Docstoc

Income Tax Vocabulary Adjusted Basis. Adjusted Gross Income

Document Sample
Income Tax Vocabulary Adjusted Basis. Adjusted Gross Income Powered By Docstoc
					Income Tax Vocabulary

Adjusted Basis.
Adjusted Gross Income.
“Above the Line” Deductions.
Gross Income.
Gross Receipts.
Excise Tax. A tax imposed on the manufacture, sale or use of goods (e.g. cigarette tax),
or on an occupation or activity (e.g. license tax).
Group-term life insurance
Tax cost. See Reg. § 1.61-2(d)(2)(i)
Rule of 72. 72 / r = t (time is the time, in years, it takes investment to double)
Realization event v. Recognition event

Questions
Would § 132 make Gotcher come out any differently?
How does the “income effect v. substitution effect” debate relate to imputed income?
Are recourse and non-recourse loans treated differently? If so, how?
Why is business goodwill treated as zero basis?
Code and Regulations Considered

62 U.S.C. …              Section Title                            Notes
§ 61           Gross income defined             Definition of GI
                            Tax Expenditure Fringe Benefits
§ 104          Compensation for injuries or     Workman’s comp, etc. excluded from
               sickness                         GI
§ 106          Contributions by employer to     E’er-provided disability or medical
               accident and health plans        “insurance” excluded from GI; one of
                                                the largest tax expenditures ($91 BN)
§ 105          Amounts received under           Benefits paid under e’er’s accident and
               accident and health plans        health “insurance” excluded from GI.
§§ 401-404,                                     Favorable tax treatment for some
410-419                                         retirement income (e.g. qualified
                                                pension, profit-sharing and stock bonus
                                                plans)
§ 129          Day care
§ 79           Group-term life insurance        Premiums paid by e’er for group term
               purchased for employees          life insurance excluded up to $50,000
                                                of insurance.
                             Work-Related Fringe Benefits
§ 132          Certain fringe benefits          Some fringe benefits excluded from GI

                                  Meals and Lodging
§ 119          Meals or lodging furnished for Excluded from GI; meals must be on
               the convenience of the          premises, lodging must be on the
               employer                        premises, and a condition for
                                               employment
§ 102          Gifts
§ 274 (b)      Gifts Exception                 If donor gift was originally deductible,
                                               then donee cannot exclude gift
§ 74           Prizes and Awards
§ 117          Scholarships
§ 1001         Determination of Amount of      Gain = amount realized minus basis
               and Recognition of Gain or
               loss
§ 1012         Basis of Property – Cost        Basis usually = cost to taxpayer
Reg. § 1.61-   Compensation paid other than If services are paid for in property 
2(d)(2)(i)     in cash                         FMV of property included in GI
§ 1015         Basis of property acquired by   Carryover basis, or transferred basis
               gifts
§ 1014         Basis of property acquired      Basis of decedent’s property is FMV of
               from a decedent                 property at time of decedent’s death
1016
105; 167
§ 305
§ 368
§ 108(a)(3)
§ 104
§ 103
§ 162
§ 11




Cases Considered

                   Case                               Significance
Old Colony Trust Co. v. Commissioner       Payment of taxes by e’er
(S.Ct. 1929)                               included in GI
United States v. Gotcher (5th Cir. 1968)   Incidental benefit to taxpayer
                                           arising out of primary purpose
                                           to benefit payor, excluded in GI
Criteria For Evaluating Taxes

   1. Equity. Tax should not impose significantly different burdens on those in similar
      economic circumstances
          a. Horizontal equity. Those in the same economic circumstance (e.g. same
              income, consumption, wages, wealth), should pay same tax.
          b. Vertical equity. Those with greater ability to pay tax (e.g. greater income,
              etc.), should pay greater tax (e.g. regressive, progressive).
          c. Perception of equity. If tax system is not perceived as fair, noncompliance
              will be widespread.
   2. Efficiency
          a. Interference with behavior. Tax is efficient when it interferes as little as
              possible with people’s economic behavior (e.g. incentives to engage work,
              savings, domestic or foreign investment, risk taking or consumption).
          b. Promotion of economic growth. Tax is efficient when it promotes
              economic growth, and inefficient when it inhibits such growth.
          c. Intended beneficiaries. Tax is efficient when it wholly benefits intended
              taxpayers, and does not benefit unintended third parties,
          d. Deadweight Loss. Tax is efficient when the intended beneficiary does not
              receive less than the government loses in tax revenue (i.e. no deadweight
              loss).
          e. Administrability. Tax is efficient where the cost of raising the tax is less
              than the benefit received by society.

          f. Allocation of resources in society

   3. Complexity (not a separate norm)
        a. Equity. Complex rules are inefficient because
                 i. Educational differential. Taxpayers may have unequal abilities to
                    understand or manipulate tax rules
                ii. Wealth differential. Wealthier citizens are better able to turn tax
                    ambiguities and complicated rules to their advantage in minimizing
                    tax
               iii. Rewards aggressive adversaries. Ambiguity and uncertainty have
                    a tendency to reward the most aggressive adversaries in a self-
                    assessment system of reporting income tax liability where only a
                    small percentage of returns filed each year are audited by IRS.
        b. Efficiency. Complex rules are inefficient because
                 i. Opportunity cost. Taxpayers must divert time from other activities
                    in order to calculate their taxes (or pay professionals to do so)
                ii. Bureaucratic cost. Government must maintain a large agency to
                    interpret rules and enforce compliance.
        c. Three Types
                 i. Rule complexity. Problems of understanding and interpreting the
                    law (i.e. statutes, administrative rules (regulations and rulings) and
                    case law).
                  ii. Compliance complexity.
                          1. Problems of keeping required records and filling out the
                              appropriate forms
                          2. Problems of government’s ability to administer the law
                 iii. Transactional complexity. Problems when taxpayer’s organize
                      their affairs to minimize taxes.

Tax Bases

   1. Poll Tax (a.k.a. head tax)
          a. Equity
                  i. Vertical equity. Lacking, because people with different “ability to
                     pay” were not tax differently.
          b. Efficiency
                  i. Behavior. Behavior would not be affected, unless people moved
                 ii. Administrability. Easy to administer (except for Siamese twins)
   2. Wealth
          a. Equity
          b. Efficiency
          c. Other
                  i. Not possible in U.S., because unconstitutional (b/c not
                     proportional by state)
   3. Consumption
          a. No tax on savings (savings are not part of tax base)
          b. e.g. 401k (where savings are not taxed).
   4. Income
          a. Definition. Hegg-Simons / Comprehensive / Economic definition of
             income. I = C + S+ (“income equals consumption plus savings increase)
          b. Savings are part of tax base.
          c. It should in theory tax all savings, but there are exceptions (e.g. 401k) of
             the legislature’s choice.

Questions

      How are savers taxed more than consumers with an income tax? Because savers
       are taxed on income, plus increase on savings.

What is Income

   1. Form of Receipt (generally all forms included in GI)
         a. Gross income means income from whatever source derived, including
            compensation for services. § 61(a)(1).
         b. Old Colony Trust Co. v. Commissioner (1929). E’er promised to pay
            E’ee’s state and federal income taxes. Court held that payment of tax by
            e’er was in consideration of the services rendered by e’ee, and was a gain
          derived by e’ee from his labor; discharge by a third person of an
          obligation (to pay taxes, in this case) constitutes income.
2. Fringe Benefits (can be excluded from GI)
       a. Tax expenditures fringes (§§ 104-106)
               i. Compensation for injuries or sickness (workman’s comp,
                  compensatory damages, etc.)
              ii. E’er contribution to accident and health plans
             iii. Amounts received under accident and health plans
       b. Work related fringes (§ 132)
               i. no-additional cost service
              ii. qualified employee discount
             iii. working condition fringe
             iv. de minimis fringe
              v. qualified transportation fringe
             vi. qualified moving expense reimbursement
            vii. qualified retirement planning services
           viii. qualified military base realignment and closure fringe
       c. Rationale
               i. Acquiescence. Fringe benefits in many cases long understood by
                  IRS (and also e’er and e’ee) as not giving rise to income
              ii. Forced consumption. E’er sometimes forces e’ee to consume (e.g.
                  retail clothing business requires salespersons to wear clothing that
                  company is selling to public) .
             iii. Restricted choice. E’er sometimes restricts goods and services e’ee
                  must consume.
       d. Policy
               i. Equity
                      1. Horizontal equity. Violated, b/c $15,000 cash, and $10,000
                           cash and $5,000 fringe benefits are taxed differently,
                           despite same economic position
                      2. Vertical equity. Violated, b/c fringe benefits have
                           historically been more available to e’ee’s in higher tax
                           brackets.
              ii. Efficiency
                      1. Deadweight Loss. Possibly inefficient, b/c e’ee may value
                           fringe benefit less than it cost e’er to supply it, but may
                           choose it anyway, because it is still preferable to cash (e.g.
                           no additional cost services)
             iii. Complexity
                      1. Rule complexity. It is difficult to categorize income into
                           “in-kind compensation” (taxable) and “working condition
                           benefits (sometimes untaxable). (§ 132 attempts to alleviate
                           this problem)
       e. Cases
               i. United States v. Gotcher (1968). German Manufacturer
                  (Volkswagen) gave taxpayer (a potential investor) and taxpayer’s
                  wife 12-day expense-paid trip to Germany to tour the
                  manufacturer’s facility. Held: If “dominant purpose” or “primary
                  business purpose” of the expense is to benefit the payor, and only
                  “incidental” personal benefit, then the benefit to the taxpayer is not
                  included in income. Factors: 1) taxpayer had no choice but to go,
                  2) taxpayer’s lack of control over $ (Glenshaw), and 3) payor’s
                  purpose/motive was to benefit itself. Taxpayer’s wife, however,
                  had to include benefit in income, because her presence was not
                  necessary.
                      1. Significance
                               a. § 132 does not apply to part
3. Meals and Lodging
     a. Meals and lodging furnished to e’ee (as well as his spouse and
          dependents), for the convenience of the e’er are excluded from GI. Meals
          must be furnished on the business premises, and lodging must be accepted
          on the business premises as a condition of his employment. § 119.
               i. “Convenience of the e’er.”
                      1. Factors
                               a. Being on call
                               b. Having to perform work-like functions
              ii. Condition of employment
                      1. Must be in contract
             iii. On premises
                      1. Line drawing problems
             iv. Furnished
                      1. Cash v. Kind
                      2. Fireman’s mess
     b. Rationale
               i. Forced consumption; E’er-provided lodging and meals, though
                  consumption, may never have been purchased by e’ee at fair
                  market value.
     c. Note
               i. If not included in 119 and 132, Regulations state that you’re taxed
                  at FMV
     d. Cases
               i. Benaglia v. Commission (B.T.A. 1937). Manager of deluxe
                  Hawaiian resort allowed exclusion for certain type of e’er-provided
                  lodging and meals.
              ii. Commissioner v. Kowalski (S. Ct. 1977). E’er (State of New
                  Jersey) gave e’ee (N.J. State Trooper) cash meal-allowance.
                      1. Majority. Held: In order to be excluded from GI, meals
                           must be furnished in-kind, and not by cash-allowances.
                           Dissent. 1) § 119 does not exclude cash, as opposed to in-
                           kind, meal allowances; thus cash meal allowances are not
                           invalid; 2) the business premises of the State of N.J. are
                         wherever the trooper happen to be; thus meals were
                         furnished “on the premises.”
4. Imputed income
       a. Definition. The benefits derived from labor on one’s own behalf (shaving
           oneself) or benefits from the ownership of property (owning, not renting,
           housing)  excluded from GI
       b. Rationale
               i. Valuation difficulty. How can one value shaving oneself? What
                  happens if one does a bad job? How about valuing leisure?
       c. Relation to fringe benefits
               i. Similar in that it increases in taxpayer’s in-kind wealth, but
                  different benefit arises from taxpayer himself, as opposed to e’er.
       d. Other
               i. Illustrates that income tax is, generally, a transaction tax
              ii. Common law rule; not in Code
5. Gifts (excluded from GI; § 102)
       a. Commissioner v. Duberstein (S.Ct. 1960)
               i. Facts
                       1. Donor gives donee a Cadillac car because donee had been
                           helpful in suggesting customers to donor.
              ii. Holding (test for “gift”)
                       1. If intent is “attached and disinterested generosity”  gift
                       2. Attached and disinterested generosity is a question of fact
                           (based on the application of the “fact-finding tribunal’s
                           experience with the mainsprings of human conduct to the
                           totality of the facts of each case”)
       b. Rationale (for excluding gifts)
               i. Valuation. It’s difficult to value a gift
       c. Criticism
               i. Tax Shifting. W/ progressive rate structure, donors may shift some
                  tax to lower-income taxpayers (e.g. children)
       d. Congressional Response
               i. § 274 (b). If donee excludes gift from income, donor cannot do so
                  as well.
       e. Variations
               i. Political Contributions
                       1. Excluded to the extent expenses used for political campaign
              ii. Government gifts (welfare) (in-kind gifts, e.g. national defense)
                       1. Most government benefits and other welfare payments are
                           excludable
                       2. No national in-kind gifts have ever been taxed
6. Prizes and Awards (generally included in income) (§ 74)
       a. The Gold Watch Exception
               i. 274j; 274b1; 74(c); 102  donor gets deduction; donee gets
                  exclusion
7. Scholarships (generally excluded) (§ 117)
           a. Definitions
                  i. Scholarship (Reg. § 1.117-6(c)(3))
                          1. payments made by family member not excludable
                 ii. Qualified Scholarships (§ 117(b))
                          1. Qualified tuition and related expenses excludable
                iii. Qualified tuition (§ 117(d))
                          1. College tuition of professors’ children excludable
           b. Policy
                  i. Horizontal Equity
                          1. Benefit of state school taxed differently than non-state
                             school
                          2. Student loans must be paid in after-tax dollars
                 ii. Efficiency
                          1. Valuation
                                a. If you win a lifetime supply of peanut butter, which
                                     you hate, do you have to tax it?


