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					      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts

      BLOCK I, Monday, March 8                                                   sixteen usable responses (62 percent response rate). Students were
                                                                                 instructed to logon to the Blackboard site and complete the survey.
      12:00 noon to 1:30 pm                                                      Blackboard provided an analysis for the survey, which included the
                                                                                 mean and a list of the qualitative responses. The results indicated
      1. Dental School Websites: A Follow-Up Study                               that the students’ five to ten-year career plans after graduation were
                                                                                 to “work in a private/group dental practice” (88 percent) and to
      Callie, Vassilakis, UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School, Panagakos,
                                                                                 become “employed as a dental sales representative” (38 percent).
      Fotinos, UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School, Mina, Ranzurmal,
                                                                                 Becoming an “educator in a dental hygiene program” and “other”
      UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School, DeCastro, Jeanette, UMDNJ-
                                                                                 were the career plans for 19 percent of the respondents. The qualitative
      New Jersey Dental School
                                                                                 response for “other” category included working as a volunteer with a
             Purpose: In 2000, we conducted a review of U.S. dental school       mission agency and earning a dental degree. Only 25 percent of the
      websites to determine the presence of key “student-related” content.       respondents planned to pursue another degree after graduation. Of
      This work was presented at the 2001 ADEA Annual Session. This              those mentioned, the most prevalent degree was a masters degree
      past summer we proceeded to repeat the evaluation of dental school         (44 percent). Sixty-three percent of the respondents indicated that
      websites using the same criteria and compared the results obtained         they would consider a Dental Hygiene Masters Online degree
      in 2003 with the results obtained in 2000. Our hypothesis was that         program. However, only 13 percent stated they would “not consider
      dental schools would have improved the offering of “student-related”       an online masters program.” Their qualitative response indicated that
      content over the past 36 months.                                           they did not feel “you get the attention needed to succeed in the
             While the Internet’s role as a critical communication tool for      program.”
      schools of higher education has grown, so does the importance of                  According to the result of the present study, the Class of 2004
      making the right information accessible to students, whether current,      at this southeastern dental hygiene program aspires to work in the
      incoming, or prospective. In 2000, our group evaluated the quality         traditional dental setting. Unfortunately, few aspire to further their
      and quantity of “student-related” content present on U.S. dental school    education to become dental hygiene educators, which is a profession
      websites. The University of Puerto Rico website was not evaluated          that is truly experiencing a paucity of qualified applicants.
      due to language limitations of the student researcher. An assessment
      list was developed based on the topics available for students on five      3. Comparison of Examinations Required for Dental
      dental school websites. A dental student used this list to survey U.S.
      dental school’s websites. Among the items evaluated were:
                                                                                 Licensure in Japan and the United States
      accessibility (number of clicks) of the dental school page from the        Komabayashi, Takashi, University of California, San Francisco
      university’s main page; the availability of links for prospective,         School of Dentistry, Bird, William, University of California, San
      incoming, and current students; and links for other departments such       Francisco School of Dentistry
      as financial aid or administrative departments within the dental school,          Purpose: To illustrate the differences of examinations required
      class pages, course catalogs, student handbook-type information,           for dental licensure in Japan and the United States.
      school calendars, class schedules, lecture notes, and syllabi. Along              Materials and Methods: Guides for candidates, old exam
      with the quality and quantity of information presented, the student        reprints, and other published data for Japan National Examination
      also rated the sites for ease of navigability. In 2000, while there was    for Dentists (JP-NED) and U.S. National Board of Dental
      near uniformity in the presence of a few items, there was definite         Examination (US-NBDE) were used for statistical analysis of exam
      inconsistency in the existence of links for current students and most      specifications including timetables and outlines to be licensed. Results
      topics and in the type of links that had access restricted by passwords.   and Discussion: Dental education in Japan consists of a six-year
      In 2003, the same survey was repeated. The results from this repetition    program, including liberal arts for undergraduate level after high
      indicated that there was improvement in the overall quality and            school graduation, while the U.S. counterpart is usually a four-year
      quantity of the websites posted by dental schools. The information         program at graduate level after bachelor degree. JP-NED, which
      presented on these sites was more comprehensive and addressed the          consists of 330 questions for 600 minutes, is a single all-important
      needs of all three student groups: current, incoming, and prospective.     test that immediately grants dental licensure to practice dentistry all
             In summary, our study from this past summer, when compared          over Japan. No examination to evaluate technical skills is currently
      to the results obtained in 2000, indicates that schools have improved      offered in Japan. On the other hand, the US-NBDE, which consists
      the quantity and quality of “student-related” content on their websites.   of 900 questions for 1,050 minutes in Parts I and II total, is a
      It is expected that this trend will continue, as the use of the web as a   component of licensure. A technical skill exam, such as the state board,
      critical means of communicating with current and prospective students      is required to practice within a state. Due to the differences in licensure
      will only increase in importance in the future.                            systems in two countries, for example, questions in JP-NED are more
                                                                                 emphasized on clinical applications, while those in US-NBDE are
      2. Career Plans of Dental Hygiene Students                                 more focused on basic sciences and clinical reasoning. For instance,
      Solly, Jennifer, East Tennessee State University, Barnes, W. Gail, East    there are 400 test items in US-NBDE Part I; however, the number of
      Tennessee State University                                                 test items equivalent in JP-NED is thirty, about one-thirteenth of those
                                                                                 in US-NBDE.
             Purpose: To ascertain the career plans of dental hygiene seniors           Outcomes of this study are important to help comprehend
      enrolled in a small program in the Southeast.                              international comparison of standards and useful implications for
             The last journal article you read could alter your opinion of a     curriculum development in U.S. dental programs for foreign dentists.
      dental hygiene shortage. Is there a shortage, or do dental hygiene
      students have career aspirations other than working in a general dental
      office? To determine the career aspirations of senior dental hygiene
                                                                                 4. Treating Disadvantaged Patients in the Future:
      students, a survey was developed and administered to summer 2003           Analyzing Dental Students’ Behavioral Intentions
      registrants (N=26) via a course’s assessment section of a Blackboard       Larson, Craig, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Bagramian,
      site. The survey consisted of sixteen items, qualitative open-ended        Robert, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Inglehart, Marita,
      questions, and closed-ended questions. The data sample consisted of        University of Michigan School of Dentistry




206                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                              Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      Purpose: To explore which first- and second-year dental students          students’ own problem solving, and they prefer diversity of learning
intend to treat disadvantaged patients once they enter the dental               task.
profession.                                                                           Those results show that PBL encourages students to move
      In the year 2000, the U.S. Surgeon General published the first            beyond their current positions in Perry’s development model. Such
ever report on oral health. This report pointed to the importance of            growth is necessary to be a good professional and should be
providing dental care to underprivileged and special needs patients.            encouraged through proper learning environment of dental school.
The objective of this research project was to explore which factors             Consequently, the curriculum of dental school should provide students
determine whether first- and second-year dental students intend to              with various learning experiences, especially including self-directed
treat these patients once they enter the dental profession.                     learning, discussion, or writing.
Questionnaire data were collected at the end of the first and second
year of dental school from 101 dental students. The results showed              6. Assessment of PREPassistant and Class II
that women (N=49) intend more strongly than men (N=51) (means                   Preparations
on 5 point scale: women 4.31 vs. men 4.02; p=.10) and non-white
                                                                                Lamb, Daniel, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
students (N=28) more strongly than white students (N=72) (non-white
                                                                                Price, Erin, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
students 4.64 vs. 3.97; p=.000) to treat underserved patients in their
                                                                                Kacer, Kurtis, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
professional life. The more the students intend to treat underserved
                                                                                Nelson, Jasinevicius, T. Roma, Case Western Reserve University
patients, the more they agree that: they have a great education at the
                                                                                School of Dentistry, Jasinevicius, T. Roma, Case Western Reserve
University of Michigan (r=.28; p=.004); they are well prepared for
                                                                                University School of Dentistry
their professional life (r=.34; p=.001); community service learning
is a valuable part of their education (r=.37; p=.000); they like the                   Purpose: The PREPassistant (KaVo Germany) uses patterns of
dental profession because they want to treat patients (r=.41; p=.000);          light to scan intra- and extra-coronal preparations and restorations
they like to interact with patients from different backgrounds (r=.55;          and reformats the information into a 3-D image. It is marketed as a
p=.000); and they will volunteer their services to underserved patients         tool for objective grading in dental education. The goal of this project
in the future (r=.50; p=.000).                                                  was to determine whether the PREPassistant (PPA) accurately scans
      This research shows that dental students differ in the degree to          intracoronal preparations. The specific aims were to determine 1)
which they intend to treat underserved patients once they enter their           whether there were differences between an “Instructor” scan and
professional lives. Furthermore, the more students plan to treat                “Students” scans, and 2) if the scans were affected by axial depth
underserved patients, the more interested they are in patient-centered          (AxD), gingival depth (GvD), walls of the proximal box (DCW),
care.                                                                           width of the proximal box (BXW), and positioning/repositioning of
                                                                                the preps in the template.
5. The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Students’                                   Methods: Sixteen Class II (MO) preparations on typodont tooth
Attitude Toward Teaching and Learning                                           #19 (KaVo America) were prepared. Only the proximal box differed:
                                                                                depth (1 mm, 2 mm), facial/lingual width (3mm, 4mm), wall
Kim, Min Kang, Seoul National University College of Dentistry, Lee,             angulations (divergent, convergent), and axial depth (1mm, 2mm).
Jae Il, Seoul National University College of Dentistry, Kim, Kack               The sixteen preps were scanned ten times (n=160) resulting in
Kyun, Seoul National University College of Dentistry                            “Student” scans (SS). Half were removed and then reinserted into
       Purpose: To examine whether the experience of problem-based              the template prior to scanning; the others were not removed between
learning changes students’ attitude toward teaching, learning, and              scans. An additional scan of each prep was used as the “Instructor”
assessment.                                                                     scan (IS). Scans were assessed for ghosting and artifacts prior to the
       Perry’s model (Perry, 1970) has been admitted as the most                placement of the two evaluation planes: mesial/distal (MD) plane
convincing theory that conceptualizes the development of college                and facial/lingual (FL) plane through the proximal box. The planes
students. According to his model, college students move from a                  were chosen in areas where ghosting (voids in the 3-D image) and
dualistic (right versus wrong) view of the universe to a more                   artifacts were minimal. On each plane, six points, three distances,
relativistic view. Moreover, students in higher positions can form              and three angles were arbitrarily selected to evaluate the scans. The
rules to develop reasonable and likely solutions through their own              PPA software records the difference (mm or degrees) between IS and
independent thought rather than depending on the instructor. This               SS. Results: One preparation was eliminated due to improper
study was conducted to examine whether PBL could change students’               positioning in the template, resulting in the final evaluation of fifteen
attitude toward their learning and encourage their independent                  preparations of ten scans each (n=150). The measurements obtained
thought. Second-year prep students (N=112, eight students in each               between the IS and SS scans varied. The designated points on the
of fourteen groups) participated in the PBL course, which was aimed             MD plane of the occlusal floor varied from the IS the least (mean
to introduce generals of dental medicine. During the course, students           difference of 0.043 ± 0.037 mm, range 0.00 – 0.11 mm), while the
had to find out their own learning issues of and discuss their findings         axiofaciogingival point of the SS varied from the IS the most (mean
with other students. At the end of the last tutorial of each case, students     difference of 0.067 ± 0.048 mm, range 0.00 – 0.29 mm). Major
should write journal and fill out self assessment forms. Those materials        differences in the positions of the six distances and angles of IS and
were designed to facilitate the students’ reflection on their own               SS were also found. For example, the mean difference between the
learning and problem solving. Especially, Learning Environment                  IS and SS for the axial box depth was 0.09 ± 0.10 mm (range 0.00 –
Preference (LEP) test (eighty-five items, five areas=contents of                0.38). The results of stepwise regression suggest that the above axial
teaching, role of teacher, role of student, instructional method,               box depth differences were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by
assessment method) was conducted before and after the course in                 AxD, GvD, DCW, BXW.
order to measure students’ attitude change. The data demonstrated                      Extracoronal preparations (which were evaluated in another
that there was significant difference between pre- and post-test                study by the authors) appeared to scan completely (without ghosting);
(p<.05). Examination of the score of each area reveals that more                however, the 3-D images of the intracoronal preparations in this study
students think that not all knowledge taught in class is absolutely             were often incomplete with artifacts and ghosting. While the
right. Also, their perception of the role of teacher and student slightly       PREPassistant can be used for crown and onlay preps, at this time it
changed. That is, more students think the professor is one who helps            is of limited use for the objective grading of Class II preparations.



February 2004          ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                      207
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      7. Qualities of a Good Teacher: The Dental Student                         tenure documents from forty-eight of the fifty-five U.S. dental schools
      Perspective                                                                were categorized into “Boyer” and “non-Boyer” types. The fifteen
                                                                                 documents that were found to include expanded Boyer principles for
      Shih, Weilin, University of California at Los Angeles School of
                                                                                 faculty roles and reward programs were further reviewed, and specific
      Dentistry, Talwar, Diya, University of California at Los Angeles
                                                                                 phrases and wording were extracted and placed within Boyer’s newly
      School of Dentistry, Hsiao, Grace, Ryn, Karen E., University of
                                                                                 defined headings: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,
      California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry
                                                                                 Discovery, Integration, and Community Engagement. This poster will
             Purpose: To explore the factors that dental students consider       illustrate examples that may be used in the development of a model
      important in making a faculty member an effective teacher.                 promotion and tenure document for possible adoption by dental
             A teaching skills survey with questions pertaining to didactic,     schools throughout the nation.
      bench, and clinical instructor characteristics was given to second-,              The specific passages that include Boyer principles taken from
      third-, and fourth-year UCLA dental students. Students were asked          the fifteen promotion and tenure documents show the paradigm shift
      to rate the importance of several teaching traits within the above three   that is taking place throughout the community of higher education. It
      categories on a scale of 1 to 4. Completed surveys were returned by        is anticipated that this trend will eventually facilitate a shift in the
      167 of the 277 full-time dental students surveyed (60 percent). Student    dental education community.
      response rates were: fourth years, thirty-nine of ninety-two (42
      percent); third years, forty-nine of ninety-seven (51 percent); second     9. Using GIS to Educate Policymakers About Dental
      years, seventy-nine or eighty-eight (90 percent). Data from all dental     Workforce Issues
      students, independent of year and gender, showed that basic lecturing
      skills were most important for didactic teaching, effective                Krause, Denise, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Mosca,
      demonstration of procedures was most significant for bench                 Nicholas, Mississippi State Department of Health
      instruction, and punctuality/availability was most needed for clinical           Purpose: To share experience with Geographic Information
      teaching. Data organized by year independent of gender showed that         System technology in the analysis of state population-level dental
      second-, third-, and fourth-year students felt basic lecturing skills      workforce information for policymakers.
      (audibility, visibility, and language) were the most important didactic          State policymakers have been faced with the worst budget crises
      skills and perceived effective demonstration of procedures to be the       in years and will continue to face budget shortfalls that could diminish
      most important bench instructor skills. There were, however,               funding to state-funded dental and dental hygiene programs. State
      differences between classes regarding clinical instructor skills:          legislators will need informative data on the state’s health workforce
      second-year students perceived the most important teaching skill to        when making policy decisions about educational needs and objectives.
      be effective demonstrations, third-year students perceived appropriate     Such data should be presented clearly for maximum effectiveness.
      allocation of time among students as most significant, and fourth-         Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is useful for
      year students believed punctuality and availability were key. Data         developing dental workforce profile information for policymakers.
      collapsed by gender independent of year showed that, for didactic          GIS provides graphical representation of data contained in underlying
      teaching skills, both males and females felt basic lecturing skills were   databases and presented in the form of presentation-quality maps.
      the most important aspect. For bench instruction, both males and           This poster reviews how GIS was used to present workforce profile
      females rated effective demonstration of procedures the highest. For       information to the Governor’s Task Force on Oral Health in
      clinical instruction, male and female responses differed. Both males       Mississippi in July 2003. Multiple data sets were coded and mapped
      and females believed punctuality/availability was most important,          using ESRI geospatial analysis. A survey assessment of task force
      but females felt constructive feedback and criticism were equally          members concluded that GIS was an effective approach to presenting
      important to excel. The most significant gender difference was seen        dental workforce analysis information. Geographic information
      in the second-year class, regarding the importance of effective            systems will be presented that include: high/mid/low distributions of
      demonstration of procedures in the preclinical lab (t=2.003).              Mississippi dentists by county and shifts of the dental workforce over
             In conclusion, students consider different teaching skills          four decades; population-to-dentist ratios by county and shifts over
      important depending on the academic setting, year in school, and           time; distribution of the dental workforce in relation to children living
      gender. Instructors must recognize these differences in order to           in poverty; and how dental professional shortage areas (DHPSAs)
      maximize effective teaching.                                               can be reported graphically and the distribution of dental school
                                                                                 graduates into these areas.
      8. ADEA Council of Faculties Review of Promotion and                             GIS provides very informative and visual presentations of the
      Tenure Documents to Identify Content of Expanded                           dental workforce that improve the understanding of policymakers
                                                                                 about dental workforce issues.
      Scholarship
      Rockwood, Jeffrey, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of            10. Dental Hygienists’ Oral Cancer Knowledge and
      Dentistry, Killip, John, University of Missouri-Kansas City School
      of Dentistry, Haden, Karl, American Dental Education Association,
                                                                                 Screening Practices
      Overman, Pam, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of                 Bailey, Meredith, Case Western Reserve University School of
      Dentistry                                                                  Dentistry, Pyle, Marsha, Case Western Reserve University School of
                                                                                 Dentistry, Vendemia, Maureen, Youngstown State University, Sawyer,
            Purpose: To evaluate U.S. dental school promotion and tenure
                                                                                 Danny, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry
      standards on the basis of Boyer’s expanded definition of scholarship
      and identify and extract wording that will ultimately contribute to              Purpose: To determine oral cancer knowledge and screening
      the development of a model promotion and tenure document by the            practices of U.S. dental hygienists.
      Council of Faculties in conjunction with the Council of Deans and                The oral cancer knowledge and screening practices of dental
      representatives from the American Association for Higher Education.        hygienists are important factors impacting the diagnosis of risks and
            Method and Materials: Literature review of promotion and             disease. A mail survey including demographic and practice
      tenure documents from forty-eight dental schools and subject-related       information and a ten-item knowledge questionnaire of oral cancer
      journal articles. Discussion: The previously reviewed promotion and        facts were sent to 2,000 licensed dental hygienists. Thirteen responses



