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Slide 1 Complete Sentences A sentence has 2 parts: 1. A predicate 2. A subject A sentence does 4 things: 1. Gives a command or request. 2. States a fact. 3. Expresses strong feeling. 4. Asks a question. Circle the number of the complete sentence. 1. Tony, following directions, lowered the sail. 2. While putting his foot onto the dagger board. Slide2 Kinds of Sentences There are 4 kinds of sentences. Each kind begins with a capital letter and ends with some kind of punctuation. A Declarative sentence makes a statement. It ends with a period. “We are ready to sail.” An Interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark. “Did you bring a lunch?” An Imperative sentence gives a command or a request. It ends with a period. “Untie the knot.” An Exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation point. “What a great day this is!” Slide 3 Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence, but does not express a complete thought. Create the following chart: Fragment Sentence 1. very frightened 2. pretty foolish 3. hard working 4. lots of fun Slide 4 Capital Letters Sentences begin with capital letters. Write 3 sentences that describe what you would buy if you had $300. Switch with a neighbor and correct for capital letters and complete thoughts. Slide 5 Sentence Kind Review Use the end punctuation to determine what kind of sentence. 1. How could you earn some extra money? 2. Jamal wants to walk his neighbor’s dog. 3. Take the leash with you. 4. I collected fifty dollars this summer! Write a declarative and an imperative sentence of your own. Slide 6 Subjects and Predicates A complete sentence has a subject and a predicate. The subject is the word or group of words that the sentence is about. All words in the subject make up a complete subject. The most important word in the complete subject is the simple subject. It is usually a noun or a pronoun. Our class read Teammates today. Slide7 Subjects and Predicates A predicate is the word or group of words that tells something about the subject. All the words in the predicate make up the complete predicate. The most important word in the complete predicate is the verb. It is called the simple predicate. We enjoyed this book. Slide 8 Subjects and Predicates What part of the sentence is underlined? 1. Rosa plays baseball with her family. 2. The Vikings and the Rangers won every game this season. Slide 9 Subject and Predicate Review Make a list of 5 nouns. Make a list of 5 verbs. Using the 5 nouns and 5 verbs you wrote, create 5 sentences. Circle the complete subject and underline the complete predicate. The dog walked through the park. Slide 10 Sentence Combining A conjunction joins words or a group of words. And adds information But shows contrast Or gives a choice A compound sentence is two sentences joined with a comma and a conjunction. Use a semicolon to separate two parts of a compound sentence when they are not connected by a conjunction. Slide 11 Sentence Combining A compound subject has two or more subjects that have the same predicate. I like to ski. Carlos likes to ski. Carlos and I like to ski. A compound predicate has two or more predicates with the same subject. Aidan likes soccer. Aidan likes basketball. Aidan likes soccer and basketball. Slide 12 Combining Sentences Combine the following sentences. 1. My father wants to move to California. My mother doesn’t. 2. Fritz doesn’t like football. Fritz doesn’t like squash. 3. Audrey can go to the movies on Friday. She can go on Saturday. Slide 13 Subjects in Sentences Circle the subject of each sentence. 1. Tom still has a scraggly beard. 2. Susan’s thick, wavy hair had turned gray early. 3. The idea made April sick. 4. The bus kitchen was like a playhouse. 5. April and Gus slept in berths. Slide 14 Combining Sentences Rewrite the paragraph; combining short sentences with a conjunction to form compound subjects, compound predicates, or compound sentences. People put on their clothing every day. They do not think about how their pants stay put. They do not think about how their jackets stay put. Jackets have zippers. Pants have zippers. The zipper was invented in 1893 by Judson. He called his invention a “clasp-locker.” Slide 15 Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause is a sentence part that has a subject and a verb and makes sense by itself. A dependent clause is a sentence part that has a subject and a verb but does NOT make sense by itself. A dependent clause cannot stand alone. Lee’s family likes music, and they each play an instrument. After eating dinner, everyone gathers to learn a new song. Slide 16 Independent and Dependent Clauses Tell whether the underlined words are independent clauses or dependent clauses. 1. Christina hoped her parents could come, but she also felt pretty nervous. 2. She wondered if they would like her new poem, which she had just written. 