; Encoded archival description _EAD_ conversion a methodological
Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Encoded archival description _EAD_ conversion a methodological


  • pg 1
Encoded archival                                                     Informational services should be re-examined
description (EAD)                                                    regularly to make sure that all types of materials
conversion: a                                                        and electronic formats are used, and that
                                                                     integrated access to informational sources ±
methodological                                                       even external ones ± can be offered. It is not a
proposal                                                             matter of starting from square one, as Croft
                                                                     (1995) would say, when referring to the current
                                                                     lines of research in information retrieval (IR),
Eduardo Peis
                                                                     but rather of reorienting efforts.
Felix de Moya and                                                       This need to adapt is even more crucial in the
J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina                                           case of archives, because of their special
                                                                     characteristics, and the scarcity of standards,
The authors                                                          economic resources and administrative
Eduardo Peis is Professor, Felix de Moya is Dean and
                                                                        If archives adjusted to the new technological
J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina is Professor, all at the Facultad
de Biblioteconomõa y Documentacion, Universidad de
                Â                 Â
                                                                     possibilities, they might be exemplary in making
Granada, Granada, Spain.
                                                                     efficient use of resources and increasing the
                                                                     degree of use of the information. One key step
                                                                     on this road to adaptation is the design of
                                                                     structured finding aids that would facilitate
Archives, Standard Generalized Mark-up Language, Spain               Web diffusion of archival information, as well as
                                                                     the re-utilization of this material in the form of
Abstract                                                             varied information objects.
The eventual adaptation of archives to new technological                The special features of archival material make
possibilities could begin with the creation of digital versions of   it necessary to develop such systems with
archival finding aids, which would allow the international           consideration of the following aims, to:
diffusion of descriptive information. The Standard Generalized       .     present in an extensive and interrelated
Markup Language (SGML), document type definition (DTD) for                 sense, the descriptive information normally
archival description known as encoded archival description                 contained in finding aids;
(EAD) is an appropriate tool for this purpose. Presents a            .     preserve the hierarchical relations that exist
methodological strategy that begins with an analysis of EAD                among the levels of description;
and the informational object to be marked up, allowing the           .     represent the descriptive information that is
semiautomatic creation of a digital version.                               ``inherited'' from one level to another;
                                                                     .     ``browse'' through a hierarchical
Electronic access                                                          information architecture; and
                                                                     .     index and retrieve specific elements[1].
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is
available at                                                         These needs can be satisfied by creating a
http://www.emerald-library.com                                       digital version of the finding aids, and encoding
                                                                     the structured descriptive information with a
                                                                     mark-up language that conforms to
                                                                     international standards.
                                                                       Library systems are beginning to use
                                                                     Standard Generalized Markup Language
                                                                     (SGML) for importing/exporting information
                                                                     in an electronic format, and for creating
                                                                     databases that allow the inclusion of
                                                                     information in multiple formats (Corthouts and
Library Hi Tech
Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . pp. 360±368                            Philips, 1996). SGML allows the logical
# MCB University Press . ISSN 0737-8831                              structure of electronic documents to be
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                         Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                 Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