208                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                               Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



were returned undeliverable, while 575 completed surveys were                         The utilization of junior dental students as preclinical faculty
returned for a response rate of 29 percent. A similar survey had been            in occlusion appears to be a viable approach to mentor students in
completed in a sample of 171 Midwestern dentists previously. Most                careers in academics, provide student teachers with higher learning
hygienists held associate degrees, worked in one general practice                experiences, and supplement the efforts of full-time faculty.
office, and were nonsmokers. Fifty-three percent complete head and
neck soft tissue examinations on all patients, and 50.6 percent do the           12. Effects of Dietary Supplements on Oral Health
exams either once per year or at each recall visit. The longer a                 Collins, Jake, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry,
hygienist was out of school, the more likely they were to perform a              Glaros, Alan, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry,
head and neck examination (x2 = 35.6, p = 0.002). A majority of                  McQueen, Cydney, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
respondents select patients for oral soft tissue exam on criteria such           Dentistry
as age, tobacco, and alcohol use. Seventy-six percent of respondents
ask patients about tobacco use, while only 47.8 percent ask about                      Purpose: Dietary supplements are substances with minimal
alcohol use. Only 31.6 percent counsel patients about alcohol use,               regulations by the FDA and are presumed to have beneficial health
and 82 percent report counseling tobacco users. Seventy-three percent            effects. However, supplements may complicate dental treatment
felt it was important to offer tobacco cessation information or                  because of their side effects and interactions with other drugs and
medication to patient users; however, 79 percent of respondents                  supplements. The goal of this study was to assess supplement use in
working in one office report that cessation information and products             patients presenting to a dental school clinic and to determine the
are not offered. The average score on knowledge items was 58.6                   incidence of oral and general physical health problems in these
percent with a range of 0 to 90.9 percent. Hygienists who graduated              patients.
in the last three years had the highest scores compared to previous                    Dietary supplements are substances with minimal regulation
graduates by decade (p=0.025). Only one respondent correctly                     by the FDA and are presumed to have beneficial health effects.
identified all risk factors for the development of oral cancer. Yet their        Supplements may complicate dental treatment because of their side
scores were higher than a sample of dentists responding to the same              effects and interactions with other drugs. People who use supplements
survey. Hygienist tobacco use was associated with less likelihood to             may have a higher probability of various oral and non-oral side effects.
value providing cessation products and information to patients                   Method: 216 patients at the University of Missouri-Kansas City
(x2=9.4, p=0.009), and the more important the value of providing                 School of Dentistry completed a questionnaire assessing supplement
products and information to patients, the more likely hygienists were            use, demographic characteristics, and other medication use. Dietary
to complete head and neck examinations (x2=35.1, p<0.001).                       supplements surveyed were those with known or possible effects on
       This information is important for dental and allied educators             oral tissues or physical systems that could impact dental care.
who may modify curricula to place greater emphasis on screening                  Information regarding oral and general physical health was obtained
and prevention information for both tobacco and alcohol use.                     from their records. The sample was split into those who currently
                                                                                 used and those who never used dietary supplements; t-tests were used
11. Evaluation of Junior Dental Students as Preclinical                          to examine differences between the groups. Results: 36.7 percent of
                                                                                 the sample used one or more dietary supplements. Of the thirty-five
Faculty in Occlusion                                                             products surveyed, the following were taken in decreasing frequency:
Nimmo, Arthur, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Mitchell,             garlic, glucosamine, ginko biloba, echinacea, ginger, ginseng,
Gail, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Penfield, Randall,             chamomile, and chondroitin. Users did not differ from nonusers in
University of Florida College of Education, Hall, Alana, University              age, education, gender, ethnic/racial category, or income. However,
of Florida College of Dentistry                                                  users were significantly more likely to be taking prescription drugs
       Purpose: To mentor students as future academicians, provide               as well as supplemental vitamins and minerals than nonusers. Users
higher learning experiences for student teachers, and determine the              significantly differed from nonusers in the number of non-oral
feasibility of using junior dental students as instructors for a preclinical     systemic conditions, but did not differ on oral effects.
dental course in occlusion.                                                            There is no evidence that the dietary supplements taken by this
       Dental schools will need to be innovative in their educational            sample of patients affected their oral health. However, the proportion
methodologies at the same time they are facing a shortage of faculty             of patients using dietary supplements was considerable, and those
members. One possible approach would be to utilize junior dental                 who used dietary supplements also had higher rates of prescription
students as faculty in the preclinical courses. In the summer term of            drugs, vitamins, and mineral use. Providers need to be aware of natural
2003, two students completing the junior year (3DN) along with five              product use in patients and to assess the likelihood of interactions in
full-time faculty were assigned as faculty for the DEN 5213                      those taking dietary supplements and prescription medications.
Fundamentals of Occlusion preclinical course. This course has
previously been conducted with a total of seven full-time faculty for            13. Final Impressions for Complete Denture
a first-year class (1DN) of eighty students. Two types of outcome                Prosthodontics
assessment were accomplished: 1) standardized evaluation by the                  Robl, Megan, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry,
1DN students of full-time faculty and student teachers using a 1 (poor)          Petrie, Cynthia, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
to 5 (excellent) scale, and 2) a brief survey of student teachers using          Dentistry, Walker, Mary, University of Missouri-Kansas City School
a scale of 1 (most negative) and 5 (most positive). The overall mean             of Dentistry, Williams, Karen, University of Missouri-Kansas City
values from the 1DN evaluation of faculty were 4.18 for full-time                School of Dentistry
faculty and 4.53 for student teachers. The difference observed in the
sample means was found to be statistically significant at α = 0.05                     Purpose: To survey members of the American College of
using an independent samples t-test. The two student teachers                    Prosthodontists and department chairs of prosthodontics in the North
completed a survey about their experience. Means were determined                 American dental schools regarding the materials and methods used
for the following questions: 5.00 for the overall experience, 5.00 for           for final impressions of complete dentures.
acceptance by the 1DN students, and 4.00 for acceptance by full-                       Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all 1,762
time faculty. An increased interest in an academic career was noted.             active members and fellows of the American College of
Both respondents found their student teaching experience to be                   Prosthodontists (ACP) and to all fifty-four dental schools in North
positive.


February 2004          ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                      209
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      America. The participants were asked to answer a short series of                 The development and implementation of this pediatric dentistry
      questions regarding the materials and methods they use for final           CE program increased knowledge and was well received by the
      impressions for complete denture prosthodontics. Results: Thirty-          participants. Similar courses may be beneficial in other populations.
      nine of the fifty-four dental schools (72 percent) returned the
      completed questionnaires, whereas 528 of 1,762 questionnaires sent         15. Antibiotic Resistance of Endodontically Recovered
      to the ACP members (30 percent) were returned. Both preliminary            Microbes in Appalachia Compared to a National
      and final impressions are usually performed by 94.9 percent of the
                                                                                 Electronic Surveillance Network
      dental schools and by 93 percent of the prosthodontists. For the final
      impression, a custom tray is used by the majority of dental schools        Edmonds, Scott, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,
      (92.3 percent) and by 91.7 percent of the prosthodontists. Modeling        Fletcher, Robert, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,
      compound is the most popular material used for border molding              Thomas, John, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,
      procedures for a complete denture by dental schools (94.9 percent)         Gochenhour, Lori, West Virginia University School of Dentistry
      and by prosthodontists in practice (66.9 percent). For the final                 Purpose: To analyze susceptibility of endontically involved
      impression of a complete denture, polysulfide and polyvinylsiloxane        microbes representative of Appalachia to a panel of commonly
      were the materials used most often. Polysulfide is used by 66.1 percent    prescribed antibiotics at the West Virginia University School of
      of the dental schools and 32.2 percent of the prosthodontists.             Dentistry, comparing the susceptibility results to the Surveillance
      Polyvinylsiloxane is used by 25.6 percent of the dental schools and        Network Database.
      37.5 percent of the prosthodontists.                                             Oral bacteria are composed of a complex community of
            Overall, there appears to be a close correlation between the         cultivable and noncultivable species. They can accumulate to form a
      methods and materials taught in the dental schools for final               layer of protection as well as act as a potential reservoir for invasive
      impressions for complete denture prosthodontics and those utilized         oral pathogens. Identifying antibiotic sensitivity of these oral bacteria
      by prosthodontists in practice.                                            is a way to better understand the action of these pathogens and enable
                                                                                 better treatment for the patient. The objective of this project was to
      14. Development and Evaluation of a Pediatric                              collect samples from root canal patients at the WVU School of
      Dentistry CE Course for Pediatricians and Dentists                         Dentistry and analyze the antibiotic resistance of those bacteria
                                                                                 recovered. This information was compared to a National Surveillance
      Nickoles, Eleisha, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,
                                                                                 Network to better understand the resistance level differences of
      Gangaram, Balram, West Virginia University School of Medicine,
                                                                                 pathogens in Appalachia as to a national reference. Each specimen
      Hornbrook, Robert, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,
                                                                                 gathered was cultured against six antibiotics (Penicillin VK,
      Ngan, Stanley, West Virginia University School of Dentistry, Wearden,
                                                                                 Ampicillin, Clindamycin, Metronidazole, Erythromycin, and
      Stanley, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Kohli, Kavita,
                                                                                 Cefoxitin). The specimens were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility
      Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Crout,
                                                                                 and later compared to the electronic database. Results indicated mixed
      Richard, West Virginia University School of Dentistry
                                                                                 colony forming units and different degrees of efficacy for six
             Purpose: The purpose of this joint West Virginia University         antibiotics. Based on patient data, of the antibiotics tested,
      Schools of Dentistry and Medicine research project was to develop          Clindamycin yielded the least resistant patterns. These results were
      and evaluate a pediatric dentistry CE course for pediatricians and         supported by the national electronic database. Metronidazole,
      dentists.                                                                  however, revealed the most resistance of antibiotics tested. These
             Early childhood caries continues to be a problem in West            results were in contrast with the national electronic database. This
      Virginia. Since it has been suggested that pediatricians may be able       project provided useful data to expand our research to better
      to help in this area, a needs assessment was sent out to all the           understand antibiotic resistance of endodontically involved microbes
      pediatricians in our state. Results of those responding indicated that     in Appalachia compared to the rest of the nation. This may led to
      there was a considerable need for updated information with 85 percent      different antibiotic use in Appalachia and help to prevent further tooth
      being interested in participating in a proposed CE course (JDR             loss and oral disease. It also shows that testing antibiotic resistance
      2002;81:103). Methods included the development of a full-day CE            is important because susceptibility is not universal.
      collaborative course with the Department of Pediatrics entitled                  With the increased concern about the widespread resistance of
      “Pediatric Oktoberfest: Current Topics in Child Oral Health.”              human pathogens in conjunction with antimicrobial treatment, our
      Presentations included overall pediatric dentistry information as well     data may help clinicians to decrease inappropriate use of antibiotics.
      as pediatric periodontal, orthodontic, oral pathological considerations,   This will lead to less microbial resistance patterns developing in the
      along with identifying potential effects of the mother’s oral health on    future.
      her baby. Evaluations included the administration of a twenty-six
      item pre-test of which eleven were Likert style followed by an             16. Pediatric Primary Oral Health Access: A Dental
      identical post-test. The questions included items such as knowledge
                                                                                 Program Expansion Update
      of fluoride levels and the time for a child’s first dental visit, which
      were covered in the presentations. The Office of Continuing Medical        Sheka, Sreedevi, Columbia University School of Dental and Oral
      Education (CME) also conducted a separate evaluation. Results              Surgery, Davis, Martin, Columbia University School of Dental and
      revealed that ninety-four attended, including thirty-three physicians,     Oral Surgery, Surattanont, Farisa, Columbia University School of
      twenty-eight dentists, eleven hygienists, nine nurses, practical nurses,   Dental and Oral Surgery, Chussid, Kavita, Columbia University
      or nurse practitioners, and ten students. Of those responding, sixty-      School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Kohli, Kavita, Columbia
      four (68 percent) submitted pretests followed by fifty-two (55 percent)    University School of Dental and Oral Surgery
      providing posttests. Information increased with six out of the eleven            Purpose: To increase access to oral health care for the pediatric
      Likert style questions and two out of the five multiple choice questions   population of Northern Manhattan, which has been designated as a
      showing a statistically significant (p≤0.05) improvement in                dental health professions shortage area (DHPSA), and to address the
      knowledge. Evaluation by the CME office from the respondents               shortage of pediatric dentists with an emphasis on recruitment of
      utilizing 1 (poor) through 5 (excellent) resulted in a median score of     minority trainees.
      4.58.



210                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      Research supported by HRSA Title VII Grant. Methods: The                     The results of this project revealed that 75 percent of the
Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery-Children’s             implants selected from the panographic evaluation required changes
Hospital of New York (SDOS–CHONY) was awarded a Title VII                    in either length or diameter after comparison with a tomograph of
grant to expand the pediatric dental residency from two to five trainees     the same site. The results lead us to conclude that cross-sectional
and to recruit minority trainees. The goals of the program include           imagery should be the standard of care for placing endosseous dental
providing access to oral health care for an underserved pediatric            implants in their optimal position.
population, training an increased number of pediatric dentists,
providing the opportunity to serve in a variety of settings, developing      18. Do You Practice What You Preach?
risk assessment programs to identify children susceptible to early           DeCaria, Alene, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine,
childhood caries, and increasing trainee experience in caring for HIV        Close, John, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine,
positive children as part of Columbia’s Ryan White center. Residents         Etzel, Kenneth, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine
rotate to an intermediate school, a dental van, Blythedale Children’s
Hospital, and hospital-based clinics. Results: In the second year of                Purpose: To determine the degree to which students incorporate
the expanded program, there has been a significant increase in the           nutrition information into their lifestyles and to determine if
number of patients registered and treated at all dental sites. This          differences exist between two health science schools regarding
increase is greater than the increase seen after the first year of the       lifestyle choices.
program. This indicates that the community is better served with the                The role of nutrition in the maintenance of oral and overall
increase in the number of residency positions and that the initial           health is receiving greater emphasis in the dental curriculum. Despite
increase in the number of visits was not an aberration. Five residents       the fact that students are presented with dietary information, the degree
are enrolled in each class. Cultural competency training was attained        to which it is utilized on a daily basis is uncertain. A twenty-seven
for all residents through collaboration with the National Center for         item survey was distributed to faculty and students in the School of
Cultural Competence. CHONY/Presbyterian Hospital has agreed to               Pharmacy (PS) and School of Dental Medicine (DS) at the University
continue the new resident positions utilizing GME funding.                   of Pittsburgh. In addition to faculty, students from the First
      Expansion of the program has resulted in an increase in access         Professional and Dental Hygiene program were included in the School
to oral health care for the pediatric population of Northern Manhattan.      of Dental Medicine survey. The questions pertained to dietary and
This program can serve as a model for metropolitan areas designated          oral hygiene habits that are associated with optimal oral and systemic
as DHPSA. The achievements made in the past two years have                   health. Two hundred and seventy-one dental/hygiene students and
demonstrated that the project is successful and suggest that the success     faculty and 104 pharmacy students and faculty responded to the
can be sustained for the foreseeable future.                                 survey. Results of the survey reveal that, in general, those habits
                                                                             associated with optimal oral health are practiced more consistently
17. A Comparison of Panoramic and Cross-Sectional                            by dental students compared to their pharmacy counterparts: brushing
                                                                             between meals, DS=33.6 percent, PS=15.4 percent (p=.0008); daily
Radiography in the Evaluation of Implant Selection                           flossing, DS=53.1 percent, PS=22.1 percent (p=.0004); mouth rinsing,
and Placement                                                                DS=37.3 percent, PS=30.8 percent (p=.2923). Dietary choices that
Shumate, Dana, West Virginia University School of Dentistry,                 have a negative impact on oral health are more likely to be practiced
Ghareeb, Steven, West Virginia University School of Dentistry, Reed,         by pharmacy students compared to dental students: carbonated
Harold, West Virginia University School of Dentistry, Razmus,                beverage consumption, DS=42.8 percent, PS=54.8 percent (p=.0498);
Michael, West Virginia University School of Dentistry, Bagby,                sugared gum chewing DS=14.8 percent, PS=31.7 percent(p=.0005).
Michael, West Virginia University School of Dentistry                               These results suggest that nutritional information is utilized by
      Purpose: The use of cross-sectional radiography as the “Standard       students in their daily lives and suggests that presentation of this
of Care” for treatment planning the placement of endosseous dental           information in the curricula of other health professions would be
implants has been questioned by many clinicians, and it consequently         beneficial.
remains an underutilized procedure. The purpose of this study was to
determine if the information gained from the addition of conventional        19. Evaluation of Health History Demographics of a
tomography to the radiographic analysis affected the treatment               Dental School Patient Sample
decisions based on the information from the panoramic analysis alone.        Pruner, Jerald, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
      The radiographs of forty-nine implant sites from fourteen              Kwong, Jeffrey, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
different patients were examined. The patients had both cross-               Pyle, Marsha, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
sectional surveys by conventional tomography and anterior-posterior          Sawyer, Danny, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry
surveys by panographs with a radiological stent in place.
Measurements were then obtained from each patient’s radiographs                    Purpose: To evaluate patient history demographics from a panel
and corrected for any distortion by using the radiographic markers of        of patients attending a Midwestern school of dentistry.
the known dimentions from the stent. The implant length, diameter,                 Changing demographics of the United States indicate that the
and path of insertion was initially determined by using the panograph.       population is aging. Data suggest that current cohorts of the aging
The same site was then evaluated for the same parameters by using            population experience more medical illnesses and have more
the tomograph. Variations in implant diameter of path of insertion           medications than earlier groups of the aged. It could be expected that
due to anatomical considerations of magnification distortion were            the dental school patient pool would therefore reflect these national
noted. It was found that 19 percent of the implants initially selected       population demographics emphasizing the importance in physical
would require a change in dimention to avoid vital structures or             evaluation and patient assessment instruction for current dental
cortical perforation due to anatomical variations. An additional 56          students. In this study, 503 current patient files from a private school
percent required changes in length or diameter of the implants due to        of dentistry were reviewed for health history and demographic
nonuniform horizontal magnification distortion or positioning errors         information. Fifty-five percent were female, with a slight majority
of the panograph even with correction factors calculated with a              of African American ethnicity. Forty-two percent of this patient group
radiological stent.                                                          were over the age of 62 years, and 71 percent were self-pay. The
                                                                             mean age of the sample was 49.4 years. The mean number of