                  Donor              Donee            Tax               §
1                 Taxable            Taxable          2
2                 Non-taxable        Taxable          1                 § 102(c)
3                 Taxable            Non-taxable      1                 §§ 102(a);
                                                                        274(b)
4                 Non-taxable        Non-taxable      0                 §§ 274(j);
                                                                        274(b)(1); (j);
                                                                        74(c)

Income as Gain on the Disposition of Property

    1. Investment (capital, or “basis”)
    2. Value (appreciation)

Basis = investment = after-tax $ = tax history

    1. Original basis
          a. Cost (§ 1012)
          b. Carryover (§ 1015) (donor’s basis transferred to donnee)
          c. FMV (§1014, 1015 loss)
                   i. 1015. For purposes of determining loss, basis is FMV
                  ii. Trick question: what happens when basis = 100; FMV = 80; sold =
                      90  no gain, no loss
                 iii. 1014. Property that passes at death gets FMV at death; so
                      appreciation may escape taxes
                          1. Policy proposals
                                 a. Death becomes realization event
                                 b. Make gain/loss carryover
2. Adjustments
       a. Original basis § 1016
                 i. For capital expenditures (more after tax dollars)
                ii. For loss depreciation (less after tax dollars)
3. Recovery of Basis
       a. Sales offset
                 i. §§ 1001 – AR – basis
       b. Deductible loss § 105
       c. Depreciation § 167
4. Partial allocation of basis/appreciation
       a. Three methods of return of capital
                 i. Basis recovered last
                ii. Basis recovered first
               iii. Proportional recovery of basis (this is chosen by X regulation)
5. Hort v. Commissioner (S.Ct. 1941).
6. Realization Requirement
       a. Definition
                 i. Why tax dispositions of property (realizations of wealth);
                    transaction
       b. Rationale
                 i. Valuation
                        1. It’s difficult to value assents that are not transferred
                ii. Liquidity
                        1. Hardship of taxpayer, who has to pay tax on asset he has
                            not (yet) converted into cash
               iii. Administrability
       c. Policy
                 i. Efficiency
                        1. Interference w/ behavior
                                a. Realization affects choice of ppl’s assets
                ii. Equity
                        1. Vertical Equity
                                a. Non-taxable assets are usual held by wealthy
                        2. Cherry picking
       d. Cesarini v. United States (N.D.Ohio 1969)
                 i. Facts
                        1. Taxpayer found cash in piano
                ii. Holding
                        1. Treasure trove was “reduced to undisputed possession” 
                            taxable
               iii. Significance
                        1. Key distinction: Severability v. Bargain Purchase
       e. Haverly v. United States (7th 1975)
                 i. Facts
                        1. Elementary school principle received $400 of textbooks
                        2. Did not report in income
               3. took charitable donation
       ii. Holding
               1. Donation of unsolicited samples demonstrates “complete
                   dominion”  taxable
f. Eisner v. Macomber (S.Ct. 1920)
        i. Facts
               1. Corporation distributed a stock dividend
       ii. Issue
               1. Are stock dividends taxable  NO
      iii. Reasoning
               1. Stock dividends are like an increase in stock price, not like
                   a cash dividend
      iv. Significance
               1. The question is timing
               2. Battle of similarities
       v. Dissent (Brandeis)
      vi. Other
               1. Congress has incorporated Macomber into statute (§ 305)
                   and provides that dividends of “common on common” are
                   not taxable, but other kinds of tax dividends (e.g. dividends
                   of preferred stock) are taxable; thus Macomber is confined
                   to the simple case of “common on common” distributions.
               2. Note computation of stock dividends
g. Cottage Savings Ass’n v. Commissioner (S.Ct. 1991)
        i. Facts
               1. Basis of bank’s assets (i.e. loans) were 6.9, but FMV were
                   only 4.5
               2. Regulatory agency
       ii. Rule
               1. In order for a realization event to take place, exchange must
                   be “materially different” properties, defined as “legally
                   distinct entitlements”
      iii. Significance
               1. Corporate reorganizations
                       a. § 368. some transactions are not “recognized”
              Economic gain


              Realized gain



                  Recognized
                  gain




   7. Other


No further assignment for tomorrow – think about appreciation and return of capital for
annuities and life insurance
§ 1001 – recognition and realization

                                   Economic Income

                                       Realized Income

                     Recognized Income       Non-recognized income

                          FMV basis              carryover basis
Distinction

Fully deductible expenses v. Capital expenditures

Homework
Finish Part 4, including Tufts
Annuities (§ 72)

Exclusion ratio. Numerator is your investment; denominator is the expected payment
you’re going to receive (life expectancy multiplied by period payment)

I noted that the computation for annuities is more favorable than for CDs

Deferred annuities (§ 72(e)).
           1)        Advantage of tax free buildup; but you can’t take out capital while
                     it’s building up. This is a penalty provision.
           2)        Treats unusual things as income: (e.g. if you take loan against
                     policy)
           3)        72(e)(4)(c). Transfers as gifts


Insurance Contracts

   1. Term Insurance. (§ 101)
         a. Bet with company as to whether you will live or die during a set period
         b. Premiums are lower when young (less change you’ll die)
         c. Premiums are higher when old (more chance you’ll die)
         d. No investment component
   2. Whole life insurance
         a. Premium stays the same during the entire duration (so that beginning of
             contract let to “inside buildup” – more $ than risk for company)
         b. Advantage
                  i. “Inside buildup” not currently taxed
                 ii. Ability to get your insurance coverage with before-tax $
         c. § 7702. Requires that insurance policy has a significant amount of
             protection or insurance element, and is not simple and investment vehicle
             with a wraparound of insurance
         d. § 1014; §102
         e. Cash surrender value


Capital Gain

   1. Taxed at preferential rate
         a. E.g. top bracket of capital gains is 15% (§ 1(h)
   2. Rationale
         a. Definitional
         b. Bunching
         c. Reflects inflation
         d. ___
         e. Incentive for savings
   3. Capital gains and income taxed at same rate (1986-1990)
Cancellation of Indebtedness

Collins v. Commissioner (2d Cir. 1993)

Homework
Monday Finish Pt. 4;
4(a) (business damages)
5
Effect of various kinds of obligations on the determination of taxable income

Cancellation of Indebtedness

      Factor: no consentual obligation to repay
      Policy: Consentual loans are likely to repaid; nonconsentual loans are not
      Examples
           o Embezzlement
                    No consentual obligation to repay  Taxable
           o Ponzi Scheme
                    Consentual obligation to repay (on loaner)  Not taxable
      Kirby Lumber. Assets were “freed up” because of the “forgiveness of loan” or
       “repurchase of loan,” or “retired obligations.”
           o Variation. (Solvency is relevant, but only in a limited way.) But whether
               or not taxpayer is solvent after transaction, he would have cancellation of
               indebtedness income. § 61, § 108
           o § 108(a)(3). To the extent that taxpayer is insolvent, the amount excluded
               shall not exceed amount of insolvency
                    Tax attributes (net operating costs, carryover loss, etc.) constricted
                       the exclusion
                    Chapter 11 workouts has no such limitation; some argue that this
                       pushes cases into bankruptcy
           o 105(e)(5). Purchase price reduction.
           o Farmers, real estate developer, student loans (108(f))

Relation between Basis (§ 1012) and Obligations; b/w Basis and Amount Realized

      History
          o Self finance (equals basis); and “soft-money” financing (financing from
              bank; financing from seller) all have full amount in basis.
          o Interest payments on mortgage: paid in after-tax dollars; but no change in
              basis, since all the basis was provided up-front, and assumption was that
              you were going to make the payments [?]
          o Tufts v. Comm’r. IRS gives you credit for payments with basis supplied
              up-front.
          o Recourse Loans
          o Non-recourse loans
                   Joint ventures. How so?
                   Option. Mortgagor has choice to continue, or not.
      Return of Capital
          o Taxation on mortgages
                   Recourse Loans
                          If you pay off some of the mortgage, why does basis stay
                             the same? Because you had been given a credit earlier.
                          Requires bifurcation
                   Non-recourse loans
                          Crane and Tufts
                          Special Rules § 465. Taxpayer limited in amount of current
                             deductions he can take, to the amount that he is at risk
                             (amount invested in the property, or amount that he is
                             liable). This eliminates the taxpayer’s ability to defer the
                             deductions.
                          Bifurcation Approach (O’Connor)
                                 o Property and Loan transactions treated separately
                   Woodsam. There is no realization event…
                   Estate of Franklin. Operates as a common law limitation on the use
                     of non-recourse debt to generate basis. § 465 is a statutory
                     limitation…In this abuse case, taxpayer was not given any basis.
                     [or was taxpayer given basis of FMV]
      Damage Awards
          o Business Context
                   Lost Profits. Taxable, because you would have been taxed on
                     profits anyway
                   Punitive Damages. Taxable, because of similarity to treasure trove
                     and windfall
                   Goodwill (Ratheon). Taxable, because goodwill is an asset, and
                     self-created goodwill
                  

Next week Homework
§ 104, personal damages (10 minutes)
Deductions
Detour to tax exempt interests (Section 6, quickly); refreflect on tax expenditures
All of Section 7
Raytheon test for taxability of damages: “In lieu of what were the damages awarded?”

      Business
          o Punitive
                  Taxed
                           Rationale
                                  o Like finding $ in piano
          o Lost profits
                  Taxed
          o Damages to assets (damages to goodwill) (more complicated test, which
              was at issue in Ratheon)
                  Question 1. What’s the basis?
                           Self-created goodwill is usually zero
                  Taxed
          o Other
                  Allocation problem.
                           What if the taxpayer received lump sum, without
                              characterization?
                           Courts usually accept party’s characterizations
      Personal
          o Punitive
                  Taxed
          o Non-physical
                  Medical expenses
                           Not taxed
                  Other
                           Taxed
          o Physical (including lost profits)
                  Not taxed
          o Theoretical Examples (hypothetical tort injury)
                  1. Physical injury
                  2. Lost wages
                  3. Pain and suffering. Pain and suffering compensation replaces
                      good-health, which is non-taxable. On the other hand, if pain and
                      suffering replaces leisure, it would be taxed.
                  4. Interest (lost time value of money)

But § 104 replaced Raytheon analysis

See also Murphy. (Douglas Ginsberg). Taxation of damages for emotional distress.
Tax Exempt Interest. § 103

Tax          Taxable Amt. Retained        State and        Benefit to   Cost to Federal
Bracket              by T After Tax       Local Bond       State        Government
                                          Rate
50%          10%      5                   7%               3            5
30%          10%      7                   7%               3            3
0%           10%      10

Tax exemption on loans are examples of a tax expenditure

Ault argued that it was both inefficient and inequitable

Limits on § 103: Private activity bonds

Tax Expenditures

      Can you identify the norm in the tax expenditure budget?
      Static or dynamic basis? Should we take the positive economic effects of less
       taxes into account?

Deductions

      We have seen that S and C should be paid with after-tax dollars
      We have seen that the cost to make money should be paid with before-tax dollars
      So T should be able to deduct business expenses

      Two issues:
         o What is the distinction between business and personal expenses?
         o Which deductions are tax expenditures

      Welch v. Helvering
           o Facts
                   Agent T paid creditors on behalf of principle, to maintain his
                     goodwill
           o Issue
                   Is payment an “ordinary and necessary” expense
           o Reasoning
                   Payment is to maintain goodwill is a form of consumption, a
                     personal element, and therefore taxable.
           o Significance
                   “Ordinary” means usual, and “necessary” means not personal.
           o Other
                   Ault suggested that maintenance really means savings
      Gilliam v. Commissioner
          o Facts
                  Artist travels to exhibition on plane; goes crazy on plane
                  Incurs legal expenses
          o Issue
                  Is lawsuit ordinary?
          o Reasoning
                 
          o Significance
                  Joint causation (
      Gilmore
          o In mixed business and personal matters, the test is “the origin of the
             claim”

Next time
Finish Section 7 (read e’ee business expenses carefully, because it’s irrational)
Read 8A and 8B
Reasonable Allowance for Salaries (§ 162(a)(1))

   1. Statutory rule
   2. Common law test for reasonableness
          a. Multifactor Test (disparaged under Exacto Spring)
                   i. Type and extent of the services rendered
                  ii. Scarcity of qualified employees
                 iii. Qualifications and prior earning capacity of employee to business
                      venture
                 iv. Net earning of the employer
                  v. Prevailing compensation paid to employees with comparable jobs
                 vi. Peculiar characteristics
          b. Independent Investor Test (Exacto Spring)
                   i. Look at rate of return (adjusted for risk) with shareholder is
                      getting; see if it’s comparable to others similar corporations; if it is,
                      then allowance is presumptively reasonable
   3. Scope
          a. Usually applies only to closely held corporations, not to public
             corporations
   4. Rationale for “Reasonableness” Requirement
          a. Prevents corporations from disguising dividends as salary (and thus
             availing themselves of single taxation)
   5. Contra “Reasonableness” Requirement
          a. Administrability. Creates judicial “suprapersonnel department.” Exacto
             Spring Corp. v. Commissioner.
   6. 162(m) – performance conditions

Expenses Contrary to Public Policy

   1. Section 162(c), (f), (g).
         a. Congress entered the field and clarified common law rules
         b. These have dominated the field
   2. Common law rule
         a. Section 162 deductions (for ordinary and necessary business expenses) are
             disallowed only where deduction “would frustrate sharply defined national
             or state policies proscribing particular forms of conduct” (e.g. fines and
             penalties). Commissioner v. Tellier.
   3. Rationale for disallowing deductions for public policy limitations
         a. Allowing deductions for criminal penalties “removes the sting” from the
             penalty
   4. Other
         a. Section 280(e) (disallowance for drug dealers) (Congress is just posturing)
Employee Business Expenses

Theoretically, being an e’ee is a business; thus, it should be deductible.

