รายงานการศึกษาอุตสาหกรรม Thai Digital Content White Paper: Animation & Games 2006 แอนิเมชั่นและเกมของไทยป 2549 บทสรุปผูบริหาร Executive Summary สํานักงานสงเสริมอุตสาหกรรมซอฟตแวรแหงชาติ (องคการมหาชน) บริษัท ศูนยการพัฒนาความรู จํากัด Software Industry Promotion Agency Knowledge Development Center Co., Ltd. Executive Summary Thai Digital Content White Paper: Animation and Games Present Software Industry Promotion Agency Prepared by Knowledge Development Center Co., Ltd. 28 September 2007 Table of Content Page Introduction: Thai Animation and Gaming Industry 3 Policies, Planning and Promotions 5 Thailand’s Animation Industry: Market and Trend 8 Thailand’s Movie Market and Consumer Behaviors 11 Thailand’s Gaming Industry: Market and Trend 13 Thai Gaming Industry by Game Platform 15 Thailand’s Game Productions 18 Thailand’s Game Users 19 Thailand’s Competitive Advantage: Animation and Games 24 Glossary of Terms 26 Committee and Credits 29 Introduction: Thai Animation and Gaming Industry In recent years, a wide range of Thai digital content, including animation, web and graphic design, video games, software and even mobile phone applications have rapidly grown concurrent with the domestic demand and global booming digital content business. The global market value is astounding and was estimated to exceed US$165,500 million in 20051 and is projected to be US$271,300 million in 2007, of which 30%2 is shared by the Asia-Pacific region market. In an industry mostly dominated by big corporations from western countries, Thailand's animation and game industries are working in the early stage to create a position in a global market worth billions. High levels of creativity, reasonable cost, and overall performance make Thailand very competitive in the field. Thai animation and game are among the most thriving industries in the Thai digital content arena. Animation and other computer graphic services including post production are vital parts of the nation’s strong film and advertising industries. On the demand side, the first Thai 3D animated film scored the highest box office revenue ever, surpassing those of giant studio productions from North America. For the gaming industry, Thai game developers are receiving more contract deals from foreign game producers. The demand for gaming has also skyrocketed since online games debuted in the market in 2002. While today’s animation and game industries are led by Japan, Korea, and the U.S., Thailand is creating a position in the world market, aided by continuing government support, increasing university cooperation, and a growing network of business units in the Thai animation and game value chain. 1 Kasikorn Thai Research Center 2 Roncarelli Report on The Computer Animation Industry 2003 Policies, Planning and Promotions Unlike other Asian counterparts, Thailand’s digital content industry is considered part of the nation’s software industry even though some put it within the cultural and entertainment industry. The Royal Thai Government aims to promote the digital content industry through the software technology base provided the software industry environment is ready to support the digital content at its premature stage. Thus, in 2003, the Software Industry Promotion Agency (Public Organization) or SIPA was founded under Thailand's Information and Communication Technology National Development Plan. Realizing the significance of the software industry development within which the digital content industry is included, the government considers the software industry one of the primary strategies for enhancing the country's industrial capacities. It aims at increasing the effectiveness in quality services or products manufacturing process, applying into the workplace, and successfully competing with other countries. SIPA’s main missions are: - To develop the standard of animation and game human resources and organization. - to develop animation and software game products and content up to the international standard - to collaborate with international partners and develop a marketing network for co-production, joint venture, and knowledge transfer for the Thai animation and game industry - to promote the strength and capability of Thai animation and game entrepreneurs in the international market arena Included in SIPA’s strategic plan for the digital content industry are to drive the industry to reach 30,000 million Baht by year 2010, and to promote Thailand as a center for digital content and multimedia education in the Asia- Pacific Region. The strategic planning is divided into 5 parts as follows: 1) Digital Content Industry Development Planning SIPA set up a committee comprised of professionals from both business and academic fields to form a Digital Content Committee. The main responsibilities of this committee are to advise and cooperate with SIPA in developing policy and planning for the following areas. - Industry promotional planning and monitoring - Strategic marketing planning for domestic and international markets - Research and technological development for the digital content industry - Skill development and production efficiency improvement The Digital Content Committee is working closely with BANGKOK ACM SIGGRAPH, the Thailand chapter of a special interest group for computer graphic, in developing a detailed action plan for the National Strategic Planning for Multimedia and Animation Industry Development. 