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    211
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      prescription medications was 1.4 with an average of 0.1 OTC                  21. General Dentists and Their Special Needs Patients:
      medications, as well. These patients had an average of one                   Does Education Matter?
      hospitalization, 22.3 teeth, and an ASA Risk Status Classification of
                                                                                   Bouwens, Thomas, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, da
      1.7. Variations were noted by age and payment level (p<0.001), age
                                                                                   Fonseca, Marcio, University of Michigan School of Dentistry,
      by the number of prescription and OTC medications (p<0.001), age
                                                                                   Inglehart, Marita, University of Michigan School of Dentistry
      by the number of surgeries, number of remaining teeth, and ASA
      Risk Status Classification. Race was associated with variation in ASA               Purpose: To explore the role of undergraduate dental education
      Risk status (p=0.038), with African Americans having a greater               on general dentists’ decisions to treat dental patients with special
      proportion of patients categorized as ASA III. Gender was associated         needs and their attitudes towards treating these patients.
      with variation in payment method with females having a greater                      In the year 2000, the first U.S. Surgeon General Report on Oral
      percentage of public assistance payment methods. When compared               Health stressed the importance of providing oral health care to special
      by age, the older the patients were above sixty-five years, the greater      needs patients. The objective of this research project was to explore
      numbers of prescription and OTC medications, the greater number              whether dental education about special needs patients affected whether
      of diagnoses, surgeries, and the higher the ASA Classification. The          general dentists actually treated dental patients with special needs
      average number of remaining teeth of patients >65 years was 15.2,            and their attitude towards this patient population. Data were collected
      while that of patients over 85 years was 12.2. Ensuring that students        with a survey mailed to a random sample of 500 members of the
      are prepared to treat the aging and medically complex patients seeking       Michigan Dental Association (MDA) (response rate: 30.2 percent;
      dental care in dental schools and private practices today will provide       N=151). A substantial number of the respondents indicated that they
      them with the skills they require for the future.                            did not treat special needs patients (33.8 percent) nor patients with
            This information supports instruction in aging, patient physical       mental retardation (38.5 percent), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
      evaluation, and correlation of medical and dental science, as a              Disorder (ADHD) (38.1 percent), or Autism (65.9 percent). Overall,
      significant proportion of this sample were older than sixty-five years.      66 percent of the respondents indicated that their undergraduate dental
                                                                                   education had not prepared them at all or only very little to treat to
      20. Attitudes of Dental School Clinic Patients Toward                        treat special needs patients, 71.6 percent that they had not been
      Tobacco Cessation Promotion                                                  educated to manage patients with mental retardation, 79.1 percent to
                                                                                   manage patients with ADHD, and 86.4 percent to treat patients with
      Zakariasen Victoroff, Kristin, Case Western Reserve University School        autism. The more the respondents indicated that dental school had
      of Dentistry, Ellis, Eric, Case Western Reserve University School of         prepared them well to treat autistic patients, the more they liked to
      Dentistry, Ntragatakis, Milton, Case Western Reserve University              treat autistic patients (r=.15; p=.078), the more they would like to
      School of Dentistry, Williams, Kristin A., Case Western Reserve              take continuing education programs about this topic (r=.17; p=.049),
      University School of Dentistry                                               and the more comfortable (r=.27; p=.002) and knowledgeable (r=.27;
             Purpose: Patient resistance is frequently cited as a barrier to       p=.001) they reported that their staff had been.
      dentists’ promotion of tobacco cessation. Dental school curricula                   In conclusion, this research showed that not all general dentists
      encourage students to counsel patients regarding tobacco use, yet            treat special needs patients and that the majority of general dentists
      students may share practitioners’ concerns about patient resistance.         indicate that their dental undergraduate education had not prepared
      To address these concerns, a better understanding of patient attitudes       them well to provide care to the special needs population. The results
      is needed. The purpose was to determine dental school clinic patients’       point to the significance of curriculum development efforts in this
      attitudes toward tobacco cessation promotion in the dental clinic            area.
      setting.
             Methods: Patients attending the general dental clinic of a single     22. Application of Computer Animation, Optoelectronic
      Midwestern dental school during a three-week period (N=389) were             Limb Segment Tracking, and Virtual Reality in
      asked to complete a twenty-five item written survey. Results:
                                                                                   Teaching and Learning Dental Ergonomics
      Response rate was 76 percent. Of respondents who returned usable
      surveys, 24 percent (N=61) reported that they currently use tobacco.         Jamal, Rahim, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,
      Tobacco users were 54 percent female, 67 percent Caucasian, and 33           Pau, Clifford, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,
      percent African American, with a mean age of 48±15 years. Seventy-           Coil, Jeff, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry, Rucker,
      three percent of tobacco users agreed that the student dentist should        Lance, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry, Hodgson,
      ask each patient if he/she uses tobacco, 61 percent agreed that the          Anthony, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,
      student dentist should advise patients who use tobacco to quit, and          Chehroudi, Babak, University of British Columbia Faculty of
      80 percent agreed that the student dentist should offer quit tobacco         Dentistry
      assistance to patients who want to quit. Sixty-seven percent reported              Purpose: To enhance the student-centered approach to teaching
      that they are considering quitting or are currently trying to quit. Sixty-   and learning dental ergonomics by utilizing computer-based virtual
      three percent were not aware of community resources available to             reality (VR), movie animation, and optoelectronic localization.
      help tobacco users quit. Forty-eight percent reported that their primary           Incorrect body posture of an operator during performance of
      care physician had not talked with them about tobacco use at their           dental procedures can result in serious work-related injuries
      most recent visit.                                                           (Lalumandier J et al., Gen Dent 2001;49:160-6). Dental students also
             These results suggest that the majority of dental school clinic       develop musculoskeletal disorders, even within educational programs
      patients who use tobacco are positive in their attitudes toward student      (Sunell S, Maschak M, Probe 1996;30:216-9). The integration of
      dentists asking about tobacco use, advising tobacco users to quit,           clinical ergonomics into dental education demands increased clinic
      and offering assistance to those who want to quit. Based on the high         time, ergonomically sophisticated instructors, specialized
      number of tobacco users considering or trying to quit, the low level         mannequins, and/or additional patients. To create a computer-
      of awareness of community resources to help them quit, and the fact          simulated ergonomics program, digital images from direct and indirect
      that nearly one-half had not recently discussed their tobacco use with       views of mandibular and maxillary teeth were recorded in operator
      their primary care physician, these results also suggest that student        right and left back tilt movement simulation (20˚ each side) using a
      dentists have a significant opportunity to deliver a needed service.         mannequin head custom-fitted to the Magellon 2500 Object-Rig. In



212                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



addition, operator intraoral views (both direct and indirect) of teeth        Western New York Rural Area Health Education Center (R-AHEC)
were recorded with a head-mounted video camera simulating the field           through a grant from the Community Foundation for Greater Buffalo.
of vision using a 2.5 X magnification telescope. The body posture of                This externship allowed dental students to engage in
the operator was recorded simultaneously using a Northern Digital             interdisciplinary discussions on public health, to learn why dentists
Polaris optoelectronic localizer while the operator performed 20˚ left-       live and practice in rural areas, and to change preconceived attitudes
right tilt movements. The relative inclination of the head and torso          about practicing in rural New York.
was computed. All multimedia information was imported and
organized onto a composite screen using Live Stage Pro software.              24. Demographics of 512 Pediatric Patients Attending
The results indicated that both simulated and direct recording methods        a University Clinic Related to Caries Experience
provided clear animated images of teeth and corresponding operator
                                                                              Mercandetti, Mindy, State University of New York at Stony Brook
postures. The Polaris system provided quantitative data on body
                                                                              School of Dental Medicine
segment movements in space that can be used to create animated
stick figures or to perform muscular fatigue analysis. The preliminary              Purpose: To present certain demographics from a pediatric
questionnaire data indicated that students favor the VR-ergonomic             population and target groups with high caries experience that may
software as an important adjunct to their program. Supported by the           benefit from an outreach program.
University of British Columbia Teaching & Learning Enhancement                      The Children’s Dental Care Center at the State University of
Fund #14S35950.                                                               New York at Stony Brook utilizes an intake record to determine
       VR imaging techniques and live digital animation can replicate         multifactorial risks to pediatric oral health through the use of the
images of the oral cavity that students are expected to see when their        Pediatric Oral Health Concerns Record (POHCR), a comprehensive
bodies (head, neck, shoulders) are postured in an ergonomically               questionnaire that includes an interview with the primary caregiver
correct position. Students can study the concepts at their own pace           and clinical findings. The purpose of this study was to present certain
and initiative, minimizing the need for additional clinic time, patients,     demographics from a pediatric population in the period September
and instructors. Real-time comparisons of images of the oral cavity           1999 to July 2002 to target a population with an increased risk for
and body postures will assist students in understanding these                 caries experience. The sample consisted of 512 pediatric patients with
invaluable concepts and in preventing future work-related injuries.           an age range of three to seventeen years and a mean carious surface
                                                                              (MCS) of 3.98. Of the 512 caregivers answering the POHCR, 50
23. Interdisciplinary Summer Externship Program:                              percent reported a payment method of self-pay, 28 percent Medicaid,
Rural Community Dental Experience in Warsaw, New                              and 22 percent insurance. The sample was divided into individuals
                                                                              six years of age or older (n=444) and individuals less than six years
York                                                                          of age (n=68). The MCS for the six and older group was 3.34 while
Stansbury, Christopher, University at Buffalo School of Dental                the MCS for the less than six group was 8.13, more than twice that of
Medicine, Gleason, James, University at Buffalo School of Dental              the older group. Payment distribution for the less than six years of
Medicine, Brewer, John, University at Buffalo School of Medicine              age group was 44 percent Medicaid, 32 percent insurance, and 24
and Biomedical Sciences, Munro, Meghan, Western New York Rural                percent self-pay. In addition, the MCS for individuals less than six
Area Health Education Center, Perinpanayagam, Meghan, University              years of age with Medicaid was 10.57, for self-pay 6.25, and insurance
at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine, Bernat, Joseph, University at           5.9. The less than six years of age group was categorized by zip code/
Buffalo School of Dental Medicine                                             town. Of the sixty-eight individuals who were less than six years of
      Purpose: To offer dental students the opportunity to experience         age, 63.23 percent (n=43) had an MCS significantly greater than the
a rural dental practice and to interact with students and health care         MCS for the entire sample. Of those forty-three subjects, 55.8 percent
professionals in other health care disciplines.                               (n=24) reported having Medicaid. The zip codes with a marked MCS
      Access to medical care is in high demand for the underserved            were plotted on a map of Long Island indicating cluster areas of high
rural areas of the United States. Access to dental care is in even higher     caries experience. In conclusion, individuals in these areas may benefit
demand. The University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine                   from an outreach program.
partnered with the Western New York Rural Area Health Education                     Individuals less than six years of age with Medicaid living in a
Center (R-AHEC) to pilot a dental program to offer dental students            target area on Long Island have a high caries experience.
the experience of a dental practice in rural underserved areas. The
goal of R-AHEC is to educate and place health professionals in the            25. Dental Education and General Dentists’ Treatment
underserved areas where they are needed most. This externship                 of Pediatric Dental Patients
included interdisciplinary seminars by which the dental students              Inglehart, Marita, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Shelton,
discussed patient and rural public health issues with medicine, nursing,      Deirdre, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Feigal, Robert,
pharmacy, speech therapy, and physical therapy students. Methods:             University of Minnesota School of Dentistry
The program accepted four first-year dental students and one third-
year dental student. Dental students were placed in rural dental offices            Purpose: To explore the role of undergraduate education about
(general or pediatric dentistry) and had the opportunity to rotate            pediatric dentistry on general dentists’ treatment of pediatric dental
through an orthodontic office and an oral surgery office. Dental              patients.
students were asked their views of rural dentistry and kept a journal               The objective of this research project was to explore whether
of their daily observations, experiences, and thoughts/attitudes about        dental education about pediatric dentistry affected how general
rural dentistry. Results: This program allowed the dental students to         dentists treated pediatric dental patients. Data were collected with a
observe dentists working with patients in rural dental offices. They          survey mailed to a random sample of 500 general dentists who were
were able to gain educational experiences in a comfortable and                members of the Michigan Dental Association (MDA) (thirty-three
professional clinical setting. Each dental student’s attitudes about          surveys were returned due to mailing problems; response rate: 40
dental practices in a rural community changed significantly. They             percent; N=185). Most of the respondents were male (81.5 percent),
also gained valuable information on the delivery of health care service       white (88.6 percent), and practiced in a solo practice (69.7 percent),
in a rural setting. Funding for this program was provided by the              a group practice (10.3 percent), or a partnership (9.7 percent). The
                                                                              respondents treated on average approximately sixty-five patients per



February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    213
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      week of which 12.63 were children. Approximately 12 percent of              one or two cycles of National Board scores (the first class will not
      these children displayed behavior problems. Overall, 42.4 percent of        take Boards until July 2004) and grades in the preclinical and clinical
      the respondents indicated that their undergraduate dental education         courses and clinical competency evaluations. However, we feel that
      had prepared them well to treat pediatric dental patients, while 21.7       the conservation of curriculum time and the novelty of this approach
      percent indicated that they had not been prepared well and the rest         make it worthy of initial note. Follow-up reports with more
      answering in a neutral way. The more the respondents indicated that         quantitative data will be forthcoming.
      dental school had prepared them well to treat pediatric patients, the
      more they liked to treat child patients (r=.28; p=.000), the more they      27. Recruitment and Retention of Underrepresented
      used positive ways to shape the children’s behavior such as behavioral      Population Groups in Dental Hygiene
      shaping with rewards (r=.15; p=.04) and positive reinforcements with
      words (r=.18; p=.017), and the less they used physical restraints (r=       Moved to Monday, 4:00-5:00 pm
      -.20; p=.000).                                                              Bezak, Teresa, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine,
            In conclusion, this research showed that undergraduate                Etzel, Kenneth, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine
      education on pediatric dentistry affected how general dentists treated            Purpose: To identify how many students of underrepresented
      pediatric dental patients. The results point to the significance of         population groups complete their dental hygiene program, the
      curriculum development efforts in this area.                                determining factors of those who do not complete, and what methods
                                                                                  are being used for their recruitment and retention.
      26. Teaching Head and Neck Anatomy Using                                          The U.S. Surgeon General’s Report (2000) states that
      Reconstructive Modeling                                                     underrepresented population groups (UPGs) are unable to obtain
      Adams, Brent, University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental              much-needed oral health care due in part to the minimal number of
      Medicine, Allman, Casey, University of Nevada, Las Vegas School             minority health care professionals. These UPGs include poor children,
      of Dental Medicine, Rawson, Raymond, University of Nevada, Las              the elderly, and a large number of ethnic and racial minority groups.
      Vegas School of Dental Medicine, Davenport, William D., University          Research further states that patients generally go to medical
      of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine                              professionals of similar race and ethnicity as themselves. Research
                                                                                  suggests that if there is an increase in the number of health care
             Purpose: To conserve valuable curriculum time while improving        professionals from these UPGs, then access to oral health care will
      the long-term understanding and functional application of head and          be increased. This research reflects a national survey of dental hygiene
      neck anatomy.                                                               programs’ recruitment and retention efforts of UPGs. A questionnaire
             A thorough understanding of head and neck anatomy is crucial         was developed to address the reasons for nonretention and recruitment
      to the practice of clinical dentistry. Traditionally, dental students are   and mentoring strategies. A ten-item survey was mailed to 265
      first introduced to this information through cadaver dissection. This       accredited entry-level dental hygiene program directors in May 2003.
      well-accepted method of teaching is expensive in terms of dedicated         Analysis includes identification of recruitment programs, mentoring
      space; cadaver acquisition, preparation, and storage; and curriculum        strategies, and retention rates of UPG students. This research will
      contact hours. One of the goals of the UNLV SDM integrated                  also differentiate in proportions the predictor groups and retention.
      curriculum is the conservation of contact hours so that students may        Results of survey respondents thus far (currently 18 percent) indicate
      engage in enrichment opportunities and have adequate time for               that 1) UPG students have a lower retention rate than non-UPG
      independent study. Based on empirical data from the Dental Hygiene          students (88.6 percent of all UPG students complete the program
      Program at the Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN),                 while 93.1 percent of non-UPG group students complete); 2) there is
      UNLV SDM decided to adopt the college’s method of reconstructive            a significant relationship between UPG student dropout rate and
      modeling for teaching head and neck anatomy. Hygienists have                finances (67.3 percent dropped out due to financial concerns); 3) of
      expanded duties in Nevada; thus, their need for a thorough                  all UPG students, 33.33 percent dropped out due to other reasons
      understanding of this information rivals that of most dental schools.       (12.3 percent were unable to continue due to academic or professional
      We were confident that this would be an effective and efficient             performance; 7.5 percent dropped out due to family concerns); and
      teaching methodology. Dr. Raymond Rawson, who developed the                 4) recruitment strategies and retention/mentoring programs are not
      program for CCSN, is the director of our Head and Neck Course and           specifically designed for UPGs.
      has expanded it to meet dental student needs. Each student is issued              Overall, there is a lack of recruitment and mentoring programs
      a medical grade skull model, instruments, waxes, and other materials        specifically designed for UPG students, and there is a great need for
      with which to work. Each student must model a required set of               increased financial support to reduce their dropout rate.
      structures as well as choose a specific individual project. Completion
      of the skull model requires the student to research the information
      and to pay particular attention to relative size of modeled structures
                                                                                  28. Sealant Presence in Reducing Caries Among
      to the issued skull. Students are evaluated through daily quizzes and       Children Below Poverty Level
      major examinations on the didactic content. Skulls are evaluated on         Neibaur, Ben, Case Western Reserve University School of Dentistry,
      completeness (required structures), individual project innovation,          Nelson, Suchitra, Case Western Reserve University School of
      anatomical accuracy, and modeling detail.                                   Dentistry
             It is our premise that this approach to teaching head and neck             Purpose: To compare the extent of caries in children with (S)
      anatomy will provide the student with an equivalent amount of               and without (NS) sealants, stratified according to low socioeconomic
      working knowledge didactically. We also feel that the student time          (poverty income ratio ≤ 100 percent) and moderate to high
      spent in this endeavor provides a better and more long-term                 socioeconomic (PIR > 100 percent) status.
      understanding of anatomical relationships as well as making a better              Dental sealants’ role in reducing caries in a lower socioeconomic
      contribution to the development of those hand skills critical to the        group is not well understood. Methods: The sample consisted of 5,217
      practice of clinical dentistry than traditional dissection. This method     children from the NHANES III database. Predictor variables included
      requires a more intimate understanding of the structures of the head        presence of sealants (yes/no), demographic variables (gender,
      and neck beyond simple identification and memorization. The                 ethnicity, census region, household education), frequency of dental
      effectiveness of this approach will not be fully realized until we have



