipment (augers, rods, etc.) will be steam-cleaned at the fixed decontamination pad as
necessary. The fixed decontamination pad will be set up by the drilling subcontractor.

Non-disposable sampling equipment will be decontaminated before use, between samples, and
before leaving the sampling location.

Equipment that cannot be immersed in soap solution and water will be wiped clean and triple
rinsed with deionized (DI) water.




R7ERCS8t267IR72R. WP5                         8-1                                      June 1995
mwzssJcP                                                         558 245
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                  Revision 0


8.3 CONTAMINATION PREVENTION

One of the most important aspects of decontamination is preventing the spread of contamination.
Good contamination prevention should minimize worker exposure and help ensure valid sample
results by precluding cross-contamination. Procedures for contamination avoidance include:

      •     Know the limitations of all personal protective equipment being used.

      •     Do not walk through areas of obvious or known contamination.
      •     Do not handle or touch contaminated materials directly. Do not sit, kneel or lean on
            potentially contaminated surfaces.

      •     Make sure all personal protective equipment has no cuts or tears before donning.

      •     Fasten all closures on suits, covering with tape, if necessary.
      •     Take particular care to protect any skin injuries.
      •     Stay upwind of airborne contaminants.

      •     Do not carry cigarettes, gum, food, candy or cosmetics into contaminated areas.

      •     Ensure that all personnel and equipment leaving the exclusion zone are properly
            decontaminated before leaving the site.

      •     Thoroughly wash hands and faces upon leaving the investigation areas, and shower
            at the end of the work day.
      •     Do not drink in the Work Zone.

      •     Avoid areas of obvious or known contamination, do not handle or touch contaminated
            materials directly, and do not sit or lean on potentially contaminated surfaces.
            Whenever possible, stay upwind of airborne contaminant sources.

      •     Cover instruments with clear plastic, leaving openings for sampling ports and sensor
            points.
      •     Bag sample containers before placing sample material into containers.

      •     Take care to limit the surface area of equipment that comes into contact with
            contamination.

      •     If contaminated tools are to be placed on noncontaminated equipment for transport to
            the decontamination pad, use plastic to keep the equipment clean,



Rl7ERCS8267I1Tf2R.WP5                           82                                    June 1995
FYna1SSHPY :2;                                             558 246
Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                  ReWsion 0




           Place spoils from sampling work so as not to be in the expected paths of individuals.

8.4 DISPOSAL PROCEDURES

Procedures for disposal of site-generated waste are outlined in the RCRA Closure Plan.




R1ERCS82671RT2B. WP5                          8-3                                     June 1995
    JmnalSSHP                                                 558 247
    Project LWRC 94-0028                                                                         Re4sion 0



              9.0 GENERAL SAFE WORK PRACTICES AND COMMUNICATIONS


    9.1 SAFETY EQUIPMENT

    Basic emergency and first aid equipment will be available at the SZ and/or the CR2, as
    appropriate. This will include communications equipment, first aid kit (sufficient to
    accommodate field team), and an emergency eye wash. Fire extinguishers will be provided,
    inspected, and available on-site.

    9.2 COMMUNICATIONS
    Walkie-Talkies - Hand-held units should be used as much as possible by field teams for
    communication between downrange operations and the base-station located in the SZ.

    Telephones - A telephone will be located in the SZ for communication with emergency support
    services/facilities.

    Hand Signals - Hand signals will be used by downrange field teams in conjunction with the
    buddy system. These signals are very important when working with heavy equipment. They will
    be known by the entire field team before operations commence and will be reviewed during
    site-specific training.

            Signal                                                   Meaning
—
            Hand gripping throat                                     Out of air; can't breathe

            Grip partner's wrist                                     Leave area immediately; no debate

            Hands on top of head                                     Need assistance

            Thumbs up                                                OK; I'm all right; I understand

            Thumbs down                                               No; negative

    9.3 SAFE WORK PRACTICES

    9.3.1       General Safety Practices

    The following safe work practices will be implemented during site operations:

                     Only properly trained and equipped personnel will be allowed to work in potentially
                     contaminated areas.




    RtIERCSRI267JffTAU. j                             9-1                                        June 1995
Final SSHP                                                             558 248
Project   LWRC 94-0028                                                                       Revision 0



                No smoking, eating, drinking, or gum chewing will be allowed in the work zones,
                except drinking fluids which will be available in the temporary CRZ at each EZ
                location. Also, workers will wash their hands and face before eating or drinking
                anything. This includes during a work break.

          •     No alcoholic beverages will be present or consumed while working.

          •     A minimum of two persons (buddy system) will be on-site during work activities
                in the work zones. This may be one person from RUST and one subcontractor.

          •     All personnel working on the site will be familiar with the information provided in
                the SSHP.
          •     Personnel with facial hair that interferes with respirator seal or other facepiece seal
                obstructions will not be permitted to work where respirators are required.

          •     Work will only be conducted if adequate illumination is provided, that is, if visual
                observation is not impaired due to loss of daylight conditions.

          •     The number of personnel and equipment in the sampling areas will be kept to a
                minimum, consistent with safe site operations.

9.3.2         Safe Drilling Practices

While the drilling subcontractor is responsible for safe means and methods of operating its drill
rigs (refer to Section 1.4 of this SSHP), personnel working near drill rig operations should be
aware of the following safe work practices:

          •     Drillers will inform personnel working within the vicinity of the drill rig, such as
                soil boring operations, as to the location of the emergency stop device.

          •     No drilling within 20 feet in any direction of overhead power lines will be
                permitted. The locations of all underground utilities must be identified and marked
                before any subsurface activities are begun.

          •     In the event the drill rig would come in contact with an electrical source, no part of
                the equipment should be touched nor should any attempt be made to enter or leave
                it. No person who may be in contact with electrical current should be touched, If
                rescue is attempted, only a dry, clean rope or unpainted wooden pole should be
                used.

          •     Personnel must develop hand signals to communicate with equipment operators.

          •     A remote sampling device must be used to sample drill cuttings if the tools are
                rotating or if the tools are readily capable of rotating. Samplers miist not reach into



Rl7TRCS82671FIB.WP5                               92                                         June is
     flnalSSHP                                                    rtn     249                 Revisiono
     ProjectLWRC94-0028


                     or near the rotating equipment. If personnel must work near any tools which could
                     rotate, the driller must shut down the rig before starting such work.

                     Drillers, helpers, and samplers must secure all loose clothing when in the vicinity
                     of drilling operations.




a-




     RITERCS8267i1TTZfl. wi's                         93                                       June 1995
FInaZSSHP                                                    558 250
Project   LWRC 94-0028                                                                Revision 0


                                  10.0 DOCUMENTATION

The following records and reports will be maintaiaed by the 550 as appropriate for the K.!.
Sawyer AFB field investigation (see Appendix B):
          •
               Accidentllncident Reports
          •    Daily Sign In/Sign Out Log
          •    Site Safety Meeting Log
          •    Work Zone Entry and Exit Log
          •    Health and Safety Plan Field Modiflcation Form
          •    Qualitative Respirator Fit Test
          •    Air-Purifying Respirators Assignment and Service Log
          •    Record of Respiratory Wear (OSHA Record)
          •    Atmospheric Monitoring Log Field Health and Safety
          •    Instrument Calibration Log

10.1           TRAINING AVFENDANCE

A copy of each employee's certificate of completion of the 40-hour Health and Safety
Training for Hazardous Waste Sites, the eight-hour refresher course, and other required
training will be maintained on-site.

10.2 RESPIRATOR FIT TEST

Copies of respirator fit test forms containing the employee's name, test protocol used,
respirator tested, and fit test results will be maintained on-site.

10.3 MEDICAL CERTIFICATION

For each employee, a copy of certification of medical fitness to wear a respirator and perform
required job functions will be maintained on-site.




                                             10-1                                     June 1995
               558 251




A ftachrncü±
                                   558 252




         r1
    AitacMnin f A /?csp/raforv Pro frdS/%wram
                                        UI




S
I     I      ,-I           I!      I       I          I          I!        I      I.                 c         I                                        I       I           I


                         ENVIRONMENT&                                                                                         RUST Environment & Infrastructure
     flUff               INFRASTRUCFURE                                                                            Record of Respiratory Wear (OSIIA Record)


                                                                                                                                                     Page _____ oF _____
                                                                                                                                         Week Ending        _J_J__.
    Employee Name; —                                                               Employee No.:                                         Expense Code               76
    Client/Project Sitc.                                                                                                                                            119
                                                                                                                                         Expcnselypc
                                                                                                                                         Subcotugaci Code           I

                                                          Time in Respirator       Instrument Reading (2)                                                      0111cc
                                                              (limits)                                                  Type of Respirator (3)                list Only:




    Comments:
                                                                                                                                                                            CM



    Notes:
          (I)   Reconlon a daily basis
          (2)                  of
                IF wotu because dusty conditions   - Note fl)usiy Condiuonc
          (3)   LevcIC                                                                                                        Sue Saicty Ofiseci Approval



                                                    Forwaid so Yuut Regional Ilcaith & Safety Spccialisi on a WçckIv liasis
                                                                                                                                                                        I
                558 251




r1
 I7rJd DoumnW!dv forms
                     p. EWIRONMThT &                                                           558 255
              IW3I-rNPRASTRtJCI1JRE                                                                Del7 Sign-iniO Log -
     (
                                                                                 PROIEC
                                                                                 nostcr LOCATION: -
                                                                                 nomcr NO.
                                                                                 sn SAFElY
                                                                                DATE.
                                                                                PAGE NO




I-




              Noe This form is to
-
                                    be
                                         canpkxea on adaJiy bnás by all pcnorutl wog on the 21e.
         Rgvj93
                                                           558 256
                ENViRONMENT &
     rtUST INFRASTRUCTURE                                        Site Safety Meeting




                                                    DATE
      PROIECt_________________________________
      PROJECT NUMB a                                TDV
      IETNG CONDUCTW BY:
                            NA1V                    SIGNA1tRE
      SUMMARY OF !TLMS DISCUSSED




      PE.RSOSNEL PRESENT

                                    ?flRESE'iTING                SIGNATURE



      2-
I     3.
      4.
       5.
       6.
       7.
       8.
       9.
       10.
       11.
       12.
       13.