2) Skill Development and Human Resource Planning The main focus of SIPA in supporting the digital content industry is human resources development through education, skill training, and competency enhancement in animation and software game production. The program is to get Executive Summary 5 Thai resources well prepared for changes and needs in global production outsourcing of the digital content industry. The skill development and human resource planning aim to raise the standard of Thai personnel through three programs; training for software program skills needed in animation and game production, training in pre-professional and professional level for higher level of work force such as art director, creative director and game programmer, and assisting universities in developing courses in animation and gaming. Every year SIPA launches projects for animation and game work force development and encourages students and professionals to participate in these projects which are Animation and Multimedia Contest Seminar for Professionals Animation Training (Maya Program) Pre-professional Training TAM Camp which aims to get young students in primary education as well as school art teachers for participating in animation and multimedia training 3) Industry Facilitation - North Animation Studio (NAS) is set up in Chiang Mai province of Thailand to facilitate the production businesses because of low cost equipment rental including motion capture and rendering farm. - Bangkok Digital Content Center (BDCC) is established in Bangkok as a facility for motion capture and high technology motion programming for animation, game, feature film, and TV commercial. Private companies and entrepreneurs can rent the space and machine. 4) Digital Content Creation Promotion - 30% funding support for a digital content entrepreneur as a co-production partner. The first project to receive this fund is Khan Kluay, the first Thai animation feature film. - Supports for research and technological development and application - Regulates the usage of character and assists in character licensing - Thailand Animation & Multimedia Award which is the annual competition for animation development studios to present their work for the prize of 1 million Baht. - SIPA Pitch Program which is an animation business plan competition opens for public to participate. The winner of SIPA Pitch gets the money prize of 1 million Baht to execute the project proposed. 5) Domestic and International Market Penetration SIPA promotes Thai digital content by funding animation and game production business so they can attend and participate in the world events to exhibit Thai production and get the international investors and producers to acknowledge Thai digital content capacity as well as networking. Besides the exhibition of work, SIPA also initiates business by matching major investors and producers of animation and game and facilitating trade negotiation and collaboration. In addition, SIPA has executed MOU signings with organizations and government agencies in other countries in collaboration and knowledge Executive Summary 6 exchange for digital content industry development. Major events that SIPA participates in are the following. - CBIT (Capacity Building for Information Technology Integration) - E3, the E3 Media and Business Summit, formerly known as the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3), and commonly known as E3, is an annual trade show for the computer and video games industry presented by the Entertainment Software Association - GSTAR, Game Show & Trade, All-Round, held annually in Korea - Tokyo International Cartoon & Animation Fair - Hong Kong Film Mart - International Anime Fair - Shanghai Animation Festival - Seoul International Cartoon & Animation Fair - Tokyo Game Show Major domestic events, as shown below, are held every year to promote animation and game markets and stimulate business networking among Thai and International companies. - Thailand Animation and Game Multimedia (TAM) - Thailand Animation Film Festival (TAFF) Furthermore, SIPA has in negotiated with software developers to offer licensed software at discounted prices in Thailand in an effort to combat piracy and develop advanced software tools accessible to students and professionals. Another government agency that has been working closely with SIPA is the Office of the Board of Investment of Thailand or the BOI. SIPA is driving the nation’s efforts to compete in the industry, working in conjunction with the BOI to promote development in three main areas: enterprise software, digital content, and embedded software. The digital content that is eligible for the BOI promotion program includes the following; 1) Software 2) Computer-generated imagery: includes animation, cartoons, and characters 3) Web-based applications 4) Interactive applications 5) Games: include Windows-based, Mobile Platform, Console, PDA, Online Games, Massive Multi-Player Online Games 6) Wireless location based service content 7) Visual effects 8) Multimedia video conferencing applications 9) E-learning content via broadband and multimedia 10) Computer-aided instruction Proposed projects that meet certain industry criteria and are approved by SIPA will be eligible for BOI tax incentives and visa facilitation services for foreign experts. These projects will also be classified as a priority activity and will receive exemption from machinery import duties and corporate income tax exemption, without an upper limit, for a period of 8 years. Executive Summary 7 Thailand’s Animation Industry: Market and Trend Thai animation industry can be divided into 3 main categories according to the type of production. Long form animation includes feature film and TV series. Short form animation covers the area of TV commercials, music VDO and animation clips for presentation. The last group is computer graphic services including post production, visual effects, and other presentations mostly in entertainment and architecture businesses. The following shows animation categories and sub categories. Long Form Animation for Feature Film Animation for TV Series Animation on VCD, DVD Short Form Animation for TV Commercial Animation for Music VDO CG Service Post Production Services Visual Effects and Presentation Architectural Visualization