3. During her poetry reading, her parents smiles and nodded their heads. Slide 17 Independent Clause Review An independent clause is a sentence part that has both a subject and a verb and makes sense by itself. For each sentence below write the independent clause. 1. After we had eaten our fill, we drifted away from the table to go outside. 2. In Los Angeles, Yoshiko Uchida was the youngest of all thirteen children. 3. Obah San was the first to go, every Sunday. Slide 18 Dependent Clause Review A dependent clause is a sentence part that has both a subject and a verb and does not make sense by itself. For each sentence below write the dependent clause. 1. Before the ship pulls out, the captain must check the compass and the map. 2. Caught up in the festival excitement, I used to wish I were the one sailing off to Japan. 3. The morning we docked, she was up early. Slide 19 Independent/Dependent Clause Review Rewrite these sentences. Put the dependent clause in parentheses. 1. The girls continued their raking, even though they were tired. 2. Yellowstone is a national park in the West that is famous for the geysers. 3. The dog did a flip whenever I clapped my hands. Slide 20 Compound/Complex Sentences Compound sentences contain two independent clauses. They are joined with a comma and a word such as or, and, or but (conjunctions). The boat was leaving, and the passengers threw confetti. Complex sentences contain one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. These are joined by words such as if, because, or when. The children felt sick when the ship started to pitch and roll. Slide 21 Compound/Complex Sentences Read the following sentences. Write the sentence and tell whether each is a compound or a complex sentence. 1. We packed our clothes, which had already been washed. 2. The boat is ready to leave, but the passengers have not yet arrived. 3. They wrote to us, and a week later we wrote back. 4. Whenever she goes, she collects recipes. 5. Her collection is huge, but the recipes are all different. Slide 22 Writing Compound and Complex Sentences REMEMBER: Compound sentences are joined together with conjunctions. You may also see so, nor, for or yet. Complex sentences use the words because, although, if, before, after, or when. Make #1 a compound sentence. Make #2 a complex sentence. 1. Yoshiko Uchida had not met all her relatives. Her parents took her to Japan. 2. Yoshiko liked Japan. She looked like everyone else. Slide 23 Compound Sentence Review A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses or simple sentences. They are joined together with a comma and a word such as yet, so, nor, for, and, but, or or. In the following sentences, identifying the joining words. 1. Uncle Douglas’s red car was parked outside the garage, so I knew they were there. 2. Mother’s voice was still pleasant, but she was considerably firmer. 3. He walked to the door, so he could go outside. 4. Do you want to go to the store, or do you want to stay home? Slide 24 Sentence Combining Simple sentence after simple sentence makes for choppy writing. Writers often combine sentences together to make their writing smoother. They turn simple sentences into complex sentences. Two simple sentences with the same predicate can become a sentence with a compound subject. For example: •Jake liked the movie. Eliza liked the movie •Jake and Eliza liked the movie. Slide 25 Sentence Combining Two simple sentences with the same subject can become a sentence with a compound predicate. For example: •Marva loves fish. Marva loves burritos. •Marva loves fish and burritos. Combine the following sentences using the word and. 1. Hassan was sick. Hassan didn’t go to school. 2. He had a fever. He had a rash. 3. His mother called the doctor. His father called the doctor. Slide 26 Common Nouns and Proper Nouns A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. For example: Martin Luther King Jr., The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Christmas. Proper nouns are capitalized. Common nouns do not name a particular person, place, or thing. The words school, museum, and day are all common nouns. Common nouns are not capitalized. Slide 27 Common and Proper Nouns Rewrite the paragraph below. Underline each common noun and circle each proper noun. My mother has always loved birds. She once had a parakeet from New Zealand and a Mynah bird from the jungles of South Africa. She fed them Tweety Bird Birdseed, which we bought from Dr. Pete’s Pet Store. Those two birds adored Mom. Whenever she went near their cages, they would chirp, twitter, and sing. Slide 28 Practicing Proper and Common Nouns Rewrite the following paragraph. Make sure that you capitalize proper nouns. One day mom took a quick peek inside the Cage. “My new Zealand bird is not chirping!” she cried. “Call dr. Pete!” I ran for the Phone. When miss Monroe answered, I explained the situation. “Bring that Bird here,” she ordered. “We’re at 222 Valley lane, just north of Beckman park,” she explained. Slide 29 Identify Proper and Common Nouns Proper nouns name particular places, things, people and ideas. Proper nouns are capitalized. Common nouns do not refer to particular people, places, things, or ideas. These begin with a lower case letter. Create the chart below. Fill in the missing information. Proper Nouns Common Nouns 1. Mrs. Nelson 1. teacher 2. 