Phonological Awareness in the Classroom

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					    Phonological Awareness in
         the Classroom
                                Compiled by
                       Laura Street, Speech Pathologist

                    Nikki Worthington, Speech Pathologist

                    Jane Francis Gooden, Speech Pathologist

Saturday, January                                             1
07, 2012
      What is Phonological Awareness
      Why is it important
      The pieces of phonological awareness   + activities
      Phonics
      Sight words
      Reading strategies
      Resources and information
      Phonics Vs Whole Language

Saturday, January                                            2
07, 2012
         Phonological Awareness -
There are many different „terms‟ used when describing
  early literacy skills and this can be confusing. A list
  of these terms and their definitions has been
 Phonological Processing
 Phonological or Phonemic Awareness
 Rapid Automative Naming
 Phonological memory
 Phonics
 Phonology

Saturday, January                                           3
07, 2012
 Why is Phonological Awareness

  Research has shown that phonological awareness is the most
   powerful predictor of success in learning to read and spell
                                  (Wagner and Torgeson, 1987)

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07, 2012
     Why is Phonological Awareness
   A study of 288 5-year-old kinder children found that
    children who were successful at performing phonological
    awareness tasks‟ learnt to read words with greater ease
    (Torgesen et all., 1994)

   Catts and Kamhi (2005, p.130) claim that there is now
    “compelling evidence” regarding the importance of
    phonological awareness as a pre-requisite for learning to

Saturday, January                                               5
07, 2012
              Phonological Awareness
                and ESL students
Considering    the large number of ESL
   students in Victorian schools – limited
   time is spent explicitly teaching how
   Australian sounds are made.

Saturday, January                            6
07, 2012
      ESL Students – some facts
Mandarin    – The only final consonants are
   /n/, /ng/ and /r/.

Vietnamese    - /b/ & /d/ do not occur and
   there are no consonant clusters.

Somali    - /b/, /d/, /g/ are devoiced in word
   final and word initial position.

Saturday, January                                 7
07, 2012
              Phonological Awareness
                and ESL students
   Research indicates that all children - irrespective of their
    native language - are likely to benefit from early
    interventions that include phonological awareness training.

   There is a correlation between vocabulary development and
    effective literacy instruction in ESL students.

   When foreign language learners are explicitly taught the
    phonology (sound system) of the new language they are able
    to improve both their ability to learn the target language
    and improve their phonological awareness skills.

Saturday, January                                                  8
07, 2012
              Phonological Awareness
                and older students.
   Many new arrivals from overseas start at
   school with little or no reading skills.

Those     children still experiencing reading
   difficulty in grades 3/4/5/6 would benefit
   from explicit teaching of the sound system
   as well as improving their phonological
   awareness skills.

Saturday, January                                9
07, 2012
       The Pieces of phonological
                       Word                         Rhyming
                                    words to
                     Alliteration   Segmenting     Blending

                      sounds         substitutio

Saturday, January                                                10
07, 2012
                    Word Awareness
                     (sentences  words)
The    ability to break up sentences
   into words.
          Mynameislaura     My name is Laura

Compound    words are divided into
   their meaningful parts
          Treehouse      Tree house
                                         Love   and Reilly, 1996

Saturday, January                                                   11
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         Word Awareness Activities

Clap   words in sentences. Select sentences
   of increasing length.

Read   poems and books – students to tap
   each word in selected sentences.

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07, 2012
                       (words  syllables)
Words    can be broken into syllables
   or beats
          1syllable         cat, mouse, etc.
          2 syllable        Walking, doctor
          3 syllable        Hospital, elephant
          4 syllable        supermarket, television
          5 syllable        … abracadabra

          How      many in „supercalafrajelisticexpialidocious‟?

Saturday, January                                                   13
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             Segmentation Activities
         Breaking words into beats/syllables
     Make    a list of 1-5 syllable words. Ask student
        to identify syllables/beats in words by:
          Touching their head or knees
          Hitting a drum etc.
           Ticking or colouring in parts of   a picture

     Love      and Reilly: The Train Game

Saturday, January                                          14
07, 2012
This   requires recognition and
   production of words that rhyme;
   words that end with the same group
   of sounds
          E.g. Which words rhyme: sun, shirt, fun
          E.g. What word rhymes with cat?

Saturday, January                                    15
07, 2012
                          Rhyming Activities
                          Recognising rhyming words
   Rhyming books – Identify and discuss rhyming words
    (e.g. Dr Seuss). E.g. “Sam and Ham rhyme because they
    have the same sounds at the end. Do „fox‟ and „box‟ and
    box have the same sounds at the end?”
   „Sounds of the Century Quiz‟
    Questions could include:
     Does ……………… rhyme with ……………….?
     Tell me the two words that rhyme: (give four options e.g.
      dog map kite lap)?

