Data Protection by dandanhuanghuang

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									Data Protection
for Virtual Data Centers

Jason Buffington




                           WILEY

                   Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Contents
Introduction                                                          xix



          Chapter l • What Kind of Protection Do You Need?             l
          In the Beginning, There Were Disk and Tape                   1
          Overview of Availability Mechanisms                          2
             Storage Availability                                      3
             Asynchronous Replication                                  7
             Clustering                                                9
             Application Built-in Availability                        10
             Decision Question: How Asynchronous?                     11
          Overview of Protection Mechanisms                           12
             Let's Talk Tape                                          12
             Disk vs. Tape                                            14
             Microsoft Improvements for Windows Backups               15
          Summary                                                     16

          Chapter 2 • Data Protection by the Numbers                  19
          The Technical Metrics: RPO and RTO                          19
             Recovery Point Objective                                 19
             Recovery Time Objective                                  20
             Putting RPO and RTO Together                             21
             Making RPO and RTO Real with SLAs                        21
          Business Metrics: RA and BIA                                24
             Risk Analysis (RA): The Science of Worrying              24
             Business Impact Analysis (BIA): How Much Will It Cost?   26
          Risk Mitigation: Fixing It in Advance                       33
             Protection or Productivity?                              34
             Availability                                             34
             Protection                                               35
          Total Cost of Ownership                                     36
          Return on Investment                                        37
             Calculating ROI                                          38
             Which ROI Method Is Most Accurate?                       39
             The Credibility Challenge of ROI                         39
          Turning IT Needs into Corporate Initiatives                 41
          Summary                                                     42

          Chapter 3 • The Layers of Data Protection                   43
          What Data Looks Like from the Server's Perspective          43
          Hardware-centric Protection                                 44
            Storage Level 1: Protecting Against Spindle Failure       45
   Storage Level 2: Protecting Against Array Failure            51
   Storage Level 3: Protecting Against Storage Node Failure     52
   Storage Level 4: Protecting Against SAN Fabric Failure       54
   How Disk-Based Communication Works                           55
   Synchronous Replication in Storage                           57
File-centric Protection                                         60
   Application-Agnostic Replication                             60
   How Application-Agnostic Replication Works                   60
   Protection and Availability                                  63
   When to Use Application-Agnostic Availability                65
Application-centric Protection                                  66
Where to Store Your Protected Data                              67
   Tape-Based Protection                                        67
   Disk-Based Protection                                        67
   Cloud-Based Protection                                       70
   Use Each Media Type for What It Does Best                    72
Summary                                                         73

Chapter 4 • Better Backups                                      75
Solving the Problem from the Inside Out                         75
   Supportability and Reliability in Legacy Backup Solutions    76
   How Microsoft Addressed the Issue                            77
Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS)                                77
   VSS Writer                                                   78
   VSS Requestor                                                78
   VSS Provider                                                 78
   How VSS Backups Work                                         79
The Windows Server Backup Utility                               82
   Getting Started with WSB                                     83
   Restoring with WSB                                           85
System Center Data Protection Manager                           87
   Why Did Microsoft Build a Backup Product?                    87
   How Does DPM Work?                                           90
   Getting Started with DPM 2010                                96
   Configuring DPM 2010 Protection                             102
   Restoring Data with DPM 2010                                116
   Using DPM 2010 in Heterogeneous Environments                135
   Disaster Recovery with DPM 2010                             138
Summary                                                        141

Chapter 5 • File Services                                      143
File System Availability and Protection in Windows Server      143
What Is the Distributed File System?                           144
   Distributed File System Namespace                           144
    Distributed File System Replication                        145
   DFS Terminology                                             146
                                                                     CONTENTS j   XIII




Enabling DFS on Your Windows File Servers                                   147
  Infrastructure Prerequisites                                              147
  Installing DFS on Windows Server 2003 and 2003 R2                         147
  Installing DFS on Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2                         149
Getting Started with DFS-N                                                  150
  How a DFS Namespace Works                                                 150
  Configuring a DFS Namespace                                               153
Getting Started with DFS-R                                                  160
  Before DFS-R, There Was FRS                                               161
  Key Concepts in DFS Replication                                           162
  How DFS-R Works: Remote Differential Compression                          162
  How Initial Replication Works                                             164
  Configuring DFS Replication                                               165
  DFS Replication Options                                                   171
Mixing DFS-R and DFS-N for Real-World Solutions                             174
  File Distribution                                                         176
  Branch Office Availability and Centralized Backup                         177
  Collaboration Between Branches                                            179
  Migration and Growth                                                      179
DFS Enhancements in Windows Server 2008 R2                                  180
Summary                                                                     181