Thai animation industry has grown rapidly in the past four years. The 2006 nation’s market value was estimated at 4,500 million Baht with an average annual growth rate of 18%. Long form animation captured more than half of the overall Thai animation market at about 58% with estimated revenue of 2,600 million Baht. Second to the long form group is computer graphic service which was approximately 40% of the total market at the value of about 1,800 million Baht. Short form animation had the least popularity among the three categories with only 2% of the total market value. Million Baht 4,530 4500 4000 3,840 3,485 3500 41% CG Service 38% Short Form 3000 Long Form 36% 2500 1% 1% 2000 1% 58% 63% 61% 1500 1000 Year 2004 2005 2006 Figure 1 Thailand’s Animation Market Value by Category Looking into the sub categories of Thai animation consumption, the feature film market showed a solid 150% growth from market revenue of 75 million Baht in 2005 to 190 million Baht in 2006. Post production services took second in Executive Summary 8 revenue market share with approximately of 890 million Baht in 2004 to about 1,250 million Baht in 2006, which was a 33% growth over the past year. Table 1 Thailand’s Animation Market Value by Production Category 2004 2005 2006 Type Production Category (million Bht) (million Bht) (million Bht) Animation Feature Film 100 75 190 Long Form Animation TV Series 1,400 1,500 1,600 Animation Movie on VCD, DVD 670 770 850 Total Long Form Market Value 2,170 2,345 2,640 Short Form Animation TV Commercial 43 47 50 Total Short Form Market Value 43 47 50 Post Production 890 940 1,250 CG Services Visual Effects & Presentation 90 180 230 Architectural Visualization 290 330 360 Total CG Services Market Value 1,270 1,450 1,840 Total 3,483 3,842 4,530 The popularity of animated feature film in Thailand was moderate until the year 2006 when the first Thai animated feature film, Khan Kluay, hit the box office and generated the highest revenue ever for an animated feature film in Thailand. With Khan Kluay fever, the market value of the animation film industry in Thailand jumped from 75 million Baht in 2005 to 190 million in 2006, an increase of more than 1.5 fold with about half of the total revenue being generated by Khan Kluay alone. Another long form animation that becomes more and more popular in Thailand are TV series especially cartoon series. The number of Thai animation TV series has increased over the past four years with more cartoons being broadcast on Thai public free TV. So far there are 41 Thai animation TV series broadcast of which 64% are 2D animation series. The total length of Thai animation TV series produced is about 40,000 minutes per year. For the computer graphic services category, post production has the highest market value at approximately 1,250 million Baht in 2006 increasing from 1,270 in 2004 and 1,450 in 2005. Thailand’s post production studios are among the most successful of Thailand’s multimedia enterprises. The strength of Thai post production has been long known among entertainment businesses domestically and internationally. More outsourcing work from other countries, especially from the Asian region, have gone to Thai post production studios thereby expanding the export figure of Thai animation market value. Executive Summary 9 Table 2 Thai Animation Industry Growth Type 2005 Growth 2006 Growth Long Form Market Growth 8% 13% Short Form Market Growth 9% 12% CG Services & Post Production Market Growth 14% 28% Estimated Growth 10% 18% The growth of the Thai animation industry is continuing in every type of animation. The trend of overall growth from 2005 to 2006 from 10% to 18% indicates the success of the industry even when facing the economic and political downturn in 2006. The opportunities for of the industry are growing continually mainly because of the cooperation by the key players in the animation industry and the government agency as they attempt to bring Thailand up to the international standard and maintain a strong position in quality of work and service in the world of animation and multimedia. As a result, the co-production and investments from abroad are helping Thailand’s overall market and it is expected that Thai animation market will grow at the rate of 18% annually to the year 2010 with a market value of 8,700 million Baht. Table 3 Thai Animation Market Value 2006 - 2010 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Animation Market Value (Million 4,530 5,340 6,300 7,400 8,700 Baht) China 133 Japan 80.5 USA 60 France 11.3 India 8.77 Thailand 4.53 Philippines 2.4 Market Value (‘000 Million Baht) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Figure 2 Comparison of Thai Animation Market Value with Other Countries3 3 Market value of other countries converted to Thai Baht at 37 Baht:1 USD (referred to currency exchange rate by Bank of Thailand year 2006) Executive Summary 10 Thailand’s Movie Market and Consumer Behaviors According to a study in animation supply side, outsourcing of animation, in both post-production and full-production, to the Asian region will continually increase. Recently there has been an increasing number of animation production houses from North America and Europe moving to China and India as well as Thailand to set up their business. As a result, they offer the opportunity to the Thai animation industry to get involved in co-production or co-investment. Consumer demand for animation in Thailand grows, especially in animation feature films. The first Thai animation feature film, namely ‘Kan Kluay’ introduced the potential market in Thailand by holding the 1st rank in box offices countrywide. The revenue generated by ‘Kan Kluay’ beat all foreign animation feature films ever shown in Thailand. The underlying reason for its success was content that was visibly real Thai, showing the cultural and