Gross Income
Business Deduction and Other (Reg. § 1.62 + § 62(a)(2)
-------------------------(the line)
AGI
Standard Deduction (lump sum ~ 3,000)
         - OR -
Itemized Deductions
      Personal
              o Charitable contributions
              o medical expenses
      § 212 investments (rather that for business purposes)
      Unreimbursed e’ee business expenses
              o Two exceptions
                        § 67(b) – misc. itemized deductions 2% floor (amounts to
                           unreimbursed e’ee business expenses)
                        § 68 – most itemized deduction; 3% phase out over $100,000
                           (a.k.a. “hair cut”)

Mixed Business Expenses (Expenses w/ Business and Personal Character)

      Chirtelstein and Bittker (no basic analytical framework)
          o Business and Personal elements are inextricably intertwined
      Halperin (basic analytical framework exists)
          o If cost = benefit, then no deduction (it’s all consumption) (paid in after tax
               dollars)
          o If cost was greater than benefit, or if benefit was below the cost, then the
               difference between them should be deductible (paid in before tax dollars)
      Pevsner v. Commissioner (U.S. 5th 1980) (Yves St. Laurent e’ee)
          o Facts
                    Taxpayer was e’ee at upscale clothing boutique
                    E’ee required to expensive clothes
                    There were no restrictions on wearing clothes outside of work
          o Issue
                    Are taxpayer’s clothes entitled to “ordinary and necessary”
                       business expense  NO
          o Test (3 part)
                    Clothing is of type specifically required as condition of
                       employment
                    No adaptable to general usage as ordinary clothing
                    No so word
          o Reasoning
                  If clothes are generally suitable for outside wear (they were here),
                   then cost to taxpayer = benefit to taxpayer
        o Significance
                Clothes are “all or nothing” – if you meet the test, you get the
                   entire deduction; if not, you get no deduction
   Childcare expenses
        o “Inherently personal” decision to have children  no deduction
        o Credit (because congress wants to encourage this conduct)
        o Employer provided benefit (excluded from income)
   Moss v. Commissioner (T.C. 1983) (expensive lunches)
        o Facts
                Partner at law firm required to eat lunch in fancy restaurant
                Partner was reimbursed
                Partner tried to deduct reimbursement
        o Issue
                Were expenses “ordinary and necessary business expense”?  No
        o Reasoning
                Daily meals inherently personal expense
                To qualify as deduction, meal must be “different from or in excess
                   of that which would have been made for the taxpayer’s personal
                   purpose.” Sutter v. Commissioner (T.C. 1953)
               
        o Sections
                274(n). If cost of meal is directly accounted to other party, the
                   person who paid for meal gets entire deduction; 50% limitation
                   applies only to the client
                162 + 274(n) + moss = my own meals while working are not
                   deductible (even if I’m working with partners), but if I am meeting
                   with clients (274(n)) and that really A) business-related, and B)
                   substantiated, then amt. is deductible in principle, but limited to
                   50% rule
   Two types of meals
        o Meals with clients
        o Meals away from home
   Travel
   McCable v. Commissioner (2nd Cir. 1982) (commuting expenses for police officer
    carrying revolver)
        o Facts
                Taxpayer, a police officer, was required to carry revolver at all
                   times in city
                Most direct path to city was via NJ, but he couldn’t get permit so
                   he had to travel around it, so he took his car
        o Issue
                Were taxpayer’s commuting expenses deductible  No
        o See also
                Fausner v. Commissioner (p. 1973)
          Hypothetical
              o You are lawyer, and drive to work, and then to 3 diff. courts. What’s
                 deductible?
                      If you are in “work status” then you are not in “travel expenses”
                        but “transportation” expenses
              o What if you drive directly to court?
                      Occasionally / temporarily that’s okay
              o Suppose lawyer lives and works in BOS, but has to try case in Chicago,
                 where I stay in 6 months.
                      Getting to Chicago, living in Chicago, 50% of meals in Chicago
                        (suppose you come home for weekend? Unclear but likely
                        personal)
                      Distinction
                             Temporary (deductible)
                             Indefinite (not deductible; anything over a year, says
                                statute)

Homework
Finish entertainment and travel; read first part of capital expend. On “economics of
deferral” (287-294); make chart of mixed business-personal expenses how rules answer
the question of how cost = benefit; do those answers make sense, or are they arbitrary?

October 16, 2006 – we talked about congressional fraud “phasing out” stuff. Phase outs
can create very high rates. How?

Meals                               Travel                Clothes              Childcare
Moss                 None           Commuting   Nothing   Normal        None   None (but
                                                                               credit)
Client lunch         50%            Away        All1      Special       All
Away from            50%            Foreign     Special   Convenience
home                                            rules     of employer
Passed on costs      100%           Tools       Some
(e.g. to client)     (but payer
                     limited2)

Club dues
Entertainment
Skyboxes

Deduction v. Exclusion

Exclusion                                           Deduction
Working condition fringe (goes above the            § 162 = reimbursed e’ee expenses
line = like a reimbursed employee business
expense --) no 2% floor or §268 phase out)
1
    See § 162 (“lavish and extravagant”)
2
    So called “surrogate taxation”
§ 119 = meals and lodging fully excludable       Meal = none
                                                 Housing = none
§ 129 child                                      Housing = none


§280A (a) – Deals with two different situations. Both of which involved mixed business
and personal costs as they relate to a personal residence

1) Summer house - I use part of the time and rent part of the time – we are NOT going to
look at this

2) Hypo (this is what we need to know) – Study where professor grades papers etc,
sometimes watches TV.

             This portion (the study) is 25% of the square feet of the house


§ 280A(c). Exception.

                     1.   “Regularly and exclusively”
                     2.   Condition of employment
                     3.   principal place of business
                     4.   income comparison

pro rata share of sq. footage, insurance, heating, lighting, telephone bill, cost of cleaning

Commissioner v. Soliman (S.Ct. 1993)

      So far we have been considering the “necessary” prong of the “ordinary and
       necessary” test
      Now we’re going to turn to the ordinary: is it a capital expenditure?

   Hypo: 300 gross revenue (100 vacation + 100 cost of producing income + 100
   investment). Between the vacation and the cost of producing income, it’s an “all or
   nothing” question; between the cost of producing income and investment, it’s a
   question of “timing”)

             Investment
                 o Depreciable
                 o Damage
                 o Sale

Variables: PV, FV (how much owed at end of period), n (number of periods the interest is
compounding), i (interest). If you have three of these, you can always derive the fourth

Other ways to think about this: 1) interest free loan, 2) yield exclusion
Homework
Capital expenditures
Don’t worry about technical rules on depreciation
294-339
Capital Expenditure v. Currently deductible business expense

          Differences
               o Timing of deductions:
               o Currently deductible business expenses are paid with before tax
                  dollars; capital expenditures are paid with after tax dollars

Capital Expenditures                          Currently Deductible Business Expenses
Paid with after tax dollars                   Paid with before tax dollars




Deferral of Tax

There are four ways to think about the value of tax deferrals
        Interest free loan
        Reduces the PV of later taxes (reduction of tax rates or tax forgiveness)
        Yield exemption (immediate deduction / yield exemption equivalence)
               o Joint venture analysis. If the taxpayer can currently expense now, it
                  has the effect of exempting the yield on his own investment. See
                  MIT’s Cary Brown.
               o Basis of initial investment is zero; on sale of asset, he must be taxed on
                  entire amount
               o HYPO. Suppose asset generated capital gain  lower tax rate at end;
                  this is called “conversion,” because instead of requiring the “full”
                  amount to be repaid, only a portion does.

Relation of consumption tax, and a tax on wages

Acquisition of asset (capitalized)

Woodward v. Commissioner (S.Ct. 1970)
   Facts
        o Change in charter that gave majority shareholders obligation to buy shares
            of minority
        o Majority shareholders incurred A) legal, and B) I-Banker expenses
   Issue
   Holding
   Reasoning
        o Gilmore (basic inquiry is looking to origin of expenses)
        o Origin is in the acquisition process, therefore part of expenses of aquiring,
            which have to be capitalized
   Variations
        o Protecting your patent to stop infringement v. ____
       o You hire construction worker to build building  Capitalized
       o You build building yourself  capitalize
             See Idaho Bulldozer
             See § 263(a)
       o Implications
             Taxpayer doesn’t get value of currently-deductible expense
             Reduce otherwise preferential capital gain
   Indopco
       o Facts
             Investment banking and legal fees
             Taxpayer tried to deduct fees now, on theory of Lincoln Savings (if
                expenditures create a separate and independent asset, then they
                have to be capitalized), that is, that asset is the same
       o Holding
             Supreme court affirms lower court’s reasoning that Lincoln
                Savings may say that separate and independent asset is enough, but
                Indopco says that that is sufficient, but not necessary
             Other way to satisfy capitalization is that it provides “more than an
                incidental future benefit”
       o Variations
             Advertising campaign
             Remuneration for executives looking for acquisitions
             Package design
             Investigative expenses (before Board decides to make acquisition)
                (deductible), and acquision-associated expenses (capitalized)
             Is a hostile take-over different from friendly-takeover
                     Hostile – you are protecting the assets that you have
                     Friendly – like Indopco
                     But law is in flux
             Expansion of existing business (deduction), so long as you’re not
                getting into a new busiss. Bryercliff Candies. Vitality unclear after
                Indopco.
             Startup Costs
                     In principle, capitalized expense
                     But at some point, you are in business, and costs going
                        forward, this should be deductible
             Separate and distinct intangible
       o Congressional Response
             195. Book isn’t correct, supplement is. If taxpayer is not yet in
                business, and incurs expenses that otherwise would have been
                deductible over a 15 year period.
             This represents a compromise. How?
       o How does reasoning of Indopco affect 195 test?
             Indopco eviscerates 195, because there are not any expenditures
                that can pass 195 test
                     Rev. Rule 99-23. Clafies whether and when getting into business
                      can be capitalized and amortized under 195, and that operating
                      business is deductible

HYPO. Suppose you own hotel. In hotel, college students trash room. Should those
expenses be deductible or capitalized. Deductible, bc ordinary or necessary expense.

HYPO. Suppose you own hotel. You pay ppl. to build and paint the hotel. Capitalized,
because _____f

HYPO. Suppose you own hotel. Magazine says fashion changes, so you re-paint rules.
capitalized

Next time
Finish depreciation; capital expenditures
Begin expen
342-48
348-51
§ 162, § 263, § 1012
§ 195, 197, 248

                 Deductible                                    Capital Expenditure
Protecting asset already have clear title to       Acquire (Woodward)
Repair                                             Replace
Maintain                                           Improve
De minimis                                         Substantial
Recurring                                          Non-recurring
One-year rule


Rev. Ruling 2001-4 (heavy maintenance visit on airplanes)

            Deductible Expenses                        Capitalized Expenditures
                                           Purpose
Protecting asset                               Acquiring asset


                                       Physical Nature
Repair                                          Replace
Recurring                                       Non-recurring



                                               Effect
Maintaining                                        Improving
Not extending useful life                          Extending the useful life
De minimus                                         Substantial
One year rule



195 (startup costs). Amounts can be deducted over a fixed period
197. same thing for acquired intangibles; gives arbitrary useful life of 15 years
1248. organizational expenses
Usually depreciation applies to physical assets, and real useful life
Usually amortization applies to arbitrary period
Job-seeking expenses

            Deductible expenses                         Deductible expenditures
New employment in same trade or business      Looking for new trade or business (like
(like maintaining business)                   improving business)
Not out of work for a substantial period      Out of work for a substantial period
(protecting asset)                            (acquiring asset)
                                              Getting job for the first time (acquiring
                                              asset)


      What is a “trade or business”
           o MBA-type executive jobs. Probably a trade or business
           o Holding a political office is not a trade or business (Estate of Rockefeller)
      Rev. Rule. 63-77 (costs of going to interview not deductible, but not includable if
       paid for by employer; so law students do not have to file amended returns)
      Rev. Reg. 1.162-5
           o If you’re maintaining skills in an existing trade or businss, you can deduct
               them
           o If you’re protecting skills (continuing education courses), you can deduct
           o See p. 1107
                   “inseparable aggregate” of personal and business expenses are not
                      decuctible
      Paragraph b2 and b3 (expenses required to meet educational expenses, or which
       qualify you for a business)
           o Minimial educational requiring is like still aquring something (not
               deductible)
           o Meeting qualifing exams is, again, like acquiring something
           o Objective, not objective standard
      Wassenaar v. Commisioner
           o Significance
                   Student should have first get established in a trade or business
                      before getting his LLM at NYU tax school
           o Taxpayer’s Reasoning
                   Student styled himself as “legal problem solver”, and thus was
                      “continuing” his job doing that

Questions
In Wassenaar, student must have had other income, to offset it
       Business v. Personal
Recovery of Capital Expenditures

What is the difference in recoveries between a building and a bond? One looses value
over its useful life, the other does not. So it would cost more to net X amount in the asset
that is loosing value. Note that this is the case, despite the fact, in a market sense, the
depreciable asset might increase in value.