214                                                                                   Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                             Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



visits, blood lead, and body mass index. Outcome variables were                30. Oral Oncology: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and
decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) for six to eleven year olds (with            Practices of Community-Based Health Care Providers
sealants n = 407, without sealants n = 2526); DFS and decayed,
                                                                               Hadden, Katie, University of California, Los Angeles School of
missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) for twelve to sixteen year olds
                                                                               Dentistry, Parker, Ira, University of California, San Diego School of
(with sealants n = 276, without sealants n = 1587). Results: T-test
                                                                               Medicine, Spolsky, Vladimir, University of California, Los Angeles
analyses indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean
                                                                               School of Dentistry
DFS scores for six to eleven year old children below poverty (S mean:
0.55 ± 0.22; NS mean: 1.01 ± 0.18) and above poverty (S mean: 0.78                    Purpose: To examine the level of knowledge and the practice
± 0.12; NS mean: 0.84 ± 0.08), according to sealant status. For twelve         behaviors of health care providers in the area of oral oncologic,
to sixteen year olds, below poverty, there was no significant difference       medically necessary dental care.
in either DFS (S mean: 4.42 ± 0.78, NS mean 4.12 ± 0.38) or DMFS                      The five-year survival rate of head and neck cancer patients is
(S mean: 4.49 ± 0.78, NS mean: 4.41 ± 0.41) scores. But for children           less than 50 percent. Associated morbidity is significant, and quality
aged twelve to sixteen years above poverty, there was a significant            of life is drastically impacted for those affected and their families. A
reduction (p<0.05) in both DFS (S mean: 2.55 ± 0.40, NS mean: 3.71             large number of patients continue to be initially diagnosed at advanced
± 0.27) and DMFS (S mean: 2.84 ± 0.43, NS mean: 3.90 ± 0.30)                   disease stages, significantly decreasing treatment success. The training
scores. Linear regression revealed that the presence of sealants was           of community-based providers is a necessary component of an overall
not significant in predicting DFS in both socioeconomic categories             strategy targeting the enhanced prevention and management of head
for six to eleven year olds. For twelve to sixteen year old children           and neck cancer. Methods: Data was collected from 439 attendees of
above poverty, sealants significantly lowered DFS and DMFS scores,             the American Cancer Society’s (ACS) [Border/Sierra Region] 2001
but not for children below poverty. The most consistent variables in           Annual Head and Neck Conference who completed a two-page,
the prediction of dental caries were household education and                   confidential survey. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using SPSS.
frequency of dental visits.                                                    Results: The primary population responding to the survey were
       In conclusion, cross-sectional data indicates that, for children        dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants providing care in
below poverty level, caries experience cannot be reduced with sealant          private practice settings. Physicians, nurses, and other community-
presence alone. School-based/linked programs should also consider              based providers also contributed. Results indicate a difference in
other preventive approaches together with sealants to reduce caries            opinion on who should provide comprehensive oral cancer exams,
rates in lower socioeconomic groups. Educational programs should               as well as the need for continued oral cancer screenings for recall
highlight the importance of a risk-based approach to prevention and            patients. While most providers felt competent providing care to
treatment for high-risk children.                                              patients receiving radiation, they did not feel competent caring for
                                                                               patients receiving chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. Of
29. Prevalence and Severity of Caries by School                                these “competent” providers, many did not feel that this symposium
                                                                               contributed to their level of competency. However, a large number
Bingham, Michael, Case Western Reserve University School of
                                                                               felt that if they had not received additional training at previous ACS
Dentistry, Lalumandier, James, Case Western Reserve University
                                                                               Head and Neck Symposiums, they would not have felt competent.
School of Dentistry, Nelson, Suchitra, Case Western Reserve
                                                                                      Continuing education courses focusing on oral oncology provide
University School of Dentistry, Gill, Gary, Case Western Reserve
                                                                               worthwhile benefits to community-based health care providers and
University School of Dentistry
                                                                               their patients. In addition, there is a need for advanced training in
       Purpose: To prioritize the delivery of care of the school sealant       oral oncology, as well as the enhanced availability of continuing
program to those in greatest need.                                             education programs in this area.
       The Surgeon General’s Report on the Oral Health of the Nation,
which was released in May 2000, indicated that oral health in the              31. The Genetic Components That Determine Familial
United States has improved greatly over the last fifty years, but “there
                                                                               Hypodontia
is a silent epidemic of oral disease affecting poor children, the elderly,
and many members of racial and ethnic minorities.” To improve the              Briscoe, Patrick, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
oral health of poor children in Cleveland, the Case Dental School              Dentistry, Trimmell, Justin, University of Missouri-Kansas City
with funding for the St. Lukes Foundation of Cleveland instituted a            School of Dentistry, Kula, Katherine, University of Missouri-Kansas
district-wide sealant program in 2001. By the 2003-04 school year it           City School of Dentistry, Lu, Yongbu, University of Missouri-Kansas
is anticipated that all 101 elementary and middle schools will be              City School of Dentistry, Feng, Jerry, University of Missouri-Kansas
visited, and all second and sixth grade children with a signed consent         City School of Dentistry
will be examined and treated. However, if the targeted goal of 101                   Purpose: Understanding the genetic components of hypodontia
schools is not reached, the prevalence and severity of dental caries           could lead to future gene replacement therapy to prevent this disorder.
will be incorporated to determine the priority of care. To be able to          Gene therapy will provide a significant monetary savings and an
rank order severity of disease, we established a scale from 0-5 with 0         improvement in the patient’s esthetics and occlusion.
indicating no caries present on permanent or deciduous, 1 indicating                 One of the most common anomalies in the dentition is
caries only on deciduous, 2 indicating caries on only one permanent            hypodontia, congenitally missing teeth. It occurs in approximately
tooth, 3 indicating caries present on one permanent tooth and one or           2-20 percent of various populations. The purpose of this study is
more deciduous teeth, 4 indicating the presence of decay on two or             threefold. We plan to: 1) determine the mode of inheritance by
three permanent teeth with or without carious deciduous teeth, and 5           developing pedigrees of families with a tooth agenesis anomaly; 2)
indicating four or more decayed permanent teeth with or without                compare phenotypes of affected family members with unaffected
carious deciduous teeth. The mean score for second graders was as              family members using cephalometric analysis and clinical
follows: 0=22 percent, 1=43 percent, 2=2 percent, 3=12 percent, 4=14           examinations; and 3) analyze DNA samples of affected and unaffected
percent, and 5=7 percent. For sixth graders the mean scores were               family members to find the genes responsible for hypodontia. The
0=22 percent, 1=20 percent, 2=7 percent, 3=10 percent, 4=21 percent,           patient’s medical charts will be used to locate a family of
and 5=19 percent. Selecting schools with the greatest severity of              approximately ten people that contain both affected and unaffected
disease ensures that the children in the greatest disease category are         members. Each member will undergo a clinical examination and a
prioritized in treatment.


February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     215
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      buccal cheek swab. The clinical examination consists of charting all             Purpose: To facilitate enrollment and recruitment strategies by
      erupted and unerupted teeth, along with recording abnormal size of         identifying and characterizing feeder colleges and universities that
      teeth, hypoplasia, and quality of skin, nails, and hair. Panoramic and     are the major source of applicants to U.S. dental schools.
      cephalometric radiographs will be included as part of the clinical               Feeder school information was obtained from AADSAS for the
      examination. The cheek swab provides the genetic information needed        2002-03 admissions cycle. The reports identified the degree status,
      for the study. The DNA is extracted and exposed to a polymerase            institution, and demographic information of each applicant. Feeder
      chain reaction (PCR) in order to amplify the DNA. The amplified            schools were defined as any school with five or more applicants.
      DNA is purified, sequenced, and then genotyped. The final step is a        Minority-feeder schools were those with two or more applicants.
      linkage analysis to determine the relationship between the locus and       Schools were ranked based on the total number of applicants
      the phenotype. Sequence analysis revealed possible changes in the          (Category 1) and, to minimize the effects of school size, the applicant
      amino acid coding sequence of exon 3 in the PAX 9 gene. There was          to total undergraduate enrollment ratio (Category 2). The top fifty
      a missence mutation that changed alanine to proline (Ala240Pro).           feeder schools in both categories were compared using total school
      Although alanine and proline are neutral non-polar amino acids, they       enrollment, degree status, geographic distribution, religious affiliation,
      are quite different. The phi and psi values for alanine facilitate the     and numbers of minority applicants. At the time of application, 6,947
      formation of an alpha helix. Proline has severely restricted phi and       dental applicants reported attending 1,149 colleges and universities.
      psi values, which tend to significantly distort an alpha helix.            The top fifty Category 1 schools had average enrollments of over
      Preliminary results indicated homogynicity of the missence mutation,       19,000, while Category 2 schools had average enrollments of 8,000
      suggesting that the mutation is carried in both parents.                   students. California and Utah had the greatest number of applicants
            Knowing that PAX 9 plays an important role in the initiation of      followed by Florida and New York, all together accounting for 28
      the tooth bud, one can infer that by understanding the certain mutations   percent of total applicants. Seventeen of the top twenty-five Category
      that occur within PAX 9, health care professionals will be able to         2 schools had religious affiliations, including the Seventh-Day
      manipulate the expression of the mutated gene in order to control the      Adventist Church with six institutions followed by Roman Catholic
      proper development of teeth. Although the discovery of this mutation       (three), Methodist (three), Mormon (three), Lutheran (one), and
      is very encouraging, there are still many steps that need to be taken      Jewish (one). The majority of black and Hispanic applicants attended
      to verify the significance of the mutation. Preliminary results indicate   schools in the southeast (Florida, Tennessee, Louisiana), Puerto Rico,
      that the mutation is homozygous, which suggests that both parents          and California.
      carry this mutation. Therefore, analysis of the DNA of other family              Results from this study indicate that the majority of dental school
      members will be performed in an attempt to locate the same mutation        applicants are from colleges and universities with large student
      throughout the affected family members. Studies of the MSX 1 gene          enrollments. However, many smaller schools, often affiliated with
      will be performed to determine what role, if any, it might have in         religious groups, have better applicant-to-enrollment ratios than larger
      hypodontia. By carrying out these final steps, we hope to determine        institutions. Overall- and Hispanic-feeder schools are concentrated
      the frequency of this mutation, and that should allow for identification   in heavily populated states while black-feeder schools are more
      of a major genetic component of hypodontia.                                regional.

      32. Mentoring Program Focused on Minorities                                34. Early Childhood Caries Prevention: A Needs
      Bitar, Leena, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Alva,            Assessment in Progress
      Aurora, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Herman, Aidee,         Dixon, Jennifer, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
      Tufts University School of Dental Medicine                                 Dentistry, McCunniff, Michael, University of Missouri-Kansas City
            Purpose: To increase the number of minorities in the dental          School of Dentistry, Williams, Karen, University of Missouri-Kansas
      profession by establishing a mentoring program that motivates high         City School of Dentistry
      school minority students to pursue various careers in the dental field.           Purpose: To propose a theory-based needs assessment in order
            Methods: From 1996 to the present, minority dentists and dental      to elicit parents’ attitudes, social norms, and perceived control as
      students have been serving as mentors to students enrolled in the          they relate to their children’s oral health.
      dental assisting program at Madison Park Technical Vocational High                Dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood
      School. The minority dentists and dental students encourage these          disease. Low-income minority populations are differentially affected
      students to continue pursuing a career in the dental field by motivating   by caries. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a form of severe and
      them through inspirational talks given at their high school. The high      rampant decay that occurs in infants and toddlers. Untreated caries
      school students also gain confidence in their abilities and build their    results in pain, weight loss, premature tooth loss, and malocclusion.
      self-esteem during their visits to Tufts Dental School, where they         Method and Materials: A convenience sample of all available children,
      assist dental students in the clinic. Results: The enrollment of high      ages six months to five years, enrolled in the WIC Program at the
      school students in the dental assisting program at Madison Park            Kansas City Health Department and the Swope Parkway Health
      Technical Vocational High School increased 142 percent from seven          Center in Kansas City, MO, and their parent(s)/guardian are being
      students in 1996 to seventeen students in 2002.                            recruited for this study. A convenience sample of all available children,
            The mentoring program has played a vital role in increasing          ages six months to five years, enrolled in the Maternal and Infant
      the number of high school minority students pursuing a career in the       Clinic and the Community Health Center in Pittsburg, KS, a rural
      dental profession.                                                         community, and their parent(s)/guardian are also being recruited for
                                                                                 this study. A written questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned
      33. Characteristics of Top Dental School Feeder                            Behavior (TPB), will elicit information on the parents’ demographics,
      Institutions                                                               knowledge, attitude, behavior, social norms, and perceived control
      Mentasti, Lauren, University of Connecticut School of Dental               related to ECC. Items will use Likert-type and categorical response
      Medicine, Thibodeau, Edward, University of Connecticut School of           scales. For the analysis, descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational
      Dental Medicine                                                            analyses will be conducted to examine the relationship of
                                                                                 demographics to domain scores. Data will be analyzed in aggregate