       14.
       15.
       16.
        17.
        IL
        19.
        20.




    Rn. 23
    IflJff          ENVIRONMENT&
                    INFRASTRUCTURE                     558 257
                                                                              Work Zone Enby And   Log
                                                                                     (JobEzpomreRepon)

                                                                     PRCIECT:
                                                                     nomcr NO:
                                                                     srrE SAFETY OFfl
                                                                     DATh



            TLME                                              SIlt        )Q4IJRDVA READNGS         LEVE].. PPE
           N OUT               NA)AE/FmM                  WCATION       fl±JRZAT}e40 ZONE)              (DC/wi




       Note: This  fri is to be completed  adaiiy tarn by a!! oo-te pcncstnel wutng within a wait ne.
             Submit this tog to yos Region*l HJth aM Ssfay Spajjg cc a weekly bat
Ra.. 193
                 ENVIIRONMENT&                                                    Health and Safety Plan
  RtEcr NFPASTRUCTIJRE                              558 258                      Fi4dModiflco4on Form

                                                                                 PAGE NO. ___    OF___



   PROJECT LOCATION:

   PROJECT NO.

   srrz   snn oFnCa
   FIflD MODIFICATION TO HASP.




    PREPAR BY:
                         sin sftsrrf Ffl                                                        DATE
    ACtP'ThD BY:
                         RUST elVmON%1LNr & u4a&smuc-ruRE Fao MANAGER                           DATE
    ACCEF'itsj BY:
                         CONTRACTOR REPRESENTATIVE (IF 1JCkBLE)                                  DATE
    APPROVED BY:
                         RUST 4VON}v.4T & LNFLAJThUCtJRE REGIONAL }ALTh                          DATE
                         AND SAFETY SPECIALIST OR ALTERNATE HASP REVIEWER


    NOTL Field Modilicasions to HASP's must be disaassed with the RUST Envitnmern & Irtfrarxant RHSS or CHSM
           with subsequeat wtat apptoval. Sun wcfoval through fa


Raw 1M2
    fl(Jff            ENVIRONMENT &
                      Th4FRSSTRUCTURL                    . ...558 259          QuaLUaffveRespjrajorFj.ee5g



    NAME:                                                                 5574* _____________________

    DIVISION:                                                             DAfl ___________________
    LOCATION: ___________________________________

                                                                     FULL FA                HALF FAa
                                                                PASS       FAIL           PASS

     1.       aullenge te. subt with teng agent
     2.       Posithttsswefittgs
     3.       Negadve prswt fit tea
    4.        Normal breathing
     5.       DeeMng
    6.        Ttiheadfrvrnsi&code
    7.        Nod head up and down
    8.        Talking
    9.        Jogging in place
    10.       Normal breathing
    II.       Sennuvicy check

    Restintor Tdendf!cadon
                                                    FULL FAC!                          HALF FACt
              Manufacturer              _________________ ___________________
    B.        Model                     _________________________           ___________________________
    C.        Size                      ______________________              _______________________
    D.        Apprvval Number (Its)

    Testing   Annt
    1.        IritxuFt                  _____________________
    2.        SaOthrthSOIttS            __________________
              Ismyl Mte

    Qua1idve fit testing shah bc
    I.        Conducted foe fun fae aM half fKe respinza.
    2.        Pamed immmli.r.!y wb the tea ab t a weighs change o(20 pwids mat. sirificant frial
              scaning. sigrnficant denul changes. ltcOflswuctve or CO any other adidon thai may
              thtedere with frepiece sealing.
    3.        Peff,te4 Uy on tea bas withot hair pw'J or any other obwoctoc between the tn and facepece.
    4.        flt4estng for asbestos to be conduaed evay ax months



    Tea Conditoi SiauatiDa                                               Sirrst/Dase
Rn. 2R3
              flUff        ENVtRON'ffNT &
                           ENFRASTRUCTURE
                                                               558 260                 4fr—Puzifying Rapiratory
                                                                                    Artgnrnenj and Sernce Log

              RESPIRATOR TYPE (FuLi-Czs }iaff4a
               MANtWACTURa —
               MODEL N1J?YGa
              5fl
                       DATE ASSIGNED
                       ASSIGNED TO WHOM:


             Th4SPECTION AND MAnT24ANa RECOP.Th           8! MATANED BY apto
                    DATE                                 5ERVID BY




a-




     (




                           Note After cacti pojat, submit ccmlèü (r to yoa DiV1O@ Safety Rtsenaüve.
         Ra. Z93
                                                                                                      7I          Li
              ittJ
              W ENVIRO N1'ffNT &
                          I INThASTRUCFURE               558 261
                                                                        Amzozpheric Monüos4ng Log
                                                                            Field HeaLth and Safety


                                                                                    Par___ ___
                                                                               Da  I   I
                                                                     cirdc SmMatTxWSThuFñ$az
              Site                                                 Project No. ______________________
              Site Safety Ofl'ta
              AcdonLeveiv DO            >cO           DBD—D. (Spnk,aJ1inkxSrs)
              (Cbk box and write in levels f upgre)
              TaskitqWpment
              Weathet




     p




—




—



-a
             Addjuoqaj Commen:




         Rn. V91
     F;-    Rucr INFRASTRUCTURE
                  NVrRONMELNT&                         558 262
                                                                      Instnunent Calibrc4 Log

            NSTRU?T:

                         Kncwn
                                   Ac
                                            Mjntnw'!!
              Cbnse4     S caMrd   RnrHng        Mat             By            Canmcns




                                            --_
           CO?vQvetfl:


                                             -
-S




     p_ let
                        558 263




A+ichuimf £ Mi 5hect con CSka/i of
           Co flct In
                                                                                     nfl
                                                                                  J CO4
NAME OF SUBSTANCE      Lead
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER    7439-92-i
SYNONYMS          Lead
SHIPPING NAMEINIJNmER             None
LISTS CITING CHEMICAL           Lead is on the RTK Hazardous Substance List
              because it is regulated by OSHA and cited by ACGIH
              and NIOSH.
LISTS CITING CHEMICAL           This chemical is on the Special Health Hazard
              Substance List because it is a TERATOGEN.
SOLUBILITY IN WATER            Lead and its compounds range in their respective
              water solubilities from highly soluble to
              practically insoluble.
SOLUBILITY IN WATER            Slightly soluble
VAPOR PRESSURE              -1.77 mm Hg at         degE
OTHER CHEMICALJPHYSICAL Lead is i heavy, soft gray metal. It has wide
PROPERTIES             industrial use due to its properties of high
              density, softness, low melting point, resistance
              to corrosion and ability to stop gamma and
              x-rays.

NFPA HAZARD CLASSIFICATION


Hazard Rating NTPA
FLAa\LMABILITY Not Rated
REACTIVITY   Not Rated

['0 NOT USE WATER
POISONOUS GAS IS PRODUCED IN FIRE

Hazard Rating Key: 0minimal; I=slight; 2=moderate; 3serious;
4=severe

DOT EMERGENCY GUIDELINES No Ciiaiion
FIRE HAZARD INFORMATION Lead Powder is FLAMMABLE when exposed to heat or
                 flame.
FIRE HAZARD rNFOFCMAnON POISONOUS GAS IS PRODUCED IN FIRE
FIRE HAZARD INFORMATION Use di            himkals appropriate for extinguishing
             metal fires. Do not use water.
FIRE HAZARD INFORMATION If employees are expected to fight fires, they
             must be trained and equipped as stated in OSHA
                 1910. 156.
WARNING PROPERTIESI         Exposure to hazardous substances should be
DETERMTh.ING EXPOSURE         routinely evalulied This may include collecting
            personal and area air samples. You can obtain
            copies of sampling results from your employer. You