historical story including a sense of humor and patriotism, unlike foreign animation. The Thai animation film industry is recognized as a part of the movie industry. In order to understanding the industry, it is necessary to understand the overall picture of the movie industry and its audiences. In 2005 the Thai action movie ‘Tom Yum Goong’ became a new phenomenal of Thai movie industry because revenue generated reached 200 million Baht within 2 week after launching to the domestic market. It can be said that the success of ‘Tom Yum Goong’ vitalizes both the movie industry and the consumer market. Additionally, foreign markets recognize Thai movies as a competitive industry which results in a rise of production to penetrate foreign markets. With regard to the success of the movie industry in Thailand, core content of each movie still plays an important role. Actors, market strategies, capital, and economic circumstances are also included as key success factors. Nevertheless, these factors are sensitive and sometimes uncontrollable, which producers and investors must risk. Thailand’s movie industry has had a growing tendency for 3 years. As a result, other related businesses e.g. movie theaters, computer games, and merchandising have been growing highly competitive. The table below summarizes the analysis of Thailand’s current movie consumers’ behaviors and trends: Executive Summary 11 Table 4 Characteristics of the Movie Market (Consumers) in Thailand Factors Trend Analysis Audience - Teenagers and students - Teenagers and students are - People of working age major group of the movie market. - Their consumer behaviors change rapidly. Content/Genre - Comedy and horror - Comedy and horror movies - Blockbuster movies and are profitable and often imported movies become blockbusters. - Attractive screenplays - Historical content Quality and Standard - High quality and standard - High competition results in improvement of quality and standard. - Competent production houses tend to focus on international markets. Marketing - Attractive movie trailer and - Budget used in marketing movie poster increases dramatically, - Showing highlight and probably accounted for 50% of content in movies overall cost. - Despite large investment in marketing, the content met audience’s requirement still plays the most important role. Competitor - Home entertainment - DVD and VCD players sell at business very low price. Many audiences therefore orientate themselves to home entertainment. - Duration for distributing movies in form of DVDs or VCDs to be sold becomes shorter, especially for Thai movies. - Movies broadcasted via cable TV consider as a new alternative to audiences. Executive Summary 12 Thailand’s Gaming Industry: Market and Trend In 2006, the world game markets was estimated to be 9.3 trillion4 Baht of which the United States took the highest market value of 333 billion Baht followed by Japanese game market with the value of 187.8 billion Baht, and Korean game market with the value of 102 billion Baht. Thailand, in its infancy stage of the game industry, has 5.7 billion Baht game market value which is about 0.61% of the world market. Thai game market is dominated by imported games, mostly from Japan, US, UK, and South Korea, which takes about 90% of overall Thai game market. US 333 Japan 187.8 Korea 102 UK 95.2 Germany 83.2 France 80 China 42 Thailand 5.7* India 1.76 Market Value (‘000 Million Baht) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Figure 3 Game Industry Markets 2006 (Selected Countries)5 Thai gaming industry can be divided into 6 platforms which are online game, mobile game, console game, handheld game, PC Offline game and arcade game. The domestic game market of Thailand has grown rapidly since 2003 due to the larger number of gamers entering the market and the emergence of online games for the Thai gaming industry. The market value of the Thai gaming industry in 2003 amounted to 3,235 million Baht of which arcade games took the highest share at 37% of total market value followed by online games with 30% of market value. The 2004 market value of 4,090 million Baht showed the significant growth of online games that took 38% of the total gaming market share and has exceeded the arcade game market value since. In 2005, the gaming industry raised the market value to 4,708 million Baht with similar ranking in shares. The Thai gaming industry market value in 2006 amounted to 5,680 million Baht showing the continued growth of the Thai gaming industry and the promising increase of the online game market which amounted to 2,370 million Baht and 42% of the market share. Other game platforms retained the consistent market share across 4 years; mobile games had about 3%, console software games had about 15%, handheld software game had about 5%, and PC offline had about 8% share. 4 Information from NASSCOMM Report 2006 with trillion equals to the third power of a thousand (one thousand billion, 1 followed by 12 zeroes) 5 Market value of the selected countries converted to Thai Baht at 37 Baht:1 USD (referred to currency exchange rate by Bank of Thailand year 2006) Executive Summary 13 Table 5 Thai Gaming Market Value by Game Platform 2003 2004 2005 2006 Game Platform (mil. Bht) % (mil. Bht) % (mil. Bht) % (mil. Bht) % Online Game 970 30 1,540 38 1,800 38 2,370 42 Mobile Game 115 4 130 3 148 3 170 3 Console Game 490 15 590 14 700 15 850 15 (software) Handheld Game 160 5 180 5 250 6 300 5 (Software) PC Offline Game 300 9 330 8 360 8 390 7 Arcade Game 1,200 37 1,320 32 1,450 31 1,600 28 Total (mil. Bht) 3,235 100 4,090 100 4,708 100 5,680 100 5,682 5,000 4,708 28% 4,090 4,000 31% 7% 3,235 32% 5% 3,000 7% 15% 37% 8% 5% 4% 3% 15% 2,000 10% 15% 3% 5% 3% 15% 42% 1,000 3% 39% 38% 30% 0 Year 2546 2547 2548 2549 Online Game Mobile Game Console Game (Software) Handheld (Software) PC Game Arcade Game Figure 