   Nursery rhymes – Learn and recite nursery rhymes.

      Saturday, January                                           16
      07, 2012
                    Rhyming Activities
                    Producing rhyming words
   Make silly rhyming sentences by asking the student to
    provide rhyming words e.g. The dog was lost in the…(fog)
   Change a popular nursery rhyme using new rhyming words.
   Sound Detective:
      E.g. I have five fingers and rhyme with band… (hand)

   Older students: Write a rap song.

Saturday, January                                              17
07, 2012
The   ability to identify the first
   sound in words.
          Bat,     scarf, show

Produce   new words that begin with
   the same sound
          Bat,     bird, big, bite, basket

Saturday, January                             18
07, 2012
                    Alliteration Activities

 Read books involving alliteration. E.g.
   Animalia, Each Peach Plum Pear, Sheep in a

Expand     on character names in books using
   alliteration e.g. „Hector and Maggie‟ =
   „Horrible Hector and Magnificent Maggie‟

Saturday, January                               19
07, 2012
         (beginning, medial and final sounds)
Identification   of how many sounds are in
   words and working out the component
   sounds of blends
          Car     /k/ and /a/
          Cat     /k/, /æ/, /t/
          Skate     /s/, /k/, /ei/, /t/

Saturday, January                               20
07, 2012
                    Sound Level Activities
                    Segmenting words into sounds
   Eye spy e.g. I spy with my little eye something
    beginning with the sss sound.

   Ask the student to select one word from each page of
    a book and discuss:
      What does the word mean?
      How many sounds (sounds at the start, middle and end)?
      How many letters?
      What does the word rhyme with?
      Does it remind the student of any other words?
      Why is it interesting?
      The student can write the word in a „Cool Words Book‟
        and draw a picture.

Saturday, January                                               21
07, 2012
                Sound Level Activities

   Discuss the difference between long and short sounds.

   Activity:
      „Test‟   sounds by drawing snakes.
                     „vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv ’


Saturday, January                                           22
07, 2012
•Identify sounds using counters or blocks. Different coloured
counters can be use to represent consonants vs vowels.
•Nonsense words can also be used to prevent reliance on sight

       c            a   t   “Change the „c‟ sound to a „b‟”

       b            a   t

       b            r   u   sh   “Change the „b‟ sound to a „c‟”

       c            r   u   sh

Saturday, January                                                  23
07, 2012
                      Blending Sounds
Individual    parts of words, either
   syllables or sounds are given and the
   child is required to „push them
   together‟, and discover the whole
     E.g.          /r/ - /æ/ - /k/  rack

Saturday, January                            24
07, 2012
                 Sound Level Activities
                      Blending sounds
 Love    and Reilly blending activity:
    “I  know a family of „ipets‟ who live underground. They had fifty
      babies last week and each baby has a different name. You find
      the name by putting together the sounds I give you.”
      ar-d, m-ar, f-igh, p-oy-l, j-ar-g, s-n-ee etc

      Extend on the length and complexity of the words by inculding
      longer words and words containing consonant clusters.

  Saturday, January                                                      25
  07, 2012
                     Manipulating Sounds
The   ability to change sounds in words
          take     the first sounds from
                    Bake  ache
                    Brake  rake
          Second     sound from
                    Smack    sack

Saturday, January                           26
07, 2012
                     Substituting Sounds
The   ability to substitute one sound in a
   word for another sound.
          take     the /s/ and substitute with /p/
                    sale    pale

          take     the /n/ and substitute with /t/
                    snake    stake

Saturday, January                                     27
07, 2012
 Phonologicalawareness activities require concept
  knowledge e.g. first, beginning, middle, last, end,
  noisy/quiet etc.
     Ensure  students have the necessary concept knowledge in
       order to be able to comprehend and complete tasks.

 Make  activities fun, exciting and active. Be
  creative!! Incorporate the use of art, craft,
  musical instruments, imaginary play, ball games
 Think of new ways to use the resources you
  already have.

Saturday, January                                                28
07, 2012
     The knowledge of the letter/sound

Children    with reading difficulties
   often lack confidence and knowledge
   in the area of phonics.

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07, 2012
                    Australian Sounds
In order to teach phonics it is important
 to understand how Australian sounds are
There are 44 sounds in Australian - English
 and this group of sounds is comprised of:
24 consonants and
20 vowels

Saturday, January                              30
07, 2012
                    Describing sounds
Speech sounds are usually described using the
  following terms:

 Manner - how
 Placement - where
 Voiced/voiceless – vocal chords or not

Saturday, January                               31
07, 2012
                    Describing sounds
Manner              – refers to the type of
Placement – refers to the position of
 the articulators involved in making
 the sound.