                    RUST E&I / AIBAJ'4Y INFORMATION SERVICES
                                                                              558 255
                 have a legal right to this information under OSHA
            1910.20.
WARNING PROPERTIES!          If you think you are experiencing any work-related
DETERMINING EXPOSURE            health problems, see a doctor trained to recognize
            occupational diseases.
CLOTHING             Avoid skin contact with Lead dust and flame. Wear
            protective gloves, fi.ill body and hat clothing.
            Safety equipment suppliers/manufacturers can
            provide recommendations on the most protective
            glove/clothing material for your operation.
CLOTHING             All protective clothing (suits, gloves, footwear,
            headgear) should be clean, available each day, and
            put on before work.
CLOTHING             Work clothing should be I-IEPA vacuumed before
            removal.
EYE PROTECTION            Wear dust-proof goggles when working with powders
            or dust, unless fill face-piece respiratory
            protection is worn.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Where the potential exists for exposures not
            higher than 0.5 mg/m3, use a half-mask, air
            puriing respirator equipped with high efficiency
            filters.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Where the potential exists for exposures not
            higher than 2.5 nig!m3, use a flit! facepiece, air
            purifying respirator with high efficiency filters.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION OSHA requires the employer to provide a
            powered-air purifying respirator, instead of one
            of the above, whenever the employee asks to use
            this type of respirator.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION OSHA prohibits the employer from requiring an
            employee to wear one of the above negative
            pressure respirators longer than 4.4 hours per day
            in battery manufacturing and primary and secondary
            Lead production.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Where the potential exists for exposures not
            higher than 50 mg/m3, use any powered-air
            purifying respirator with high efficiency filters
            or half-mask supplied-air respirator operated in
            positive pressure mode.
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION If while wearing a filter, cartridge or canister
            respirator, you can smell, taste or otherwise
            detect Lead, or in the case of a lull facepiece
            respirator you experience eye irritation, leave
            the area immediately. Check to make sure the
            respirator-to-face seal is still good. If it is,
            replace the filter, cartridge or canister. If the


                    RUST E&I ! ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
—   r:                                                                          558 266
                    -         is no longer good, you may need a new -
                           seal
                          respirator.
         RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Be sure to consider all potential exposures in
                     your workplace. You may need a combination of
                     filters, prefilters, cartridges, or canisters to
                     protect against different forms of a chemical
                     (such as vapor and mist) or against a mixture of
                     chemicals.
         RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Where the potential exists, for exposures not
                     higher than 100 nig/m3, use supplied-air
                     respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet or
                     suit, operated in positive pressure mode.
         RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Where the kàténtia! exists for exposures greater
                     than 100 mglm3, use full facepiece, self-contained
                     breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure
                     mode.
         REDUCING EXPOSURE              Where possible, enclose operations and use local
                     exhaust ventilation at the site of chemical
                     release. If local exhaust ventilation or enclosure
                     is not used, respirators should be worn.
         REDUCING EXPOSURE              Wear protectivewbrk clothing.
         REDUCING EXPOSURE              Wash thoroughly at the end of the work-shift.
         REDUCING EXPOSURE             Post hazard and warning information in the work
                     area. In addition, as part of an ongoing education
                     and training effort, communicate all information
                     on the health and safety hazards of Lead to
                     potentially exposed workers.

         WORKPLACE CONTROLS

         Unless a less toxic chethical can be substituted for a hazardous
         substance, ENGINEERING CONTROLS are the most effective way of
         reducing exposure. The best protection is to enclose operations
         and/or provide local exhaust ventilation at the site of chemical
         release. Isolating operations can also reduce exposure. Using
         respirators or protective equipment is less effective than the
         controls mentioned above but is sometimes necessary
         In evaluating the controls present in your workplace, donsider: (I)
         how hazardous the substance is, (2) how much of the substance is
         released into the workplace and (3) whether harmful skin or eye
         contact could occur. Special controls should be in place for
         highly toxic chemicals or when significant skin, eye, or breathing
         exposures are possible.

         In addition, the following controls are recommended:



                              RUST E&I / ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
*
                                                                          558 267
    Avoid heating above 900 deg V
•   Specific engineering controls are required for this chemical
    by OSHA. Refer to the OSHA standard 1910.1025 available from
    OSHA or your employer.


WORK PRACTICES

*
    When vacuuming, a high efficiency particulate absolute (HEPA)
   5lter should be used, not a standard shop vacuum.
* Contaminated work clothes, should be laundered by individuals
   who have been informed of the hazards of exposure to Lead.
• Work clothing should be HEPA vacuumed before removal.
• Do not take contaminated work clothes home. Family members
    could be exposed.
* Wash any areas of the body that may have contacted Lead at the
   end of each workday, whether or not known skin contact has
   occurred.
* Do not eat, smoke, or drink where Lead is handled, processed,
   or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed. Wash hands
   carefully before eating or smoking.
• Use a 1-IPA vacuum or a wet method to reduce dust during clean-
up Do not dry sweep.

STORAGE CONDITIONS AND Prior to working with Lead you should be trained
HANDLING         on its proper handling and storage.
STORAGE CONDITIONS AND Lead must be stored to avoid contact with
HANDLING         OXIDIZERS (such as PERCHLORATES, PEROXIDES,
                  PERMANGANATES, CHLORATES and NITRATES) and
                  CHEMICALLY ACTIVE METALS (such as POTASSIUM,
                  SODIUM, MAGNESIUM and ZINC) since violent
                  reactions occur.
STORAGE CONDITIONS AND Lead is regulated by an OSHA Standard 1910.1025.
 HANDLING                                 of
                      All requirements the standard must be followed.
CLEANUP METHODS               Restrict persons not wearing protective equipment
              from area of spill until clean-up is complete.
CLE ANUP METHODS              Ventilate the area of spill.
CLEANUP METHODS               Collect powdered material in the most convenient
              and safe manner and deposit in sealed containers.
CLEANUP METHODS               It may be necessary to contain and dispose of Lead
              as a HAZARDOUS WASTE. Contact your Department of
              Environmental Protection (DEP) or your regional
              office of the federal Environmental Protection
              Agency (EPA) for specific recommendations.
TOXICITY SUNIIM.ARY           Lead can affect you when breathed in and if
              swallowed from food, drinks, or cigarettes.


                        RUST E&I / ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
                                                                      558 268
TOXICJTY1SUMMARY             Lead is a TERATOGEN--HANDLE WITH EXTREME CAUTION.
TOXICIT'? SUNC'AARY          Repeated exposure causes Lead build-up in the
              body. Low levels may cause tiredness, mood
              changes, headaches, stomach problems and trouble
              sleeping.
TOXICITY SIJNIMARY           Higher levels may cause aching, weakness, and
              concentration or memory problems.
TOXICITY SUMMARY             Lead can also cause serious permanent kidney or
              brain damage at high levels.
TOXICITY S1JWvIARY           Lead exposure increases risk of high blood
              pressure.

EYE CONTACT

*
    Immediately flush with large amounts of water for at least 15
    minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids.


SKIN CONTACT

'    Remove contaminated clothing. Wash contaminated skin with soap
    and water.


ANTIDOTE AND EMERGENCY TREATMENT

*   Persons with significant Lead poisoning are sometimes treated
    with EDTA while hospitalized. Since this drug causes a rush
    of Lead from body organs into the blood and kidneys and thus
    has its own hazards, it must be done only by experienced
    medical per sons under carefll observation. It or other
    "chelating" drugs should never be used to prevent poisoning
    while exposures continues or without strict exposure control
    as severe kidney damage can result.


ACUTE EFFECTS

The following acute (short-term) health effects may occur
immediately or shortly after exposure to Lead:

• Extremely high exposures could cause seizures, but usually
   symptoms from Lead occur after weeks to months of exposure.


CANCER HAZARD


                       RUST E&I I ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
                                                                     558 269
•    According to the information presently available to the New
    Jersey Department of Health, Lead has not been tested for its
    ability to cause cancer in animals.


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

*
    Lead is a PROBABLE TERATOGEN in human5
*
    Lead may decrease fertility in males and females.



OTHER LONG-TERM EFFECTS
*
    Repeatec exposure to Lead causes Lead to build up in the body.
   The earliest symptoms may be tiredness, trouble sleeping,
   stomach problems, constipation, headaches and moodiness
   (mostly irritability and depression).
• Higher levels may cause aching and weakness in your arms and
   legs, trouble concentrating and remembering things, and may
   cause a low blood count (anemia).
• Lead can cause serious, permanent kidney and brain damage at
   high enough levels.
• Lead exposure increases risk of high blood pressure.



COMBINED EXPOSURES

Body exposures to Lead from hobbies using Lead solder or pigments;
target practice, and drinking moonshine made in Leaded containers
will increase Lead levels Repeated breathing or handling Leaded
gasoline may also add somewhat to body Lead levels.


MEDICAL TESTING & SURVEILLANCE

Before first exposure and every six months thereafter, OSHA
(1910.1025) requires your employer to provide:

• Blood Lead test.
• ZPP test (a special test for the effect of Lead on blood
    cells)

Before first exposure, and yearly for exposed person with blood
Lead over 40 micrograms per 100 g of whole blood, OSHA also
requires a complete medical history and exam with the above tests,


                      RUST E&! I ALBANY ThWORIvIATION SERVICES
                                                                       558 270
* Complete blood count.
• Kidney function tests.

OSI-LA defines "exposure' for these tests as air levels averages 30
micrograms of Lead or more in a cubic meter of air. OSHA requires
your employer to send the doctor a copy of the Lead standard and
proide one for you.

Any evaluation should include a careflul history of past and present
symptoms with an exam. Medical tests that look for damage already
done are not a substitute for controlling exposure.