represented explicitly and rigorously, in an                               elements such as title, dates, scope and
unequivocal and independent form that is                                   contents) and a formatted list of the parts that
internationally recognized, regardless of                                  contain that unit (Gilliland-Swetland, 1996).
applications and systems (International                                       We can no longer conceive an ``up-to-date''
Organization for Standardization, 1986).                                   informational service without taking into
   By means of marks, SGML describes the                                   account the World Wide Web. HTML (or its
structural components of an electronic                                     foreseeable variations) is not adequate for
document, identifying each part according to its                           extracting many of the hypertext or hypermedia
purpose in the given text or context[2]. Because                           possibilities of the Web. With SGML these
SGML is a means to describe a language                                     possibilities are greatly increased, but precisely
formally, it is known as a meta-language.                                  for this reason, their Web implementation is
   The structured information is ``analyzed'' in                           costly to say the very least (and may be simply
the sense that it is divided into component                                impossible). Because of this, a set of subsidiary
parts, which in turn have components, and so                               standards is being developed under the auspices
on. If the components can be identified, then                              of the W3C: Extensible Markup Language, or
they can be processed as well. At present                                  XML[4]. It has ``complementary''
SGML is, for many reasons, the best option for                             specifications in the form of Extensible Style
conceptually codifying a document's structural                             Language (XSL) and Xlink (XML linking
units in the broadest sense. First, it is a                                language) to enhance SGML potential while
generalized public standard, independent of                                allowing the distribution of informational
manufacturers and distributors, which ensures                              products over the Web.
its permanence. Second, it does not impose a                                  The current EAD model (version 1.0) offers
fixed set of components: the structures can be                             the option of using XML. It is possible to
defined by the user, under the concept of                                  activate/de-activate the variant sections SGML/
``document type''. Therefore, it is remarkably                             XML option using the SGML feature called
flexible and consistent, adapting to whatever                              ``marked sections''.
alphabetical system may have been used to                                     Despite the apparent advantages of applying
write the text. Finally, it breaks down the                                this model, many archival systems can run into
structure of the presentation, as it is a                                  formidable difficulties in converting the finding
descriptive rather than procedural codification.                           aids from paper to digital form, because of
For these reasons, more and more applications                              having to adjust the information components of
are using SGML as a basic tool[3].                                         these tools to an EAD structural mode. The
   It is easy to understand why the first attempt                          most obvious solution would be to key in all the
to apply a standardized code to instruments of                             data again, following the DTD EAD, but this
archival description ± initiated by the University                         may not be feasible in view of the ± usually ±
of California at Berkeley and directed by Daniel                           enormous volume of such finding aids. The
Pitti ± selected SGML as the ideal technique for                           objective of our study was to confirm the
carrying out such a codification.                                          viability of conversion through the development
   This project designed a document type                                   of a pilot ad hoc system, and to show that the
definition (DTD) to describe a class of                                    process can confer an added value.
documents which consists of an optional title                                 SGML conversion normally implies the
page, the description of a unit of archival                                construction of a bridge between the world of
material, and appendixes, which are also                                   the printed document or word processor (in
optional. The title page could include varied                              which the logical structure is visually perceived
elements such as the identification of the                                 by the reader) and the ``intelligent'' document
repository, or the type of descriptive tool. The                           (in which the logical structure is explicitly
descriptive component, in agreement with the                               codified). In effect, SGML encodes the logical
DTD, would offer a brief description of the unit                           structure; yet in most documents this structure
(using markable elements analogous to those                                is expressed visually, not by means of well
employed in a MARC cataloging record), a                                   defined marks. When converting to SGML, the
broader narrative description of the unit plus                             implicit structure must be made explicit
any of its separate parts (including markable                              (Severson, 1995).
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                         Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                 Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