Saturday, January                              32
07, 2012
          Voiced Vs Voiceless
Voiced sounds are produced when the
 vocal folds vibrate i.e. /d/ or /a/
Voiceless   sounds are produced
   without the use of the focal folds
   which are left open i.e. /t/ or /s/

Saturday, January                        33
07, 2012

Saturday, January                                                                  34
07, 2012
                    Teaching Phonics
 Tools      of the trade:
      ABC Chart
      Consonant flash cards
      Vowel flash cards – short   and long
      Blend flash cards
 Drill:
      What sound does each letter make?
      What letter corresponds with each      sound?

 In order to achieve reading proficiency students require a
   high level of fluency in this area i.e. Immediate recall of
   sounds and letters.

Saturday, January                                                35
07, 2012
    Emphasise the difference between „sounds‟ and „letters‟.
        Sounds are noises we make using our mouth, lips, tongue and

                    We hear and say sounds.
        Letters are used to represent sounds in words.

                    We see and write letters.
        Discuss single sounds that are represented by two letters e.g.
         ch, sh, th

    “That‟s the letter. Now tell me the sound?”

Saturday, January                                                         36
07, 2012
 Cued       Articulation
   (Jane Passy) can be used in
    classroom activities to provide   ‘p’ as in pick
    visual cues for the
    discrimination of sounds e.g.
    Story time focusing on a
    particular sound.

 Cued    Articulation Song
    (see handout).

    Each sound has a
    corresponding colour.

Saturday, January                                      37
07, 2012
                    Sight Words
Knowledge    of the most frequently
   occurring words in text allows poor readers
   to access a great deal of the text they
   encounter without having to resort to
   decoding skills that they might not have
   yet mastered. (Multilit website)
These    words need to be learnt by rote and
   children should be able to read them
   quickly and consistently.
Saturday, January                                38
07, 2012
                    Sight Words
There are a number of word lists
 available including:
Magic 100 words – M100W
Making up lost time in literacy –
Words should be placed on
 flashcards and practiced regularly
Saturday, January                     39
07, 2012
                Reading Strategies
 Choose  a quiet place to work with minimum
 Select  an appropriate seating arrangement so that
   the student can see your face.
 Follow the students lead. Discuss pictures and
   word meanings.
 Use  modelling, repetition and positive

Saturday, January                                      40
07, 2012
                  Reading Strategies
                Pause, Prompt and Praise
   Pause = When child comes across an unknown word pause
    before offering any help
   Prompt = If the child is still unable to decode the word then
    provide a clue. These may include providing the first sound,
    reading the rest of the sentence to gain context and
    discussing features of the word
   Praise = Praise the child regularly for fluent, accurate
    reading and when they are able to decode an unfamiliar

Saturday, January                                                   41
07, 2012
                    Reading Strategies
Fluent   readers are able to recognise,
   predict and decode text quickly and

Dysfluent    readers have difficulty
   retrieving words and sounds rapidly and
   consistently which leads to slow and
   laboured reading.

Saturday, January                            42
07, 2012
                    Reading Strategies
                    Improving Fluency
 Ensure  the child is reading books that match their
   reading ability. Children on a whole should be able
   to read 85% of the words in a book.

 Read  each page to the student prior to them
   having a go.

 Read      the same book more than once

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07, 2012
      Free Resources on the World
               Wide Web

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             Commercial Resources
Books and games are available from:
 (USA)
 ( England)
 (USA)

Saturday, January                       45
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            Whole Language Vs Phonics
Sometimes when I put my special
 education hat on, I see this
 controversy [whole language vs.
 phonics] as simply another issue of

Saturday, January                       46
07, 2012
Installing ramps at building entrances
  doesn‟t keep me (a temporarily able
  bodied person) out, but it does allow
  others in. Providing a sign language
  interpreter for a public meeting
  doesn‟t keep me from listening to the
  speakers, but it does allow our deaf
  citizens to participate..

Saturday, January                         47
07, 2012
Teaching decoding and phonemic
 awareness doesn‟t hinder those lucky
 children who would become readers
 almost effortlessly, but it does allow
 those children who need the explicit
 instruction to become readers too.
 It allows them to access the world of

Saturday, January                         48
07, 2012
If you think about it, opening up the
  world in this way also has benefits
  for the rest of us. In the first
  example, those of us who may be
  pushing a child in a pram can use the
  ramps that were originally installed
  for users of wheel chairs.

Saturday, January                         49
07, 2012
In the second example, as I‟m listening
  to the speaker, I can perhaps benefit
  from the interpreter‟s use of body
  language and other nonverbal
  expression to enrich my
  understanding of the speaker‟s

Saturday, January                         50
07, 2012
Surely, there is such an enrichment for
 the able reader who is exposed to the
 wonderful songs, word play, and word
 games that we use for teaching,
 decoding and phonemic awareness.
                     - Paula Stanovich, 2000

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       Thank you for your attendance.

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07, 2012

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