Request copies of your medical testing. You have a legal right to
this information under OSHA 1910.2ft


ECOLOGICAL SUMMARY

Lead and its compounds is one of the metals known since ancient
times. It occurs widely in the earth's crust and can be dissolved
from rocks and minerals into surface waters Lead and its
compounds have a variety of commercial and industrial uses, such as
lead pipe, lead-lined containers for corrosive gases and liquids,
tetraethyl lead, paint pigments, alloys in metallurgy, storage
batteries, ceramics, electronic devices, and plastics.


ACUTE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Acute toxic effects may include the death of animals, birds, or
fish, and death or low growth rate in plants Acute effects are
seen two to four days after animals or plants come in contact with
a toxic chemical substance.

Toxicity to aquatic life is affected by water hardhesi - the softer
the water, the greater the toxicity. Lead and its èompounds have
high acute toxicity to aquatic life. Insufficient data are
available to evaluate or predict the short-term effects of lead and
its compounds to plants, birds, or land animals.


CHRONIC ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Chronic toxic effects may include shortened lifespan, reproductive


                      RUST E&I / ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
problems, lower fertility, and changes in appearance or behavior        558   27 1
Chronic effects can be seen long after first exposure(s) to a toxic
chemical

Lead and its compounds have high chronic toxicity to aquatic life.
Lead causes nerve and behavioral effects in humans    and could cause
similar long-term effects in birds and land animals exposed to lead
and its compounds.



ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

Lead and its compounds are highly persistent in water, with a half-
life greater than 200 days. The half-life of a pollutant is the
amount of time it takes for one-half of the chemical to be
degraded


BIOCONCENTRATION

Some substances increase in concentration, or bioaccurnulate, in
Iiing organisms as they breathe contaminated air, drink
contaminated water, or eat contaminated food. These chemicals can
become concentrated in the tissues and internal organs of animals
and humans

The concentration of lead and its compounds found in fish tissues
is expected to be much higher than the average concentration of
lead in the water from which the fish was taken.


OSHA STANDARDS

            The legal airborne permissible exposure limit (PEL) is
      0.05 mg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour workshift,


NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS

      The recommended airborne exposure limit is less than 0.10
      mg'rn3 averaged over an 10-hour workshift.


THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE

      The recommended airborne exposure limit is 0.15 mglm3


                     RUST E&1 / ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
            averaged over an S-hour workshift.                           558   2 72

-.
     OTHER EXPOSURE INFORMATION

     *   Lead is a TERATOGEN. Al] contact with this chemical should be
         reduced to the lowest possible level.




—




                           RUST E&I / ALBANY INFORMATION SERVICES
 J1 El '95 1E:311 RI.ET El (SW ENR)                                                                                      P.E
                                                                                        Mawti Safety Data S bests Collection:
                             OsnIum Publishing CorpOrition

Cp
________________________
SectiOfli)
                                    It45CazynSnct
                                    Schenectady, N? 12303-1136 USA
                                             11) 377-1154
                                                                                        ShntNo.15
                                                                                        Asbfltoi and Aabestoi-contalSng Materials

                                                                                        1ssued   11O

LLwes (Lnnnls) rots in rock wblch upna a flnibl. fJbn whn.nash                          r''.
Asbntos and Asbeta-contnIn1n MattrIsls Ducrtpdcn: Assw, j $ ge3cS c sWUM cy abanily occatnj. hydnicd
                                                                                  Coatiilly ottC tw Wt
rtz% snduvphylli (mcd and ua onLy PiniS) thiwdlc S aucidoDs Sr a Inc14c Uzmo1i sad icOnolii&
MuIwatciy aed US :dua is tysod)a, * fibrota lo,t of serptine. Since u*s Is ixivs b cbeical .ftack and
                                                                                                                                       &0
                                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                                       S
                                                                                                                                           4
                                                                                                                                           0
IncobuzUblc, then axe on 2O0 us as proceued Cbc. III added nfl divan mstainu a annl, vinyl, plssta, asphalt, nd
sIb:, sithough dus Us h.ajtb hawds other axerWa ci w tiu U stavn3adbta. Ti n fin limited pit) that
bind tsbaa wlbin the pzMud. s. Irpat us of abasbi Is Is asbestos at1 itt pipes In wi& flflb. KWIdisponi. aS
tTIJIZLQ: nwzs ducu and far sad congand        (Or £ WII VLI*t7 of CQVV4IOn spp1kCc. Qthq uses include firo-
nsutsnt tnnJ ño &, undniayI and roo&j pq, Mli.ion matciaji (bids tMia), rainlbrcir$ flat M a1sSS for                                   30 •
packing sad gait), rlnforcieg p(gmcnl In surface coatings and anita, tbcai S cal ig*t'I*ib* dia as &              of
taping cound and indasQT Wc and as filler In Suitral greues. ADorn *% otcroeIdollt4 is used in dutIon of asbeetot
cemøt piffi'e. Ecrwccn 1950 end 197z asbestos was usd at zpn' insulation in butidhs, bw OSMA now pnhlta spray application
of acdzolite, snthophylllte, abeam or Dtmoltte (29CPR 19101001).
Othar Dufgnaftoac CM No, l21'2-73.5, Inca brown asbestos; CAB No. l3322L-4. asbestos; CM No. 12001.29.5, cbqwtfl., P 0
white aabcas; CAB No. IZQO1.2S-4, cmcldoUlc. blue asbestos; Ascarirn' esith liar mointain cat; stoic      fin.                         R0
                                                                                  chzysodle, 3MgO2&OH; ctocldolltt
Man etIren Coritaà your supplier ordiñiur&. CopJ'vu 0w (sect C%nnk&wnkBuyri GsIdS"' rots supplien list
Cautiocat Asbeitos causes three sp.ctfk disesaa ubsstoth (flbrou lung scatting). lung cancer, sod esotheUccs (cnn of Lb.
cbest Uniz ad aWocital civites). Prncnt of maintain caposurca tithe lcnii (tdbleltviI.
  ft4tQfl2 iJjgnth
       1919 OSHA         FELt
                                    4flbi1a1
Asbestos TWA: 0.2 f/cot Action LevilTifA: 0.1 ('cc Txtnralon LimIt: 1.0 ftc4
                                                                                                        j.ILtrti fltjt ;
                                                                                             199091 ACGLH ThYs
                                                                                             TWA: .0 f/cc3
                                                                                                                         ifS MOTh REL,
                                                                                                                         0.1 f/cc
AmoslIe            0.2 (tc                          0.1 iloc                    14 f/cc          0.5 f'cc                0.1 f/cc
Cbrysotik          0.21/cc                          flux                -       i.ODec               2.Oftcc         .   Ott/cc
Crocidolite        Oifitc                           0.if/eo                     l,ODec               0.2(/cc             Oat/cc
19SS*6 Toxicity Data for Asbectos (CAB No. 1332-2t.ç"
Humc, Inhalciun, TC.,_; 1.2 tb/cc, cenUnuovi eapauc ova 19 yin Toxic to Leap.
; Qua has pta Inn ate's npwun link i(0.1 Decant-lw TWA (1tW SmI; 5SRyfeMYnt 5.
* Aven2e      $ 50-nt wnatn; period.
tAt 4tine4,membttz. lst cached at dW Ca OX a'gvdfiada (4- thjedlv.) phase ooclnd Iuecfriatiot Fibct* lorger thinS gg sad wi is uct
• Sn          nAts (ClS1X0c, tr dUcnsI iaxk dan.

                                                                   Water $olsbfll lno]iabls (breaks down slowly In hot wiser)
                                sflsstos
apeannce and Odor dto or gcsthh ch), blue (cocidew.), oyjnea                                     w)rabrous, Saris !hlt

Th.sh!olnt No                              I Autojgnltlan T.cparsrurs Note npord             Lfl None tpecrid "1 LYL None recrtM
ExtinguIshing Media: A!&sto! is notfitaimable. Use dry chemeloL CO water sprzor regain foam. Do t scau cplflcd raitejist with high-
pnss;re waler flecma. Special fln-fbdog Prcadur,st Isolata hurt ares and deny envy. Sir tn msy be airborne asbestos fibers wear
a sf t*ed brvathl4g appanis (SCBA) with a full taciece operated Lu pte,sus-deaad or positive-pressure icdc scbsn1 flztSgiW/s
pretccth'e clothing ctdea hta4 protection. Itfsasible nzovo coutathn from fin area. Avoid dust genersilot Be ant of runoff frvm e
coutnl methods. Do not r&e&se to sewers or Walttwsys. cve1op decccta=nsSe proctdurcs for rot2ve clothing and ecpment