216                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



form. Results: This information will be used for subsequent program          36. Increasing the Utilization of Medicaid by Children
planning at WIC sites in Kansas.                                             Ages 0-5: Needs Assessment in Progress
      The goal of this project is to implement the needs assessment
                                                                             Choy, Andrew, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
on ECC prevention and the WIC dental survey to serve as a template
                                                                             Dentistry, Williams, Karen, University of Missouri-Kansas City
for next year’s Summer Scholars students to follow.
                                                                             School of Dentistry, McCunniff, Michael, University of Missouri-
                                                                             Kansas City School of Dentistry
35. Survey of Behavioral Science Practicum Programs
in U.S. Dental Schools                                                              Purpose: To conduct a needs assessment regarding Medicaid
                                                                             utilization as well identifying what elements are needed for an
Shamloo, Shahram, Temple University School of Dentistry, Paharia,            educational intervention targeted at the parents of low income children
Indira, Temple University School of Dentistry, Fornatora, Maria,             in a rural community.
Temple University School of Dentistry                                               The need for increasing the utilization of Medicaid by children
       Purpose: The practice of dentistry relies on communication skills     has been identified as an objective in Healthy People 2010. Reform
and technical proficiency. Similar to technical training,                    in the Medicaid program and educational interventions are necessary
communication training requires didactic and practical instruction.          to bring about changes that will increase the level of Medicaid use.
The opportunity to practice communication skills may be achieved             Materials and Methods: The literature on current Medicaid programs
through a behavioral science practicum (BSP). “Practicum” is defined         and current educational and preventive programs related to Medicaid
as an experiential method of training that gives students an opportunity     utilization was critically reviewed to identify focus issues for planning
to apply theory in a clinical setting. The implementation and                a needs assessment. Based on this literature, a proposal was developed
standardization of BSP programs have been limited in American                to assess parental attitudes/beliefs, social norms, perceived control,
dental education. The purpose of this study was to identify existing         and knowledge of oral health care as they related to Medicaid
BSP programs at U.S. dental schools and to obtain information                utilization. A questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior
regarding the design and resources used in developing and maintaining        was developed to assess a low-income parent’s baseline level of
these programs. A survey of twenty-two close-ended questions was             knowledge so that specific topics can be subsequently identified for
sent to each of the fifty-four dental schools. Multiple choice answers       an educational intervention. Items will use Likert type and categorical
were provided for all of the questions, including an “other” category        response scales. A convenience sample of English-proficient parents/
to allow for written responses. Surveys were collected through               primary caregivers of children attending WIC clinics in a rural
standard and electronic mail. The response rate was 81 percent (forty-       community will be used. Demographics will be analyzed in aggregate
four of fifty-four). Of the responding schools, only 27 percent (twelve      form. A cross-sectional analysis will be used to examine relationships
of forty-four) report the existence of a BSP in the curriculum.              between parental attitudes and behaviors and those of their children.
       From the information offered by the twelve schools with a BSP,        Results: A needs assessment for a rural community regarding
the following results were compiled. Most schools use a group format         increasing the utilization of Medicaid will be conducted using the
(75 percent) and conduct the practicum in a school-based clinic (75          proposed methodology. Information collected will be used to guide
percent). A majority of the BSP programs use psychologists as                the creation of an educational intervention and to determine if there
instructors (83 percent). There is high consistency amongst BSP              is a relationship between a parent/caregiver’s attitudes and beliefs
programs with respect to topics covered in the practicum, such as            towards oral health and their Medicaid-eligible dental-seeking
use of empathy and active listening skills. The data reveal the most         behaviors for their children.
consistent teaching methodology to be case presentation with                        The creation of an educational intervention directed at parents
videotaping (67 percent), followed by the use of role-play (58 percent).     of Medicaid children could be beneficial in increasing the usage of
All of the schools indicate that the practicum is a requirement. Most        Medicaid benefits.
often BSP programs are multi-semester courses (58 percent).
Placement within the predoctoral curriculum varies widely between
institutions, but often includes the junior year (75 percent). Of the        BLOCK II, Monday, March 8
few schools (33 percent) that are aware of their annual BSP budgets,         2:00 pm to 3:30 pm
a range of zero to nine thousand dollars is reported. There is
inconsistency among institutions regarding which clinics are utilized
for practicum training and which departments are responsible for its         Additional Poster during this Block: 132. Student
administration. Evaluation methods and remediation processes also            Benefits from a Summer Preparatory Course in Dental
vary significantly between institutions. In addition, there appears to       Histology (see page 249).
be no correlation between class size and number of instructors.
       This study has implications for the development of BSP
programs at dental schools throughout the country. The survey results        37. Career Status and Job Satisfaction: A Pilot Survey
indicate that few schools utilize this type of experiential training         Among African American Dental Hygienists in the
program and there is little standardization for its development.             United States
According to the American Dental Association, graduates must be              Miller, Faith, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale
competent in the application of the fundamental principles of
                                                                                   Purpose: The first purpose was to develop an instrument to
behavioral science and have the interpersonal and communication
                                                                             collect data concerning black dental hygienists. The second purpose
skills to function successfully. Without ample opportunity for practical
                                                                             was to collect data that could be used as a recruitment tool for blacks
training, there cannot be certainty that dental students are achieving
                                                                             and other minority groups.
competency in these areas. Therefore, appropriate guidelines are
                                                                                   A thirty-two item pilot questionnaire was developed and mailed
needed for the development and implementation of BSP programs in
                                                                             to seven dental hygienists in seven states whose names and addresses
predoctoral dental education. The establishment of these guidelines
                                                                             were obtained from a list of participants to recent annual sessions of
may encourage more dental schools to provide such programs by
                                                                             the American Dental Hygienists’ Association (ADHA) or via personal
facilitating their development.
                                                                             contact. Colleagues reviewed the researcher-designed instrument, and




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    217
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      appropriate corrections were made before mailing. Four of seven              39. A Look at Dental Hygiene and Dental Assisting
      surveys were returned for a 57.14 percent response rate. Descriptive         Workforce and Graduates in the United States
      data was compiled in table form by respondent and separated into
                                                                                   Schaid Wagner, Karen, American Dental Association, Brown, L,
      the sections that corresponded with those from the questionnaire:
                                                                                   American Dental Association, Mikkelsen, Matthew, American Dental
      Demographics, Practice Setting/Career Status, Membership/
                                                                                   Association, Munson, Bradley D., American Dental Association
      Affiliations, and Career Satisfaction. Participants shared lifelong
      experiences from practicing as dental hygienists that could possibly                Purpose: The American Dental Association (ADA) conducts
      be encouraging to future minority students. Participants ranged in           annual surveys of educational programs in dental hygiene and dental
      age from thirty-five to fifty-nine. All were female. The highest earned      assisting. The Survey of Allied Dental Education gathers data from
      degree reported was the baccalaureate, with one having earned an             allied dental education programs in the United States accredited by
      associate degree, and two held licenses in two states. Self-reported         the ADA’s Commission on Dental Accreditation (CDA).
      salary range was $31,000-60,000. The number of years in the                         Methods: Government statistics on population and workforce
      profession ranged from 1 to 30+ years. All but one of the participants       of dental hygienists and dental assistants are compared with graduate
      were members of ADHA while two were National Dental Hygienists’              statistics from the Survey of Allied Dental Education. The survey is
      Association (NDHA) members. All reported having provided either              completed by program directors of dental hygiene and dental assisting
      direct patient care in private offices, military installations, and mental   education programs. Their response is mandatory for continued
      health facilities or in education or other dental-related field. Job         accreditation by the CDA. Results: In the United States in 1998, the
      satisfaction lent itself to having convenient hours, providing care for      proportion of dental hygienists to 100,000 residents varied greatly
      three generations of family members, and being economically                  by state. The states with the highest proportion of hygienists per
      rewarding. Other comments challenged black dental hygienists to              100,000 were mostly in the north central and New England states.
      become more involved and visible, while one stated the need for              The states with the lowest proportion of hygienists per 100,000 were
      blacks to market themselves more so than their white peers.                  mostly in the central and southern United States. Among those states,
            Further research is needed in this area to determine whether or        some have dramatically increased the annual number of dental
      not job satisfaction has an effect on blacks entering into dental            hygienist graduates since 1998. In 1998 the proportion of dental
      hygiene.                                                                     assistants to 100,000 residents also varied greatly by state. States
                                                                                   with the highest proportion of dental assistants per 100,000 were
      38. Choosing an Online, School-Wide, Student                                 located mostly in the mountain and Pacific states. States with the
      Assessment of Instruction System                                             lowest proportion of dental assistants per 100,000 were located mostly
                                                                                   in the southeastern United States. Among those states, four have
      Johnson, Lynn, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Green,            increased the annual number of dental assistant graduates since 1998.
      Thomas, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Lantz, Marilyn,                 Results from these surveys assist in addressing the concerns of
      University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Katcher, Patricia,               the public and the profession regarding the issue of national allied
      University of Michigan School of Dentistry                                   dental workforce levels. While statistics vary by state, at the national
            Purpose: Good curriculum management and accreditation                  level consistent or increasing numbers of dental hygiene and dental
      standards require a school-wide system of student assessment of              assisting graduates continue to supply office personnel to support
      instruction. The distribution of forms, collection of data, analysis of      the delivery of dental care.
      data, and the return of information to faculty can be a very labor-
      intensive task, particularly in a large school. To streamline the process,   40. Senior Dental and Dental Hygiene Students
      an online system was envisioned.                                             Functioning as Teaching Assistants in a Dental Hygiene
            Our aspirations for the system were that it: 1) could be used for
                                                                                   Dental Materials Course
      evaluation of clinical, preclinical, lecture (large group), and seminar
      (small group) courses; 2) was easy to use for students, faculty, and         McClure, Beverly, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry
      support staff; 3) would require minimal support from the school’s                  Purpose: To facilitate learning in a laboratory dental materials
      information technology staff; 4) would facilitate student compliance;        course and to provide senior dental and dental hygiene (DH) students
      5) would guaranteed privacy of all student and faculty information;          the opportunity to gain teaching experience. Hopefully, this new
      6) would accommodate both Likert-scale questions and open-ended              program would encourage students to pursue careers in academic
      comments; and 7) would meet the school’s reporting needs to the              dentistry.
      faculty, the school, and the university. A product, CoursEval,                     Senior DH students are required to complete a practicum the
      developed by Academic Management Systems was the product                     last quarter of their educational experience. Three senior DH students
      reviewed that matched our criteria the best. A pilot of the system was       chose to complete their practicum by serving as teaching assistants
      conducted with twenty randomly chosen first-year students. Feedback          (TAs) in the course. Two senior dental students who had completed
      was gathered during the follow-up focus group. While a few problems          clinical requirements agreed to become TAs. The students contributed
      did occur during the pilot, they were resolved. Students liked the           suggestions concerning course content, and they were asked to
      convenience of the online forms, the time flexibility in completing          determine the topics and methods they would like to teach. They
      the assessments, and the ease of writing comments. During the                could choose to conduct small group or entire class demonstrations,
      summer of 2003, the system was expanded to include three classes             construct quizzes and evaluations, construct practical exams, evaluate
      of students (n=317). One question was asked of all students: “These          and grade required assignments, or provide one-on-one instruction
      online surveys allowed me to provide information necessary for               and evaluation. All teaching methods were guided by mentoring
      improvement of the curriculum?” Of 299 responses on a five-point             faculty. The DH students (N=31) enrolled in the dental materials
      scale, 70 percent agreed or strongly agreed, and 11 percent disagreed        course were given a Likert-like survey regarding the perceived
      or strongly disagreed. When asked a similar question about the paper         effectiveness of the TAs. One hundred percent of the enrolled students
      version of this system last year, responses on a two-point scale by          either strongly agreed or agreed to the following: 1) the senior dental
      class and by form ranged from 72 to 96 percent agreement and 6 to            and DH student contributed to their learning in the course; 2) the
      28 percent disagreement.                                                     senior dental students were interested and willing to help; 3) the DH
            Our conclusion is that an IT solution to course and faculty            students were prepared for each lab session; and 4) the quizzes
      assessment is feasible.


218                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                             Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



prepared and graded by the TAs covered the appropriate material. A                   Purpose: To train AEGD residents to excel in local anesthesia,
student provided the following comments concerning the TAs: “They              mentor AEGD residents as local anesthesia instructors, and inspire
were a great help. It is good to get guidance and input from different         AEGD residents to be dental educators in the local anesthesia
aspects to better understand the material covered.” The teaching               curriculum and other teaching positions.
assistants (N=4) were given a Likert-like survey regarding their                     There is a documented shortage of faculty in U.S. dental schools.
perceived effectiveness as teachers in the course. One hundred percent         An excellent way of reducing the shortage of instructors is to mentor
of the TAs either strongly agreed or agreed that they were used                residents from the Advanced Education in General Dentistry program
effectively as a teaching assistant, they felt prepared for the daily          as instructors in the dental school curriculum. The director of the
activities, and they contributed to student learning.                          local anesthesia program and the director of the AEGD program have
      The TAs contributed to the learning of the beginning students            worked synergistically to have the chief resident as an understudy of
and would recommend this experience to future students. The teaching           the director of local anesthesia courses. The objectives of the
assistants gained experience in teaching, and three of the four surveyed       mentoring program are building a positive relationship between the
indicated a desire to become a dental educator.                                one being mentored and the mentor, transference of the knowledge
                                                                               and skills in local anesthesia, and transference of the art and science
41. Fluid Consumption Habits of Adolescents Attending                          of being an educator. The residents progress through the following
a National Youth Sports Program                                                activities in being mentored: being taught individually by the director;
                                                                               observing the director in the yearlong curriculum composed of two
Scheidel, Donal, University of South Dakota, Nelson, Robert,
                                                                               local anesthesia blocks and three rotations in local anesthesia; having
University of South Dakota
                                                                               the resident demonstrate to the director how they would instruct the
      Purpose: To determine the amounts of various fluids consumed             students; having the director observe the resident while he or she is
by ten to sixteen year olds and to compare these data with accepted            training the dental students; having the chief resident assume full
dietary recommendations.                                                       responsibility of the instruction and then meeting at the end of each
      With mounting concerns related to dietary choices America’s              day’s session with the course director; and having the trained resident
youth are making and the subsequent impact these choices have on               as a faculty member in the local anesthesia director’s continuing
oral and general health, a voluntary survey was administered to 227            education courses. In two years, this has resulted in two chief residents
ten to sixteen year olds (120 boys and 107 girls) participating in a           becoming faculty members: Dr. Jun Park three days/week and Dr.
National Youth Sports Program summer session in Vermillion, S.D.               Nhi Nguyen one day/week.
to evaluate their daily fluid consumption habits. The children were                  This collaborative endeavor has impacted dentistry and the
surveyed regarding their daily consumption of soda, sports drinks,             School of Dentistry by training clinicians who have a high level of
bottled water, tap water, milk, and juice using a look-back survey             expertise in local anesthesia and producing educators who are
instrument. The data reported represents the combined responses of             proficient in mentoring students.
boys and girls in all age groups. Of the respondents, 55.5 percent
stated that they consumed at least one can/bottle of sugared soda              43. Dental Student Evaluation of an Online Textbook
daily, and 17.6 percent admitted to drinking at least two to three cans/       in Pediatric Dentistry
bottles of soda daily. Also, 33.9 percent of those surveyed stated they
drank at least one sports drink daily, with 24.2 percent indicating            Peterson, Devereaux, University of Washington School of Dentistry,
they don’t drink sports drinks. In addition, 48.4 percent of the survey        Kaakko, Tarja, University of Washington School of Dentistry, Smart,
participants indicated they drank at least two bottles of water daily,         Erika, University of Washington School of Dentistry, Jorgenson,
reflecting a shift from consumption of primarily tap water to bottled          Michael, University of Washington School of Dentistry, Herzog,
water. Of those surveyed, 63.9 percent stated that they drank at least         Christopher, University of Washington School of Dentistry
three glasses of tap water daily. Of the children surveyed, 61.2 percent             Purpose: To evaluate dental student perceptions regarding online
replied they drank two glasses of milk a day or less. Finally, 70.9            education using the Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry as the textbook
percent of the respondents admitted drinking at least one glass of             resource during a comprehensive course in pediatric dentistry.
juice daily. The results of this research illustrate the fluid consumption           The Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry is a comprehensive textbook
trends of children and adolescents, including consuming large                  of pediatric dentistry that is web-based. The atlas was designed as an
amounts of simple carbohydrates in the form of soda, sports drinks,            online resource, rather than as a traditional textbook that was copied
and juices. The majority of respondents aren’t consuming the                   and pasted to a disk or website. It is a stand-alone textbook with
recommended three glasses of milk daily, thus increasing the                   approximately 3,000 frames and 2,500 images and includes end-of-
probability of developing a calcium deficiency. Finally, the survey            chapter quizzes, laboratory manuals, photobanks, and a scrollable
group is drinking nonfluoridated bottled water instead of fluoridated          index. The atlas is the sole textbook used at the University of
tap water.                                                                     Washington for courses in pediatric dentistry. Dental student
      The results of this research identify some of the contributory           perceptions regarding online education were assessed at the
factors of childhood obesity, adolescent osteoporosis, and the                 completion of the major undergraduate course in pediatric dentistry
continuing problem of dental decay in children and adolescents.                via a survey of the students. The specific aims of the study were to
                                                                               assess the effectiveness of online education, compare perceptions of
42. The Benefits of Mentoring AEGD Residents as                                online training vs. traditional forms of instruction, and describe how
Local Anesthesia Faculty                                                       the online program was utilized (i.e., patterns of use). Relationships
                                                                               between several individual demographic and academic variables of
Dower, James, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Wong,             the students with their perceptions and use of online instruction also
Allen, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Park, Jun,               were evaluated. Eighty-four percent of the class responded (n=46).
University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Hanson, Nhi, University         Eighty-three percent of the respondents preferred the online textbook
of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Nguyen, Nhi, University of the             to traditional textbooks. Ninety-six percent rated the educational
Pacific School of Dentistry, Kuo, Jane, University of the Pacific School       content of the atlas as good or excellent, and all respondents indicated
of Dentistry                                                                   they would rate the textbook highly to a colleague. Positive