   Therefore, in general terms, our proposal                               the International Standard Archival
consists of an analysis of the SGML model to                               Description-General (ISAD-G). The ISAD-G
which conversion is intended, focusing on the                              (International Council on Archives, 1994),
DTD EAD and the documents that are going to                                developed by the International Council on
be converted (finding aids). This approach                                 Archives, can be considered the semantic and
allows the process to be arranged as a                                     syntactic intellectual foundation of archival
production line. As we shall see, nearly all this                          description. EAD, then, would be the
line can be automated with an appropriate                                  standardized communication format, the
strategy and proper software tools.                                        formal part of that intellectual structure. From
                                                                           this standpoint, EAD is based on ISAD-G.
                                                                             The EAD model contains two types of
Methodology                                                                elements:
                                                                           (1) those that encode specific points in the
If we bear in mind the variety of situations                                    description of component parts of either the
involving archival informational services, the                                  finding aids or the original materials (i.e.
advantages of designing a modular method                                        the descriptive elements); and
become apparent. Our approach involves three                               (2) those that could encode any characteristic
separate stages:                                                                of the document (i.e. the generic elements).
(1) previous analysis;
                                                                           The latter are, however, generally included
(2) capture/conversion; and
                                                                           among the descriptive elements.
(3) translation/organization.
                                                                             EAD uses the term ``finding aid'' to refer to
The first methodological stage may be the most                             any hierarchical tool that has been codified
important one. The initial analysis must                                   using EAD, and that allows either the record-
contemplate both the DTD EAD and the                                       creator or the user to access the materials that
descriptive instrument per se. The purpose of                              are being described.
these preliminary analyses is threefold, to:                                 At a very basic level, a finding aid that is
(1) corroborate the adequacy of the SGML                                   codified using EAD will have three segments:
    model to the descriptive instrument that is                            (1) one that provides information about the
    to be labeled;                                                             finding aid itself, such as its title, the name
(2) study the possible structural                                              of its compiler, and date of compilation
    correspondence to find those informational                                 (<eadheader>);
    elements that are not presented in the                                 (2) a second component that includes the
    ``traditional'' finding aid model and will                                 preliminary matters necessary for the
    have to be added ``manually''; and                                         formal publication of the description
(3) discover the physical and logical                                          (<frontmatter>); and
    characteristics of the format of the ``source''                        (3) a third that provides the description of the
    document that will automatically allow                                     archival material itself, in addition to
    SGML labeling.                                                             related contextual and administrative
                                                                               information (<findaid>).
These initial assessments will also enable us to
make important methodological decisions with                               The <eadheader>, which is based on the
respect to the possibilities of application of the                         ``header'' element of the SGML Text Encoding
model, such as the type of description (in                                 Initiative (TEI) model[5], uses four sub-
depth, analytical or combined) that best reflects                          elements ± <filedesc>, <profiledesc>,
the scope of the information to be converted.                              <revisiondesc> and <requiredft> ± to capture
  We must be familiar with EAD to be certain                               or contain most of the information that is
that it works for the task at hand. The DTD                                normally recorded about the creation,
EAD (Pitti, 1999) was designed to reflect the                              publication and use of a ``finding aid
inherent hierarchy of the collections, in                                  document''. Additional information about this
conjunction with the intellectual organization                             document that does not fit the TEI model can
that archivists impose with their descriptive                              be included in the <frontmatter> element,
practices. Archival description is regulated by                            which in turn includes the <titlepage> and
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                         Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                 Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

<div> elements and reflects details of an                                  complex. The macro functions of text
introductory sort (e.g. preface or introduction)                           processors or design-conversion scripts may be
that are needed for the formal publication of the                          used to relate the content of the elements
finding aid.                                                               pertaining to the database records with the
   In the <findaid> element, two types of                                  corresponding elements of the SGML model,
information may be presented under two main                                by inserting the proper labels. Those finding
sub-elements. The (``archival description'')                               aids that do not exist in an electronic format
element, which can be considered as the                                    must be previously converted, either by
fundamental component of EAD, presents                                     recreating the finding aid or by using optical
hierarchically organized information that                                  character recognition (OCR) technology.
describes a unit of records (or papers) together                              In either digital or printed form the
with their component parts (or divisions). In                              inconsistencies of formatting, or even individual
addition, <archdesc> has several ``high level''                            descriptive idiosyncrasies, may complicate the
descriptive categories that serve as ``containers''                        conversion process. For this reason, there is an
for more specific descriptive components.                                  essential second stage: the formal analysis of the
   The most important of the high level                                    information object to be converted. The
elements is <did>, or descriptive identification,                          application of uniform formatting
which will contain those elements needed to                                characteristics (including tabulation, spaces,
identify the title, creator, date of creation, and                         and regular columns) leads to the automatic
volume. The element ``additional descriptive                               identification of the different information
data'', or <add>, contains supplementary,                                  elements, thereby permitting them to be
optional information that does not directly                                labeled.
describe the records, yet facilitates their use by                            The next step is the process of capture and
researchers (for example, a bibliography).                                 conversion. Capture by scanning implies
<Archsdesc> also contains an element that                                  OCR processing. In this scenario, the
provides a detailed analysis of the collection                             inconsistencies of formatting we mentioned
materials: <dsc> or description of subordinate                             earlier are further complicated by the
components. The <dsc> element has a                                        omnipresent OCR errors. This calls for
repeatable element, <c> (component), which                                 double OCR processing: first, for the
may include all the descriptive elements that                              elimination of errors and proper identification
appear in <archdesc>. In this way, <c> can be                              of the formatting characteristics that will
subdivided into other <c>'s until arriving at the                          discriminate the structural elements, and
simplest elements that make up the record pool.                            secondly, for the proper configuration of the
   Whatever attribute or value is used to                                  OCR software (using, for example, the
describe material on one level is automatically                            capacity for manually creating ``zones''). In
``inherited'' by the elements at subordinated                              this way, those features of the format that will
levels, unless the EAD specifies otherwise.                                be crucial for their later conversion can be
   The attributes reflect defined properties of an                         saved.
element, and can take on different values,                                    Our proposal treats this second
depending on the context in which they appear.                             methodological phase as an intermediate
In order to set up one or more attributes, a                               stage, since it includes the use of a non-
codifier should include the name of the                                    proprietary application for SGML
attribute (using the same angle-brackets ``<>''                            conversion, such as Rainbow Maker[6]. This
that are used to define mark-up labels) and its                            program uses information on a paragraph or
value.                                                                     character basis, or even on the basis of
   The point of this first phase, in general terms,                        common attributes that are not style-
is that all the information contained in a                                 dependent, in order to insert labels (in this
traditional finding aid can be structured using                            case Rainbow labels) to set off and indicate
the elements that constitute the EAD.                                      the relevant chains of text. Although Rainbow
   For archives with electronic finding aids, the                          is itself an SGML format (a DTD, to be more
process of converting to EAD is not terribly                               specific), it is not appropriate for the
time-consuming, though it is somewhat                                      permanent representation of data, because it
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                          Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                  Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