Difference systems of recovering capital (slow  fast)

Sinking fund  Straight line  declining balance  150% dec. bal.  200% dec. bal  special  expense (immediately deductible)



         Methods
              o Sinking fund. Slower at beginning than end; because [insert theory]
              o Straight line. Allocating the basis over the period
              o Declining balance. More deductions in the beginning, and less at end
              o Special. Even if asset has 20 year useful life, you can recover over 5 years
              o Expense. Immediately deductible
         § 168
              o Recovery for real estate is 39 years, and straight line
              o Machines can be put in 5, 7, etc. year periods, and declining balance
                method
              o If double declining balance method, special rule resulting at the end in
                straight line method after a while

Homework
All interest material
First 3 of losses, XII, A, B and C
Depreciation

In computing the depreciation, what do you need to know?
     Classification of assets
     Recovery period
     Type of recovery

HYPO. You buy land and building for 1,000,000.
   Classification
        o Land is assumed not to have a determinable useful life  not depreciable
        o Building is depreciable
   Recovery period
        o Building has life of 39 year
   Type of recovery
        o Method of recovery is straight-line
   Other
        o There are conventions for first year, depending on personal or real
            property, etc.
        o You can treat, e.g. elevator, as a separate asset
                 Classification
                         Equipment / “component part depreciation”
                 Recovery period
                         7 year
                 Type of recovery
                         Double declining balance method

Policy
     Classification, recovery period and type of recovery changes, due to Congress’s
       desire to incentivize certain behavior (e.g. real estate investment). This is a type of
       tax expenditure
     Analysis can be based on
           o Extent of approximation to economic depreciation
           o Fairness / efficiency / complexity analysis

Words/Phrases

There’s two types of things in the world: things you can talk about, and things you can
look up.
Tax Arbitrage

Theory: taxpayer buys same good in two different markets, where the price is different. T
can make a profit by buying and selling asset, even though the economic value of the
asset is the same.

Congress became aware of this problem, and promulgated “recaputure rules,” or those
that, where gain represents previously-taken deductions (or put another way, if the
deduction was taken too fast), T had to take ____ as ordinary income. We will not go into
detail on the recapture rules.

Interest

Interest paid in connection with a profit seeking activity should be deductible, because
interest is really the cost of renting money (like renting a machine, a building, or the
services of an employee). In principle, it ought to be deductible as a cost of producing
income. Even without § 163, you’d think it would be deductible.

But while interest can be viewed of rent on money, it’s different from rent on machine.
You know what the machine does, and having the machine allows you to “trace” (see
Reg. 1.163-8T) the money you spent on it. Money is different in that it is “fungible” –
you can use it interchangeably, and it can be used to support all the taxpayer’s activities,
both personal and business.

As a theoretical matter, interest that relates to non-business activities should not be
deductible. See § 163(h).

Analysis. § 163(a)  163(h)(1)  163(h)(2)(a), (b) and (d)

Identification of Personal Interest v. Business Interest

Three approaches:
    “Allocation.” Money is fungible  allocate the interest expense over all T’s
       assets and activities. Look at T’s interest; X% of assets are business, X% are
       personal  half interest is business, and half is personal
    “Stacking.” Give priority to where interest is paid out would be deemed to go.
       Very T-favorable rule, will be that interest income will first go to income
       generating assets, and only thereafter go to personal consumption. The other way
       around, the stacking could go first to person interest (detrimental to T) and only
       then to business interest.
    “Tracing.” This is the real law. See 1.163-8T. Look and see where the proceeds of
       the loan, in fact, ended up. This is very favorable to T, because the T who as both
       assets and borrowings can structure his affairs to make sure that the interest goes
       into the asset most favorable for tax purposes.
           o Checks are in first-in, first-out basis.
           o 15 day rule. Allows T, regardless of flow of funds, to designate where he
             wants the funds to go.
           o ???. If proceeds of loans go to different things, and loan…
           o Other
                  Do tracing rules work?
                          for the most part yes


Sham and Transactions with no “Economic Purpose”

Knetsch v. U.S. (S.Ct. 1960)
    Facts
           o Fee = 4,000
           o Bought 4,000,000 annuities, which pay 2.5% To pay for loans, borrowed
              4,000,000 at 3.5% with non-recourse loans.
                   Loan generated 140,000 (3.5%), but annuity only yielded 100,000.
           o Borrowed 100,000 at 3.5% = 3,500
           o He thus spent 47,500
           o In return, he was able to deduct interest expense (143,500) against income.
              Assuming he is in the 50% bracket, the tax savings to him would be
              71,750.
           o So he’s up 24,250.
    Analysis
           o Did transaction create indebtedness? Yes
           o Is “tax avoidance” a valid motivation? Yes. See Gregory v. Helvering
           o Did transaction “appreciably affect his beneficial interest except to reduce
              his tax.” No  sham (aka window dressing, hocus pocus)
           o Factors
                   Purpose
                           Business purpose
                           Tax avoidance purpose
                   Economic Substance (potential profitability)
                           Little or no chance to make a profit
                           Little or no risk to T
    Dissent
           o Tax avoidance is valid motive
           o But does that mean that anything goes? No, b/c if “hocus-pocus” then no
              deduction
    Significance
           o It’s not easy to distinguish between sham / hocus-pocus and legitimate tax
              avoidance motivations.
           o Business purpose v. tax avoidance purpose (relative weights)
           o “Economic substance” – is there a potential to make profit independent of
              tax deductions. How much? Does it matter if rate is “locked in” or if it
              could change if other factors intervened.
           o This is a hot topic right now: See KPMG case and Circular 230
      Is there a “possibility” of T making $? Yes, if the interest rate dropped below
       2.5%.

Next time
What’s the difference in approach between majority and dissent. Does that make sense?
Look at interest deduction; read 163(d); look at interst and inflation
Read: All materials on losses; realistically, we won’t get beyond casualty losses

Interest Deduction
     163A – All interest deductible
           o Trade or business interest
     163H – Significant limitations

      163D Investment interest – deduction allowed
           o You don’t have to look at investment income from this particular asset,
             but from all the income that you have
           o You look at all the interst you have, traced to indebtedness [know this]
      265
           o States general rule that expenses, including interest, which arise in
             connection with
           o No deduction allocable to income which is exempt from tax
           o You can’t deduct interest/expenses from other countries
           o Foreign income
           o Basic principle in (a)(1)
                  The litigated word is “allocable”
           o Special rule in (a)(2)
                  You can’t borrow, and use the proceeds to buy municipal bonds,
                     take deduction for interests, and at same time take deduction for
                     interest on § 103.
                  “Purchase or carry” – “tracing” approach. See Regs.

Inflation
     For lender
          o If inflation, lender gets less back
          o So they should pay less tax
     For borrower
          o If inflation, borrower has to pay less back
          o So they should pay more tax
     Inflation is a problem for countries which have 100% or 200% inflation

      If you see proposals for indexing gain-side of equation, you must also index the
       loss-side. Otherwise, there would be a huge tax shelter. How? [learn this]

      We might increase basis to account for inflation
         o This would make sense
Cost Recovery

We have already seen basis recovery at sale of asset, which offsets gain; we also looked
at depreciation and amortization deductions, which gives a ratable cost recovery over a
period. Final method of cost recovery for losses.

      Loss Calculation
          o How do you calculate loss? Whatever it is, it doesn’t exceed T’s basis in
              property, because only T’s basis was paid in after-tax dollars.
          o HYPO. Basis is 1000; asset appreciates to 1200; T looses 500. What can T
              deduct? There are three scenarios (does the totem pole burn from the top
              down, or bottom up). The regulations treat the casualty from coming from
              the basis first. This is favorable to T. See 1.165-7(b). The alternative is the
              loss coming from appreciation first (in our case, 200), and only after that
              will 300 of basis being destroyed. This would be pro-Government. Finally
              you could do it in percentage terms.
      What is a realization event for losses?
          o Sale / disposition
          o Usually some kind of identifiable event, other than simply a decline in
              value
          o Other then obsolescence, or wearing-out
                    E.g. casualty losses (fire, storm, etc.). See 165(c).
      What are the limitations on losses (these are not entirely rational or systematic)
          o Business loss.
                    165(a)(1). These are taken “above the line”;
                    172 – net operating loss net carry-back or carry-forward
          o Transactions entered into for profit. 165(a)(2)
                    These are not personal expenses, but do not rise to the level of a
                      business (e.g. casual rent for property)
                            Rent is above the line
                            Other is below the line
                            Do not qualify for carry-forward
          o Personal losses (casualty losses) 165(a)(3); 165(h)
                    These have to be taken below the line
                    Subject to limitations of 165(h)
      Plunkett v. Commissioner (T.C. 1984)
          o Mud-racing (income 400; property -200; maintenance -350; net loss 150
          o Truck-pulling (same)

Homework
Casualty losses; § 183; tax shelters
Personal deduction material – Monday and Tuesday
                   Trade/Business          Transactions entered        Held for production of    Personal
                                           into for profit             income
Expense            § 162                                               § 212 (below the line)    In general, non-
                                                                       (wrong from theoretical   deductible, but § 183
                                                                       point of view); subject   can allow for some
                                                                       to 2% floor               deductions
Loss               Deductible, below the   § 105(c)(2) –                                         §§ 165(c)(3); 165(h)
                   line, § 105(c)(1)       rents/royalties are taken                             (casualty losses)
                                           above the line; some
                                           other kinds taken below
                                           the line




Casualty Losses (§ 165(c)(3))

    There is something, special, extraordinary, and sudden are casualty losses
Deductions for loss, is, in general limited to T’s basis

163(h)
    Problems (Malibu) were taken care of by this section, making 165(c)(3)
       applicable in very few situations

Next we consider deductions for non-profit seeking activities (like casualty losses)

Computation of Casualty Loss

HYPO. Pay 1000 for residence; residence now worth 750; residence is now destroyed.
You had 250 of consumption, so loss = 750. we already saw we can’t take loss over basis
(because extra value was not realized, never been included in income). What if the
building was not residence, but business? Entire 1000 is deductible.

Reg. 1.165-7(b)

Bad Debs § 166

Business bad debts, or debts arising in a trade or business, are allowed in full. Unlike
other types of losses, T can take a tax deduction, as long as he has written off the portion
of the debt for accounting purposes (i.e. there doesn’t have to be a realization event, like
a casualty, to be eligible for a deduction).

For other losses that aren’t incurred in a trade or business, it’s restricted to a short-term
capital gain. Any bad debt that that’s not a business bad debt is a “restricted short-term
capital loss”

Capital losses, and capital gains are also subject to special rules, and in very general
terms, capital losses can only be deducated against capital gains (not ordinary income)

In subsection d (§ 166(d)), gambling losses can only be deducted against capital gains.
Rationale is that gambling is a personal consumption expense.
HYPO. Stamp collector (hobby) gets tired of collecting, and sells stamps for profit. Can
he deduct the profit? No. See Reg. 1.212. All expenses are consumption, and you are
taxed on the gain. Know how to compute this.

This brings us to § 183 (Activities not engaged in for profit)

In Plunkett v. Commissioner T had hobby, and had losses. T had no “actual and honest
attempt to make a profit” (Dreicer v. Commissioner). But T’s other activity, truck-
pulling, was not a hobby, but was engaged in for profit. Can he deduct losses? Yes. But
what is the relevance of stacking here?

Tax Shelters

The elements of a tax shelter are as follows:

      Deferral. There is value to be able to deductions earlier rather than later
      Leverage. Using someone else’s money to make investment, taking advantage of
       rules that allow you to take the deduction as if it were your own money
      Conversion. The ability to convert the deductions taken against ordinary income.
       We say this in the context of depreciation…f

How does the tax law respond to these transactions?
   Sham. See Knesh. Business purpose…
   Reporting information and penalties. Steps IRS has taken to require T to report
      transactions that look like shelters. Also, through Circular 230, limiting
      exculpatory effect of legal opinions.
   “At risk” rules. See § 465. These rules limit ability of T, in circumstances of
      Knetch, to get current deductions with leverage which is non-recourse.
   Passive Activity Rules. We will not look at these in detail. These say that even in
      transaction is not entered into to profit, it is of a certain kind, and the T I not
      materially involved in the project, then like 163d and 183, passive activity losses
      can only be deducted to the extent of the profit of the project.

Homework
Get through all material on personal deductions
Look at handouts
Charitable contributions and medical
183

Up to this point, we have been looking at activities that were, by definition, profit-
seeking activity (trade or business, costs of producing income, transaction entered into for
profit, etc.). But we haven’t tried to define what was a profit seeking activity. Section 183
and Plunkett (truck-pulling case) help us define what profit-seeking meant, and how
much “greed” was required. One might think that non-profit-seeking activities might be
labeled “consumption,” but that is not the case: looking at § 183(b), one can deduct
business-related activity, to the extent that such income exeeds….