4 Game Market Share by Game Platforms Executive Summary 14 Thai Gaming Industry by Game Platform Online Game The first online game was published in Thailand in 2001. There have been about 55 online games published of which 16 games are no longer in service and the other 39 are still commercially available. The online game market in Thailand has risen since 2003 starting from the market value of 970 million Baht to 1,540 million Baht in 2004, 1,800 million Baht in 2005 and to 2,370 million Baht in 2006. The online game market has grown almost three fold since the first commercially published online game in Thailand four years ago. The market reached its highest growth of 60% in 2005 when the market value of online games totaled 1,540 million Baht. The average growth rate6 of the Thai online game market is about 25% across four years of progressive increase. Table 6 Online Game Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 Online Game Market (mil. Baht) 970 1,540 1,800 2,370 Mobile Game The number of people using mobile phone in Thailand has gone up every year. In 2006 the number of people using mobile phones was approximately 37 million which is about 57% of the total population of 65 million people. The number is expected to increase another 14% to 42 million people which is about 65% of the total population in 2007.7 The mobile game market in Thailand has a steady growth averaging 15% annually since 2003. Mobile games in Thailand these days still share a small market value among value added services (VAS) of digital content provided on mobile phones. The mobile game revenue is about 10% of the total revenue from total digital content service revenue. However, the growing number of mobile phone users each year will help boost the revenue of mobile games and other voice and non-voice digital content services. The market value of mobile games in Thailand in 2006 amounted to 170 million Baht. The market value has increased at the rate of approximately 3% annually. Table 7 Mobile Game Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 Mobile Game Market (mil. Baht) 115 130 148 170 6 Estimated growth rate using CAGR: Compound Average Growth Rate 7 Information courtesy by Wireless Service Business, Advanced Info Service Public Company Limited Executive Summary 15 Console Game (Software) The Thai console game market value mainly focuses on the console software games. There are four types of console game machines that are still available in the Thai console game market. They are PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, Xbox360 and Nintendo Wii. The market survey of console game software in Thailand indicates that there is approximately 6 million console game software sold annually with the total market value of about 850 million Baht. The average growth of the overall console game software market is estimated to be 20% per year. Table 8 Console Software Game Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 Console Game Market (mil. Baht) 490 590 700 850 (Software game only) Handheld Game (Software) Handheld game machines that are still popular in Thailand are Nintendo DS Lite and PlayStation Portable (PSP). Currently, licensed software games are distributed by Electronic Art World Thailand (EA Thailand) and are sold at reasonable market price. The market of handheld game software in Thailand was quite stable during 2003 – 2004. The mid of 2005 was a turning point for the handheld game market due to the debut of PSP and the Nintendo DS game machine which helped boost the market to 40% that year Table 9 Handheld Software Game Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 Handheld Game Market (mil. Baht) 160 180 250 300 (Software game only) PC Offline Game Many of the PC Offline games developed based on renowned film stories such as Harry Potter, Shrek, and Spider-Man. In Thailand, the first Thai PC Offline game developed from film story is Tom-Yum-Kung following the popularity of the Thai movie, Tom-Yum-Kung. It was first launched on August 11, 2005 with about 30,000 sold. Another type of PC Offline game that is popular in Thailand is the education games whose main target consumers are elementary and junior high school students. Some of the games in this category are so popular that new editions are launched every year. Even though newer versions of PC Offline games are well designed and developed using 3D animation technique and special affects to make the game closer to reality with more complex game levels to attract gamers, the popularity of PC Offline games has declined because of the higher specifications of required Executive Summary 16 PC systems to support such complex games and the share of online games that become more and more popular throughout the different ages and levels of gamers. The market value of PC Offline games in Thailand was 392 million Baht in 2006 which had increased from 360 million Baht in 2005. The average growth of PC Offline game in Thailand is quite constant at the rate of 10% per year. Table 10 PC Offline Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 PC Offline Game Market (mil. Baht) 300 330 360 392 Arcade Game Arcade games are one of the most popular game platforms in Thailand. Arcade games that are in service in Thailand can be divided into 2 types as followed; 1. Arcade game machines with an electronic system base which mostly are imported such as SEGA8 and NAMCO9 arcade machines from Japan. 2. Arcade game machines with a PC system base mostly used for casual game with touch screen features. Arcade games took a major market share among all platforms with the market value of about 1,200 million Baht in 2003, 1,320 million Baht in 2004, 1,450 million Baht in 2005, and 1,600 million Baht in 2006. However, the market share of arcade games has declined from 30% in 2003 to 28% in 2006 due to the online game market expansion. Table 11 Arcade Game Market in Thailand 2003 – 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 Arcade Game Market (mil. Baht) 1,200 1,320 1,450 1,600 8 SEGA (Service Games of Japan) is multinational Japanese video game software and hardware development company, and a former home computer and console manufacturer. 