only reflects that structure or content                                    aid ``system entity reference''. The ``plantilla''
identification that is given in the original                               file should also hold the information
document.                                                                  contained in the elements <eadheader> and
   Engaging in this intermediate step instead of                           <frontmatter>. Also, before processing, it is
directly using a programming aid for conversion                            necessary to configure the attributes in order
may be more time-consuming in the short term.                              to match the EAD declarations.
However, in the mid-term, it provides dual                                    In applying attributes, we naturally take
benefits. On the one hand, we now have an                                  advantage of the so-called ``default'' values.
intermediary SGML file that can be used, after                             Default values are automatically given by the
applying conversion routines, to generate                                  system if the encoder of the finding aid does
multiple informational objects; and on the other                           not specify an alternative value. For example,
hand, its use of common characteristics will                               within the <ead> element, which indicates to
simplify the production of specifications                                  the computer that the document is encoded in
applicable to more than one finding aid, thereby                           EAD, there is an attribute called audience.
enhancing the automation process. Although                                 It indicates whether the contents of the
using a database with Rainbow files requires                               encoded document are of free public access,
more space for memory, it affords the benefit of                           or private and restricted. If the coder does not
``pivot'' files that allow the direct unfiltered                           specify ``private'', the system automatically
conversion of SGML to XML, or the placing of                               interprets the attribute as public. A different
already processed descriptive information on to                            example would be the manual manipulation
an ISAD-G style-sheet. Moreover, indexing,                                 of an attribute such as type, which can
organizational and selection routines may be                               affect elements like <archdesc> or <dsc>.
re-utilized, requiring only slight adaptations.                            For instance, <dsc> may be configured to
   The final phase consists of designing scripts                           have a value ``analyticover'', indicating to
for translating Rainbow to EAD and, finally,                               the processor that the description of
organizing the SGML labels. The end step                                   component parts is presented in the form of a
allows us to connect all the informational                                 summary.
components necessary for obtaining the                                        For our trial, notes were defined on the basis
complete archival product.                                                 of their location. All the elements that could be
                                                                           used in a great number of other elements were
                                                                           defined generically, but their state (that is,
Results                                                                    ``required/not required'', ``repeatable/not
                                                                           repeatable'') was determined by the element in
We chose a printed inventory to test our                                   which each was included.
proposal: the stock of the Archives of the                                    This configuration of information was also
Infante don Gabriel de Borbon (Mut, 1985), a                               included in the ``maestro'' file. The use of a
work of high quality printing, relatively simple                           master file makes processing easier by saving
description, and very manageable volume.                                   space and increasing the automatic component
   The process is semi-automatic. It requires                              of the process, as redundancies are avoided.
the manual introduction of any information                                 The other file, ``plantilla'', features an identifier
needed for the SGML document that is not                                   (ID) that was used as a pointer to connect the
found in the source document. This involves                                information with the product of conversion
using two files, one that will be considered an                            process. This procedure facilitates handling the
internal entity (the file designated as                                    files.
``plantilla'') and another that is an external                                Part of the content of the ``maestro'' file of
entity or system entity (the ``maestro'' file).                            our trial can be seen in Figure 1.
For example, the explanations of system                                       The capture and OCR processing of the
(content-type, content-ID, and content                                     paper finding aid comprises a series of files.
description), the EAD clarification (in this                               Each file contains text in Rich Text Format
case, DTD version 1.0), and the entity                                     (RTF) and holds information about the
references are made from the ``plantilla'' file                            existence of fonts (bold and cursive), as well as
to the ``maestro'' system file using the SGML                              a precise representation of the page layout
                 Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                         Library Hi Tech
                      Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                                     Â                              Â                                 Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