Computation of Deductions for Personal Expenditures

   1. First, deduct “above line” expenses, which are similar to (but not exactly the same
      as) business expenditures. This results in AGI. This latter step is important to get
      everyone level. [How?]
   2. Second, take standard deduction (standard statutory amount, adjusted for
      inflation), or itemized deduction (every other deduction that code allows, except
      those taken above the line, and except those deductions taken for personal
      exemptions.)
          a. Rationale
                   i. Simplicity. Rather than T taking individual amounts, T just took
                       lump sum.
                           1. Contra. But it’s not that simple, because one would have to
                               compute both before choosing one, unless it is very clear.
                               ~75% of people take standard deduction (people who live
                               in cities with high municipal and state tax rates itemize
                               deductions, as do people who make charitable
                               contributions)
                  ii. Provide Bottom Layer of Income that is not subject to tax. This
                       functions as a “zero bracket”
          b. NB
                   i. What is the relationship between above the line deductions, and the
                       below the line itemized deduction? If you take an itemized
                       deduction, you disqualify yourself for some above the line
                       deductions.
                  ii. How is the above/below the line irrational in some cases?
          c. Standard Deduction
          d. Itemized Deduction
                   i. Unreimbursed employee expenses, and 212, are subject to 2%
                       floor in § 67.
                  ii. Subject to phase out. § ???.
          e. Deduction for personal exemptions (§§ 151, 152)
                   i. Strands
                           1. Zero Bracket for Everyone. From one perspective, you can
                               look at this as a zero bracket; that is, until T’s income is
                               over a certain amount, he doesn’t have to pay any taxes.
                               Put still another way, until he reaches a certain amount, his
                               claim to the income is superior to the government’s. But
                               family size is also taken into account.
                          2. Freeing up the poor from taxes. It’s not appropriate to put
                               people in tax net that don’t meet a certain level. But it
                               doesn’t do this significantly.
                  ii. Details
                          1. Married - Spouse
                          2. Dependents
                                   a. Children
                                             i. Children under 19
                                            ii. Children who are students under 24
                                           iii. Other dependents living in the household
                                   b. Must pay for over 50% of support
                          3. Personal exemptions, together with standard deduction,
                               represent two of the principal mechanism by which poor
                               are relieved of tax liability.
                          4. We will not go into this in detail
   3. Third, calculate taxable income by multiplying income by applicable tax rates
   4. Fourth, subtract credits from tax liability
         a. Difference between credit and deduction
                   i. “Upside Down Effect.” Providing an $X deduction results in
                      greater benefit to T’s who pay more taxes
                  ii. An X% credit, on the other hand, will not affect zero bracket T’s,
                      unless refunds are available. The percentage is not credited against
                      tax rate or liability, but against the $ that the government wants
                      ppl. to spend. So credits will not make any difference between
                      people in, for example, 30% and 50% tax brackets.
         b. Often subject to phase out
         c. Usually, though not always, not refundable.
         d. Economically, most important credit is the “earned income credit,” (§ 32)
              which is given to family which qualify (single families, or those with
              children) and is refundable, so that if family has no income, they get
              income from government. This is phased out as income increases. We will
              not worry about details of amount. This has the most impact in removing
              some from tax liability.
                   i. We won’t pay much attention to the details of this, but note that it
                      is extremely complicated. If you think about the people that the
                      statute is addressed to, namely the people at the bottom of the tax
                      distribution, it is very hard for them to comply. In fact, as the book
                      points out, many who are eligible for the credit, will not avail
                      themselves of the credit, due to complications.

Personal Deductions

State, Local and Foreign Taxes (§ 164).
      Rule.
          o These are deductible
          o Applies to property taxes, whether or not the property is used for business;
              but if used for business, the deduction can be taken above the line
          o With respect to Reg. 1.62-2(d) – income tax must always be taken below
              the line
          o Sales Tax. Again, an aspect of federalism. There is no theoretical
              argument for deducting sales tax. If you’re a state’s right person, you
              might argue that the state is indirectly favoring states that had income tax,
              or incouraging states to have an income tax, rather than a sales tax. There
              is one state that has a sales tax, and not an income tax…[Texas?]
          o Foreign tax. Creditable.
      Rationale. This is the price you pay of doing business in a state.
          o Contra. You are getting benefits as well, such as roads and police. This is
              a type of consumption that you are buying, and thus should be something
              you ought not to get a deduction for.
          o Contra. Federalism. The federal government might also give a credit for
              the state tax. [Huh?]

Tax
      Federalism. Federal tax po
      Property taxes are deductible. This includes property taxes with respect to assets
       that are used for non-profit-seeking activity (e.g. property taxes by homeowners).
       This, coupled with 163H, and no tax to owner-occuped housing, gives great
       benefit for home-ownership.
      On business property, regulations state that those taxes can be deducted above the
       line. So T can take these deductions, plus the standard deduction.
      Income tax. All income taxes are deductible on 164, but only below the line. This
       counts for business income as well. Ault thinks that this is wrong as a theoretical
       matter.
      International tax. Replaces US tax
           o Credit v. Deduction


Charitable Contributions

HYPO. I give $50 to an individual who stops me on the street. Deduction? No. Give has
to be given to a “qualified individual.” § 170.

HYPO. Can I take charitable deduction for tickets to fireman’s ball? Charitable
contribution has to be reduced by benefit 170(f). In some cases, the value of the benefit is
so great that no deduction will be given. See Hernandez (court disallowed deduction for
Scientology services because they provided quid pro quo). But IRS backed off, and now
deduction is given.

The Problem of Appreciated Property - § 170(e)
HYPO. Charitable Gift to BC: Cash or Asset? (40% tax bracket)
                              Before Tax Cost          Tax Benefit                  Net Cost to       BC
                                                                                    Taxpayer
Cash                          10,000                   4,000                        6,000             10,000
Asset (basis of 2,000; FMV    10,000                   7,200 (8000 appreciation X   2,800 (10,000 –   10,000
10,000; 8,000 appreciation)                            40% = 3,200; + 4000)         4,000 – 3,200)


The problem here is that __???___. The statutory response was § 170(e). This says that
amount of charitable contribution depends on 1) what property is given, 2) who the
property is given to, and 3) what happens to the property. This section provides that
deduction can be limited.[John, how?]

So there is an incentive to donate securities (e.g. stocks) given to private charities. [John,
how?]

In enacting 170(e), Congress considered limiting basis in all cases, but the Universities
lobbied hard…

NB: You can’t reduce your income in one year by over 50%; but you can carry-forward.

I noted that people who used standard deduction were not able to avail themselves of this;
and that the higher bracket you are in, the more incentive you have to give.

Effect of Tax Rate on Charitable Giving

                       Gift                     Tax benefit          Net Cost to T        Notes
40%                    1,000                    400                  600
20%                    1,000                    200                  800
20%                    750                      150                  600                  T will give less,
                                                                                          if he wants the
                                                                                          same net cost

To alleviate this problem, there have been proposals: such as matching donations on the
part of the government

Interesting Case: 170(f)(12) (selling used cars)

Medical Expenses

Defining Medical Care. § 213

Consumption as Medical Care.

Problem of Normal Consumption which is attendant to medical care (suppose you are in
the hospital, and have to eat…are the meals deductible? Yes, but you could make a good
argument that they were)
You could try to apply the mixed analysis (we saw this in mixed personal and business
expenses, and also in the charity analysis [I think]). This is what happens in the
swimming pool cases. There the deduction of the cost of the swimming pool, is reduced
by the appreciation in the property. This is the same thing with non-capital expenditure
medical expenses. The excess consumption in the medical case are not deductible

Medical Care as Consumption

HYPO. Doctor recommends shopping to an people-hate. Congress has disallowed
deductions for cosmetic surgery (there are line drawing issues here)

Casebook authors love this topic.

7.5% Floor – Protection on Catastrophic Losses Only

Finally, note the 7.5 floor. Medical expenses cannot be deducted, except to the extent that
they exceed 7.5% of AGI. In this way, they allow deductions for catastrophic losses only.
As a matter of policy, then, periodic checkups and preventative care are not deductible.
This is analogous to the casualty loss provisions, which also has a floor.

Cf. § 105 (Amounts Received under accident and health plans), 106 (Contributions by
Employer to Accident and Health Plans). If T is not operating under 213, but has an
employer-provided health plan under 105 and 106, there is no 7.5 floor, and all the
expenses are covered. So there is a disparity of tax treatment here.

If you buy a health policy yourself, though, the premiums are deductible in principle, but
in practice, they will never be greater than the 7.5% floor. So you’ll get no benefit from
the federal government.

Ault thinks that the connotation between health and tax policy is problematic and
illogical.

Homework
I.The Taxable Year
A.In General
1. pp. 637-643 (stop at "B").
B.The Tax Benefit Rule
1. pp. 644-652
C.The Claim of Right Doctrine
1. pp. 653-657
D.Net Operating Losses
1. pp. 659-660 (stop at "B").
II.Methods of Accounting
A.Cash Method - Receipts
1. pp. 664-671
B.Cash Method - Payments
1. pp. 674-679
C.The Accrual Method - All Events Test
1. pp. 682-683
D.Accrual of Income
1. pp. 684-689 (Omit "C" on pp 688).
E.Advance Payments – look back at how we treat loans
1. pp. 689-696 (Omit "A" on pp 696).
2. pp. 697 (starting with "B") - 698.

Why is accounting important?
          - Time value of money
          - 3 year statute of limitations, assuming taxpayer files appropriate returns
          - There may be a matter of different rates in different years

What is the relation between tax accounting rules, and financial accounting rules?


Two methods of accounting
   Cash basis
   Accrual basis

Fundamental difference is that in cash basis, one ignores accounts receivable and
accounts payable. The accrual basis takes billing into account.

What happens when the two sides of transactions operate on different methods of
accounting? We will spend time with this.

Annual Accounting Period
    Rationale – there has to be some period within which income and deductions are
      taken together. This period is usually a year, although T can alter it (producing a
      “fiscal year”).

Burnet v. Sanford & Brooks
You might want to compare to Rayheon – were expenditures capital in nature, in which
case he would have basis.

Contrast Sanford & Brooks’ annual accounting approach, with one that is transactional.

See § 172 – T can carryback and carryforward losses, beyond the accounting period in
which the loss arose. Losses can be carried back for 2 years, and can carry losses
forward for 20 years. So there is a 23 year period here, that with respect to businss losses
the annual account principle gives way to broader notion that allows for a temporal
averaging.

Now we will look at situations where annual accouting period is set aside, in favor of a
transactional approach.
     Deduction in Year 1 – Receipt in Year 2. In a classic case, if you get a tax benefit
        in a previous year, you may owe that benefit in a late year. This is the tax benefit
        rule. § 111.
      No tax benefit rule. Year 2 is not recoverable, because there was no benefit in
       previous year

As long as there is any benefit in the previous year (e.g. 15%), there will be tax in the
later year.

Hillsboro National Bank v. Commissioner and United States v. Bliss

The tax benefit rule will “cancel out” an earlier deduction only when a careful
examination shows that eh later event is indeed fundamentally inconsistent with the
premise on which the deduction was initially based.

Instead of a recovery, there is an event which is “fundamentally inconsistent” with the
original deduction, then that is taxed.

Examples
    Business use to personal use
    Hillsboro fact pattern

In these cases, there has been a deduction, and then repayment.

We now move to there be a receipt in the first year, and a deduction in the later year. See
United States v. Skelly Oil Co.

Receipt (year 1)                                Payment (year 2)
Loan                                            No deduction
Claim of right                                  § 1341
Illegal                                         Deduction

§1341. Very taxpayer-favorable section. If there is a claim of right in Year 1, and then in
Year 2 it turns out that T did not have the right to the income, T has an option: T can
either exclude item in year 1, and not take a deduction in year, or alternatively, include
the item in year 1, and take a deduction in year two. T gets the best of both worlds in
those circumstances.

All of things [172, § 1341, Skelly, Arrowsmith, Hillsboro] have in common that they are
deviation from strict annual accounting expressed in Sanford & Brooks – you have to
look over all the years.

United States v. Skelly Oil Co. fashions another exception to strict annual accounting,
relying on Arrowsmith, which said that if a transaction in an earlier year was being
treated as a capital gain transaction, that in the appropriate circumstances, the taxes…[???
Huh?]

In next two classes, we will look at “cash basis on income side” and “cash basis on
deduction side” and then do the same thing on the accrual basis.
                     Cash Basis                                    Accrual
Income                     Deduction             Income                Deduction
In kind                    “Paid”                “All events”          All events
Constructive receipt       Pre-payment           Advance payment       Economic performance
Economic benefit / cash    Capital expenditure
(Rev. Rule. 8-52; Barter
Club Rule)


Constructive receipt. HYPO: What about accrued interest from bank? See Reg. ???.

Carter. Carter was arguing constructive receipt (usually it is the government arguing
constructive receipt). Carter was unemployed; got a job in Sept. 1974 but didn’t receive
income that he was supposed to. Instead, the income was received in 1976. He’s arguing
that he earned the income in Year 1, therefore I ought to be taxed in Year 1. The
government says no, you didn’t have the income in Year 3.

HYPO. Employee gets contract. See Rev. Rule. 60-31. Controls timing in employment
situations. Says that if money is not in fact received, there will not be a constructive
receipt, and the gove rnment will not speculate whether the employer was going to pay
the $ or not.

HYPO. Employee gets signed note, that outlines schedule of payments. Generally, an
unfunded promise to pay in the future is not income to a cash-basis taxpayer, because that
is the difference between a cash-basis taxpayer and a accrual basis taxpayer.

HYPO. Same as above, except instead of unfunded promise to pay, but that funds are
placed in escrow. There, the T has an appreciable benefit.

HYPO. “Rabbi Trust.” Unsecured promise, no economic receipt.

HYPO. Barter Club. You have the right to ask not for cash, but for a bartering right. This
constitutes economic benefit.

Deductions

HYPO. Checks. Are checks the same as notes?
HYPO. Credit cards. When does the deduction take place? At purchase? When merchant
was paid? On statement? Payment to merchant is not promise to pay in the future, but
actual payment by your agent (credit card company) on your behalf.
HYPO. Credit cards offered by merchant himself. Book glosses over the distinction
between this and the hypo immediately above.