SthbUIty,PobrlzalIontX6atOs is inert under                 Umperstrn and heated use conditions, It is bnjtreiftrsnL but deccnatiet and
afles iLs mivrusplc fiber atctn above 603 'C (1112 '4 Chxysotit.c dct    Wa at 1112 to 1436 'P (600 to ISO 'C) the "asbestos why,
dMe'inLtbrsakgdttoajxtggofafllca(5iO)adfoya(,{5' Jar 4721o15627($Q3totsOnAbcvetI32'FUOCOt)
mw,iump,,nenss foes and SU at "2642 'P (1450 'C). CbeSs.( cnpiSWbi* Soeg anids can Cxkctn'die sad ridly Ixifict
Us MgO cd'}lO onit glxla! scsc told c &onipcse IL Hot wa slowly breaks down ck'sodlo. Like othe Mbcstcs farms it resists
$bcg a±ah (M4 NH it least up to 1% 'C)..
Sctt1JIeaflh1i2t.d sad ACQIH list asbestos ss* human ccviooge Sanmary of Rjes: Asbestos sy cause 1) c
Cardaoataldtys The N'!? IARC, OSHA,
abestosl,, 2) Neg cancer 3) mosotheUoma. 4) plasrel pisques, 55) several othn krj of caaca.Aàesni, is fibrosis (acstg) of lung
tissue after many yesal a/high-level ecnpsxional expeun Scrrtaj ay be prcyusive even after exposure ceaet Even thougfl detcctsb$ in
lungs eta high proportion of a4ilU in bdustxialized ants, sabeans does notresuk from lower level .nvl,vnmntsl .xposwe. Is. aypIo
range froro mild shortcss of breath and thy agh to severe disabling bitathlessoess, bent faflure. sad olUately death. Isog scsmcg can be
seen on X-ray an4 alteriots in lung tuacuoc can be dstaeIM with s,pirosneuy (a medical ted). Exanins&'n t)tscafly detata riles (crkbnj
sounds lunn). Severe cu may lien cyanosis (bluish skin dbcolbriltqu) and clubbing of flvgertip;,Lwyca&r can insult from Lower
exposure lqvils than abessota, but also takes many yea ta develop. Smokers exposed to assesS at. itS to lox hisher risk than exposed
nonrckrs. MwtheUoma is a very swcJaivc cccn of the p1ea Qining ouad the lug,) or pcrUonesm (linio of the eb4oen), and
develops silos docadea of (scoemes tow lna1 eapoewe. Symm may SliMe ebest tad abdominal pith. welgtt loss, sad/cr shortness of
bnath. with dsath within 2 yvsn of diagnosis. Plural piaqws are thickening; somecames Mth ealclu deposits, of the lungs's lining S ny W
seen on X-ray, WhIle not associated specifically with health effects, they lodicata significant expoasse. Other Wet 'cwar Include 1'x
(vocal cords), portions of digestive set, cd ponlbly the kidney. Asbestos's toxicity depends ot fiber ttpe (ctccteolitc, snouts , ehiiotflc),
  as (loegen shorter), sb c big, thin needle-like • curly), and polubili Health dfaca depend eq dose (.xpasvm concentration and dun-
      zkis habits, and       vlus1 eusce$ibily. Prevent or maintain espoenres at Lowest feasible Level.
                                                                                    '
                                I                              .                                                         Continue   on nat pq
Am   'otM . — ..aaa ia,t is bS         r là pCSt


                                /               )
flU. 43 M ..tc                     'J.&X,')
Seapn6JteaIth Hazard O*taco!'thflisd                                                                    fl
Medkai Ccdfttns Awzvabd by Laxg-T Ezponn: Lotg-Iarm, b&-leve1 nposujt may sanavm any droS tua (uthin cAy-
                                                                                                             .      '•. .
.aaa, Wvs.hliu) Mr .otdibo. ?.rpt Organs bapirstty Ifltsm; posiby dlpsttn ayst&baary Kcu toata Tct1*a
dci, dnzl cattact. Ajate Zfl Nose, na stj ad ,ys tti&io# in poisia with high exposure. Qrorle WTec: Mkstosiç lk
cwcr, ad suotbelinma typically davaicp d.cn (O to 40 ywv) afln .noeum bets. but sy onr wow. flaT AID £nrzcncy
prscvu& s'vsldproarct qaiw asPear owg Eyw Do ta nib. Geidy lift 'yCds ad nah alt Do4thg coucts o( wnr. Skin:                                         CU
Shower with war rd leap. Wd co        s4 cIog pSt to tyt! and sealS apuSs Sq fec disponi aaluanlod wan. If rash
develops, oocivkfitysician. tabiai$oo: Ron to bcih aLt. Cat cj fthen frum n and ut, Eawage victim to cazfl spZ sod blow
 on w icon (Then. testoa: ladua votig o,* if iwaks sad air, Conan • pbtm. Atkr flrst aid, roasilt medical re provider.
Nate to Pby&lsna, Asbestos dãagnoS a band on chest X-m with a aScaaJ U.O 3 n.aag (inn htwgalr aptbca). mica, ttiticdve                               C')
            y, aufloposws biathy, and symt Czt&                              vu,cuzl flu thoL ad qpve UZrt as naded.                                 In
       -                                                                                                                  __________
SpnLLaA: Noar satey pcnocnái                                                                                             thJUWO
eye Ot2Ct. Avoid dust gctaha.                                                          A,Rt & sMciixy pctcua aii ponaic vso.
ddon           Use wet clueing - - -                                                    pick vp sflIL The tachmques ssed mast coflt
prienjais without diçcift4 dust Itto air.                                              ass a sU4 hnvy.pn; impaiota plastic beg.
    disposal. Poliow applicable OSRA qt]&Uoaa (29                                      pin wspplin .licnMwnutlor La ditafled
rccomodations Tone' appable Pedc4 at. and Xii regt
EPA Dlgnallots                                                               LAnd as $ SARA ToALc Chmic.l (40 CER 372.65)
RCRA !{azazdous Wan (40 CFR 26l.33. Sot R                                    SARA ExDeo4ey }fnaMoaa Substanco (4 CFR 355): Not uatod
    asCflClA Rsardous Substance (40 CPR 3A), Rspoqtbla                       OSBA Dslgnatfoaa


                                                      t
 9um$t (RO): I lb (0,454 kg) £' per dcc Wdcr Act, Soc. 31(a);                Ustcd ci Air Coctanlaact (29 CPR 1E0.20®, Tablt Z-1A, Z-3)
 clew MrACJ, See. z12)
                                                                                              ifrL*W9"flcr 4 "*
Notes Do Fbi pt'srtM4 pvsonalproftctfre clo(A4ngOr w!perJfot propep M"4Unz aid etgimarig controix. Coles Ww protective eye.
        cc thclcs1 st!ety goggles, per OSHAçye- and facc-protecoo reluiaricnl (29 CFR 1910.133y. R&çlraton &ck ro!au1ena1 a4vice
pder to rnptrator sejetSen sn4 uce. Follow 0544A reipsroLor rqulsdons (29 CFP4l9-l0.l34 S If oecesnzy, woas aNIOSHapprovod respln-
tot. For abate Dcc'ou f asbestos, teU, saophyUsxe actinclite, or combjuaoc of sMia nilneab not excew ofl f/cc (lOX
?Efl use a harnzsk air-ywi(yiz respirator, other titan a auos.l'!a rptrKor, ulppM with MnJt.e5dency lilIan; tot In excess of 10 ficc (50
X E, aM hcepiece t-puri1nag re4JnI3r cquj'pcd with Mgh-efficceacy frn; tot in nasa of 20 fkc (J% X TEL), say pcwntd sir-
pvnfytoj rupjntor .quppea witA htg?cql4ency pirn cc any içpEe&alr rcs;itr operaled in ethnous flaw madç noun excess of 2% fl
ea (10CC X P) * fuM fapicc sppsicd-siz paacrop.rtd in pnttua-dend mode peat thai 200 t'x (>1,000 X PEL) or uown
 cncccedon, a/nfl facoplece suppbe4sir respirator acnt in       re-dcmaM rnc& and eulpped tb an auiUary potit.pres.un sell-,
ecotainod branthiag a;pantus (29 CFR 1910.1%1). W      ?Air'pwj5in,g rnp&ocr;do nor p'otect wcrtfl in oxygen4cuaophar.t
Other: Wcar lzNrv2cus gloves, boots, aprocs, and gsut3ca to pzevcct skin contxt. Ventilation: Pivyide gctcrnl and local czhauil vctilstion
and dust coucction syctts ainta4n trborce          ceo'atios below OSKA PELt ec. 2). Local nhaust vcnUiation is preferred since it
pmVCI aia.at dkpeon oic wk ins by contdting it at its wuaPit Sably Stations Mt available in watt cot emagcy
flvwSi fltlc saIety;qñck-ochshown, at washln,g YCilsica. CentttlnntdtquJpaent ?'avc War ztaa Icias in    it
soft lenses rnay aaorb, td an leiun etanflte, jzltanis, Never ent ?uacWoern facilitea cv leave aakplace wc.nlng clothing a
worn durifl workslulft, Separate conteniuaS woit clotles (ita aeat clothes if propu Aygtvw Is not r(joroiu5ifdllow&, frmi4' meinbe: cs
be ao&io asbesrjftbn. Ptwo cottarin arM prtttctive dtvicel or WoS dctbln& in labeled, lmp'wb1e, ant eee3cd coattiosru or bags. Do
not rsmovo asbestos fs'o clothing by blowfrgz or thaklng. Launder ccetssinat4 cbutg befora wearing. Inform ¶aunting service of asocilu-
caisantased c!othlng,rI of aabçstcs pctende,1 harfnl e(t%u (29 CFR 1910%!). Corcnb: Neva eat, drink, & teaks in watt nsa.