9 NAMCO is an amusement company based in Japan, best known overseas for video games development. Executive Summary 17 Thailand’s Game Productions The production of software games and game machines in Thailand started to expand in 2006 when the manufacturing value amounted to 412 million Baht. In this year the value of the arcade game production reached 205 million Baht, accounted for 50% of total game production value across all platforms in Thailand. The PC offline game production accounted for 25% or 105 million Baht, followed by the online game production at 60 million Baht which is 15% of the industry. The mobile and handheld game productions were accounted to 30 million Baht and 12 million Baht or 7% and 3% of total production value, respectively. The console game production is under negotiation with major console game companies in North America and in Japan. Table 12 Production Market Value of Thailand’s Gaming Industry Game 2003 2004 2005 2006 Platform mil. Baht % mil. Baht % mil. Baht % mil. Baht % Online Game - 0 4 2 45 13 60 15 Mobile Game 1 0.7 5 3 18 5 30 7 Handheld 0.5 0.3 5 3 8 3 12 3 Game PC Offline 20 13 60 30 75 22 105 25 Game Arcade Game 130 86 120 62 190 57 205 50 Total 151.5 100 194 100 336 100 412 100 (mil. Baht) Executive Summary 18 Thailand’s Game Users SIPA’s White Paper for Animation and Games Project had conducted a survey to study the basic characteristics and commonalities of Thai game users. The survey, which covered respondents in major cities throughout the country, found that the majority of game users in Thailand live in and around Bangkok. However, there were an increasing number of game users in all regions of Thailand. The survey was mainly based on a questionnaire with a total of 1,224 respondents who ranged in age from 9-45. 60.4% of the game users answering the questionnaire were male and 39.6% were female. Most of them were 15-19 years old (42.6%) followed by 20- 24 years old (38.6%) and 9-14 years old (12.1%). 600 42.6% 500 38.6% 400 300 200 12.1% 100 4.5% 1.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0 15-19 20-24 9-14 25-29 30-34 35-39 Over 45 Age Group Figure 5 Age Group of Game Users Executive Summary 19 700 48.2% 600 500 400 300 21.1% 14.1% 12.5% 200 100 3.4% 0.6% 0.1% 0 Bachelor High School Vacational Junior High Primary Master Post Master School School School Degree Degree Education Figure 6 Educational Levels of Game Users 590 out of 1,224 game users (48.2%) were undergraduate students, while 258 of those (21.1%) were in high schools. Students in vocational schools were in third place with a total number of 173 (14.1%). 800 67% 700 600 500 400 26.3% 300 200 100 2% 1.7% 1.7% 0.7% 0.5% 0 Less than 5,001- 40,001- 20,001- 15,001- 30,001- Over 5,000 15,000 50,000 30,000 20,000 40,000 50,000 Income (Baht) Figure 7 Average Incomes of Game Users According to the survey, most of the game users have an average income less than 5,000 Baht per month, accounting for 67% of the respondents, while 26.3% of those have an average income ranging from 5,001 to 15,000 Baht. Executive Summary 20 400 30.5% 350 300 21.7% 19.2% 250 200 11.5% 150 100 6.6% 4.3% 4.3% 50 1.9% 0 30 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 More 5-6 6-7 Minutes- Hours Hours Hours Hours than 7 Hours Hours 1Hour Hours Time Spending Figure 8 Average Time Spent in Playing Games When questioned about the time spent on playing games, 30.5% of the game users responded that they spent 30 minutes to 1 hour playing games. The percentage of the game users spending 1-2 hours playing games accounted for 21.7% of all respondents. 900 64.1% 800 700 600 500 27.8% 400 300 200 3.8% 1.9% 1.6% 0.8% 100 0 on s s ms es rs itie me ati ffic he oo ers Ho od Ot er s/O n iv mm ' ds am ce s/U en co /G Pla Fri Ac ge s ng afe lla / rki me Co tc Wo Ho ls / e ern oo Int Sh Preferred Places Figure 9 Preferred Places for Playing Games When asked of gaming places, 781 out of the respondents or 30.6% selected homes/accommodation as favorite gaming places where 339 of the game users chose to play games in Internet Cafés/Game Rooms which was 27.8% of all respondents. Executive Summary 21 900 30.6% 800 700 600 500 19.7% 400 11.8% 6% 300 200 5.5% 5.2% 100 0 Online Mobile Console Handheld Arcade Offline Game Game Game Game Game Game Preferred Game Platforms Figure 10 Preferred Game Platforms On the question of preferred game platforms, 30.6% (the highest) enjoyed online games, 19.7% preferred playing mobile games, and 11.8% chose to play console games. For handheld games, the game users playing this type of game accounted for 6% while 5.5% enjoyed playing arcade games. PC offline games were the least favorite game played by the game users resulting in only 5.2% out of 1,224 respondents. When asked about games developed by Thai developers, approximately 42% of the respondents experienced Thai-made games, while 58% never played Thai games. Nevertheless, there is a growing tendency toward playing Thai games especially in online games. According to the survey, the number of gamers experienced Thai-made games accounted for 50% of those who played all kinds of online games; although they were recently introduced to the market. Executive Summary 22 90 18.7% 80 70 15.8% 14.6% 60 13.1% 11.4% 50 9.7% 40 7.1% 30 20 3.4% 2.7% 2.4% 10 2.3% 0 n ers s s ds ers es y ms t s tio ten nd ug Pla ter en r ic lop Oth mo Ite sB rie on rac Fri wP to ve yF me Pro eC s ha sy th Le De Lo db Ga /C wi tiv Ea od ai de rac es us joy Go Th en ag rio Att En ort mm l Im Va pp co tifu Su Re au Be Reasons for