NB. The cash basis gives a lot of control to T. He can control the payment (year 1 or year
2), and he can control receipt (he can control when he sends his bill). T’s can take
advantage of this. In extreme cases, government will make the argument that the cash
basis method didn’t accurately reflect income with ________.
Boylston Markets Ass’n. T pays 4,000 for insurance. Treats it as a pre-payment of 1000
in year, and takes 1,000 deduction in years 1, 2, and 3. In year 4, government argues no
deduction in year four. Presumably, the statute of limitations has run. Ault thinks this
case is a good example of the government’s litigation policy blinding it to the larger
picture. Thinks that if the government had won case, it would have been bad for the
government, because ______.

Special rules:
    Farmers. Can use the cash method where other T’s can’t. As a result, there were a
       lot of tax shelters built around limited participation in farm companies, where a
       lot of fees were pre-paid to get current deductions based on Boylston Markets,
       such as the Pecan scheme.
    Pre-Paid Interset. T would pre-pay 5 years of interest. In § 461(g), Congress
       restricted those, and puts those T’s on the accrual-basis.

There are some important implications for the cash basis T:
    ????

Accrual Basis

Method of accounting in general terms, but doesn’t use all accounting rules (e.g.
formatting of reserves which reduce current income)

Income. When all events have taken place that will fixed the amount of income. So
obligation to pay constitutes income.

Complications.
   Is there sufficient doubt about collectability to prevent accrual. This is a fact-
      specific issue.
   Hallmark Cards. Hallmark shipped Valentines Day card before Jan. 1, but title did
      not pass until after Jan. 1. IRS says that you are deviating from your normal
      practices. The government argues that the transaction took place…. Court says
      that the company can do anything it wants, so long as the practice is consistent.

Advance Payment. There is a long history of cases involving the tax implications of
prepayments. In Schulte (discussed in RCA; dance payment case, 40 lessons paid in
advance; court held that statistical analysis can’t be effective). In RCA, the court ruled
that the T’s method of accounting did not accurately reflect income. Ault thinks that the
court was being motivated, principally, that the relation between the government and
taxpayer is different than the relation between the parties, and T’s ability to pay taxes. If
T has the cash now, the government wants it now. (p. 694) Advance payments are taxable
currently, despite the fact that T might not have the money to pay the tax. Ault thinks that
the SC’s treatment of these cases are not sound, because _____. Regulations are stricter
than court. There are more liberal rules in court _____.
What alternatives might there have been for the taxpayer in RCA to remove the
obligation from paying taxes in Year 1, despite the fact that he has the tax? Set up a
“reserve” for the future costs involved in earning this income. You can deduct this
reserve currently.

Deduction

United States v. General Dynamics. Injury  services provided  insurance filed 
insurance approved  insurance paid. Court imposed tax, using the “all events test.”
Over a strong dissent, we still don’t know if they’re going to be filed, so we don’t yet
know whether the obligation to pay has been accrued.

Implications of Time Value of Money
Hypo. Company has accident. Company and plaintiff agree that damage is 1M. Company
says to plaintiff: “I won’t pay you today, but in 10 years, I’ll pay 3M” (i.e. 12%
compounded interest). The company wants to currently take a 3M deduction.

In Ford (p. 710), one of the few that the government actually won, the court pointed out
that it would actually be better off if they got into these types of accidents, because they
could arrange “structured settlements.” Utilizing the time value of money, they would
actually be better off!

Congress responded by § 461(h), the “economic performance doctrine” which puts some
T, as those with structured settlements, on the cash basis. In other expenses where the
expenses have been incurred, T has to defer deduction until expense actually taken.

An alternative would be to tax T on the present value on the amt. to be paid in the future.
This is, in fact, used in certain situations (e.g. mining, deforestation cases; nuclear power
plant decommisioning). This is generally done when income is severely distorted.

So 461, “all events” are not deemed to have taken place until “economic performce” has
taken place.

This finishes up the accounting materials.

Homework
Finish accounting materials in II
Read III.A and § 83

Read all material on Assignment of income (III)
Services Income

Lucas v. Earl. Tax avoidance purpose? No. He has no control over it. Significance:
Income from serves are taxed to the person who earns them .

HYPO. Suppose I work for myself; suppose I work for my child; suppose I work for a
charity, and instead of taking fee, I let charity have the fee I would have collected. Does
law of agency come into play?

Revenue Ruling . Tax professor teaching clinic. He can’t keep the money, because of
federal regulations. Treasury says that it would normally be income, but that there are
sometimes “special circumstances” in which it’s not.

HYPO. Enter prize, if you win, the prize money goes to someone else. Court said that it
was “so far in advance” of actual event, you could treat it as income belong to the person
who got the prize, not the person who earned. The terms of the context were such that the
person who earned it could never get it. Court says this is unlike Lucas, because the
earner never had the right to get the income in the first place.

Income from Property

If the T gives the property away, then the income from the property taxable to the person
who owns the property. We’re not talking about the property from himself, because that
is a gift.

Blair, Shaffner, Horst – is T shifting the tax liability of the property, or the tax liability
from the income on the property.

HYPO (Executive Compensation). Suppose Employer gives Employee a share of stock.
Is e’ee taxed on it? Yes. He will be taxed on sale of stock.

Options

Question – How do options work, outside employment context???

HYPO. E’er gives e’ee option; exercise price 110; FMV at time of transfer is 100;

§ 83. In the case of options, option is only includable in income when received, if it has a
readily ascertainable value.

HYPOS

Option grant    Option           sale             transfer        Restriction      sale
(price 100)     exercise                                          lapses
FMV 100         150              400              100             150              400
                                                  0               150              750
                                                § 83(b) 100     0               300

§ 83(b) is extremely important in high-tech startups. There, you make the 83b election,
arguing that there is little or no value to the option. Then you get the discounted capital
gains tax.

Income from Property Itself
    Law in this area is principally provided by cases, and old cases at that
    Blair. Stands for the principle that if you make what you might call a vertical slice
      of the property, which includes more than right to receive income, then that would
      be effective to transfer the incidence to the tax,
    Contract Blair with Shaffner (T had right to get $, and he transferred for one year
      the right to get the $, and could make the decision each year how much of the
      income he wanted to assign). The court said that this wasn’t effective to transfer
      the taxability of the income; you can’t horizontally slice off a portion of the
      property you were going to receive for the year, even if the transferee would have
      some fiduciary rights for that year.
    We will look more at this later
    Horst (father kept principal of $100 bond, and took a $10 coupon off, transferred
      it to son). Is son $10 taxable on income? Transfer is more like Shaffner than Blair
      – he is keeping the rights that the bond gives him; he is transferring only the
      interest. Under general assignment of income principles, he ought to get taxed,
      not child. But Horst goes off on metaphysics. It could have only been handled on
      a transfer of income basis. But soon the metaphysics (pleasure dad got from
      giving $ to son) became a dead letter – now it stands only for the transfer of
      income rules.
           o Who will be taxable on the $10? You should look at the relative values of
               what the father keeps, and what the son gets to find out how each should
               be treated. See §1286. The statute comes to a different result that Horst,
               allocating the income based on present value principles.
    Hyman. Is the rights to the exploitation of the patent, a separate aspect of the
      property that he can transfer? Or cannot he not transfer the income independently
      from the patent. Court said case was close, but that it was closer to Blair than
      Shaffner, because he is getting something besides the right to the income.
           o HYPOS. Manuscript shifting example. Rights to certain geographical
               area? Give to my son, so he can publish? Give X years of royalties to son?


Homework

Go into capital gains materially deeply. Read, in new assignment sheet, § A thru E. We
will probably get through most of that.

“There’s a wonderful dispute going on right now”
Capital Gains

Rationale for treating capital gains preferably. 1) Capital gains are not income, because
they are not recurrent. Ault thinks that this is merely defining away the problem; 2)
Philosophical difference between land and income from land; 3) in a progressive rate
structure, the progressive rates make a big difference if you have a lot of income in one
year, and less in another year. Without special treatment of capital gains, income would
be “bunched” in one year. The problem is this is that there are better ways to prevent
bunching; 4) favorable rate is only a result of inflation. But problem with this is that it is
not an accurate measure of inflation; 5) to give people an incentive for investment, but
why should there be an incentive to invest in a company which doesn’t give dividends
[???]

Ault thinks that the preference for capital gains is at odds with progressively.

§ 1221. Ault thinks the statutory structure is odd, because “capital assets” are defined as
what they are not.

§ 1221(a)(1). Distinguishes inventory held “primarily for sale to customers in the
ordinary course of trade of business.”

Dual Purposes. Malat v. Riddell (S.Ct.1966). T had land, which he sold. Was the land a
capital asset, or not? Statute analyzed the T’s purpose: was it held “primarily for sale”
(not capital asset) or not (capital asset). Problem was that T had “dual purpose.” Defined
“primarily” as “of first importance” or “principally.” But this doesn’t solve the problem.

So courts look at “surrogate factors” for determining whether capital asset exists:
    Frequency of sales. If this is the only real estate that I have sold, this is a sign of
       capital asset. If I have a lot of sales, then it’s more likely not capital asset.
    Development of Property (e.g. subdividing land). This would make you look more
       like a business.
    “Busy-ness” Test. If T puts a lot of work into the property, then that starts to look
       like a business.
    How Long Property is Held. If held for longer, then the more it looks like it’s
       being held as an investment.
    Can asset be (dis)aggregated from/with T’s other assets.
    Is it held primarily for customers? (in context of sales of stock of securities). In
       this industry, there is a distinction between traders and dealers (like investment
       banks).

Bramblett v. Commissioner (5th 1992). Significance of case is not so much its
precedential value; rather, it is used to show how “factual determinative” these cases are.
In short, just know the factors, and how to apply them.

Today, it is common to try to 1) pre-sell the land (before it’s developed) and 2) to create
sister organizations to do the sales, and for another organization to do the investment.
HYPO. Buy machines for 1000, basis reduced to 700, sell machines to 500. (Your
business is not buying/selling machines, but using them to make widgets.) This shows
that you were not taking depreciation fast enough. You could argue that 500 ought to be
an ordinary loss, since it’s a depreciable property used in the course of a trade or
business, and you’re just getting the depreciation right.

HYPO. Buy machines for 1000, basis reduced to 700 through depreciation, sold for 1100.
The tax treatment is 400 income; 300 of which is ordinary income (because you took
depreciation before) and 100 of which is treated as a capital gain at a preferential rate. §
1245 (with respect to personal property, such as machines, etc.)

§ 1231. Depreciable property used in a trade or business. The first thing that happens is
that this property is taken out of § 1221 (including real property – business, land and
machines) and gived special treatment in 1231. this corresponds to the idea that if
property is sold for a gain, then it is taxed at a preferable rate (capital asset rate); if at a
loss, then it is sold at a preferable rate (ordinary rate)

But depreciable real estate is an exception. They apply only to the excess of depreciated
realization over straight line depreciation. Today….Congress loves real estate developer.
See 1250. But 1250 has nothing to oepratate on now.

HYPO. Two plants basis is 1000. One goes up to 1100. One goes down to 900. how
should I be taxed if I do this in the same year; how about if loss is in year 1, and gain in
year two.

Homework
Finish capital gains material on Tuesday.
625, 626



We saw one exception to the “everything is capital asset” definition in 1221 that
(inventory, stock in trade, or property held for sale…). See § 1221.

A second aspect of capital gains occurs when T is clearly in a trade or business, and he
has a machine in his business that he uses to produce the widgets, and that he bought the
machine at 180, took depreciation for 150, forming a basis of 130, and then sold the asset
for 200. He thus has 50 of gain (sale price minus adjusted basis). How should it be taxed?
If you just read 1221(a)(1) you would say that this is not inventory, therefore it is a
capital asset, therefore all of the gain (50) is capital gain entitled to the preferential rate.
But then we identified the fact that of that 50 of gain, 30 of it doesn’t really represent
economic gain, but represents during the period T was using the asset, he was taking
depreciation on the asset (the depreciation being conceptually founded on the idea that
the asset was actually declining in value and would ultimately be useless; this was
offsetting income in his ordinary business), and it didn’t seem appropriate to give him the
deductions. This is what section 1245 does with respect to tangible property, where the
income must be recaptured as ordinary income.

Situation 1 – Machine                                             Situation 2
Price paid = 180                                                  180
Depreciation (adjusted basis) = 30 (150)                          (30) 150
Sale Price = 200                                                  130
Gain (sale minus adjusted basis) = 50 (200 minus 150)             Loss (sale minus adjusted basis) = (20)
But 30 is taxed as ordinary income under §1245;                   Theoretically, you should deduct 20 against ordinary
20 is taxed at favorable capital gain rate (it’s the fruit, not   income, because you didn’t depreciate fast enough. This
the tree)                                                         is the result that the Code comes to. 1221(a)(2), 1231
                                                                  (quasi-capital asset).
This doesn’t apply to real estate, which is taxed at 28% (§
1H)


If you did both in the same year (and they were the only transaction you had), you would
have 30 in ordinary income, and since you have 20 in capital gain, and 20 in capital loss.
1231 forces the 20 in capital loss. T would prefer take 20 in ordinary loss. As a tax
planner, you would want to do a straddle: sell the second property in year 1, for ordinary
loss; sell the first property in year 1 for a capital gain profit.

To fix, see 1231(c): in deteriining whether you get capital gains treatment on the gains
sale, under this section, T has to look back for 5 years and see if there are any 1231 losses
in those years; if there were, then T doesn’t get capital gain treatment on gain. But T can
do it the other way around: sell the gain property first, and then sell the loss property in
the next year, and get roughly the same result, but congress really wans’t upset about this.