2. boy 3. 3. 4. M & M’s 4. Slide 30 Plural Nouns A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea. There are two kinds of plural nouns: regular plural nouns and irregular plural nouns. Regular Nouns • Add - s to form the plural of most nouns: sign – signs. • Add –es to nouns that end in ch, sh, s, ss, or x: church-churches, dish-dishes, fox-foxes, loss-losses. • If a noun ends in a consonant and a y, change the y to I and ad es: party-parties. Slide 31 Plural Nouns • Some nouns have the same singular and plural form: fish-fish. • Other nouns have a spelling change: mouse-mice. • Form the plural of some nouns ending in f or fe by changing the f or fe to ve and add es: wife-wives, wolf-wolves. • Add –s to most nouns that end in f and ff: roof-roofs, sheriff- sheriffs. • Add –s to nouns ending in a vowel and o: video-videos. • Use a dictionary to help with words like potato-potatoes. Slide 32 Plural Nouns Form the plural of the following words. 1. calf 2. mosquito 3. raspberry 4. grass 5. fluff 6. mouse Slide 33 Practicing Plural Nouns Write the correct plural noun that completes the sentence. 1. A group of five (women, woman) and a guide were climbing Mount Everest. 2. Slowly the (climber, climbers) made their way to the top. 3. They felt like (heroes, heros) as they approached the summit. 4. This climb would make a great story for their (grandchilds, grandchildren). 5. This was the most exciting adventure of their (lifes, lives). Slide 34 Practicing Plural Nouns Write the sentence making the noun, in parentheses, plural to complete the sentence. 1. Hector has been collecting (rock) for many years. 2. He keeps them in (box) in the attic. 3. He sometimes brings (berry) to eat on his hiking trips. 4. Hector thinks these are sturdy (shelf). 5. Sunlight shone through the (leaf) on the trees. 6. (bunch) of wild grapes grew on the vines. Slide 35 Irregular Plural Nouns To form the plural of some nouns ending in f or fe, change the f to v and add – es. To form the plural of nouns ending in a vowel followed by o add – s. To form the plural of nouns ending in a consonant followed by o, add – s or - es. Slide 36 Irregular Plural Nouns Rewrite the sentences creating the correct plural of the noun. 1. A local farmer reported that three of his youngest (calf) were missing. 2. The farmer worried that they had lost their (life). 3. The clown preformed in several of the (rodeo). 4. Baked (potato) are a favorite at dinner. Slide 37 Irregular Plural Nouns Some nouns, like woman and child, have a special plural form that does not end in – s woman women child children Some nouns, like fish and moose, stay the same whether singular or plural. Slide 38 Irregular Plural Nouns Rewrite the sentences creating the correct plural of the noun. 1. After hearing about the storm, (person) swarmed to the stores. 2. Meteorologists said the storm met all the (criterion) for being a blizzard. 3. Cans of food became as scarce as hen’s (tooth). 4. The (loaf) of bread were the first to go. 5. My sister found two frightened (mouse) behind a box. Slide 39 Irregular Plural Nouns Rewrite the sentences creating the correct plural of the noun. 1. Many of the (shelf) at the supermarket had already been emptied. 2. People lined up like (sheep) at the registers. 3. No one had any battery-operated (radio) left to sell. 4. My sister found a case of diced (tomato) in the basement. Slide 40 Possessive Nouns A possessive noun names who or what owns something A possessive noun can be singular or plural A possessive noun can be common or proper A possessive noun is formed by adding an apostrophe and an –s to a singular nouns, even when they end in s Slide 41 Possessive Nouns Possessive nouns show that one or more nouns own something. Possessive nouns are formed with an apostrophe and s or with only an apostrophe. • Add ‘s to form the possessive of most singular nouns: horse’s stall, farmer’s barn. • Add ‘s to form the possessive of plural nouns that do not end in s: mice’s nest, men’s hat. Slide 42 Possessive Nouns Write the correct possessive form of the underlined word. 1. Last weekends thunderstorm was fierce! 2. My parents party was cancelled. Slide 43 Possessive Plural Nouns • If a plural possessive noun is regular and ends in –s, add an apostrophe • Three baseball players’ paycheck was more than three doctors’ paycheck. • If a plural possessive noun is irregular and does not end in –s, add an Slide 44 Possessive Noun Review Rewrite each sentence to show possession. 1. the color of the sky (The sky’s color.) 