Playing Thai Games Figure 11 Reasons for Playing Thai Games On the extended question of Thai games, 37.6% of the game users expected to see more online games developed by Thai developers, followed by 22.2% of PC offline games. When asked of reasons to play Thai games, 18.7% of the game users chose to play Thai games because of the recommendation from their friends while 15.8% played them for the purpose of supporting Thai game industry. Executive Summary 23 Thailand’s Competitive Advantage: Animation and Games The animation and gaming industry are heavily influenced and dominated by international key players from North America, Europe, Japan and Korea. Thailand’s exposure to foreign production, training abroad, and foreign assistance were important factors behind the emergence of animation and gaming industry in Thailand. The mature animation production countries in Asia which are Japan and South Korea are main business partners of Thai production companies both in animation and games. As animation and game production is a very lucrative and labor-intensive business, Asian countries such as India, China, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand have cost advantage for the production and have started their own industries. Thailand’s animation studios are among the most successful of Thailand’s multimedia enterprises. Major studios have garnered international accolades for international standard of 2D, 3D and other animation work, including winning prizes in international competitions. The making of Thailand’s first 3D animated feature film, Khan Kluay, is the nation’s big step in making the statement that Thailand is ready for the world of animation and multimedia. The gaming industry in Thailand, even though in its early stage, has rapidly grown within the past few years. The ongoing expansion of Thai gaming industry is attested by the increase in market value for demand perspective. Besides the making of first Thai online commercial game, ProjectOne, the rising of number of contracted game software development with international clients shows the momentous pace for Thai game software manufacturing perspective. Game development studios in Thailand have formed a significant group that helps Thai game software development industry especially in business deals and negotiations. Thailand has the advantage of being a country of rich culture and artistry. Thai animators are regarded for their highly artistry skills and sophisticated work. Such skills and the responsibility of staff are an important fundamental of exquisite production for quality animation. Thailand’s competitive advantage can be defined into five elements. Geographic Advantage o Thailand is located near the major consumption markets of India and China, and is within a one hour flight to Singapore, the center for agent and trade. o Thailand is a transportation hub for the Southeast Asian region o Thailand has the unique identity and culture o The size of Thailand is small enough for clustering within provincial regions. o Thailand is a gateway to neighboring countries with low labor costs. Human Resource Advantage o Thai staff are highly skilled in art and creativity o Thai staff have opportunities to work with international experts and professionals through co-production and investment of foreign companies o The development of the Thai animation industry in the past four years has enhanced Thai workers by advancing the working standards. Executive Summary 24 Fundamental System Advantage o The continuing development of infrastructure related to animation and game industry such as expansion of broadband internet network o High standard of communication and transportation system o Good educational system o The curriculum of digital content has rapidly developed among competitive higher levels of education o Entrepreneurs have easy access to software and equipment necessary for animation and game production o Better quality human resources due to the continuing development of the academic curriculum for animation and game Governmental Advantage o Thai staffs are highly skilled in art and creativity. o Thai staffs have opportunities to work with international experts and professionals through co-production and investment of foreign companies. o Networking among government units committed to animation and game industry support shows the development of cooperation. o More government funding for training and international road shows are provided. o Government investment in expensive equipment and small rental fee to assist Thai entrepreneurs in animation and game production. Business Environment Advantage o The competitiveness of animation and game’s supporting industry, Thailand’s film and advertising industry, is well recognized internationally. o Thai animation and game studios have a strong desire to push their work to be known abroad. o Thai entrepreneurs have strong cooperation and have developed business clusters for the best interest of the industry and for bargaining power in international negotiation. o The emergence of the variety of work creates a chance for Thai animation and game studios to be part of the global industry. o The clustering among education and entertainment businesses creates a new supporting industry, the edutainment industry. Another advantage is that Thailand has a major event to promote animation and game industry. An annual event that articulates Thailand’s readiness for high standard of animation, game and multimedia is Thailand Animation and Multimedia (TAM), which was first organized in January 2004 by SIPA. The main purpose of TAM is to emphasize and encourage involvement of all sectors in animation, game and multimedia, from designers, developers, and manufacturers, to domestic and international businessmen, students, youth and public. Small to large animation and game production