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                      219
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      perceptions were associated with the scope of content, numerous                 In response to CDC guidelines, OSHA requirements,
      images (especially color images), and ease of use. The most negative     accreditation standards, and concerns for health and asepsis, all dental
      perceptions involved technical problems associated with online by        schools have integrated principles of infection control and
      computers with obsolete browser software. Thirteen percent of the        management of occupational exposures into the curriculum. At the
      respondents did not have access to a computer at home, and fifteen       UF College of Dentistry, numbers of occupational exposures are
      percent used printouts of the text material.                             tracked anonymously, in aggregate fashion, by the Division of Quality
            Students strongly preferred the online textbook to a traditional   Assurance through assistance from the Shands Hospital Occupational
      text. Faculty who are planning to develop a comprehensive online         Health Department. Through trending analysis, it was noted that the
      text are advised to emphasize an atlas format using numerous images      rate of occupational exposures for the college had decreased during
      in order to gain broad acceptance. There continue to be a small number   the years 1999-2002, from 5.9 exposure incidence density rate to
      of students who do not have access to computers at home and whose        3.1. To gain a clearer understanding of the potential factors responsible
      computers are equipped with obsolete software. It is important to        for this decline, students’ perceptions of their instruction and issues
      plan for students to be able to access computers at the university and   associated with occupational exposures were assessed via a
      to program any online resource so that it is compatible with older       questionnaire. A survey was administered to rising junior and senior
      browser software.                                                        dental students that included questions pertaining to the quality of
                                                                               their infection control education, faculty modeling of infection control
      44. Domain Specification and Validity: National Board                    behaviors, the process of reporting occupational exposures, numbers
      Dental Hygiene Examination Practice Analysis                             of exposures and reasons for protocol noncompliance. Some
                                                                               unexpected findings included underreporting of exposures and reasons
      Kramer, Gene, American Dental Association, Neumann, Laura,
                                                                               for protocol noncompliance. Nine exposures were not reported by
      American Dental Association
                                                                               this cohort during a two-year period. The most frequent response for
             Purpose: To specify the content domain associated with the        not reporting was a lack of concern regarding risk of disease
      National Board Dental Hygiene Examination Practice Analysis.             transmission. The second most frequent response was the time
             For examinations involved in licensing decisions, content-        involved to report the incident, and the third reason was perceived
      related validity can be demonstrated by showing a strong relationship    embarrassment associated with informing the patient and reporting
      between content specifications and clinical practice. To demonstrate     the incident. The detailed analysis of the survey will be provided
      this relationship for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination,     plus implications for possible curricular and procedural modifications.
      a practice analysis was conducted. The content domain for the practice          An routine review of the effectiveness of an infection control
      analysis was specified by a set of fifty-six competencies. A survey      curriculum and occupational exposure protocol can provide important
      was conducted to determine the importance of the competencies to         information regarding trends and possible indications for
      dental hygiene patient care. The survey directed participants to rate    modifications.
      the competencies on a 5-level scale of uniformly increasing
      importance, with 1 indicating unimportant and 5 indicating critical.     46. Assessing Teacher Beliefs: The Teacher Behavior
      The actual content of the examination would involve the knowledge        Preferences Survey
      and problem-solving skill necessary to support the successful
      acquisition of the competencies. The extent of content devoted to        Behar-Horenstein, Linda, University of Florida College of Dentistry,
      each competency would be in accordance with the overall rating.          Dolan, Teresa, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Mitchell,
      The findings were expected to confirm the existing content               Gail, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Anusavice, Sandy
      specifications or to support adjustments. The survey was distributed     H., School Board of Alachua County
      to a sample of 3,941 dental hygienists. Of these, 1,841 responded,              Purpose: The Teacher Behavior Preferences Survey (TBPS), a
      and 1,284 were full-time practitioners. A principal components           research-constructed instrument, assesses educators’ beliefs about
      analysis of the ratings showed one primary factor and ten minor          instructional practice.
      factors. Forty-seven of the fifty-six competencies loaded on the                The instrument is comprised of two parts. Part I consists of
      primary factor, which might be best characterized as dental hygiene      thirty statements that describe teaching behaviors. Using a 5-point
      patient care. The average ratings ranged from a high of 4.93 to a low    Likert scale, respondents indicate their level of agreement with each
      of 2.80. Participants tended to rate most competencies as highly         statement. Fifteen items represent teacher-centered or traditional
      important. The ratings were converted to numbers of items based on       teaching behaviors; fifteen represent student-centered or
      a test length of 350 items. The greatest number of items (twelve) was    contemporary teaching behaviors. Scores reveal a preference for
      devoted to the competency “Obtain medical histories,” and no items       teacher- or student-centered practices and provide information about
      were devoted to “Participate in community service activities.”           preferences for methods of instruction, questions, student feedback,
             The competencies synthesized from two sources adequately          and structure of the learning environment, student communication,
      defined the domain of dental hygiene practice and are appropriate        grouping, assessment of, and expectations for student learning. Part
      for use as the basis for the practice analysis. The number of            II is comprised of forty-two items representing teaching models.
      examination items devoted to each competency will adequately reflect     Respondents mark an “X” preceding each item that describes their
      dental hygiene patient care.                                             teaching. Items correspond to one of the four families of teaching
                                                                               models (Joyce & Weil, 1996). Scores indicate preferences for a
      45. Quality Assurance: An Assessment of Infection                        teaching model family. Participants (N=109) were eighty-two dental
      Control Curriculum, Occupational Exposure Incidents,                     and medical educators in higher education and 27 educators in varied
                                                                               school settings. Items in Part I were selected from a review of the
      and Reporting Compliance
                                                                               literature on teaching effectiveness. Items in Part II were synthesized
      Stewart, Carol, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Grimaudo,    from a review of literature on teaching models. Data from Part I has
      Nicholas, University of Florida College of Dentistry                     been analyzed using paired samples T-test. Data from Part II is
            Purpose: To assess students’ perceptions of their infection        analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only an analysis of data for
      control curriculum, the occupational exposure incidents, and reporting   Part I is reported here. Respondents reported a significant difference
      compliance.                                                              among paired items including a preference for two teacher-centered



220                                                                                Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



practices and eleven student-centered practices. Additionally, they          of the latter guided students’ subsequent courses of action—either to
reported a preference for student-centered rather than teacher-centered      ASSIST with cessation and ARRANGE for quitting time or to design
practices, significant at the p<.005 level.                                  strategies to further motivate. The data collection instrument was
      The findings suggest that the instrument can discriminate among        pilot-tested recording TUCC activities during three consecutive
individuals in their preferences for teacher- or student-centered paired     trimesters, and the findings revealed that students were successful in
practices and among the total teacher- and student-centered practices.       setting quit dates including referrals for 19 percent of the 155 smokers,
Assessing instructional beliefs can help individuals reflect about the       the latter representing 33 percent of the clinic population. The analysis
ways in which they think they teach.                                         of the data collected during process evaluation demonstrated a high
                                                                             rating assigned to the facility and utility of the data collection
47. Evaluation of Senior Dental Students as Preclinical                      instrument by faculty (97 percent) and students (94 percent).
Faculty in Prosthodontics                                                    Moreover, both groups recognized the supremacy of the National
                                                                             Cancer Institute’s model. While 96 percent of the faculty judged the
Nimmo, Arthur, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Mitchell,
                                                                             intervention program to be a valuable learning experience for students,
Gail, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Penfield, Randall,
                                                                             65 percent of the graduating students agreed strongly that they would
University of Florida College of Education
                                                                             consider replicating the model in their practice.
       Purpose: This study was designed to mentor students as future                The results of this feasibility study clearly point to the positive
academicians, provide higher learning experiences for the student            internal impact of the program and the significant role of the data
teachers, and determine the feasibility of using senior dental students      collection instrument in its success. The feedback offered by the
as instructors for preclinical dental courses in prosthodontics.             clinical faculty and students is enhancing our plan toward further
       Dental schools need to be innovative in their educational             integration of tobacco-related education into all levels of curriculum,
methodologies at the same time they are facing a shortage of faculty         training, and testing.
members. One possible approach would be to utilize senior dental
students (4DN) as faculty in the preclinical courses. In the spring          49. Student Evaluation Skills in a Preclinical Operative
term of 2003, three student teachers and four full-time faculty were         Technique Course
assigned as faculty for the DEN 6412 Fixed Prosthodontics III and
DEN 6460 Treatment of the Edentulous Patient preclinical courses.            Louie, Kenneth, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Kenyon,
These courses have previously been conducted with a total of seven           Brian, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Woodson, Russell,
full-time faculty for a second year class (2DN) of eighty students.          University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Dower, James S. Jr.,
Three types of outcome assessment were accomplished: 1)                      University of the Pacific School of Dentistry
standardized evaluation by the 2DN students of full-time faculty and                Purpose: To compare the tooth preparation evaluation skills of
student teachers using a 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) scale; 2) a brief         students at the beginning and end of a preclinical operative technique
survey of student teachers using a scale of 1 (most negative) to 5           course.
(most positive); and 3) a routine course debriefing with selected 2DN               The Preclinical Operative Dentistry course at Pacific not only
students. The overall mean values from the 2DN evaluation of faculty         teaches students to develop hand-eye coordination but also evaluation
were 4.37 for full-time faculty and 4.52 for student teachers. A two-        skills. In addition to faculty, students grade their own preparations
way ANOVA determined this difference was not significant at the α            after every practical exam. The purpose of this study was to compare
= 0.05 level. Each of the six student teachers completed a survey            the evaluation skills of students at the beginning and end of the course.
about their experience. Means were determined for the following              Nine typodont teeth with Class II amalgam preparations were
questions: 4.50 for the overall experience, 4.83 for acceptance by the       randomly selected from previous practical exams. The teeth were
2DN students, and 4.33 for acceptance by full-time faculty. An               mounted in stone with adjacent teeth and assigned a number. Forty-
increased interest in an academic career was also noted. Comments            one students graded the preparations for criteria and refinement (the
from the 2DN students in the debriefing sessions were positive about         two marks given each practical exam in the course) at two times. The
having student teachers.                                                     first evaluation was after the third practical exam and the second
       The utilization of senior dental students as preclinical faculty      four months later. The grades at times one and two were compared
in prosthodontics appears to be a viable approach to mentor students         with the average of the fourteen faculty grades for each preparation.
in careers in academics, provide student teachers with higher learning       Accuracy, defined as the proportion of student grades within one
experiences, and supplement the efforts of full-time faculty.                standard error of measurement of faculty grades, decreased for criteria
                                                                             (50 percent to 45 percent) but increased for refinement (41 percent to
48. Tobacco Use Intervention Program                                         47 percent), from the beginning to the end of the course. At times
Monajem, Sara, Forsyth School for Dental Hygienists                          one and two, 40-42 percent gave lower grades than the faculty (by
                                                                             greater than one standard error of measurement) for criteria, and 45
       Purpose: To study the feasibility of implementing a tobacco           percent gave lower grades for refinement. The low percentage (50
use cessation clinical activity (TUCCA) in the students’ clinic.             percent or less) of students accurately grading preparations for criteria
       Our plan to apply tobacco-related didactic teachings in clinical      and refinement, the decreasing criteria accuracy of the students during
settings began with the creation of a data collection instrument. The        the course, and the high percentage (>40 percent) of students grading
decision to monitor tobacco use cessation clinical activities (TUCCA)        more harshly than the instructors demonstrate the need to improve
independent of routine clinical care was born out of three necessities:      the tooth preparation evaluation skills of our students. Only nine
1) to ensure the absolute privacy of the smoking clients; 2) to prepare      grading experiences during practical examinations may be
and calibrate a clinical faculty who were largely unfamiliar with            insufficient. More grading experiences will be given to the students
tobacco use interventions; and 3) to solidify referral partnerships with     in the future.
key tobacco counseling and cessation organizations. The eleven-item                 This study demonstrates the need to improve the tooth
instrument followed the National Cancer Institute’s training program         preparation evaluation skills of our students. Only nine grading
(then 4A Model). Under the ASK and ADVISE categories, students               experiences during practical examinations may be insufficient. More
recorded the history of tobacco use among their smoking clients as           grading experiences will be given to the students in the future.
well as the smokers’ levels of interest in cessation. The determination




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     221
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      50. Is There a Dental Hygiene Faculty Shortage in                             enrollment in all advanced dental education programs. In 2001, they
      Canada?                                                                       represented 66.6 percent of advanced students, a decrease of 14.1
                                                                                    percentage points. Conversely, women comprised 19.3 percent of
      Mitchell, Terry, Dalhousie University School of Dental Hygiene,
                                                                                    the enrollment in 1985, but by 2001 accounted for 33.4 percent of
      Lavigne, Salme, University of Manitoba School of Dental Hygiene
                                                                                    the advanced dental students. Female enrollment increased the most
             Purpose: To establish whether or not there is a current shortage       between 1985 and 1994 (9.9 percentage points). In general dentistry,
      of qualified dental hygiene faculty in Canada and to provide baseline         female enrollment increased from 20.8 percent in 1985 to 42.0 percent
      demographic data enabling the projection of future shortages.                 in 2001, more than doubling their share of the enrollment total. In
             The American Dental Education Association recently identified          the specialty programs:
      the growing shortage of faculty in dental education programs to have          • Men dominated enrollment in 1985, accounting for 81.5 percent
      reached a crisis situation. It is anticipated that further aging of faculty       of all students. In 2001, their enrollment dropped to 71.0 percent,
      and the enhanced monetary enticements of clinical practice will                   a decrease of just 10.5 percentage points.
      further complicate the situation. Upon a review of the literature, we         • Male enrollment in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery programs
      found no studies investigating Canadian dental hygiene faculty                    declined just 6.1 percent between 1985 and 2001.
      shortages. The investigators hypothesized there are currently not             • In 1985, women accounted for 41.1 percent of all Pediatric
      enough qualified candidates to fill teaching positions in Canadian                Dentistry students. In 2001, female enrollment (52.5 percent) was
      dental hygiene schools. A descriptive survey consisting of twenty-                higher than male enrollment (47.5 percent).
      three questions was mailed to the director of each school of dental                 Enrollment in advanced dental education programs increased
      hygiene in Canada (N=31). The survey and letter were translated               30.7 percent between 1985 and 2001. Men once dominated the field,
      into French for the francophone schools. Follow-up telephone calls            but since 1985, their enrollment has decreased 14.1 percentage points
      were made to those programs from which a response had not been                while female enrollment has increased. Males continue to dominate
      received. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistical          the specialty programs, but female enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry
      methods. The response rate was 84 percent. Results revealed 19                has exceeded males in recent years. Other than Pediatric Dentistry,
      percent of schools seeking faculty within the year and that 46 percent        females experienced their largest growth in General Dentistry
      of full-time faculty are forty-nine years or older. Within the next two       programs, more than doubling their share of the enrollment total.
      years, 23 percent of dental hygiene programs in Canada will have              The proportion of males and females enrolled in advanced dental
      full-time faculty positions available, growing to 43 percent within           programs is expected to stabilize since the numbers have begun to
      the next four years. Currently, twenty-three schools offer a diploma          level off in the past five years.
      in dental hygiene, but ten schools will be converting to a baccalaureate
      degree program within five years, further impacting the qualifications        52. A Comparison of Community-Based and School-
      of dental hygiene educators. Although some schools are constrained            Based Clinical Evaluations at Harvard School of Dental
      by union agreements, it was reported that 81 percent of schools would
      prefer either a baccalaureate or Masters degree as the credential for         Medicine
      teaching full- or part-time. Other qualifications required include            Ferguson, Michael, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Raygada,
      previous teaching experience, current clinical experience, and                Susana, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Carpio, Lillian, Harvard
      eligibility for licensure in the province.                                    School of Dental Medicine, Sobel, Carole, Harvard School of Dental
             Clearly, this study verifies a shortage of qualified Canadian          Medicine, Chase, Carole, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,
      dental hygiene educators and projects this shortage will reach a crisis       Ojimba, Jacqueline, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Shah-
      within five years. More baccalaureate and Masters-level programs              Hosseini, Neda, Harvard School of Dental Medicine
      in dental hygiene are required to address this growing demand for                    Purpose: To compare clinical evaluations of similar dental
      educators. Now is the time to be proactive and to mentor students             procedures performed by fourth-year dental students at their
      and colleagues to consider teaching as a career choice.                       community-based sites with those performed “in-house” at Harvard’s
                                                                                    predoctoral student clinic.
      51. Male and Female Enrollment in Advanced Dental                                    Dental schools are challenged with providing a variety of clinical
      Education Programs, 1985 to 2001                                              experiences to students. Many dental schools have supplemented their
      Ostermeier, Kendra, American Dental Association, Mikkelsen,                   traditional curricula with educational opportunities off-site. This “real-
      Matthew, American Dental Association, Schaid Wagner, Karen,                   world” experience is invaluable to the dental student as well as to the
      American Dental Association                                                   surrounding communities by increasing access to affordable dental
                                                                                    care. It should be noted that all faculty at our extramural sites have
             Purpose: To examine male and female enrollment in advanced             faculty appointments at our institution and receive yearly calibration
      dental education programs from 1985 to 2001.                                  of our grading system and teaching/learning objectives and goals.
             Each year the American Dental Association (ADA) conducts               After reaching a certain level of competency, at Harvard, fourth-year
      the Survey of Advanced Dental Education to gather information on              dental students provide dental care at various community health
      program characteristics, resident demographics, enrollment levels,            centers or VA Hospital-based dental facilities for three months. The
      and stipends and fees for advanced dental education programs                  grades of clinical procedures performed by students at their extramural
      accredited by the ADA’s Commission on Dental Accreditation. As                sites were evaluated using the same system as in our in-house clinic.
      completing of this survey is required for accreditation, a 100 percent        We have restructured our grading system to better reflect the students’
      response rate is obtained each year. Using the enrollment data from           clinical skills using a 5-point grading system. We compared the
      the advanced dental education survey, we examined male and female             average grades for similar procedures in both settings. From the data
      enrollment levels in general dentistry and specialty dental programs.         collected, it is apparent that the grades are similar to in-house grades
      Male and female enrollment was calculated as a percentage of the              or slightly higher at their extramural sites. We can hypothesize that
      total enrollment in each program per year. General Practice Residency         the results may be due to the following: an improved promotions
      and Advanced Education in General Dentistry programs were                     process at Harvard School of Dental Medicine, which screens our
      combined to form “General Dentistry.” The remaining programs made             students based on their clinical competencies for the order of their
      up “Specialties.” In 1985, males accounted for 80.7 percent of the            scheduled extramural rotations; increased skill level of the student;