2. the legs of the sheep 3. a purse belonging to a woman 4. the young of the horse Slide 45 Appositives • An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or explain it • An appositive includes the appositive and the words that modify the appositive Example: Dr. Campbell, our veterinarian, gave Kimba her annual physical. Slide 46 Appositives Tell whether each underlined word is an appositive. 1. Kimba is my sister’s pet cat. 2. The doctor found a strange spot, a pink blister, just behind Kimba’s ear. 3. She said it was probably nothing to worry about. Slide 47 Appositives • Some appositives are nonessential to the meaning of a sentence Non-essential example: Dan, an excellent cook, made dinner for us tonight. • Other appositives are essential to the meaning of a sentence. (These usually consist of one word) Slide 48 Appositives Tell whether the underlined appositive in each sentence is essential or nonessential. 1. Our drama coach, Mr. Wright, had to call in the understudy. 2. My brother Alan had hoped for a chance to play the part. 3. He tried out for the play along with my youngest brother, Vince. 4. Of course, Alan auditioned for the role of Buckley, the hero. Slide 49 Appositives • If an appositive comes: • at the beginning of a sentence, it is usually followed by a comma • at the end of a sentence, it should be proceeded by a comma • In the middle of a sentence, it should be proceeded and Slide 50 Direct/Indirect Objects • An action verb followed by a word that answers the question what? or whom? is called the direct object • An action verb that only tells what someone or something does or only tells when, where, or how is called an indirect object Jason kicked Kaylee the ball. action verb: kicked Slide 51 Direct/Indirect Objects • The direct object receives the action of the verb in a sentence and tell who or what is affected by the verb’s action. • An indirect object always appears before the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action is done. Underline the verb, put () around the direct object, and circle the indirect object. 1. The men prepare everybody a feast. Slide 52 Direct/Indirect Objects Tell whether the underlined words are direct or indirect objects. 1. Trey had a rather embarrassing habit. 2. His classmates gave him the nickname “Hopalong.” 3. Trey liked the name because it reminded him of Hopalong Cassidy. Slide 53 Direct/Indirect Objects Label the direct objects (DO) and indirect object (IO). 1.The wrangler brought the two friends their horses. 2. Her mother taught her everything she knew. 3.Greg attended his first riding Slide 54 Direct/Indirect Objects Circle the direct objects and underline the indirect objects. 1. Katie brought the red ball to Kathy. 2. Rita knew how to ride well. 3. Fred learned how to add on Friday. 4. Mike rode his bike to the store. 5. The teacher taught her sixth grade class how to divide. Slide 55 Past Tense Verbs • The past tense of most verbs is formed by adding -d or –ed to the base form of the word. • Some verbs form their past tense with a completely different word, these are called irregular. (draw/drew, bring/brought, lose/lost, speak/spoke) Make these sentences show past tense. 1. Jamie (walk) down to the beach Slide 56 Future Tense Verbs • To form the future tense, place the helping verb will before the base form of the verb. • I will go to the store tonight. Make these sentences show future tense. 1. Jeff (walk) down to the store. 2. Kathy (run) a race this weekend. Slide 57 Past and Future Tense Verbs Tell whether the sentences are past tense or future tense. 1. She will drink pots and pots of coffee to keep herself awake. 2. Two hours past her bedtime, Katie fell into a deep sleep. 3. When everyone hears the music, they will dance all night long. Slide 58 Past and Future Tense Verbs Correct the sentences below. Pay special attention to the tenses of the verbs. 1. Jane runned home, when she heared that her parents bought a boat. 2. “When did you buy it?” she ask them. 3. Jane asked, “When will we are able to go sailing?” 4. Her father thinked, that he should Slide 59 Past and Future Tense Verbs Change the sentences below into the tense indicated. 1.The starters’ flare will tell us when the race begins. (past) 2. Franco leapt ahead of the others. (future) 3. Trish threw her javelin the Slide 60 Main and Helping Verbs A verb phrase is made up of a main verb, something you can do, and one or more helping verbs. Common helping verbs: am, are, is, was, were, have, has, had, do, does, did, be, being, been, will, shall, can, could, would, should, might, must. A helping verb places an action at Slide 61 Main and Helping Verbs Tell which words are helping verbs and which are main verbs. Write the sentences underlining the verbs, circle the helping verbs. 1. Gaby had been thinking about summer. 2. She had read an article about vacations. 3. She is spending far too much time day dreaming. 