9tpqa
Pactia 3cpna1 byiene s&'tc tat ask sp.cs11y b en $Xifl dr& art,ldt& eSJ ta toilet, or aptcosxnctLa

Storage Requlrtmenca: Sbre S ckud'tduat4ght) cool*iitrs a bn'.ypngo inperMoua pnt1c bugs In I clean sccumreaprotectad fin
thtcal damage. Do not open coatajeera that ne relent asbatos dual wttcatprov4thg op& enelceute a coaol oesswe. £nInsidag
CcnWoln Educate w'ka's about .sbcato,'s end sabcstos-coatathing mailals' Eansda. EnTotne=pbyeea of asbestos     DsaldçZ9 dPi
t910.100l). Eestnt to asteitos, eoUse, shcphyflise, and ictinolite In constuic wcfl Is covered by 29 CVR 1926.55. ' Mfis Is
proposing an axpsndid iiquJract (or a ted 'competent pico' to earue compliance with ths staedtrI on all cot.sc'actioo opentona
YQlVing czbv*,, and rcqung mcro etitgcet houwping to rvovc asbeirostgentni Induacy." ((nArridsqre9 aMHwene New:, 31
90).] Inafruet employees in proper pratLces for baedflng ubcatoa-coatsig rnaLials and cord use of;rntxtive e4uspmea Pravsit or
mizc asbestos exposure. Rcgusro areza where exposure in nccss of the PEL Is likcly. Post warning flgns In ill rvgulated teas (see lejend
below). Work with asbs only in a ntMcjent wet state to prevent ezisrIco of thbarn. fibers, Th'actice good persoaa hygiene dd houackccpitg
procedures. Dc tot s'bstittz penots4 pntecvc tqu$pmcnt for proper bardth4aAd eaginecig cothv4i. If eapoawna cicced the 731, etitne
employees war spproprWe prntxrvn clothing. Inhaling a ixtgestin thedo. flben fivm ecritamined clothing or skim can be hQazdoua. Do not
allow dusts and isbtttoa-eottaining wastas 10 etcuimUarn. IeItIn2tS I VUpfr.IDIy E1tttCUOQ C$t*t that Includa regulU dflifl,    ntsnancc.
inspection, end evaluation. Moiior woit areas that exsc employees to trrte.co nndons at or above the acdon level (Sec. 2). Whenever
prnductloa,mcets, cotol e4ulpnett. pasconel, & workpraeticei ehrge Isseinite new mon{to±g, Other Procauticca: Mc4icai survaflianes
is rcquind for C e:oyces possibly cxpc$cd at above the scdcn level, i4ovM prcptsccwnt mcdal cxsnlnztiou that includes complete
4lcs1 and waft big        en lets phyeal axnln that empMslsu macit cry and eg4iovaaevlc syltes todignn ct, the
!sepiraftry tSasa a ' canbae, a poitaan1a1o:_14" *17"                                                                      (PVC aid
FZV(1)]. Anal tjodl; cdlcü       ,xsScsdc        shall ioclvd. j ___ -                                                    in since flat
nbefl eçaasre, an Sividual abouid have a chat ioentormi n                                                                      sty year (age
45+). Wtdun 30 days of aploymenr     tuna, c Iadiviiizal .l,ould:                                                              LawS theta.
tic; medical auxvelllaxe rords for duntha of a byantfl plus 30
         trannonaflon Data (4t Cfl 112,101 .1*2)
DOT Shipping Names Asbestos
DOT liamflta OXM-C
m w...                                                                             LVNG fltAn HAZARD
DOt Iab4 Wart                                                               aatn pznoI*'!fl. oPts.,
DOT PackagIng Exapdnasz 173.1090                                              TOfl AND PROTWnVK CtDI!UNO APE SZQUT) ED Pt 71W APIS
                                                                                     _______________________________
DOT Fachaglog Raju'bwmeutn 173.1090
Qt)er Requtemonts: Stow td handle           avoid airborne putk
IMO Shipping Nazi: Asbestos, blus; asbestos, 'Mum                     _______________________________________
ThiOkanflUs:9                                                        L345CoascUsaXtannc24 6, 12. t4,,,n,3t75,a9, !0I tOt. 1,
11) No: lJt'J2212, UN2590                                 .          I 124, L24 121,132, 133, U6, 134-140, lel. 143, 146. Ide, 152,153. lu-aSS
NO Labeb None                                                        Pn,and by: MI AlUm, 53 IMumlM RjØae Revkwt W WUm, CIRt
ThIDG Packaging Group: IL UI                                         jMsdlcsl Becky: Mi tlpfbl. MD, MPH; Sated by: JR Stan, MS                   4

    0! nO bp Geda Psi Ibj   £4 s,,eth w t4aiea ttfl S     Ssc flet 7i' cv seaa — I.as a as fltt,e'l Psa
                                   — be 1a S S. I_r1C_ .1
— a.e7 b te wy nia4i & an thad to .Wk. w Ia p-asWi Ssèt pumn a fla ..S 5..Pd(i*ate.Pnsa. as — ,,,,_t,, so. — . —
           Jtt&i mtfl. AMa                                                                     a
•        a                               S                     te
        sn '95 1a'1asrEI (STDEHGP)                                              -         -                                          PS


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                                  G•nium Publishing Corporitlon                               MWnlaISaftt.vDataShntsCoZl.cilon:
                                                OncGe&wnPlna
                                       Schenecta4y. NY 12304-46% USA
                                                                                              $beetNo.23
                                                                                              Cadmium Metal/Powder
                                                                                                                         558 275
                                                                                              Issued: 9/77   RevlJon:D,5/93
    SectIon 1. Material Identification                                                                                               $
                                                                                                                                                        41
     Cadmhsa MSaJi?vwder (Cd)       Duaipdun: Oocuu oiarafly in Ut. minuS peoc&M (cCzbui cl5d.). Dii
           Is cs uS most cadmium is obtained by ..*ka.Ss from ads eisa nnithMg it as           a tuil (lead. oop.
—
    and thc). Zinc sulEde ea vs Ut. main soc,e& by thez d!sc2i4i ernvny froci S .lec4M jzu.a US
    Melaeopla&sothe metili. fire rot.en susmi. Sk&cadmim sc'sge hcnMs, powe Drs           era. k
                                                                                                                         )ThCI
                                                                                                                                 r   $    2         -
    tYphoqthn pigmru fa aiic glans, isldnty enamels, baJa1 crcla plxxognpliy asS llshoççhy,
    aelsäuzn r4Eap, ilecirodu (or a&nIum-vqur limp., aid pbaoslanic afls as a fungicide and a Want                                            GSva
    s4antd cell contol of amic 8ssion in avatar gsa,.
    Othc Dsnstlo: CAS No. 7440-43-9. Uoldal cadntm.
    M*nucizutn Contact ycsg vuwUa/distjbatot, Consult latest CM.JcoJ tEak Sqr? GslSft f sepplicts list,
                                                                                                                         IR a                       S
                                                                                                                                               3
    CauSos: Ca&nium is thigh!y eodc maul. Symptoms may ba delayed several hews and include teimossq                      Ro&                        -
     derna (fluid it hmj.) wFjch ccl be fatal. ChzoMc effects imiclude kl&iey damage, Cdii considered a
                                                                                                        carcinogesi
    by several gcvmnrnau agencies. The wder is pyraphork and ynewu aalgnlflnm the/explosion bawd.                        'c,3 etrecu          PPE.Sec.S
    Section 2..       Ingredients and Occupational Exposure Limits
    Cadmium. ci 100%
    II92OSHAPEL                     •94AC9D1ThY1
                                                                   '                           l992TcxScftyDstat
    $hr TWA: S )Lgftt'            1WA 0.01 miJS' (toJi dust), Class A2 etcthti                 Xwnan, Inhalation. l.C.1 39 mg/mn3120 mist etsed
    *601   flUe cvr .5.
              fli                 TWA: 0.002 mghn' &espfrabl. &dor)                             erdiec clunges. thrombosis, Cd respftawry &pressii.
    ThA: lSoc 50 ui/rn                                                                         Rac,ontW :225rng,,g;detaflsnctrerwd.
                                   1991 DFG (Germany) MAIl                                     Wrsm, inha?.tion. tC t29 /m for 20 cotthtuavs
    1900 IDLH Level               None astsb1isliad                                            yen, produtad hutg eisner,.
    50 n.ghn3                     19fl NIOSH REt                                               Mast, T4: $S 'g/m'iI.6 yeats c4used kidMy and water
                                                                                                       with wutnin the urine.
                                  Ccchiogsn. ke as low as possible
    •
      Sepia eenecithg cawol lilL lobs actdend in peu.u and nk $ae wham. itt. not possible t. .ahkn the PSI. thvoal' gins=Lq andscsk p.as
    alone. The SECAL (or Cdii IS a 50 MI/rn' p'inm. the pmssn inv&ved. Sat FMersl ReVuar 51(111): 42222, TaSe Vfl.Bl. W14/92.
    t$ee MOSM, RTW$ t9IC), for addidul mmtadon, npivducllvi tamosigenic. And wzithy data.
    Section 3. PhysIcal Data-
    DnWng PoInt 1409 ?(765'C)                                              Dsmky; 5.642
    Mdtlzg PoInt: 610 'P (321 'C)                                          Wga- $07t1bi11171 bisoluble
    Vspor Pnaure: 0.095mm Hg at 609.6? (320.9 'C)                          Other SohibUttks: SolubLe ii St4c (vapdly% hy*och}orie (slowly), and
    Refracton lndn: 1.13                                                    ether acids The solid is soluble in wnmJwn niflto aolution. but tic
    Mobs Hardness: 2.0                                                      wqtd (unit widergues ut explosive nxdan.
    Molecular WeIght: 212.4
    Appearance end Odor; Sflver.whlte, bltic-dnged, bzvvs, odorless, soft instil that Is easily cut with aknif,. 'The powdci is gzayish.whizt
    Sectlwj 4.ijre and Explosrnn Data'
    Flub PoEnt: None rapor4            .       Auth{gulUon Temperature: None reported         I LEL; Nnrsjxwiad         j LtL: None reported
    Esdogimisting Media: The sal4 metal is not flasntasble, but tha flitaly dwi&d powder is pyrophocic. As £ rule, the more rinely divided the
    powda is, the grcsn the potential for exploalun. Us. ccbc,t dioxide, dsy dnmical. os sand. Unusual Fir. or Explosion Hanrdg Pxoccses that
    neza cednthrni dust rith as ew&tg. gtinditg, o weWzg pften! a LcTIOU eip)osioit hnaid inpreMrtce or iiition gowves. Avoid crestion of
    ci4mium &st ctos. Special TirtMfltlug Procedures: Eceaujo Or. nny peoduce toxic thermal decaTtpoaidon pToducu, weaje Ie1L.OOTaL*J4
    broaQtg apperaba (SCBA) tuba full teoçic. aperat.d in prsauat or poslthv..pseisw. made. Do not rdease nstoff from Ga cotifol
    mflda to aewa or ncws)w; dike ice pivpc dissa1.                                                                          .                  $