222                                                                                     Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



the added student experience gained at the community-based site;                   Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of a project in its
students’ increased levels of clinical confidence; and a more efficient      second year to expand experiences in dentistry for dental hygiene
and improved callibration system of our off-site faculty.                    students.
      In conclusion, the extramural evaluations of dental students’                Alumni and employer surveys indicated a need for graduates
perceived competencies should be explored further, as well as their          to know more about dentistry in general. Students were required to
impact on the community dental care system. Our study suggests               complete an activity in various aspects of dentistry including chairside
that the diverse clinical experiences and skills gained by the student       assisting, preparation of materials, and observations. Three years of
dentists improve with their participation in community-based clinics.        board scores were compared to evaluate the educational experience.
                                                                             Descriptive statistics analyzed data from questionnaires to determine
53. Knowledge Retention                                                      student perceptions and confidence before and after participation in
Fielding, Allen, Temple University School of Dentistry, Feinstein,           the project. Student journal entries were analyzed using the Constant
Bernard, Temple University School of Dentistry, Haber-Cohen, Andrea          Comparative Method to discover recurring themes. Data obtained
                                                                             from 2002 and 2003 were analyzed separately and compared. While
       Purpose: The goal of this study was to compare the testing of         most students perceived little benefit from the project in preparing
students’ knowledge from exam questions prepared by in-house                 for the board exam, students scored higher, moving from decile 5 to
instructors to questions from the “Dental Decks.”                            decile 8 in 2002 and to decile 10 in 2003. Students in 2003 were
       With increasing pressure continually being placed on educators        more positive about the project than students in 2002. Students
to prove teaching outcomes objectively, scores on the National Board         indicated they were generally more confident immediately following
of Dental Examiners have gained greater importance. “Teaching for            the biomaterials lab course than at the end of the project. Comfort
the Boards” is a much-debated topic in professional schools. The             ratings for discussing procedures with patients generally increased
ideal curriculum prepares students for high-quality practice with a          by the end of the program in all areas except periodontal surgery.
sound and full scope of knowledge of the basic and clinical sciences.        While overall comfort decreased slightly for periodontal surgery, the
The “hit or miss” testing of the boards inspires overemphasis on a           percentage of students feeling very comfortable by the end of the
few favored topics rather than a comprehensive understanding of              project increased from 29.6 percent to 48.0 percent. Students reported
dental medicine and in particular oral and maxillofacial surgery.            the largest positive change for endodontics and the least positive for
Studies in 2001 by K Vasker from Tufts and in 2002 by M Brody et             orthodontics. Journal entries for both classes revealed similar positive
al. from West Virginia University show the need for schools to develop       themes and general appreciation for the experience.
better methods of preparation. Students rely heavily on the released               While students perceive a limited benefit from the project
“Dental Decks” National Board questions to study for their National          quantitatively, the qualitative remarks and improved board scores
Boards. Yet the Temple University in-house questions written for             suggest it is a good educational experience. Employer surveys indicate
didactic and clinical testing of the students’ knowledge of oral and         that students were well prepared with no mention of needing more
maxillofacial surgery are felt to be equal to, if not better than, those     exposure to various branches of dentistry.
contained in the Dental Decks. A comparison of the testing of the
students’ knowledge provided insight as to the future preparation of         55. Teaching Cariology in the Preclinical Laboratory:
in-house questions. Two exams are prepared each semester for the
oral and maxillofacial surgery course. The exams consist of fifty            Using the Polymer Bur and Carious Typodont Teeth
questions, of which 50 percent are from the Dental Decks. The                Glotzer, David, New York University College of Dentistry, Allen,
questions chosen from the Dental Decks were specific to the material         Kenneth, New York University College of Dentistry
covered by the textbook and classroom lectures to allow for an                      Purpose: The evolving emphasis on contemporary restorative
unbiased comparison. Incorrect information from the Dental Decks             procedures in dental education involves minimally invasive
was corrected, and the dental students were informed of the                  preparations with selective evaluation for complete caries removal.
inaccuracies. The results showed that the in-house questions better          New York University has instituted a program that combines the use
reflected the students’ overall retained knowledge by 12 percent. The        of “carious” typodont (Columbia Dentoform) teeth along with the
statistics further showed the distracters by the in-house instructors to     polymer bur (SSWhite SmartPrep™) to teach these concepts in a
have an approximately 19 percent choice of the first distracter with a       laboratory environment.
3 to 5 percent of the second and third distracter. The fifth distracter             Prior to their entry into the clinic, D2 students take a course
was chosen less than 1 percent, indicating that an in-house fifth            entitled Restorative Dentistry Practicum. This didactic and laboratory
distracter was not necessary. The Dental Deck questions were found           course includes a review of the atypical and complex restorative
to have a 24 percent choice of the first distracter with an even             procedures that the student will be doing for their patients. The
distribution of 5 to 7 percent for the second, third, and fourth             previous preclinical education focused on “ideal” preparations on
distracters.                                                                 “perfect” teeth. This course incorporates the updated knowledge of
       The results indicated that the in-house questions were found to       cariology and treatment of deep lesions, with the process of removal
better reflect the students’ overall retained knowledge. This may be         of decay. The use of typodont teeth with soft simulated caries enhances
due to the subjective emphasis placed on the material delivered by           the realism and clinical application of this laboratory exercise.
the presenter. The distracters on the Dental Decks were found to have        Students understand that carious dentin is comprised of an outer
more relevance to the material as a higher percentage of across-the-         bacteria-laden irreversibly denatured layer and an inner caries-affected
board choices were made by the students.                                     layer and that caries-detecting dyes and other diagnostic aids can
                                                                             assist in removing only the outer caries-infected layer. The
54. Clinical Experiences in Dentistry: Preparing the                         introduction of the polymer bur allows the student to practice
Dental Hygiene Student, Part 2                                               minimally invasive procedures and remove just that outer layer. This
Keselyak, Nancy, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of                newly introduced combination of carious teeth and polymer bur is
Dentistry, Mitchell, Tanya, University of Missouri-Kansas City School        part of a pilot program to ease the transition from the preclinical to
of Dentistry                                                                 clinical setting. Students will remove the simulated decay using the
                                                                             polymer bur. This creates an irregular internal and external shape to




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                   223
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      the cavity preparation, greatly simulating actual clinical cases. The        injection site with the needle. An informal survey of forty dental
      student next selects the appropriate liner, base, and restorative            hygienists participating in the simulation session found that the
      material, after reviewing the “clinical” criteria for indirect pulp          majority felt each component of the laboratory was effective. The
      capping and determining the remaining dentin thickness, even in a            laboratory offered a relaxed atmosphere for small group learning,
      preclinical environment.                                                     problem-solving, discussion, and opportunity for questions and
             The students and faculty are excited about adding this new            answers. There were a number of limitations with the manikin head,
      dimension to the simulation lab. If this is successful, it is anticipated    such as difficulty with oral landmark detection, location of nerve
      that it will be expanded to include fixed prosthodontics.                    position, tissue condition, head manipulation, and the beeping prompt.
                                                                                   This was the first attempt with this type of laboratory; therefore,
      56. Dental Hygiene Student Attitudes Towards Peer                            additional evaluation and feedback are necessary if future courses
      Evaluation                                                                   continue to incorporate simulation rather than human subjects in their
                                                                                   programs.
      Gonzalez, Barbara, Wichita State University, Anderson, Kelly, Wichita
                                                                                         Simulation activities can be a useful preparation for dental
      State University, Huntley, Diane, Wichita State University
                                                                                   hygienists participating in a continuing education course on local
             Purpose: To evaluate a peer evaluation process.                       anesthesia administration.
             Evaluation is an important professional competence. A peer
      evaluation process was introduced to first-year dental hygiene students      58. Root Canal Therapy Using Nickel-Titanium Rotary
      at the beginning of their first clinical semester to help develop            Instruments: A Program for Entry-Level Students
      evaluative abilities. All students were scheduled as peer evaluator at
      least once during their clinical rotations and were required to have         Bauer, Patricia, University of Michigan School of Dentistry
      peer evaluations on polishing, fluoride administration, unit                        Purpose: Ni-Ti Rotary Instruments were introduced into the
      disinfection, oral hygiene education, seating and positioning, probing,      undergraduate preclinical curriculum in spring of 2002. The challenge
      ultrasonic scaling, dietary or tobacco cessation counseling, hand            was to develop a program that provided a standardized technique
      scaling, and local anesthesia. A survey was administered to assess           that was easily understood and successfully executed by the
      attitudes about giving and receiving feedback from a peer at the end         inexperienced clinician. It was also necessary that the program was
      of each clinical year. At the end of their first year, 82 percent felt the   flexible enough to be effective in a wide range of clinical situations
      experience as a peer evaluator was “enriching,” 90 percent made              and adaptable to different skill levels as student rate of achievement
      changes in their own clinical skill based on their observations of other     of competency is variable.
      students, and 26 percent did not always mark an item as                             While nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary instruments are used
      “unsatisfactory” when they should have. At the end of their second           routinely in endodontic specialty practices, many more general
      year, 85 percent felt the experience as a peer evaluator was                 practice dentists are now using them due to demonstrated
      “enriching,” 78 percent made changes in their skills based on their          improvements in the quality and efficiency of preparations. Dental
      observations, and 35 percent did not always mark an item as                  suppliers who sell the instruments are currently providing dentists
      “unsatisfactory” when they should have. Only 3 percent of students           with technical information on their use, so it is important that the use
      (one student) did not like being observed by a peer evaluator when           of these instruments be taught in the comprehensive clinic curriculum.
      surveyed at the end of both clinical years. At the end of the first year,    Therefore, a plan was developed for the instruction of nickel titanium
      76 percent made changes based on peer feedback, and no students              rotary instrumentation for undergraduate dental students, who had
      felt peer evaluators showed favoritism. At the end of the second year,       no experience whatsoever in the cleaning and shaping of a root canal.
      79 percent made changes in their skills based on peer feedback.              In spring 2002, the plan was implemented in the third-year preclinic
      Eighteen percent felt there was some favoritism. This may be a result        on extracted teeth using only Ni-Ti files except for the establishment
      of closer relationships established during the two years.                    of trial length where stiffer stainless steel hand files are recommended.
             In conclusion, the peer evaluation process was considered             Positive results were reported in an ADEA poster presented last year.
      valuable by students as peer evaluators and when being evaluated.            Beginning in fall 2002, the program was implemented on patients in
                                                                                   the third-year clinic, and it has been enthusiastically embraced.
      57. The Use of Simulation Laboratory for a Local                             Student response was extremely positive, necessitating instruction
      Anesthesia Certificate Course for Dental Hygienists                          for the fourth-year dental students who had been taught the traditional
                                                                                   hand-filing technique with stainless steel instrumentation. Preliminary
      Cirincione, Ulana, Kennedy-King College Dental Hygiene, Beaver,              results in patients on 187 completed anterior and premolar teeth
      Shirley, Kennedy-King College Dental Hygiene, Salzmann, Larry,               demonstrate that use of Ni-Ti rotary files produced higher quality
      University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry, Fannon,              root canals in less time with fewer errors as compared to the teeth
      Maureen, Kennedy-King College Dental Hygiene                                 completed using only stainless steel instruments. Summarized results
            Purpose: To describe the use of simulation in a continuing             on quality of completed root canals, judged using specific, measurable
      education course on local anesthesia for dental hygienists.                  criteria such as shape and density of filled canals, will be presented,
            In October 2000, the Illinois Practice Act was changed to allow        along with frequency and type of errors and written student feedback.
      dental hygienists to administer local anesthesia to their patients. A               Higher-quality root canals can be safely and more efficiently
      number of continuing education courses have been offered at our              completed by undergraduate level dental students using Ni-Ti rotary
      institution to provide required certification for interested dental          instruments as compared to stainless steel instruments.
      hygiene practitioners. Feedback from participants indicated the need
      for hands-on practice before attempting delivery of local anesthesia         59. Improving Access to Preventive Dental Care at
      on human subjects. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a         Marty Indian School
      newly added simulation component to this continuing education
      course. The simulation laboratory session included viewing a                 Nelson, Robert, University of South Dakota
      videotape, armamentarium set-up, injections into fruit, aspiration of             Purpose: To improve access to preventive dental care at Marty
      juices, and the use of a manikin head model. This test head model            Indian School and to give students at the University of South Dakota
      emitted a beeping prompt when participants correctly targeted the            more cultural diversity.



224                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      In an effort to address the oral health disparities on the Yankton      suggesting an interstate, or regional, approach may be helpful in
Sioux Reservation of South Dakota, the University of South Dakota             addressing issues related to enrollment disparities.
Department of Dental Hygiene and Wagner Indian Health Services
Facility have jointly created a preventive dentistry clinic in Marty          61. Do Repeated Clinical Competency Ratings
Indian School (MIS). Marty Indian School is a Native American                 Stereotype Students?
boarding school. The entire student body is made up of Dakota or
                                                                              Chambers, David, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry
Sioux Native Americans. Examinations were performed on 199
students, kindergarten through ninth grade. An active decay rate of                 Purpose: A dataset of student clinical ratings over eight
62 percent was found in the students. The clinic has three operatories        successive quarters was analyzed to determine whether differences
and a reception area. Dental hygiene students, under the supervision          exist between scores given by faculty members who rate students
of faculty and staff, have provided care. In the past year, 199 students      repeatedly compared to those who rate students for the first time.
at MIS have received oral prophylaxis, 1,161 teeth have been sealed,                The rating system has been reported in the literature and has a
and 322 students had fluoride varnishes applied twice annually.               Cronbach alpha reliability of .792 for “clinical judgment,” .857 for
Individual oral health education was offered to a majority of the             “patient management,” and between .500 and .700 for technical skill
students. All of the MIS students are eligible to receive restorative         in various clinical disciplines. The predictive validity for ratings early
and other dental services at Wagner Indian Health Services Facility           in students’ clinical careers with graduation competency is .443. All
in Wagner, which is fifteen miles away. Dental hygiene students were          (ninety-four) faculty making ratings for the first time, except first
able to observe and interact with the MIS students.                           quarter, were selected. Correlations between first–time ratings and
      Marty Indian School students were able to receive preventive            average ratings across all faculty members from the previous quarter
dental services that may not have been available if it were not for the       and averages and standard deviations comparing first-time ratings
preventive dentistry clinic. Dental hygiene students had the                  with previous quarter average ratings were calculated. These values
opportunity to observe and interact with the students from MIS.               were compared to the same metrics for peer faculty members who
                                                                              participated in both the subject quarter and previous quarters’ ratings.
60. An Analysis of First-Year Dental Students by State                        Evidence of stereotyping would include larger correlations and
of Residence and State of School                                              standard deviations of across-quarter ratings for faculty members who
                                                                              provided ratings both quarters and larger average gain scores for first-
Wall, Thomas, American Dental Association, Brown, Jack, American              time raters. Means, standard deviations, and correlations for ratings
Dental Association                                                            of “patient management” for previous/first-time raters were .30/.30,
       Purpose: To investigate differences in the per capita number of        .68/.32, and .14/.57. The same values for “clinical judgment” were
first-year dental students each state sends to dental school and, among       .31/.30, .67/.34, and .18/.28. The ratings for technical skill in clinical
states with dental schools, the difference between the number of first-       disciplines were .28/.34, 1.12/.75, and .14/.06. None of these
year students enrolled (both in-state and out-of-state) and the number        differences support the existence of stereotyping at a statistically
of students originally from the state who went to dental school.              significant level. Analysis of extremely high and low scoring students
       Students from all fifty states were represented in the first-year      and analysis of the small subset of faculty who were new to the faculty
classes of U.S. dental schools in 1998. However, the number per one           did not alter the pattern of these findings.
million population varied widely by state. New Hampshire was lowest                 It is concluded that the competency-based rating system for
with 5.1 students. This state and the other five states in the New            clinical performance studied in this research shows no evidence that
England region were among the bottom nine, each falling below the             faculty members stereotype students.
U.S. average of 14.4. Utah was highest with sixty-five students. Three
other states in the West (Idaho, Oregon, and Nevada) also were among          62. Faculty Perceptions of Work Environment
the top five. Although Oregon, California, and Washington had dental          Froeschle, Mary Lynn, University of Nebraska Medical Center
schools, these states were net exporters of dental students. That is,         College of Dentistry
each of these states had fewer first-year dental students enrolled (both
in-state and out-of-state) than it sent to dental school. Dental schools            Purpose: To assess several characteristics of departmental work
in these three states accounted for 16.2 percent of all first-year dental     patterns that contribute to positive and negative aspects of the work
students. However, students originally from these states were 20.4            environment.
percent of total first-year enrollment. In contrast, New York,                      Work environment has been cited as an important factor in both
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Connecticut were net importers               accepting and maintaining a full-time academic position. An online
of dental students. Dental schools in these states accounted for 23.8         survey about departmental structure and individual faculty work
percent of all first-year enrollments, but students originally from these     patterns and behavior was sent to the deans of fifty-four U.S. dental
states were only 11.5 percent of total first-year enrollment. These           schools to disseminate. Additional follow-up surveys were also sent
states had significant percentages of out-of-state students (NY 50.4          electronically. Thirty-eight schools (70 percent) responded as did 476
percent, PA 62.4 percent, MA 85.5 percent, and CT 70.3 percent).              individual faculty. Regular and nonparametric statistical analysis were
These findings are based on the Survey of Predoctoral Dental                  done, and both supported the results. Faculty in education five years
Education conducted by the American Dental Association’s Survey               or less felt work loads were more equitably distributed and evaluated
Center. State of residence for first-year dental students was used            than those who had been in education longer. From two to twenty
because it most likely reflects each student’s state of residence prior       years, the more time faculty had been in a specific position, the less
to entering dental school. Enrollments by state of residence and state        equitably they felt work load was distributed and evaluated; after
of school for three academic years (i.e., 1998/99, 2001/02, and 2002/         twenty years faculty perceived the greatest equity in work load
03) were averaged to reduce year-to-year fluctuations.                        distribution and evaluation. Full professors perceived more equitable
       States were found to vary in terms of the per capita number of         distribution of work loads and were more likely to remain in academia
students going to dental school. States with dental schools varied in         for the next one to three years; assistant professors perceived the
terms of the number of students going to dental school compared to            least equitable distribution of work load. Overall, organizational
the number of first-year dental students admitted. However,                   behavior was positive for the tested traits of resiliency, self-efficacy,
geographically contiguous states sometimes displayed similarities,            social efficacy, optimism, and hope. Resiliency, self-efficacy, and