4. Her father said that he would pay for a summer camp. Slide 62 Main and Helping Verbs Helping verbs place an action or event in time. • Present progressive: happening now action • I am laughing. • Present perfect: action occurred at some point in time I have laughed. • Past perfect: happened before another event • I had laughed. • Past progressive: action happening while another action is happening I was laughing. • Future progressive: an action that will happen while another action happens I will be laughing. Slide 63 Main and Helping Verbs Tell which tense is shown. Refer back to slide 62. 1. My sister Cara is working on an energy monitoring project for school. 2. Her class had studied resource consumption before last semester. 3. For the next month, we will be recording our electricity usage. 4. I have always wondered just how much energy we use. 5. I was planning to do something similar. Slide 64 Main and Helping Verbs Rewrite the sentence and the correct version of the helping verb and main verb in parentheses. 1. Carol (have look) over my homework yesterday. 2. Right now, the birds (be eat) at the . 3. Danny (be attend) a new school next year. Slide 65 Linking Verbs A linking verb links the subject of the sentence with a noun or adjective in the predicate Common linking verbs include: be, become, seem, appear, look, grow, turn, taste, feel, and smell Some of these verbs can be used as action verbs. I tasted the cake. In the following sentence the cake isn’t performing the action of tasting so tasting is a linking verb. The cake tastes delicious. Slide 66 Linking Verbs A predicate noun follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is. Example: Maury Obleck is the best sculptor in our community. A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is like. Example: Over the years, his work has become quite famous. Identify the two following sentences. 1. His biggest piece, Sitting Soldier, is quite tall! 2. Sitting Soldier is a young man sitting on a log. Slide 67 Linking Verbs Underline the subject. Circle either the predicate noun or the predicate adjective. 1. My favorite group’s new CD is a masterpiece! 2. The name of the disc is Ten Steps Around. 3. The guitar sounds a lot fuzzier than on their first CD. 4. The pounding bass drum on “Who Knows” feels amazing. Slide 68 Linking Verbs Underline the subject. Circle either the predicate noun or the predicate adjective. 1. The song is a ballad written in memory of the guitarist’s mother. 2. When I first heard the song, I felt incredibly sad. 3. The wailing melody turns very tender toward the end. 4. The band seems read for superstardom! Slide 69 Linking Verbs Use linking verbs to make complete sentences. 1. Jordan/restless 2. seedlings/bountiful plants 3. ice/safe 4. Soup/spicy 5. explorers/frightened Slide 70 Regular/Irregular Verbs • To make the past tense or past participial form of a regular verb an ed is added at the end. • walk walked have walked • help helped have helped • An irregular verb can form its past tense and past participle by changing a vowel or the spelling. • begin began have begun • go went have gone Slide 71 Irregular Verbs • An irregular verb can form its past tense and past participle by changing a vowel or the spelling. do did done drive drove driven hide hid hidden • Some irregular verbs have special spelling when used with the helping verbs have, has, or had. I tore my sleeve. I had torn my sleeve. Slide 72 Irregular Verbs • An irregular verb can form its past tense and past participle by changing a vowel or the spelling. do did done drive drove driven hide hid hidden • Some irregular verbs have special spelling when used with the helping verbs have, had, or had. I tore my sleeve. I had torn my sleeve. Slide 28 Combining Sentences Rewrite the following paragraph so that it is more interesting to read. (Hint: use compound and complex sentences!!) “The Telephone Call,” is a terrific story. It is about a family. The family is kind. The family is loving. An orphan child comes to live with them. The family has some trouble adjusting. The child’s name is Maggy. Ms. L’Engles’s characters are realistic. Her writing style is simple. Her writing is never dull. I recommend this story. Slide 29 Test Review Answer the following questions. 1. What is a complete sentence? 2. What is a sentence fragment? 3. What does a sentence start with? 4. List the four types of sentences. 5. Write a sentence for each sentence type in number 4. 6. What does a sentence end with? Name all that apply. Slide 30 Test Review 7. What is a subject? 8. What is a complete subject? 9. Write a complete subject for the following sentence: Sarah and her sister went to the store. 10. What is a predicate? 11. What is a complete predicate? 12. Write the complete predicate for the following sentence: We went to Lagoon on Friday. Slide 31 Test Review 13. What is a simple subject? 14. Write the simple subject for the following sentence: Sarah bought some cake. 15. What is a simple predicate? 