                                                         I
    Sectlons.c,ReaetwltyQath
    StabUhty/Pulymcthaslgn; Cadmium oasUy tcuishee in mott afr cit ja oSigod to caAmbsni nide. Th, solid Is stable hi dry sit The powdc is
    pyrophoit. Cd bcmncs byiti. as 176 'P(IO 'C). Hazardoa p.otymãiiauoo oezwot000ur. Cbenttcalt ecmpatlbflhtlas: Include unmoniin nthu

                                                                                                                   Dlu Th,g                   Ia
    (powdasi Cd'), hydzazolc mid, tellurium. abte, enstoSs. sulfur. smlanium. Mtyl fluoride, an oxtdiiirtg ageita. Conditions to Avoid: CzuAon of
    Cd &st clouds, exposure heat end ignidon souzoes. Cd ooittact Mth tncotnpadbln. Rasardcua ProducD Dr
    dcrnoshjon of Cd can prodna toxic cadmnliam oxids O) Lusna


    Carelnogenlelty: The kUowfrig agencies list Cd an oszthogeit IARCC ass 2A (probably carcinogenic jet hanars),(tt) NTP Cars 2 (reasonabLy
    an?idpatad to be a reinogct).0") and NIOSH Class X (carcixx,pn defined without fuxlhn caragoriiezlon)P) ACOIR TLV.A2 (suspected bumur
    csrcb,ogen),tt EPA-31 (Probable h;ms.'i ocwinogtn) and D MAX.A2 (anstislitably earcincpnlc In animal eapaiimenadon only).C"3)
    Surnniary oTRLeb: Dust or fume intuition generally results In vuic sy,nptont. delayed up 1o24 Ir, Etteots include au.Iila syn*ome sietilar t.
    metal turn. Svet with thifla, tent ard muscle pein In the beck md1ims, Pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs) cia develop after seven nponrs and
    may n.ilt in deasK If victim recov&i, residual thastgaa may lmcbide lung fibrosis (thisn1ng) aid vascular ths.iges. Lang.tani exposure Cd
    damages the liver and 2dneya ( umuis bali-life = 1 30 yr), Ptothwfa (psvtdn In urIne) of low molecular weight is the kit sign of bslsrw
    dAinct1on, Excess u±asy &uCOsC is also scan, Botia deininSintien similar to tsAporoS (deceased bone                                        ..-
    Cqr4eM   S Ifl iCes.,    Cantt. Aac               arvpn,#1cJ .a.t k jaM S       5a   S pS..
               —- -                                    ¼_fled _flO'd


No.23 CdmiwtMstaUP,wder 5193                                                                                              558 276
Section 6. Health Hazard Data, conthuad
Xtiri 'wAit 4frt affaci of Ct 'ipwun bvt Lndb.cdy by sIiacttg dn.y mpIi&o of celoWn w4 pmsphons wh are r..4e for tug.
ks-i1y boc.. Scm. it,s show a ccite1aton betwiso yjj flOW )WOg1QbIn bi blcoc      hjfl Cd mdi. Selenium CSe) and zinc Zi) ippoc
b açjnu Cd tozielty; 3. Srds p vnndn it Iran nrLng body dine Zu may ripsa ftc the same rwholi s. MSICaI CondI•
thDs Aggravated by Loaj-Term Exposure: Kidney, blood, a' rnpfrnmy dthottrs. Tupt 0rpm: BlOod. ki&ay. hut. raspbcoty sysa
Prfaary ECU7 Routa: inhalalios. ugesda Aai tlThctst bth.lahon may ass. bcitatia, at Us sn tarn. a4 cWosL tease. and vanitbig.
abdavinal ask dicvh.i. chat tighxnw. COUC. bathe, and w..bi. Pulmoccy San crgM dsnlop ap E 24 )r pot sxpawv. kidney
damage may eaeur aM acute apomn bot La ncr. VaIy with c&oSc .zpocn. Cbrnk Eflci Symytsits may ha delayed seven! yc ifs tt
czpaa.id k'4ude pCfOnLLQ of the nasal sspaus (tiara. bane the twos). los of usnft tot brrchids. K'C'e PTOV'esILV. .apbyacia,
                  Fatigue. pefl, r!a!iL b&ny datags, bot. dc n&allzs$on, lung &ThsLJ td poslc cenca of the rUpÜUoty L
      ta allow victim to rub th keep e,e djhdy ibis. Gedy lift eyelids rid flash lffr.tel4 ed rtaoasly with flooding ria of
Eyes: Do
was ndl wpfld to c emag.ney rnsdieal fiâlity. Cocnlt £ physician Lrnuadlizab'.
$klu: Q&detly remove oontrnthired clothing. Wash cipoed sat with soc ead wtx.
Inhalatlcw Remove urpeed cnat to freaK . and supprtbnsthLng as needed.
Thgestlow Never give anything by mouth to an uncaneSus or convulsing person. Concaa i páon cnwol ttn. Unless othwiac advisaf. ban
that constion a'4aWi pawn drink 1 to 2 glasses ctwaxct to dUato. 0. i induce "omldng bectea. ofoediniam'. frr'itating nstsre.
Nou lo ?byktani: D-2 mlcroglobvlM aeration of' 200 s/g creednin. indicates Mdnsy dytharttion is does a renal tn (Cd] ol Th0 cc 220
aJg of wt kidney conx. Blood Cd levels sic no! indicalln of aspaust
Sdcton,7 Spfl1 Lefl, and Disposal Procdurn
SpQVLeak: No4i safety penowwi, isolate S vendhsg area, deny an'y, an4 stay upwind. Shut off igmtion sowcat. Cleztup pasonAel aboul4
Fotect against 'Juitdon. CanMly scoop
Rancnbee that Cd powder r be
                                                 nail spills and place lit icaled btpwneabie xrabwra. Do not d1no isi t' awc*g.
                                                 and must be handled ceretully. Prevent enuy Lit. sewn. taLis, S wascwas. Follow applicable
                                                                                                                                                  1
OSNA regulatIons (29 CFR 1910,120).
Ptrpaab Contect your suppliar or a liceasad coitaetot for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Pedcrai. state, rid ioca :e1aiadn.
EPA Desipauons
Listed as a RCRA zarduusWaste (40 CFR 261,24): DOGS, Chuastsrlstic oftoxteizy; regulatory level = 1.0 mg/L
Usred ass CtRCLA Hazardous Sub;taaca (40 Cfl 3024): Final Reportbla Quand' (ROJ. 10Th (424 kg)t L' pa CWA. S. 307(a))
SAP.A Extnnely Hszasdous Subatsia (40 CM 355), TPQ: Not laS
Listed a a 3ARATc;lc Chanical (40 CPR 372.65)
OSHA Daignattots
Listed ur Mi Ccqu*rtthiant (29 CPR 1910.1027)
t N. nç.otw,g of relates of this ruhiu,a Li nqidS if thc dlaitgiez of the %ccts of the did meialU .qcal
Sttioht         Specf4Pro(ectIon Data                                  p
                                                                                                          to crast   la
                                                                                                                     t,
                                                                                                                          (0X4 M.)
                                                                                                                              v
Go]a: V/car wo1veeyeglsnes or chenlcsl satety goggles. pcOSRA e7e. and face.ptotaoSon nguisdor. (29 Cfl 1910.133).Becaau
oonrlat. use Li indua is conc'ental, aatehlish yair ow! policy. &.splr.toe Seek ptotesctnal adult. prtor to rnptrztor sclecdr Ltd OX.
Follow OSKA reapiratot regulations (29 CP 1910.134) and. ltneceawy. twa M$MMaOSH.appovad ruspirator. Forty detectable ocsweo-
Dtot. usa & SCHA or aepplied air respirator (with aulliasy SCtA) with a Ml ftccptw. opcated in prusuro4nmcd or other poeiIiVe.prossurt
eta For stergency or nonroutine oçeraxions (cleaning epib. reactor vessels, Cf ttOTSji civics), wear an SCBA. Wonin! Afr'PWU)Mg :e.rplra-
top: do nod proteci werbn in n,gen.d*len! etno:pA.rfl. If respirsxors are used. OSMA requires & written roaplratoq proction p:o'wi that
lnclades a' kas medical certification, Ualnlng, fit-resting. pe4odtc envirunrnentil monitoring. maintonea, inspection. cleating, and cAiVeneM,
nnItaz storage teas, Other: Wear gkvn, boots, aprons, and gaundeti to prrventCd dust from cvucing zkin VentOution: Provide genes! and
local ex}azsz vtjrtjon iystans to maintain airborne naantbni below the OSHA PETS or SWAt (Sec. 2).                 duton, facilities should not
hauc eonazodons abovc 23 .Lg/m5 at any time. Inca! stun ventiladori Is prc(cnai becanic t prevents contaminant dispsion into the work
     by contoillig It Its ,0&tm) Safety Statlan Make avdtable In the wo& naemcgicy enish stations, amfcnjfçuIckdrench *ltowcct.
and waNti; facilities, Contambiated Eqvlpmsnu Separate watvninatc4 work clothes from neat ciothes; launder bekre reuse. Remove Cd from
thou and c,ean PPt. Comment;: ?evcr at. drink orsnioks In wart rev Practice goodpertonal hygiene after using Cd, cspceially before eating,
drirng, smoking. using the toilet. or Kpp1yUj
Srt9$pjiPtiu1tbAz,ndCàtnMthts.                                             r1:.
                                                                          .;'.               .. . :,:    '. ;. .•'..:
Storsp!Hazdltn RequD'emeots: Store in a cooL t7, w.IL.vqiduatad area away &oni heat, içtitn acute. and iaconipet'blu. Do cot allow
ca&nlum dust to boild up in storage rat
EqlneaHng Controls: To reduce poteesial health hazerds, use suf&Ir diltalon or bail exhaust vwdladon ntol airborne contaminant' rid
to mairatsài concenfratlais at the lowest practical level.
Admlnlstrathe Controls: Prohibit wozipa horn mmoving Cd front pwwctiva dodthig and aquipruentby blowing. shaking, a any othar malts
that dispaaa. Cd into the air. Employta rt not eater eating rwilines whiz wering PP$ unless It Is vacuumed with a HEPA. Coosl4et peplacs-
      S poriodic medics! exams of eape4 workers atplmils!ng di. blood, ldèteya, liver, and rtspinay system. Educate workers on
Cadmium's circtnogenidty.                  I      Transportation Date (49 CYR 172.101)
DOT Shipping Name Pobenoos solids, ka.a.'.               Packaging Authortaiona                   Quaintly LimItatloas
 Pyrophoric metals. na.s4                   I            C ttceptloas: 173.153', t                e Passenger Aircraft or Refit." 100 kg'.
DOT Hazard Cats: 6.1', 43t                  I            bfl4ou-bulk Packaglnge 173.213*, .IIlt    Foibiddint
ID No.; VN2*11', UN1SUt                     I            e))t4k PØ r 173.240'. .242t              b) Cargo Afrash Only: 200kg, Pwbiddent
DOT Paddeg Group: ma, it                                                                                   Vase! Stowage Reçalnmenb
DOT Label: Keep away from food'. $poniaau.ly Ccitbusdhist
                                                                                                           a) Vessel Stowage: A', Pt
Special Provisions (1?2.102):—, B1l'                                                                       b)Other
  SoUds4.tPoe4st                           I                                   ______________________________________
MSDS CdnNca Lfuences: 26,73,100,101,103,124.126,121, 132.133, 31Ji9, 148,19.161, 1$, 183,1*3,1*6

