VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 24 POSTED ON: 1/7/2012
A nebula, the remains of stars from previous generations, are composed of various gases including: •Hydrogen •Helium •Lithium •Other elements They drift about an area, the heavier atomic elements pulling the lighter elements to them, forming great clouds star nurseries—areas where stars are born. The star nursery continues to condense, pulling in more and more gases. The gases begin a pattern of rotation forming into a disc shape. Across the disc gases have varying densities and temperatures, with the hottest most dense area of gas being in the center. The density of the center reaches a critical mass at which point it implodes into itself and ignites into a gigantic reaction of nuclear fusion. Hydrogen is fused into Helium & other lighter elements sending temperatures to 1000’s of degrees Kelvin. At the same time, all across the disc, pockets of gas are condensing into smaller non-fusion cores. These smaller planetessimals are made up of heavier elements suspended in the planetary disc. The debris drifts about, SYSTEM SCHEMATIC colliding, merging, collecting •Hydrogen Cloud (sphere) until it has formed a set of •Ort Cloud (sphere) bodies which perpetually •Solar Halo (sphere) orbit the solar sphere. •Planetary disc (plane) •Solar Center •Kuiper Belt (near plane) Comets Inner Planets Habitable Zone Outer Planets *Kuiper Belt Planetary Orbital Plane Solar Rotational Axis *Kuiper Belt orbits diverge from planetary disc THE PLANETARY PLANE From The Planetary Disc The entire solar system is made from a permutation of Inner Planets the 88 natural elements of the (Rocky Geomorphic) Mars periodic table. Earth 2 moons Comet Venus 1 moon This includes the basic building blocks of known life: Mercury Carbon Asteroid Belt Hydrogen (Between Mars & Jupiter) Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous Jupiter In addition, water (H2O) is Rings abundant throughout the 63 moons Saturn system, although its existence Rings Neptune 48 moons Uranus in liquid form is restricted to Rings Rings 13 moons suitable temperatures. Outer Planets 27 moons (Gas Giants) Kuiper Belt Pluto Quaoar Sedna Xena 2 moons Askew of Planetary plane A typical planet will build through condensing and sedimentation of layers UV & Solar rays of various materials. Lithosphere, Solid Iron (Fe), “Crust”, High heat. Solid High pressure Plastic, or Liquid (depending upon size of The planet) Out Heavy gases, gasing, Gas compounds volcanic Liquid Iron (Fe), High heat, High pressure “Out gases” Non-Hydrogen, emitted by Plastic-Liquid, condensing “rock-metal” planetary Elements & compounds sphere- Light gases NXn H2, He … SXn CXn Planet formation is not uniform, but it is predictable. In our solar system there are two major groups of planets… INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS Closer to the Sun Further from Sun are warmer and are cooler and will lose the lighter will retain lighter gases H2 and He gases of H2 and He. Planet Out Gasing Out Gasing Formation H2 Escapes from Remaining H2 reacts heat of sun leaving with heavier out gases behind heavier gases, forming an atmosphere such as O2, N2, of CH(n), NH(3) & H2O… CO(n) and NO(n)… DESIGNATE PLANETS OF SOL SYSTEM Name Mass Diameter Atmosphere Feature I Mercury 0.06 4,878 He Caloris basin N Venus 0.86 12,104 CO2 Maxw Mont’s N E Earth 1.00 12,755 N2, O2 Liquid H2O R Mars 0.11 6,790 CO2 Olym Mons O Jupiter 318 142,796 H, He Red Storm (s) U Saturn 95 120,660 H, He Rings T E Uranus 14.5 51,118 H, He 98 Axial Tilt R Neptune 17.2 49,520 H, He Dark Storm * Pluto, Quaoar, Sedna, & Xena are consider part of the Kuiper Ice belt… Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) All three planets and the moon have Iron cores, And surrounding spherical layers of H2, He, N2, O2, CO, CO2, plus other gases. As the cores condense, they out gas additional N2, O2, CO, CO2 plus other gases. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) The planetary cores continue to expel N2, O2, The planetary cores CO, CO2 plus other gases. The O2 combines continue to expel N2, O2, CO, CO2 plus other gases. with H2 to form water (H2O and ionized OH). The O2 combines with H2 to The heat and gravity of the sun cause the inner form water (H2O and planets to lose their free floating H2 and He. ionized OH). However, the heat and gravity of the sun of the outer planets is not enough free the H2 and He. They remain in the atmosphere. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) Planet 1 is closest to the solar center. It’s heat is such that water cannot remain in liquid form. In addition, OH ions float free from the planet’s atmosphere breaking the chain that leads to water. N2, O2, CO, CO2 continue to accumulate. N2 & O2 react to form NO(n). Greenhouse gases predominate in the form of CO2, while the other gases continue to deplete into space or onto the surface. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) Planet three is the furthest of the inner planets from the solar center. However, its density is much less than Planets 1 or 2. Again, H2 & He and OH are lost. Liquid water forms initially, but cannot be sustained in the atmosphere. CO, CO2 become the dominant gases. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) Planet 2 is between planets 1 & 3. Like the other two it continues to out gas N2, O2, CO, and CO2 plus other gases. Like Planet 3, the H2 and O2 form water. Planet 2 is more dense than Planet 3 and it retains the OH ions. In addition, unlike the warmer Planet 1, Planet 2’s water can remain in a liquid state. Liquid H2O combines with CO & CO2 leaving N2 and O2 to dominate. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) Like the three inner planets, the outer Alien Moon expels N2, O2, CO, CO2 and other gases. However, it is too cold and too far from the solar center to free the H2 & He. Instead, alternative gases of CH4, NH3, H2O and others are formed. UV rays from the solar center merge the gases into heavy organic chemical deposits (called Tholins), which precipitate to the surface. N2 becomes the dominant gas in the atmosphere. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) All four planetary bodies have the potential to bear life as we have witnessed it on earth. Planets 1, 3 and the Alien Moon could bear Anaerobic life. For life on these planets, high concentrations of O2 would be toxic. In addition, the lack of liquid H2O prevents a sustained hydrologic cycle. Photosynthesis is minimal if at all. Complex aerobic ecosystems cannot evolve. Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) The chemical evolution on a planet, which brings about the atmosphere is highly dependent upon the proximity of the solar center with its heat and gravitational pull. These two factors govern how much H2 of the original planetary disc remains in the planet body’s immediate surroundings, and in what state of water can be sustained. The composition of the atmosphere and the presence of a hydrologic cycle with liquid water permits aerobic respiration and complex aerobic biospheres. TWO BASIC ECOSYSTEMS An aerobic ecosystem A theoretical hydrogen based like that of earth… Anaerobic ecosystem… Decomposers Decomposers Consumers Consumers Producers UV + CO2 + H2O = C6 H12 O6 + O2 UV + CH3 = C2 H2 C6 H12 O6 + O2 = Energy + CO2 + H2O C2 H2 + H2 = Energy + CH3 Where C6 H12 O6 is synthesized by Where C2 H2 is synthesized in photosynthetic plants which are then the atmosphere and precipitates consumed by other life. out of the atmosphere as Tholin Planet 1 Planet 2 Planet 3 Alien Moon INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANET (Moon) Planet 2 on the other hand has liquid H2O and can produce aerobic respiration. Aerobic life can survive. In addition, the presence of liquid H2O, a Hydrologic cycle, with CO2 gas with solar UV, permits the synthesis of sugars. Photosynthesis replaces the O2 used in respiration. A sustainable ecosystem of producers and consumers can evolve. IN SUMMARY PLANETARY FORMATION •Nebula condenses forming Protoplanetary Disc •Protoplanetary Disc has fusionable core •Temperature & Gravitational fluctuations in the disc form perturbations •Disc Perturbations condense into nonfusionable cores •Nonfusionable cores draw disc gases •The gases condense around the core •Planetessimals form •Planetessimals come together via gravity •Planetessimals aggregate into larger units including •Asteroids, planetoids & Planetary Discs •Planetary Discs accrete into planets with rings & moons •The Discs condense into Geomorphs and Gas Giants THE EVOLUTIONARY NUCLEAR EVOLUTION PROCESSES ENERGY REDUCES Fragments (dark matter?) OF MATTER Subatomic particles Atoms CHEMICAL EVOLUTION Elements EVOLUTIONARY Molecules PROCESS Molecular Compounds Inorganic Holons Organic spreading to Heterarchies Prions transcending to Proteins Hierarchies Nucleic Acids Evolving to Replication Higher Hierarchies Metabolism BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ORGANIZATION Proto-living (a.k.a. replicating proteins, viruses) INCREASES Achaeans Prokaryotes Eukaryotes THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES OF ENERGY Critical Points Energy (dark energy?) Energy-Thermodynamics Fragments Vibrations Nuclear Forces Strong Weak Molecular Forces Ion charge Heat—Pressure Physical State Gravitational Forces Self-Organization Gravity Centripetal A PLANET IS BORN AND BEGINS ITS OWN DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE CONTINUING, OFTEN VIOLENT, DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, THE GALAXY AND THE COSMOS.
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