16. Write the simple predicate for the following sentence: She ran from the dog. 17. What is an independent clause? 18. What is a dependent clause? 19. Write the independent clause for the following sentence: We went to the store, so we could buy some snacks. Slide 32 Test Review 20. Write the dependent clause for the following sentence: She went to Japan, because she looked like everyone else. 21. What is a compound sentence? 22. Write a compound sentence. 23. What is a complex sentence? 24. Write a complex sentence. 25. What are the three conjunctions that are good for combining sentences? Slide 33 Complete Subject and Simple Subject Review The complete subject is all the words in the subject of the sentence. The most important word is the simple subject. It is usually a noun or a pronoun. Rewrite the sentences. Underline the complete subject, circle the simple subject. 1. The crow walked the children to the bus stop. 2. The house sits on a wooded hillside. 3. His eyes widened as he understood the problem. 4. The neighbor stormed into Dr. Tollman’s office. Slide 34 Compound Subject Review When 2 sentences have different subjects and the same predicate, you can combine the subjects using the word and. The result is a compound subject. • The author worked on the book. • The illustrator worked on the book. • The author and illustrator worked on the book Rewrite each sentence using a compound subject. 1. Craig cried. Luke cried. 2. The crow was hungry. The cat was hungry. Slide 35 Using Complete and Simple Subjects A Simple Subject is just the noun the sentence is talking about. A Complete Subject is everything from the beginning of the sentence to the noun. • The house sits on a wooded hillside. • Some owners of pet dogs have taught their dogs to sit on command. Write sentences for each of the complete and simple subjects below. 1. The author of the story _____. 2. Crows 3. One child on the playground____. 4. tree Slide 40 Noun Review Nouns are words that name persons, places, things, and ideas. Concrete nouns identify things that exist in the physical world. Abstract nouns name things that cannot be touched, seen, felt, or heard. In the following list, circle the concrete nouns; underline the abstract nouns. If the word is not a noun leave it alone. father cave was is self-pity courage am quill hunger sadness or nice hatchet survival candy Slide 48 End Punctuation Review The end punctuation of a sentence helps clarify the writer’s meaning. For example, a statement or a command, a writer uses a period. If a writer wants the sentence to show strong emotion, then an exclamation mark is used. If a writer asks a question, the sentence will end in a question mark. Rewrite the sentences with correct punctuation. 1. Laura found a sea turtle 2. How happy she was to find it 3. Should she tell her father about the turtle Slide 49 In the following paragraph, correct the end punctuation and comma usage. Rewrite the entire paragraph correctly. I looked around and there were more gulls gathering They were silent, watching, waiting, and I knew well enough what they were waiting for I pulled away more of the seaweed and I saw that the gulls had been at him already Slide 50 Commas in Compound Sentences A comma is used to set off a word or group of words from other words in the same sentence. In a compound sentence, a comma and a conjunction are used to “join” the two sentences. • Laura found a turtle, and she realized she had to help him. Rewrite the sentences. Put the comma in the correct place. 1. Laura tried to help the turtle but he would not move. 2. She covered him with sand and then he got better. Slide 51 Commas with Nouns Commas are used to set off a group of words from the rest of the sentence. They set off items in a series. A series is 3 or more words or groups of words listed together in a sentence. A comma is used after each item in the series except the last. • We packed ham, salad, pickles, and chips. • Mom, Dad, and Virginia were waiting in the car. Slide 52 Commas with Nouns Practice Rewrite each sentence placing a comma in the correct places. 1. Eleanor Joe and Terry work at Stewart Beach Aquarium. 2. Eleanor gives tours on Monday Tuesday and Wednesday. 3. The aquarium has been attracting students teachers and tourists. 4. Stewart Beach Aquarium is easy to reach by train bus or car. Slide 53 Review Complete and Simple Subject Complete Subject: All the words in the subject of the sentence. All the words from the beginning of the sentence to the noun. Simple Subject: The most important word in the complete subject, usually a noun or pronoun. Rewrite the following sentences. Underline the Complete Subject, circle the Simple Subject. 1. The forest was a beautiful place. 2. A huge ship spilled oil along the shoreline. 