Figure 1 Sample of Maestro file                                                             This document instance, or any other obtained
                                                                                            through the same procedure, can be validated
                                                                                            against its DTD using an SGML/XML parser,
                                                                                            in our case James Clark's ``XP''[8].


                                                                                            The use of SGML is presented as a reasonable
                                                                                            choice for information services, because it
                 (including tabs and blank lines). Figure 2 offers
                                                                                            allows proper electronic processing, and is not
                 an example.
                                                                                            overly complicated. It is well suited to the
                    Rainbow Makers uses the information
                                                                                            rigorous logical structure of bibliographic
                 regarding the format and logic of the processed
                                                                                            descriptions, in addition to text. It also allows
                 documents contained in these files to insert the                           flexibility in the inclusion of both MARC and
                 Rainbow DTD labels, and the product is then                                non-MARC descriptive elements, and
                 placed in a single file. The part of the Rainbow                           permits the interconnection of multiple
                 file corresponding to the above example, then,                             information objects. Moreover, SGML
                 is shown in Figure 3. Some spaces and tabs                                 addresses the problem of special characters
                 were introduced to make the sample easier to                               through the technique of entity references,
                 read.                                                                      and it controls the quality of the input
                    Using language aids from the Practical                                  through the features of the parser. On the
                 Extraction and Report Language                                             other hand, the separation of the structure of
                 programming (perl)[7], we proceeded to                                     the document from its particular style of
                 translate the Rainbow labels to EAD labels in                              representation makes it possible to use SGML
                 ``object by object'' fashion, principally using                            documents for a variety of purposes (e.g. in a
                 character level format (CLF) and location                                  Web environment, or in CD-ROM
                 information (WPLOC). After that, these                                     databases), and with different end-user
                 objects were organized according to the                                    formats (e.g. HTML, private formats, or
                 document type. The perl aid was used to                                    markup languages specifically oriented to
                 match chains against a ``pattern'' document.                               printed copies, such as RTF, LaTeX, or
                 Once saved, the resulting file is connected to                             Post-Script).
                 the essential data contained in the ``plantilla''                             SGML encoding of archival descriptive
                 file, again producing a single file. The EAD                               elements ± accessible either locally or online ±
                 document model corresponding to the                                        simplifies, improves and expands access to
                 proposed example, in an abbreviated form, is                               archival collections, making it possible to
                 given in Figure 4.                                                         connect catalog records with finding aids. It
                                                                                            also allows keyword searches in connected sets
                                                                                            of finding aids, thus enabling the retrieval of
Figure 2 Sample of the printed inventory                                                    information that would otherwise remain
                                                                                               EAD constitutes an ideal DTD SGML
                                                                                            for representing the structure of the
                                                                                            archival description elements, since it not
                                                                                            only describes the physical and intellectual
                                                                                            constituents of the documents, but also
                                                                                            preserves the hierarchical relationships
                                                                                            between these elements. This permits
                                                                                            ``browsing'' over levels of description, without
                                                                                            duplicating information. The fact that it fully
                                                                                            complies with international standards for
                                                                                            artificial description, such as the International
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                         Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                 Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