               aai.r... a. s—r..
Pnparedby: M Ga,wai, BA: Industrial Hygiene Rs,tew PA Roy, MPH, Cut Medical Ravte.m TWThcbure, MPH. S.C
"——I.  -   ..                                 —         nta .cs nhth, pnS4aLsp*i            —.                  ..iaet .fihndotaSthhpI
0                                            558 277




          r1
               C/Mn   Ci ire. O'Ch Fuh,ors
    Appendix
               Cs H
                                                             558 278

                         WASTE MANAGEMENT DIVISION
                   CLEAN CLOSURE CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST
                            (Guidance Document)


r   This checklist wn developed to review RCR.) clean closures.
    Due to direct reference tO 40 CFR Part 264 Subpart C by
    Act 64, Rule 613; Act 64 closures should also be evaluated by
    tins checklist.

    Documentation supporting the independent registered
    professional engineer's certification can be requested under
    40 CFR §264.115 and 3265.115 (as of October 29, 1986). The
    owner/operator must submit at inst four copies of
    certification documentation.
    The checklist identifies items recomaended to properly
    evaluate a closure certification. These items are not
    "absolutes." Other information or substitutions may be
    provided hich technically 7ustify and certify a "clean
    closure." The HDKR Draft 'Cleanup Verification Guidance' is
—   a recommended reference.

    This checklist can be used for land disposal, storage, and
    treatment facilities. Severai.        items would not be
    required for a storage facil1T'wbiitiStinq waS minimal.
    Items 1 through 5 would be required for all closures. Items
    6 throuqh 11 would be optional for storage facilities,
—   dependent on extent of testing required. Land disposal
    fac.ltes would require all tems listed.
    ..   Manifests (or some type of manifest/waste removal
         summary) of wnere anc how much waste was shipped.
    ;.   Certification statement is nqeded by the owner/operator
         MW an independent registered engineer. All independent
         registered professional engineer certificates must have
         an original stamp on at least one copy.

    3.   Sunary of  decontamination procedures cpressure wash,
         steam clean, etc.), and now t?e resultant waste water
         was disposed.
    4.   Summary analysis (include conditions of haul roads, time
         table, soil and groundwater results, weather conditions,
         runoff controls, equipment decontamination, etc.).
    5.   Results of all tests used to deteraine clean closure
         (charts, tables, lab sheets).
                                                          558 279
6.    Statistical comparisons on santpling results compared to
      background. (This should include full computations on
      background and statistical analysis).
7.    Sampling and analysis procedures (specify references).
a.    Final depth and elevations of excavations of wastes and
      soils.

9.    Properly labelled and easily identified sampling grid
      stations (map); including background stations.
10. Groundwater data (and statistical evaluation) used to
     determine if groundwater degradation has occurred
     (usually four sets of replicate analysis compared to
     sampling event after closure activities). Monitor well
     construction details and sampling and analysis
     procedures may be required if documentation is not in
      the file.

11.   Sumitary of final restoration of excavated area...
      information on fill material used and/or future land use
      outline. If clean closure cannot be achieved (e.g..
      contaminated soils to water table and groundwater
      results show contamination) this summary item should be
      used to address the post closure program and/or
      corrective action.
12. A copy      of the   approved closure plan and letter of
      closure   plan approval.
                                      CLOSURE CERTIFICATION DOCUMENTATION
                                                                                                                558 280
         1.    A description of the acth'ities conducted during the closure process.
     —   2. A description of the type of testing and analysis performed during closure activities.

         3. Sampling results - laboratory results will be developed as a listing of results for each sample. Each test report
         will indicate sample number, date, description of the location the mpte was collected, the types of tests (including
         accepted EPA numbering) and the results.

         4. Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifests - showing where and how much waste was shipped.

         S. Swnmaxy of decontamination procedures and bow the resultant waste water was disposed.
 —       6. Summary analysis (include conditions of haul roads, time table, soil and groundwater results, weather
         conditions, runoff controls, equipment decontamination, etc.)

 —       7. Ownerfoperator and independent registered engineer's signature and statement eertiiing that closure is
         complete and has been conducted in accordance with the approved closure plan. mete must be an original stamp
         on at least 1 copy of the P.E. certification.
 —
         8. A description of the soils encountered during the sampling activities, including background soil samples, and
         related boring logs and field notes.

         9. A legible map of the unit and sun'ounding area which clearly denotes the soil boring locations, including any
         background soil boring locations.

—        10.    Chain-of-custody forms for all samples collected.

         11. Actual laboratory sheets for all analyses, including quality assurance/quality control data.

         12. FUJI statistical comparisons of analytical results compared to background, as appropriate. For comparison
         purposes, K. 1. Sawyer AFB shall compare the individual foreground analytical results for a given parameter to the
         mean background value plus three times the standard deviation for that same parameter.
—
         13. Documentation describing how the cores and soil cuttings were characterized. classified, and subsequently
         managed.

         14. Information regarding the final depth and elevations of excavation of soils.

         15. A summary of the final restoration of any excavated area including information on the fill material used and
—'       the future land use.

         16. A copy of the approved closure plan and letter of closure plan approval.
      558 28?




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