3. The extremely delicate environment was damaged. Slide 54 Complete Predicate and Simple Predicate Review Complete Predicate: all the words in the predicate, from the verb to the end of the sentence. Simple Predicate: the most important word in the complete predicate, the verb. Rewrite the following sentences. Underline the complete predicate, circle the simple predicate. 1. The wildfire was hurt by the spill. 2. The fishermen demanded that the company clean up. 3. The community started the cleanup themselves. Slide 55 Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates Rewrite the sentences below. Circle the complete subject and underline the complete predicate. We can clean up after ourselves. 1. We can pick up the trash. 2. Our class can write a clean-up newsletter. 3. We can recycle used paper. Slide 56 Test Review 1. What is a complete subject? 2. Write the complete subject for the following sentence. Underwater photographers record the mysteries below the water. 3. What is a simple subject? 4. Write the simple subject for the following sentence. The secrets of the ocean are being explored. Slide 57 5. What is a compound subject? 6. Write the compound subject for the following sentence. Tammy and Jim are partners on this project 7. Define a common noun. 8. List five common nouns. 9. Write the common nouns for the following sentence. There was a pencil on that desk. 10. What is a proper noun? Slide 58 11. Write three proper nouns. 12. Write the proper noun for the following sentence. We are going to play at Parker’s Fun House. 13. Write the definition of a noun. 14. Write the nouns for the following sentence. There was a dog, a cat, and a bird at the pet store. 15. What is a plural noun? 16. Write a sentence that uses a plural noun. Slide 59 17. What is a possessive noun? 18. Write the following words as possessives. dogs children men pigs mouse 19. What 2 sentences kinds can end with a period? 20. Write a sentence for each answer in question 19. 21. What kind of sentence can end with a question mark? 22. Write a sentence for your answer in question 21. 23. What kind of sentence can end with an exclamation point? Slide 60 24. Write a sentence for your answer for question 23. 25. What is a comma? 26. What is a compound sentence? 27. Write a compound sentence and put the comma in the correct place. 28. Put the commas in the correct places. I want to eat a banana an apple a piece of cake and a sucker. 29. What is a complete predicate? 30. Write the complete predicate for the following sentence. The dog was running around his pen. Slide 61 Subject Verb Agreement The subject and verb must work together, or agree. A sentence with a singular subject must have a verb that agrees with it. A sentence with a plural subject must have a verb that agrees with a plural subject. • For a singular subject, add s or es to most verbs: Julianna rides her bike. • For a plural subject, do not add s or es to the verb: Her parents watch from the porch. Slide 62 • For compound subjects joined by and or both, use the verb form for a plural subject: Julianna and her sister have new bikes. • For compound subjects joined by or, either/or, neither/or the verb must agree with the subject closest to it: Neither Julianna nor her sister wants to wait. Choose the verb that correctly completes each sentence. 1. The fishermen sets up booms. 2. In some spots, the oil splash over the booms. 3. Thousands of dead murres, loons, and other birds washes ashore. Slide 63 Practice Subject Verb Agreement Write the correct form of the verb to complete the sentence. 1. The company (search, searches) the seas for old sunken ships. 2. They (find, finds) special maps. 3. First, people (look, looks) for clues to find ships that were lost. 4. Next boats (survey, surveys) likely seas. Slide 64 Review Complete and Simple Predicates The complete predicate tells what the subject is or does. It can be one word or more than one word. The most important word in the complete predicate is the verb, which is called the simple predicate. Circle the simple predicate, underline the complete predicate. 1. Everyone said that Elizabeth Blackwell would never be a doctor. 2. People told her a woman’s place was in the home. 3. Elizabeth Blackwell never gave up her fight. Slide 65 Review Compound Predicates When two sentences have the same subject, the predicates can be combines to form one sentence. The amendment forbid slaver and made citizens of all slaves. Rewrite the following sentences. Write yes after those that have compound predicates and no that do not. 1. Elizabeth Blackwell studied her books and worked hard. 2. The students laughed and jeered. 3. They denied her request, and she was upset. Slide 8 Writing Different Kinds of Sentences Write a paragraph about someone you admire. You need to use one of each sentence kind (declarative, imperative, exclamatory, interrogative) I admire my father. He is a super guy! When he comes home from work, he says, “Can I help you with your homework?” On the weekends, we go skating in the park. He always tells me feed the cat. I love my dad very much.