studios and other digital content related enterprises including academic circles participate in this event to demonstrate their keen interest in and readiness for promoting animation and multimedia business in Thailand. In an industry mostly dominated by big corporations from other countries, Thailand's animation and game industries are working up in a global market worth billions. High level of creativity, reasonable costs, welcoming business environment, and fine overall performance make Thailand very competitive in the field and, thus, a preferable destination for animation and game production and investment. Executive Summary 25 Glossary of Terms Anime The Japanese word for animation. In English, used to describe Japanese-style or Japanese-origin animation properties. Arcade game Large, standalone, video-style games played in a retail location. Creating animation for arcade games is a work-for-hire opportunity for animation studios. Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI, or "assisted", "learning", CAL) The use of (personal) computers for education and training. Computer-generated imagery or CGI A description commonly used for visual effects and other animation productions. Console game Interactive titles meant for use on a dedicated gaming machine rather than a computer. Digital A description of data which is stored or transmitted as a sequence of discrete symbols from a finite set, most commonly this means binary data represented using electronic or electromagnetic signals. Digital Content Products available in digital form. It typically refers to music, information and images that are available for download or distribution on electronic media. E-learning (Electronic learning) Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration, It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more. Feature film A full-length production of about 90 minutes, usually intended for theatrical distribution but sometimes for television or home video/DVD. Handheld game also called “Handheld Video Game” or “Handheld Electronic Game” Video game played on a portable, electronic device (Examples: Game Boy, Nintendo). Hardware The computers and other machinery needed to produce an animated project. Internet A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange. Massive Multi-Player Online Games (MMOG) A game on the computer played by many people. Also call “Massively Multi-user Online Game”, An MMOG differs from a regular multiplayer game because its environment is perpetual. People log on, join the action and leave whenever they Executive Summary 26 wish, but the game continues like new soldiers replenishing fatigued troops on the battlefield. Mobile game A game played on mobile phones or portable. Online game A game that connects many players together an a server that can be accessed over the Internet by individual PC terminals. Outsourcing The act of sending all part of a production to another studio on a subcontract basis. PC offline game A game installed on a PC through a CD-ROM. Penetration The percentage of households in an area that possess a certain technology, such as cable or home computer. Post production The last phase of the production process. Includes music editing, picture editing, compositing, color correction, and other tasks. Usually outsourced to a postproduction facility. In live-action production animated special effects are added during post production. Rendering The process of generating the final image in the computer. Rendering takes the modeling, lighting, texture, and color data, and decide what color each pixel should be for each frame. SIGGRAPH Short for Special Interest Group, Graphics, of the Association for Computing Machinery. The largest organization devoted to computer graphics and animation. Software The instructions executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical device on which they run. Value Chain A model that helps to analyze specific activities through which firms can create value and competitive advantage. VAS Value Added Service (VAS) which is voice and non voice services besides regular mobile phone service. VAS generally includes music, ringtone, games, movies, email and other digital content services Video game An interactive entertainment title played on a dedicated console made by companies including Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony. Visual effects A technique used in a live-action film to create a scene that cannot be filmed cost-effectively or safely. Matting a scene into a background is one type of visual effect. Executive Summary 27 Committee and Credits Steering Committee Dr. Surapong Lertsithichai Committee Mr. Jaras Tanopajaisit Committee Mr. Pongrapee Thongsrinoon Committee Mr. Sumate Rodkao Committee Ms. Charutat Chandrasurin Secretary to Committee Advisors Thai Animation and Computer Graphics Association (TACGA) Thailand Software Game Association (TGA) Bangkok ACM Siggraph White Paper Working Group Dr. Kamon Jirapong Project Leader Dr. Chaipong Pongpanich Project Consultant Dr. Monrudee Tadaaumnuaychai Head of Researcher Ms. Dawadee Charnpanichkarn Project Manager Mr. Mawin Dankul Researcher Mr. Monchai Tadaaumnuaychai Researcher Mr. Ratthapol Piriyathanarak Researcher Ms. Sasiprapa Lavitrungsima Research Assistant Ms. Chatchadaporn Akka Research Assistant Ms. Sasinun Sasiwattana Research Assistant Knowledge Development Center Co., Ltd. This document is developed for Thai Digital Content White Paper: Animation & Games Project by Knowledge Development Company Limited, (KDC), under the supervision of the project owner, Software Industry Promotion Agency (SIPA). Duplication, photocopy, distribution or broadcast in any form, partial or whole, of this document is prohibited without official permission from the project’s owner.
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