3000 limitation [how does this apply????].

HYPO (Involuntary Conversion) . Suppose the property in this situation is destroyed by
fire, and I collect 200 on the insurance proceeds. You would still have worry about
recapture of 30, because this is a disposition under § 1245. What about the gain of 20?
Theoretically, it should be taxed as an ordinary asset. See table above. But actually, it’s
taxable as an capital gain. See § 1231.

Note the difference between the year that these gains/losses are incurred. If in the same
year, everything is put together in 1231, which has the effect of netting them (though not
technically netting them). Ault thinks this netting procedure (firepot, hodgepot) is
unnecessary complicated. If it’s in two different years, then…

That’s 1231. This can be theorized as the second set of exceptions to 1221, the first being
____. There are other exceptions, such as those these are taken out of 1221, and are
therefore not capital assets. For example, copyrights are all going to be ordinary. On the
other hand patents can get capital gain treatment, even for corporations that have patents
as inventory.

Cases (statutory gloss on these interpretive losses)
Suppose you have a manufacturer company, and manufactures something that you need
raw materials for. Suppose the company has to set its prices that its ultimately going to
sell its products for a long time in advance. Suppose that a raw material is, say, sugar, and
the value of sugar can go up and down in the market. But as with most commodities you
can buy an option on the sugar for a fixed price for delivery on a fixed date. Suppose that
T, to help it establish its prices, bought a so-called futures contract giving it the right, but
not the obligation to purchase the sugar. Suppose that the company paid 5 for the option
contract to buy the sugar at 50. Now suppose that the value of the sugary at the delivery
date is 125. Suppose the company bought for 50, and then sold it ultimately for 200.

Basis is 55. sale price is 200. So 145 in ordinary income.

But suppose T reads § 221. What he does is sell the option, and then go out in the market
and buy the sugar I need to make my produces. So I’ll have a higher cost for the products,
and will take profit in the option. Why would he want to do this? Because the sale of the
option is a capital asset in principel (1221 – “capital asset except) and

He would thus be able to convert a portion of his income (ordinary income) into capital
gains. This is exactly what T did. Treasury then came in and argued that this asset was
not a capital asset because it was “an essential part of T’s business,” and therefore despite
what the statute says, and despite the fact that it did not fit into any of the exception under
1221, it should be treated as an ordinary asset, and the gain should be ordinary. See Corn
Products. This case represented a judicial gloss on the statutory definition, which was
bottomed on some sort of notion on “intergrality to the T’s business.”

But Treasury has to be careful what it wishes for. It won this case on it’s theory, but think
about the opposite case. Suppose this was an asset that had down in value. T could take
an ordinary deduction for this loss. That was the law for a long time. The cases where this
typically came up were manufacture has a subcontractor that it works with; it invest in
the stock of the subcontractor; the sub goes bankrupt, and T says that this is an ordinary
loss because it had to do this to do business.

But all of this came to an end in Arkansas Best. There the court reviewed history, and
held that the statute means what it says, that there is not “intergrality” of bueinsss
component. What the statue says is inventory. If it’s not inventory, then it’s capital. So
this case has put an end to this “extra-intergality” argument.

The second argument, that we’ll deal with briefly, is Hort. There, T had no basis in lease,
and therefore can’t claim the loss. But even if T can’t claim the loss, there’s still the
question of how T will be taxed – capital gain or ordinary gain. Court said that it was
substitute for rent, and thus capital asset. But the problem is that as a general principle,
simply incanting that X is a substitute for future income doesn’t help – everything, even
the building, might be said to be a substitute for future income
If right to income has a short term; if there’s no real way that it will fluctuate in value,
and if the right to the income is carved out from a larger right and then sold separately,
then courts will be inclined to apply Hort-like analysis.

If the asset is all that he has, he disposes of all of it, and that there is volatility in price,
then courts are more likely to say that that can get capital gains treatment.

Williams v. McGowlin. Can “the business” be an asset? And thus all the compoents of a
business are capital assets? If you own proprietorship, then assets must be broken down.
On the other hand if it’s a partnership, then not. § 731 (sale of a partnership is a capital
asset, qualifing for capital gain). Also, if stock, then not.

Finish Capital Gains material (very quickly)
Read all II. (like-kind exchcanges and involuntary converstiosn)
Williams v. McGowin. Allocates purchase price to various assets in the pot (e.g. land,
inventory, machine, good will)

                Buyer                     Seller
Land            He wants gives him an     Would like a lot
                asset he can’t            allocation to the land,
                depreciate, and can’t     because it’s going to
                cover his costs until     be capital asset (and
                he sells it               preference capital
                                          gains treatment)
Inventory
Machine                                                             1231 asset more neutral;
                                                                    depreciable fairly quickly,
Goodwill                                  Seller wants to           How fast is the goodwill
                                          allocate here. Evin if    depreciable. A few years
                                          basis is going to be 0    ago, it was not depreciable
                                          because it is self-
                                          created good will
Covenant        Would want it here,       Almost certainly          This would be depreciable.
not to          because it’s              ordinary income to
compete         depreciable.              the seller; little as
                                          possible


Service is not bound by parties decisions. But case law says that if the parties have
different interests, it will generally respect the taxpayers decisions. But 197 says that all
intangibles, including goodwill, are depreciable over a 15 years. So the parties will want
to allocate as much as possible to goodwill. The buyer is indifferent (he’ll amortize the
covant and good will under 197 at the same rate) whereas the seller will get preferential
treatment on the goodwill, but not on the covenant not to compete. So the parties
wouldn’t have adverse tax interests.

Rules for allocation in general are set out in § 1060 (which we didn’t look at), which says
that both parties must disclose the allocations that were made. In other words, the
government must be on notice of the allocations.

Last two requrimetns for preferential rates: sale or exhange; holding period.

Sale or Exchange. Technical requirement, doesn’t come up that much. Suppose building
burns down, and you get proceeds. We saw that 1231, in the case of involuntary
conversation, will be treated as a sale or exchange. But on the other side, under 165, if a
stock or security becomes worthless (and it’s a capital asset), then it’s not being disposed
of as a sale or exchange. Maybe it could qualify as a regular loss. But statute supplies the
necessary sale or exchange provisions in ______. Some case law says that there is no
capital gains treatments for ____ becoming collectible. The smart taxpayer would just
sell the policy before it became collectible.
Holding Period. The final question is the holding period. One of the primarily purposes
of capital gains is to distinguish between investment and speculation, the holding period
becomes important. Right now it’s a year. You have to be careful in the application of
this rule; in the first case, the capital asset has to be held for “more than a year” (so
holding it for a year doesn’t count), and when to start. The holding period doesn’t begin
during the day of acquisition, but you do count the day of disposition. If you acquire on
Jan. 1, and sell on Jan. 1 of the next year, you will have held the asset only one year
(because it starts on Jan. 1). To qualify, you must sell on Jan. 2. then you’ll get “more
than one year.”

Tacking. § 123. For purposes of determining whether the holding period has been met, in
transactions where T takes an asset from someone else, T also takes the donor’s holding
period. See also 1015, 1023.

Non-recognition Transactions

Economic Income. - broadest
Realization. 1001 (amount realized minus basis, and must be recognized) - narrower
Recognition - narrowest

So we will are now looking at transactions that are realized, but not recognized.

§ 1031. T doesn’t have to recognize gain/loss if _____; ensures that gain/loss that T
doesn’t recognize is not eliminated, but is only deferred. T has basis for new property
basis he had for old property.

The boot.

             Basis         FMV           Cash         Gain          Rec           New Basis
A            4000          4000          1000         1000                        1000
B            2000          3000                       0                           0

Transfer Subject to Mortgage (§ 1031(d)).Where a property is being transferred subject
to a mortgage, that that will be treated as cash. That means it being treated as boot.

Techinical Issues
    Property must qualify for 1031 treatment. The language is stock in trade or other
       property exchange primarily for sale. Stock bonds and notes are not included
       .doens’t apply to interests in partnerships. What’s left is property held in trade or
       business or for invetsmetn – basially just real estste and tangible personal
       property.
    Then the property it’s exchanged for must be for a “like kind.” There, the statute,
       as interpreted by the Regs is quite libery – looking towards quality of the
       property, not to its use. So you can exhcnage an apartment building for vacant
       land. They would qualify as like-kind propertys, and 1031 could be applicable
           o Live-stock of different sexes are not of the same kind.
      HYPO: Property; Basis 100, FMV 1000; don’t want to sell. Someone approaches
       me and says I’ll pay you 1000 for property, and I say to him thanks but I don’t
       want to pay tax, and B, I want to keep my property. He says to me, just stay right
       there, I’ll take my 1000, I’ll buy a pience of property, and I’ll exchange my
       property for your property. I don’t have to pay taxes, I still stay invested in real
       estate, and other guy gets my real estate. Everyone is happy!
           o But you have to identify one of several properties within 45 days, and
                transactions must close within 6 months.
           o There are 1031 companies that basically have properties available to do
                these 1031 exchanges
      From a policy point of view, you can ask yourself why this generous deferral of
       tax is allowed – not taxing it currently is valuable? Sometimes it’s said that there
       are problems of valuation. But every time you have boot, you have valuation.
      Ault talked a lot about mergers – difference between exchange stocks and cash
      HYPO (§ 1233): Factory; Basis 500; FMV 1000; Property burns down; Insurance
       pays 1500 cash (at this point involuntary conversation  capital asset); suppose
       you immediately reinvest by building a new factor.
           o Under 1233, if T invests in “like-kind” property, he can defer the gain. If it
                didn’t reinvest all of it, he would be taxed on the amount not invested

10 more minutes on § 1233, and then § 121; then move on 728-34; 723-28
Involuntary Conversions

HYPO Basis = 1000; destroyed by fire; Insurance = 1500.
   Raytheon [what is the significance of this case]
   Gain = 500; Taxed as capital gain 1231 (involuntary conversation)
   What is an argument for not taxing the 500
        o It’s a forced realization
   So § 1033 allows you to reinvest the proceeds
        o Property must be “similar or related in service or use”
                 Case law and regulations go into some detail on this
                 Basis. T must reduce basis by $500, because this represented gain
                    of before-tax dollars

Suppose property A is replaced with property B
    § 1031

Comparing 1031 and 1033
   Similarity. The boot in 1031 is equivalent to the failure to reinvest in 1033
   Difference. In 1033, you can get cash, without having current recognicaiton, but
     the condition on that cash is that you have to reinvest the cash within the statutory
     period. On the other hand, you can’t get cash at all. If you get cash for a scintilla
     of time, you’re going to get recognition

§ 121. Exclusion of gain from sale or principal residence

      For a while, sale of residence was like 1033, in that you could turn around and
       reinvest in another house, and your realization would be deferred
      Unlike 1031 and 1033, 121 provision isn’t a deferral of tax, but is instead an
       exemption from tax

Present Value and § 1271
    PV, FV, n, i.
           o If you have three variables, you can always derive the fourth
    When analyzing these problems, there are two issues
           o Timing
                   Congress originally said T should be taxed currently, even though
                     he was on the cash basis, and never received the cash
                   Finally, Congress said in § 1271 that OID would have to be
                     included by the holder of the bond, and deducted currently by the
                     issuer of the bond.
                          This determines the redemption price of the bond, and the
                             issue price of the bond, and thus the OID is taxed presently
                          Taxpayer who holds the bond adjusts his basis every year,
                             adding to it, so that when he redeems the bond at the end of
                             the year, there’s no gain.
                              If someone purchases the bond from T, he steps into T’s
                               shoes.
           o Character
                 Ordinary income versus capital gain
                 Congress originally denied capital gain treatment of OID

HYPO. T1 has basis in property of 75; contracts with T2, to pay T1 133 in three years.
Why might T1 have wanted to K in that way? To 1) defer the income, and 2) characterize
the income as capital gain. But court might say that you are playing with the value of the
property. You might say that the value of the property is only 100; thus only 25 is capital
gain; the remainder is interest. To do this, Congress knows the FV and n. It also can
assume i. So Congress through § 1274 can derive PV. It will allow 25 of capital gains at
the end.

This can be favorable to T, because the Federal rate will always be low (because it won’t
default).

Market Discount

HYPO. I issue a bond which bears stated interest of 10% at a time when interest rates are
10%. This obligation is not issued as OID, because if we apply section 1271…. But
suppose then that interest rates go down, and the value of the bond goes up. What’s going
to happen? Someone will pay more for the bond than what it was issued for. In these
circumstances, the statute doesn’t worry about timing, but it does worry about character.

1276 says that that income does not qualify as capital gain; it has to be treated as ordinary
income. With respect to market discount (moving of interest rate after bond was issued),
there is a timing question that code resolvese in favor of the taxpayer; but there’s also a
characterization questions that 1276 says that the bond is not capital gain, but ordinary
gain.

So market discount is a sort of halfway house.

Homework
Tomorrow, we’ll consider the problem on TWEN. We won’t start taxation of the family.
We’ll go back over this in the context of the problem I passed out. 7872, installment
sales; go over the model exam question on website
November 21, 2006

BOAT HYPO. If X promises Y his boat (basis is 100,000) in 10 years, what are the tax
consequences? You must impute present value (issue price)

Year                         Adjusted Issue Price               Interest
1                            376,889                            38,631
2                            415,520                            42,590
…                            …                                  …
10                           1,000,000                          623,611

      Timing – 10 years
      Character-interest income – taxable currently (and deductible currently on the
       other side of the transaction)
      Gain. At year 10, there will be a realization of 276,889. This gain can be deferred
       (under the installment method) and is capital gain (because it represents the sale
       of the boat).