Chapter 6 • Windows Clustering                                              183
Overview of Clustering in Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2                   183
  Scale Out with Network Load Balancing                                     183
  Scale Up with Failover Clustering                                         185
  Failover Clustering Terms and Concepts                                    185
  The Anatomy of a Failover Cluster                                         186
Building Your First Cluster                                                 187
  Start with Shared Storage                                                 187
  Creating Your Virtual Hands-on Environment                                191
  Getting Started with MSCS in Windows Server 2008                          193
How Failover Clustering Works                                               203
  The Cluster Heartbeat                                                     203
  When Failover Occurs                                                      203
Quorum Models                                                               204
  Witness Disk (Only)                                                       205
  Node and Disk Majority                                                    205
  Node and File Share Majority                                              206
  Node Majority                                                             206
  What Changes with the Third Node and Beyond                               208
Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering                                  210
  What's New in Failover Clustering (Windows Server 2008 R2)                211
  Building Your Second Cluster Using Windows Server 2008 R2 in Hyper-V      212
  Migrating to Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clusters                     213
Summary                                                                     219
XIV   CONTENTS




                 Chapter 7 • Microsoft Exchange                                   221
                 Exchange within Microsoft Cluster Services                       221
                   Single Copy Clusters                                           221
                   Getting Started with SCCs                                      222
                   Failover Behavior                                              223
                   Challenges with SCC                                            224
                 Exchange 2007 Continuous Replication                             227
                   How Does Continuous Replication Work?                          227
                   Seeding a Database                                             228
                   Local Continuous Replication (LCR)                             228
                   Cluster Continuous Replication                                 232
                   Standby Continuous Replication                                 244
                 Exchange 2010 Database Availability                              250
                   Database Availability Group                                    250
                   Getting Started with DAG                                       255
                   Data Protection Considerations with DAG                        262
                 Summary                                                          265

                 Chapter 8 • Microsoft SQL Server                                 267
                 SQL Server Built-in Resiliency                                   267
                   SQL Terminology                                                267
                   Clustering or Mirroring?                                       268
                 SQL Failover Clustering                                          269
                   Preparing to Cluster SQL Server                                269
                   Task 1: Installing SQL Server onto the First Clustered Node    272
                   Task 2: Installing SQL Server onto the Second Clustered Node   276
                   What Happens When a Database Changes Nodes?                    278
                   Should You Cluster SQL Server?                                 280
                 SQL Database Mirroring                                           281
                   Starting the Mirror Session                                    282
                   How Mirroring Works                                            283
                   Task 3: Preparing the Database Mirror                          287
                   Task 4: Getting Started with Database Mirroring                291
                 SQL Database Failover                                            292
                   Can I Get a Witness?                                           293
                   Task 5: Adding a Witness to the Mirroring Configuration        294
                   SQL Quorum                                                     295
                   Automatic Failover                                             297
                   Manual Failover                                                298
                   Other Recovery Methods                                         300
                   Forcing Service                                                300
                   Client Connectivity                                            301
                 SQL Log Shipping and Replication                                 302
                   Introducing SQL Log Shipping                                   303
                   Task 6: Getting Started with SQL Log Shipping                  303
                   Introducing SQL Replication                                    307
                                                                   CONTENTS I XV



Which SQL Server HA Solution Should You Choose?                          307
Backing Up SQL Server                                                    309
  The Most Important Rule in Backing Up SQL Server                       309
  The Other Most Important Rule in SQL Server Backups                    310
  Restoring Databases with DPM 2010                                      311
Summary                                                                  315

Chapter 9 • Virtualization                                               317
Virtualization Changes Everything                                        317
Protecting Virtual Machines                                              317
   Challenges in Virtual Machine Protection                              318
   VSS-Based Backups of Virtual Machines                                 319
   Host-Based vs. Guest-Based Backups                                    323
   Restoring Virtual Machines                                            326
Availability of Virtual Machines                                         327
   How Live Migration Works                                              329
   Defining Clustered Shared Volumes                                     330
   Requirements for LM and CSV                                           332
   Getting Started with CSV                                              333
   Backing Up CSV Configurations                                         342
How Virtualization Makes Data Protection and Availability Better         343
Disaster Recovery Staging                                                344
   Legacy Options for Physical ВС/DR sites                               344
   Using Virtualization for Physical Server Business Continuity          345
   Using Virtualization for Virtual Server Business Continuity           349
Bare Metal Recovery                                                      349
Server Rollback                                                          350
Summary                                                                  352