Figure 3 After Rainbow DTD processing

Standard Archival Description (ISAD) and                                   method allows the use of intermediary products
other standards and formats, such as MARC,                                 of the conversion process, thus maximizing the
serves as a guarantee of its versatility.                                  yield of the given resources. The simplicity of
   On the basis of our results, we can affirm that                         the SGML file and the versatility of the possible
it is possible to develop a method that allows a                           indexing routines facilitate the use of advanced
semi-automatic conversion of paper finding aids                            retrieval methods.
into EAD, using technology now in wide use.                                  Even though SGML is highly complex, it
The use of SGML as a key part of the proposed                              may be transformed into XML. One strategy
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                        Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

Figure 4 Corresponding EAD document

for making optimal use of archival resources is                            almost instantly converted, putting multiple
to have multiple databases with a variety of                               presentation options at our disposal via the
information objects (e.g. descriptive                                      XSL specification, including an effective
information, contextual information, or                                    means for the creation of hyperlinks using the
digital images). The information could be                                  XML Link specification.
Encoded archival description (EAD) conversion: a methodological proposal                            Library Hi Tech
     Eduardo Peis, Felix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernandez-Molina
                    Â                              Â                                    Volume 18 . Number 4 . 2000 . 360±368

Notes                                                                      Croft, W.B. (1995), ``What do people want from information
                                                                                  retrieval?: (The top 10 research issues for companies that
  1 Development of the Encoded Archival Description                               use and sell IR systems)'', D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 1 No. 6,
    Document Type Definition, available: http://                                  available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november95/
    www.loc.gov/ead/eadback.html                                                  11croft.html
  2 Sperberg-Mc Queen, C.M. and Burnard, L., A Gentle                      Gilliland-Swetland, A.J. (1996), Encoded Archival Description
    Introduction to SGML, available: http://www-                                  Document Type Definition (DTD). Applications
    tei.uic.edu/orgs/tei/sgml/teip3sg/SG.htm                                      Guidelines Technical Document No. 1, Library of
  3 Cover, R., The SGML/XML Web Page, available: http://                          Congress and Society of American Archivist,
    www.oasis-public.com/cover                                                    Washington, DC, available: http://www.loc.gov/ead/
  4 W3Consortium, XML WP, available: http://                               International Council on Archives (1994), ISAD(G): General
    www.w3.org/xml                                                                International Standard Archival Description, Adopted
  5 TEI Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and                               by the Ad Hoc Commission on Descriptive Standards,
    Interchange (P3), available: http://etext.virginia.edu/                       Stockholm, Sweden, 21-23 January 1993, International
    TEI.html                                                                      Council on Archives, Ottawa, Ontario, available: http://
  6 Sklar, D., ``Accelerating conversion to SGML via the                          www.archives.ca/ica/cds/isad(g)e.wp
    Rainbow format'', Electronic Book Technologies EBT,                    International Organization for Standardization (1986),
    available: http://ftp.sunet.se/pub/text-processing/                           ISO 8879-1986 (E), Information Processing ± Text and
    sgml/Rainbow/Rainbow.why                                                      Office Systems ± Standard Generalized Markup
  7 Practical Extraction and Report Language (perl),                              Language (SGML), International Organization for
    available: http://www.bme.unc.edu/facilities/software/                        Standardization, Geneva.
    perl/perlIndex.html                                                    Mut, A. (1985), Inventario del archivo del Infante don
  8 XP ± James Clark's XML parser in Java. Version 0.4                                              Â
                                                                                  Gabriel de Borbon, Direccion General de Bellas Artes y
    available: http://www.jclark.com/xml/xp/index.html                            Archivos, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, p. 49.
                                                                           Pitti, D.V. (1999), ``Encoded archival description. An
                                                                                  introduction and overview'', D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 5
                                                                                  No. 11, available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/
References                                                                        november99/11pitti.html
                                                                           Severson, E. (1995), ``The art of SGML conversion: eating
Corthouts, J. and Philips, R. (1996), ``SGML: a librarian's                       your vegetables and enjoying dessert'', available:
      perception'', The Electronic Library, Vol. 14 No. 2,                        http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/seversonVeg.html
      pp. 101-10.                                                                 (mirror copy).


To top