Market Discount. HYPO. I issue a bond with adequate stated interest. But then suppose
the interest rates go up, and the bond thus becomes less valuable. What will happen if a
third party buys the bond? The interest stream is, of course, taxed as interest as it comes
it. In addition, you theoretically might treat the discounted bond as “Original issue
discount.” But the statute doesn’t do that: with respect to “market discount,” _____ but
on the other hand T isn’t prevented from converting interest income to capital gain. See §
1276. (you can defer the gain until the end, but it has to be taxed as ordinary income.)
You can think of this as a compromise approach. The key here is that the discount has
been created on the market, by interest rates changing in the market. From the point of
view of the purchaser, economically this reflects the same thing, but Congress chose only
to take away the capital gains treatment, but not the _______.

Hypo. Suppose I have 1,000,000 in stock, and I give the dividends to my son. Interest is
taxable to the father. (See Horst, assignment of income – in this line, there is a lot that
isn’t clear, but one thing that is clear is that if I keep the tree and try to give away the
fruit, I’m going to be taxed on the fruit). What about if instead of giving the son the
dividends, I give my son a loan of 1,000,000, and with that invests in stock and receives
dividends on the stock. What is the significance of my not charging any interest on the
loan. You could treat it as a give of the interest. § 102 (gift) was not taxable to son. The
case law was that it was not a gift. Congress responded with 7872 (“below interest
loans”): in two situations (familial situations, and employer/employee situations) if there
is a loan at below interest (below, that is, the applicable federal rate) then 3 things will be
deemed to have happened: 1) father will be deemed to have made a gift to the son in the
amount of the interest for gift tax purposes (there are not income tax); son will be deemed
to have paid back to the father the applicable amt. of interest; then that interest may or
may not be applicable to the son (depending on whether how he used the loan). If he used
the loan under 163(h) that would have been deductible, then deductible, and vice-versa.
Finally, the father is deemed to have received the interest from the son. And the interest is
taxable to the father. So the interest rules that we’ve been looking at in effect create an
interest payment (deductible or not) and an interest receipt (clearly taxable) and taxing
the father on the interest receipt is related back to the original proposition of the father
transferring the investment income to the son while holding the property. Requiring him
to ___________ the income on the interest free loan is the functional equivalent of
requiring him to pay the tax on the dividends, even though those dividends are distributed
to the son.

Applicability of § 7872. If loan is below 10,000, there is no imputation. If the loan is
100,000 or less, there isn’t interest imputed beyond what the son eans on the loan. If son
uses it all for consumption, there wouldn’t be interest at all.

This same relationship would be true in the e’ee/e’er relationship.

Installment Sales

HYPO. Basis = 60; FMV = 150, Sale = 150. Terms are adequate stated interest (we’re not
dealing with 1274); 15 a year for 10 years. It depends on the accounting method. If
accrual method, he’s taxed on entire 90 gain in year 1 (because there’s a fixed obligation
to pay). But what about cash-basis taxpayer? How much of the gain is recovery of basis.

The notion of “cash-equivalence” might say that he should be taxed on the entire gain in
year 1. You could let him receive the first 60 as basis; you could say he got profit first, or
you could do what the statute does is § 453 and apply a proportion: a fraction, the
numerator of which is the gross profit on the sale, the denominator of which is the total
contact price to be paid, or in this case 6/9.

But there are circumstances in which the installment method is prohibited: if the property
could readily be sold for cash: why are you selling it over time?

T can elect out of installment sale treatment. He will then be taxed on everything in the
first year.

If transactions total >5,000,000, T must pay interest on the deferred amount of tax.

Gift and Sale of Installment Sale. Suppose collect for a few years, and then give to my
son. That’s a realization. This is one of the few places in the code where a gift is treated
as a realization event. But what’s really happening is that I’m being allowed to deferred
the tax on the gain (and it’s only these notions about liquidity that is allowing me to defer
it). In other words, the deferral privilidges is personal to me. If I try to transfer it to son
453B says that I’ll be forced to realize all of the gain that I have not realized already. In
those circumstances, the son would step into the same circumstance as I was in, but not
have to pay anything on the gain (although he would pay tax on the interest as it accrued
to him).
Suppose that the note didn’t bear adequate stated interest. This is more complicated,
because before all the property came at the end. Now it comes piecemeal. You must do
two things: 1) figure out what the property is being sold for (by discounting the payments
T is going to receive, but instead of just calculating just one payment, you have to
compute all the payments). This will tell you the issue price, and what the gain on the
property is going to be. You then apply the OID rules to calculate the amount T must
include in income, whether the T gets payment or not. This will be added to the adjusted
issue price. You don’t have to know how to do this, but it’s fun – Prof. Ault. You first get
capital back entirely, and then divide back interest and capital.

Homework
3 more classes next week: taxation of family; material on alternative minimum tax. Read
all of this for next time. Next time, we will first go over theproblme on the website; work
on taxation of family and alternative minimum tax until I finish. The last class on
Thursday will be review. Part of the previous Weds will be review.
Taxation of the Family

Drucker v. Commissioner (2nd Cir. 1982) (husband-lawyer and wife-programmer
challenge “marriage penalty” on EPC grounds)
    Significance
           o Outlines history of “family unit”
    If only individuals were taxed
           o Community property states divide income equally between spouses
           o But non-comuunity property states would tax each spouse as earned; if
               spouses earned very different amounts, then there would be a big
               difference in tax burden (horizontal inequity)
           o Some states shifted to community property regimes
    Congress responded by doubling width of single-taxpayer bracket for married
       couples filing jointly; this had the effect of dividing the income equally between
       spouses
           o But this created a problem – couples with X income would be taxed less
               than a single with X income.
    Congress responded by not doubling single-taxpayer bracket, but by multiplying
       it by approx. 1.2.
           o This created the Drucker problem: the “marriage penalty”
                    The D argued EPC, but court said that Congress can apply the rate
                       structure (married filing separately, single, head of household [we
                       won’t spend time on this], married joint return)

Three values
 Equal treatment of married couples, regardless of the division of income between
   them. (This is what we had when we had aggregation and splitting.)
 Parity between married couples and singles with same amount of income
 Avoiding tax increase on marriage

In 2001, Congress responded by keeping the larger brackets, but only at the bottom of the
rate structure. So people in the lowest brackets can split. Since they can split, there’s no
tax when they marry. But in the upper brackets, there will be an effect.

Imputed income should also be taken into account.

Another approach was to provide a deduction for two worker families, to correct for the
impute income of the single-worker family.

       Alternatives
           o Go back to simple individual taxation. The notion of pooling and sharing
               is not appropriate.
           o Allow broader pooling. Allowing broader joint returns to any “stable
               unit.”

What is a “married couple” for these purposes?
         Not a “sham marriage.” Revenue Ruling 76-255. Under the traditional
          formulation, the state law determination controlled; but under this ruling, the
          court says, following Knesh, that they will not recognize sham transactions.
         Federal Defense of Marriage Act. Says that a marriage must be between a man
          and a woman for tax purposes.

Other places where “marriage penalty” arises.
    Standard deduction. As part of trying to eliminate the marriage penalty at lower
       brackets, the standard deduction for married couple is double single deduction for
       lower brackets.
    Earned Income Credit. If two ppl. qualifing for EIC marry, they may loose some
       EIC.
    Problem of the Innocent Spouse. There is a special provision that says if an
       innocent spouse had A) no knowledge of the income, and B) no benefit from the
       income [this is harder to determine] the innocent spouse will not be liable for the
       mistake.

Takeaway
    There is a conundrum here; there are values at stake

How to treat dependant children?
   In general, they are treated as separate taxpayers
   But there are limitations: if they are claimed as a dependant, you are limited in the
      amount of standard deduction you can take (to 500, instead of 3,000).
   Kiddie Tax (§ 1(g)). Requires unearned income (income from investments)
      earned by a child under 18 has to be taxed in the child’s return, but in the parent’s
      marginal rate. The rationale is to prevent income shifting form parent to child.
      There is an exception: if income is only interest and dividends and under 5,000,
      the parents can include that in their own return. See 1(g)(7). This counts for kid’s
      paper route as well.

Divorce

                                Payor                          Payee
Alimony (right of spouse        deductible                     Taxable
leaving marriage to receive
support for his or life from
other spouse)
Child support (payment by       Non-deductible                 Non-taxable
one of the spouses to the
other spouse to support
children of the marriage)
Property Settlement             Non-deductible                 Non-taxable

Policy
       Alimony. A continued splitting of the income of the couple. They were splitting
        the income as a couple, now they are no longer married but are still splitting. So
        A) it should only be taxed once, and B) it should be taxed as a consumer.
       Child support, on the other hand is continued support of the child. So it’s non-
        deductible to the payor, and non-taxable to the payee. Same result for the property
        settlement.

History
    The characterization of “alimony” or “child support” was determined by state law,
       and designated in the divorce agreement. This let to lots of litigation. So Congress
       amended § 71 and § 215 to provide a federal definition of alimony and child
       support. under the statutory definition, alimony must be 1) paid in cash (no
       property), 2) in connection with a divorce or separation agreement (to prevent
       income splitting, and also to prevent voluntary), and 3), alimony payor and payee
       cannot be members of the same household, and 4), payments have to end at the
       death of the receiving spouse (to prevent disguised child support or property
       settlement)
    Child support. Parties can negotiate tax consequences.

§ 71. if the parties call it alimony, and it is alimony (see specific factors), then it will be
treated as such. If alimony, then deductible by payor under 215 (above the line, so you
can take the deduction even though it’s not a business expense). If it’s child support,
however, the result will be different. See the table above.

BUT. If the “alimony” payments are “front loaded” then 1) 71(f) (insanely complicated,
but easy to get around). Just don’t have 100% alimony paid in the first year, 2) if
characterized as “alimony” but is contingent (such as termination when child reaches 18),
it will be treated as child support (thus non-deductible)

What about property settlements? From point of view of payor, it’s not deductible (it’s
not buseinss related, and viewed as a type of consumption), but for payee it’s not such an
easy question. On the one hand, you can say that the property rights are consumed by
payee, so they should be taxable; on the other hand the recipient does have an increase
power to consume, like gifts, one or the other should pay the tax, but not both, so payee
should be able to exclude it.

HYPO. Payer has basis in property of 200, FMV of 1000, transfers at 1000 to other
spouse. Person receiving property won’t be taxed on the property. But question is, what
happens to the appreciation. Prior to § 1041, the appreciation turned on state law and the
nature of state law rights. This is the Davis case. There the Supreme Coufrt said that
whether the payor did or did not realize gain on the property settlement was determined
by state law – whether the spouses rights depended on joint ownership, or whether the
rights on state law were more like a claim on the property, and this was more like the
property being transferred to satisfy the claim. If the latter, then there would be tax on the
transferor. This resulted in messy litigation. Congress responded by enacted § 1041,
which reverses Davis, when transfer is made between married persons, and also transfers
incident to diverose (persons not married, within one year) then there will be no
realization on the part of the payor, and the payee will take a carryover basis. Unlike the
case law, which put the tax on the appreciation of the payor in certain circumstances on
the payor, under 1041, the appreciation will always be on the payee. So it’s like 1015 –
no realization on the transfer, and the basis carries over. But it’s beyond 1015, because
it’s a carryover both for gain and for loss.

                               Payor                           Payee
Cash                           1000
Property                       1000                            800


Homework
Finish family taxation; look at property settlements, look at ante-nuptial case; look at
AMT

Ante-Nupital Cacse

Suppose transfer is not in connection with divorce, but is in connection with marital
rights. This occurs in the context of a ante-nuptial agreement. Normally this would take
place after the marriage (1041 would apply). But the Farid case is different because for
whatever reason, the transfer was made in respect of marital rights, but it was made
before the marriage took place, so even today, this fact patter would not be governed by
1041. the issue in the case was whether the wife _______. Carryover basis or FMV gift?
Court ruled it was not a gift; she was giving up her marital rights. There was a
conundrum, because if transfer was recognized by payor, then ____, but if he doesn’t
recognize the gain, and she doesn’t either, then the appreciation goes untaxed.


AMT

We have seen that there are a lot of tax expenditures. Should the people who minimize
their taxes by following the tax expenditure guidelines get rewarded? Or have to pay an
AMT. The latter. But why? Congress is concerned with the “excessive” use of tax
expenditures, and they could get at them with the AMT. There also a problem of public
reception (“GE Paid no Taxes), and this lessens confidence, which ends up with Joe
Taxpayer paying less tax.

Structure. With regard to the rate structure, there is a 62,500 exemption for married
couples. This is the “0 bracket.” After that, the tax rate is 26%. At 175,000 is goes to
28%. So it’s a tax with a big exemption, and a relatively tax rate. This is applied to
“alternative minimum taxable income.” This starts with regular taxable income, and adds
back a number of items which were excludable or deductible (accelerated deprecation,
certain stock option gains, but most importantly: state/local tax (deductible) personal
exemptions and standard deductions, and miscellaneous itemized deductions (§ 212)).
Less significant are medical deductions (only exceeding 10%), home equity interest
(163(h) is also added back. Comparing the tax from the AMT and the regular tax, you
pay the larger.

More and more people we be hit by AMT in years to come.

What could be done with the AMT?
   Since the tax base is broader, it might help raise taxes
   Repeal AMT? Raise the regular tax rate?
   VAT
       Exam

Multiple choice on a fact pattern (1/3)
Short answers like hypos we worked on in class (1/3)
Essay question (1/3)

Less is more

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:40
posted:1/8/2012
language:English
pages:71