Chapter 10 • Management and Deployment                                   353
Well-Managed Systems for Higher Uptime                                   353
Large Enterprise Deployment and Manageability                            354
   Introducing Microsoft Systems Management                              354
   System Center Configuration Manager 2007 R2 and R3                    355
   Configuration Manager Site System Roles                               356
   The Configuration Manager Console                                     358
   Asset Identification and Agent Installation                           359
   Centralized Software Deployment                                       362
   Securing Resources with Software Update Management                    368
   Identifying Desired State Compliance                                  373
   Deploying Operating Systems                                           376
   Preventing Unsecure System Access                                     382
Virtualization Management                                                383
   Overview of VMM 2008 R2                                               384
   Key Features of VMM 2008 R2                                           387
   Intelligent Placement for VMs                                         388
   Integration with Operations Manager                                   389
XVI   CONTENTS




                 Midsized Management: Physical and Virtual                             398
                   Introducing SCE 2010                                                399
                   Getting Started with SCE 2010                                       399
                 Summary                                                               409

                 Chapter n • Monitoring Systems                                        411
                 The Need for Monitoring                                               411
                 Challenges in Monitoring                                              412
                 Enterprise End-to-End Monitoring                                      413
                   Introducing Operations Manager 2007 R2                              415
                   Getting Started with Operations Manager                             418
                 Monitoring the Health and Performance of Key Workloads                428
                   Monitoring Data Protection Manager                                  429
                   Monitoring Distributed File Services                                429
                   Monitoring Windows Failover Clustering                              430
                   Monitoring Exchange Replication                                     431
                   Monitoring SQL Mirroring                                            431
                   Monitoring Virtualization                                           432
                 Monitoring in Midsized Organizations Using System Center Essentials   434
                   Introducing SCE 2010                                                434
                   Discovering Midsized Resources                                      435
                   Monitoring Midsized Environments                                    436
                   Knowledge Applied to Midsized Scenarios                             438
                   Virtualization Monitored in Midsized Datacenters                    440
                 Summary                                                               441

                 Chapter 12 • Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery                443
                 What Makes ВС and DR So Special?                                      443
                    Real Business Continuity Planning                                  443
                    Regulatory Compliance                                              446
                   The Real Reason to Do Disaster Recovery                             462
                 Get Your Data Out of the Building                                     463
                   Don't Cry "I Wasn't Ready Yet"                                      464
                   Tactical DR vs. Strategic Disaster Preparedness                     465
                 ВС = DR + НА                                                          465
                   Multiple Datacenters                                                466
                   Branch Offices' BCDR                                                468
                    Branch Offices for DR                                              470
                   Hosted Providers                                                    470
                   Service Providers                                                   471
                 ВС/DR Solution Alternatives                                           472
                   Application- or Workload-Specific Features                          472
                   Application-Agnostic Replication and Failover,,                     473
                 Using Virtualization to Achieve Business Continuity                   474
                   Challenges with Traditional Disaster Recovery Staging               474
                   Disaster Recovery Staging, Virtually                                475
                                                                    CONTENTS     XVII



           Restoring Your Infrastructure within Hyper-V                    478
           Additional Notes on Virtualized BC/DR Sites                     481
        Planning for BC/DR to Get Better Backups and Availability          482
        Summary                                                            483
           Where BC/DR is today                                            483
           Where BC/DR is heading                                          483

        Appendix • Links and Resources                                     485
        Microsoft Software                                                 485
        Topical Resources                                                  485
          Chapter 4: Data Protection Manager                               486
          Chapters 4, 5, and 6: Windows Server                             486
          Chapter 7: Exchange                                              487
          Chapter 8: SQL Server                                            488
          Chapter 9: Virtualization                                        488
          Chapters 10 and 11: System Center                                488
          Chapter 12: ВС and DR                                            489
        The Author                                                         490


Index                                                                      491

								
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