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                      225
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      hope correlated significantly to the number of years in education:        as the senior year progressed. Two, there was no measurement of
      faculty in education from five to ten years scored lowest. Hope           competency for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and referral of
      corresponded significantly to years in position with widely varying       patients needing acute care. Three, evaluation of student performance
      results. Social efficacy was significantly higher for female faculty      within the two-week period was challenging due to the diversity and
      than for male faculty. In conclusion, time in education and position      complexity of patient presenting complaints. Our goal was to improve
      and rank were significant for the perception of equitable work load       the emergency clinic rotation by applying the same pedagogical
      distribution. Perceptions of work load distribution appear to be a        principles required of other clinic courses at the college. We developed
      significant factor for faculty in their work environment.                 specific learning objectives for the clinic, a new student performance
            Time in education and position and rank were significant for        evaluation system related to these course objectives, a student
      the perception of equitable work load distribution.                       assignment to follow-up on care provided in the clinic, and a case-
                                                                                based examination at the end of the rotation to assess competency.
      63. Board Certification Requirement for Directors of                      Students were also surveyed at the end of the rotation to evaluate the
      Advanced Specialty Education Programs                                     course and provide feedback on instructor performance. From course
                                                                                evaluations, 93 percent of the students slightly to strongly agreed
      Horan, Catherine, Commission on Dental Accreditation/American
                                                                                that they developed increased confidence in diagnostic techniques
      Dental Association, Neumann, Laura, American Dental Association,
                                                                                and in managing emergency patients. Interaction with faculty was
      Hart, Karen, Commission on Dental Accreditation/American Dental
                                                                                also quite positive with greater than 90 percent of the students agreeing
      Association
                                                                                that the instructor provided constructive feedback or encouraged
             Purpose: To study the impact of the board certification            independent thinking. The patient follow-up assignment confirmed,
      requirement for advanced specialty education programs in the nine         for the most part, accurate acute-care diagnoses and treatment plans
      dental specialty areas on the programs’ compliance with accreditation     and found a high rate of patient satisfaction following emergency
      standards and resulting accreditation status.                             treatment. As anticipated, results from the first few competency
             Standard 2 of the Accreditation Standards for Advanced             examinations show variation in diagnostic competency among the
      Specialty Education Programs states: “The program must be                 student groups. We are addressing this variance with more didactic
      administered by a director who is board certified in the respective       instruction before each rotation begins. We also plan to use faculty
      specialty of the program.” The standard was approved in 1998 and          standardization exercises to improve the reliability of daily student
      became effective January 1, 2000. At the time it was implemented,         performance evaluations.
      the communities of interest expressed concern whether programs                  Overall, the preliminary results of this new program show
      would lose their accreditation due to their inability to recruit/retain   improvement in the learning assessments of our acute care clinical
      program directors qualified in accord with Standard 2. As of August       rotation.
      2003, there are 430 advanced specialty education programs in nine
      specialty areas accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation
      and subject to compliance with Standard 2. The data provided was          BLOCK III – WORKS IN PROGRESS
      compiled and analyzed from program review data of the last four
      years (2000-03). Analysis includes those specialty programs that have
                                                                                Monday, March 8
      been cited for noncompliance with the standard, the length of time        4:00 pm to 5:00 pm
      taken for the programs to achieve compliance, and the settings of the
      cited programs. Results indicate that twenty-three programs in five       Additional poster added during this Block: 27.
      of the nine specialties have been cited for noncompliance with
      Standard 2. Results further indicate that 30 percent seven of the         Recruitment and Retention of Underrepresented
      twenty-three programs) achieved compliance in six months. While           Population Groups in Dental Hygiene (see page 214).
      the period of noncompliance varies, the majority of cited programs
      eventually comply. Twice as many of the cited programs reside in          65. The Clinician Educator: Bringing the Real World
      dental schools than in nondental school settings.                         into the Faculty
             Data based upon accreditation program review since Standard
      2 was implemented show that approximately 5 percent of accredited         Walton, Joanne, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,
      specialty programs have been cited for noncompliance. It appears          Best, Leandra, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry
      therefore that most programs have been able to comply with the board            Purpose: In the face of ongoing recruiting challenges for full-
      certification requirement. These findings may be of interest to the       time dental faculty and the need for real world, “hands-on” education,
      dental education community as it continues to address recruitment/        the Clinician Educator program was instituted at UBC in the fall of
      retention challenges.                                                     2002. The purpose of the program was to improve communication,
                                                                                continuity, consistency, and quality assurance within the D.M.D.
      64. Restructuring a Clinic Rotation in an Acute Care                      program by engaging part-time faculty to teach at least four half days
      Clinic                                                                    days per week across the curriculum, as tutors, clinical teachers, and
                                                                                mentors.
      Adu-Sarkodie, Heather, University of Iowa College of Dentistry,                 The Clinician Educator program began with a need for increased
      Stefanac, Stephen, University of Iowa College of Dentistry                cohesiveness in our teaching program and three dedicated part-time
            Purpose: To improve student evaluation and educational              faculty who had demonstrated strong teaching skills, a willingness
      outcomes in an acute care rotation.                                       to take various teaching roles for a minimum of two days per week,
            Instruction in emergency patient management procedures often        and a commitment to continue developing their teaching skills. Rather
      varies among dental institutions. At the University of Iowa, fourth-      than requesting applications, these faculty were approached as a group
      year dental students participate in a two-week clinic rotation during     for feedback on the Clinician Educator concept and then individually
      which they manage patients with acute care needs. Historically, several   to discuss their interest in the program. The benefits of the model
      problems were associated with the rotation. One, students presented       were in the following areas: 1) Communication among students,
      with a gradation of levels of knowledge and patient care experience       patients, and colleagues: core group of teachers who can communicate



226                                                                                 Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



amongst themselves and act as a bridge between full-time faculty                   The intent of the pilot project was to show that there is increased
(mostly specialists) and half day per week part-time faculty (mostly         motivation by student dentists to learn core concepts in pulp therapy
general dentists; communicating a passion for dentistry and for              when encouraged through the use of effective instructional
teaching; and modeling professional behavior to students, patients,          technology. Initial feedback and data will demonstrate areas for
and colleagues; 2) Continuity of patient care and student interactions:      needed improvements and modifications. The project, which is
increased student contact via teaching in multiple sessions; clinician       continuing, is thought to provide a novel method for student learning
educators discover what students learn across the program, and this,         in preparation for the clinical experience.
in turn, provides ongoing, in-house continuing education for these
teachers in terms of currency and comprehensiveness of knowledge             67. Community Dentistry Programs in Western New
that can be applied across multiple teaching sessions and disciplines;       York: An Update
and improved access/availability for students; 3) Consistency of
                                                                             Chin Kit-Wells, Meelin, University at Buffalo School of Dental
teaching and assessment: more sessions with same top quality
                                                                             Medicine, Perinpanayagam, Meghan, University at Buffalo School
instructors leads to increased consistency of teaching and a more
                                                                             of Dental Medicine, Bernat, Joseph, University at Buffalo School of
coherent message to students; and clinician educators help interpret
                                                                             Dental Medicine, Creighton, Paul R., University at Buffalo School of
varying clinical opinions to students; 4) Quality Assurance within
                                                                             Dental Medicine
program and to licensing body: a product of improved communication,
continuity and consistency.                                                        Purpose: To develop a series of community outreach programs
      To date, the program has been a resounding success as reflected        to provide dental awareness and access to dental care for underserved
in improved teaching evaluations by students and increased interest          and underinsured populations in Western New York.
in the program by part-time faculty. It has resulted in improved                   The Surgeon General’s Report on Oral Health states that
continuity, communication, consistency, and quality assurance in the         underserved and underinsured children are more susceptible to dental
D.M.D. program, while relieving full-time faculty of some teaching           caries. Over 80 percent of the dental problems are found within 20
responsibilities. The greatest challenge to the continuation of the          percent of the population in Western New York. The Department of
program is financial, with the required increased salaries so far offset     Pediatric and Community Dentistry initiated a series of programs in
by unfilled full-time faculty slots.                                         1996 to provide dental access and care for underserved and
                                                                             underinsured populations. These include children from lower
66. A Computer-Aided Enrichment Program to                                   socioeconomic populations, low birth weight infants, and children
Increase Student Dentist Comprehension of Pulp                               and adolescents with special health care needs. The objectives of the
                                                                             community outreach programs are: 1) to train pre/postdoctoral
Therapy for the Pediatric Patient                                            students to assess systemic (oral health) needs and become dental
Johnson, Jeffrey, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry                advocates for the underserved and underinsured; 2) to increase dental
       Purpose: To improve the comprehension of student dentists of          education so that the underrepresented may be more self-sufficient;
core concepts in pulp therapy for the pediatric patient and to provide       3)to stress the importance of dental health and how it affects systemic
a method for improving subject matter instruction.                           (overall health); and 4) to provide access to dental care for uninsured
       The “Pediatric Dentistry Pulp Quiz Bowl” program was                  and underserved populations. Specifically, the programs are: 1) the
designed to facilitate student dentists’ comprehension of core concepts      delivery of dental care and oral health guidelines to new mothers; 2)
in pulp therapy for the pediatric patient. Computer-based instruction        an infant dental plate program, which protects a low birth weight
and technology were used to motivate third-year student dentists to          infant’s palate from deformation due to a breathing or feeding tube;
demonstrate their comprehension of treatment concepts based on               3) a mobile dental van that travels throughout Chautauqua County, a
simulated case scenarios. According to Bonwell and Eison, students           rural community; and 4) a comprehensive oral health for disabled
taught making use of computer-based instruction (CBI) generally learn        youth program. In addition, we participate in National Children’s
more. Based on 199 studies, students’ average achievement rose from          Dental Health Month with two programs. The first, sponsored by the
the 50th to the 61st percentile. Compared to those taught by traditional     ADA, Give Kids A Smile Day, addresses the needs of dental care for
methods, students in CBI classrooms also learned their lessons in            Buffalo’s children. The second, Smile Education Day, is observed
two-thirds of the time (Bonwell and Eison, 1991). After two one-             through visits to local elementary schools and dental health booths at
hour sessions of combined PowerPoint discussion and review, each             local malls. Pediatric residents rotate through all these programs and
student dentist was provided an individual audience responder. Fifteen       to Roswell Cancer Institute and a hospital-based HIV/AIDS clinic.
questions representing the core concepts in pulp therapy for the             Overall, the postdoctoral pediatric residency program has expanded
pediatric patient were displayed. Five multiple-choice responses, one        from five to ten residents, which has helped to treat the increased
of which was correct, were displayed on a screen. Each question was          need for dental service requests. Also, these outreach programs have
read aloud. Students were given one minute to formulate a response,          established strong collaborative partnerships with community
which was registered through the computer-based audience responder           hospitals, community health agencies, health professionals, and school
system. At the end of the “quiz bowl,” students’ scores were tabulated       systems, which remain a key component to program development,
by the responder system. Self-assessment allowed students to gauge           delivery, and successes.
their level of understanding and preparation. Rewards were given to                Over a seven-year period, these programs were deemed to be
the top three performers in the class. The session was anonymously           successful in increasing dental awareness and access to care for
evaluated by student dentists following the “quiz bowl.” Evaluations         underserved and uninsured populations.
will be used for future modifications of the original concept as well
as the lecture/presentation component of the topic. Useful feedback          68. Multiple Resources for Instructing Dental Students
on what and how well students are learning can be used to help refocus       in Case Presentations
teaching efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of student      Baechle, Mary, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry,
learning (Paulsen and Feldman, 1995). Evaluations will also be used          Claman, Lewis, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry,
to gauge student motivation for learning core concepts of pulp therapy       Fischbach, Henry, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry,
for the pediatric patient.                                                   Halket, Christine, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry,
                                                                             van Putten, Meade, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry



February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    227
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



            Purpose: To help third-year dental students learn how to give         education. The students are educated in the team concept of providing
      effective case presentations to fellow students and faculty, improve        patient care. The clinic facility is modeled on a private practice office
      their diagnostic abilities, and gain experience in treatment planning.      with a common reception area; the hygiene treatment area is
            Formal clinical case presentations are an integral part of most       immediately adjacent to the resident operatories. Assisting students
      dental residency programs and are essential for clinical dentists who       are utilized in the hygiene and resident operatories. Each hygiene
      pursue scholarly activity. At the Ohio State University College of          student, assisting student, and resident are grouped into a treatment
      Dentistry, third- and fourth-year dental students develop their skills      team. Patient treatment is planned and coordinated by the team with
      by giving presentations of patients with complex dental needs to their      faculty supervision. Responsiblities of the hygiene student include
      peers and faculty. Third-year students present a pre-treatment case         the patient’s initial periodontal therapy, oral hygiene instruction,
      which is then presented in the fourth year as the completed treatment       postsurgical management, and post-care maintenance. The dental
      case. This abstract and poster will focus on the presentations given        assisting student provides chairside assisting for the hygiene student
      by dental students in their third year: the “Dent 3 Comprehensive           and resident, expanded duties, schedules appointments, and monitors
      Care Patient Presentation.” Within the past three years, several format     the patient’s progress through treatment. The resident is team leader
      changes have been incorporated in the presentation experience,              and responsible for providing patient treatment and monitoring the
      initiated in 1995. The goals of these changes have included                 hygiene and assisting students. Meetings provide the members and
      improvement in patient documentation (diagnostic casts, clinical            the supervising faculty with the opportunity to review a patient’s
      photographs), the written case narrative, diagnostic skills, and            progress. All team members participate in case presentation seminars
      treatment-planning skills. Changes include development of a case            where all are required to present.
      presentation website on the college Intranet that includes several links          As a work in progress, this collaborative program among dental
      within the website and sample patient cases. Current sample cases           assisting, dental hygiene, and general dentistry residency enables the
      include the case write-up, intraoral and portrait photographs,              students to be better prepared for the team concept of providing care.
      photographs of casts and diagnostic wax-ups, clinical chart forms,
      and radiographs. Additionally, previous student case presentations          70. Resources for Attaining Clinical Competency in
      are available for study in each of the four Comprehensive Care Clinics.     Cast Gold Inlay/Onlay Restoration
      Most recently, a lecture and clinical rotation in dental photography
                                                                                  Alperstein-Sitzamer, Klara, Temple University School of Dentistry,
      have been implemented for all third-year dental students. To identify
                                                                                  Boston, Daniel, Temple University School of Dentistry, Sisson, June,
      strengths and weaknesses and make changes in the presentation
                                                                                  Temple University School of Dentistry, Hollingsworth, Jack, Temple
      process, faculty and presenting students were given surveys after each
                                                                                  University School of Dentistry
      presentation for the past year. At the time the survey was administered,
      the website (minus the sample patient cases) was available to all                 Purpose: To identify barriers to attaining clinical competency
      students, but previous case presentations were available in only one        in Class II cast inlay/onlay restorations and provide resources for
      of the Comprehensive Care Clinics (approximately 25 percent of the          improvement in a D.M.D. program.
      third-year dental students). Both faculty and student questionnaires              Faculty (n=21), senior students (n=65), and junior students
      requested responses to positively worded statements based on a scale        (n=55) of Tufts University School of Dental Medicine were surveyed
      of 1 to 5. Results of the survey for the past year will be compared         regarding their attitudes towards cast gold inlay/onlay restorations
      with next year’s survey to determine if the recent changes have             and the ability to fulfill competency in cast gold inlay/onlay. From
      enhanced faculty and student perceptions of the presentations.              the faculty survey, we found that even though a majority (95 percent)
            Students have been provided with multiple resources to enhance        believe that teaching of the cast gold restoration should be part of the
      the quality and educational experience of the “Dent 3 Comprehensive         curriculum, many (42 percent) expressed reluctance to supervise or
      Care Patient Presentation.” Areas of future modification will include       perform cast inlay/onlay restorations, and many more (85 percent)
      a more objective grading form, greater discipline balance in the            were unlikely to treatment plan a Class II (two- or three-surface)
      attending faculty, and further incorporation of digital photography         inlay cast restoration while others (38 percent) would unlikely
      into case documentation.                                                    treatment plan an onlay cast restoration. In addition, many faculty
                                                                                  (71 percent) considered degree of difficulty compared to other
      69. A Collaborative Education Program in Dental                             alternative procedures, i.e., full crown or amalgam /composite,
      Assisting, Dental Hygiene, and Postgraduate General                         precluding them from treatment planning. Students identified the
                                                                                  following factors contributing to their difficulty in fulfilling this
      Dentistry                                                                   competency: availability of inlay/onlay in the schoolwide patient
      Porter, Thomas, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gore,           population (85 percent) and students’ “patient pool” (83 percent);
      Constance, Hillsborough Community College, Solovan-Gleason,                 reluctance of faculty to recommend cast gold in treatment planning
      Donna, Hillsborough Community College, Schobert, Krista,                    (89 percent); financial concerns by the patient (94 percent); and
      University of Florida College of Dentistry, Johnson, Shannon,               esthetics acceptance by the patient (46 percent). At the time of
      University of Florida College of Dentistry                                  graduation, 93/229 or 40 percent (both classes) had completed at
            Purpose: To more effectively educate dental assisting students,       least one cast gold inlay/onlay restoration. In response to the faculty
      dental hygiene students, and general dentistry residents in the team        attitudes and students’ requirement in achieving competency in Class
      concept of providing dental health care.                                    II inlay/onlay restoration, the following has been implemented: an
            Traditionally, the education of dental assistants, dental             in-service program for the faculty regarding indications and principles
      hygienists, and general dentistry residents is done in separate clinic      intracoronal cast restorations; reinforcement in treatment planning
      areas and in separate curriculums. There is limited or no interaction       of cast gold as an alternative to a full crown or amalgam/composite;
      between the disciplines. In contrast, dental assistants, dental             significant increase in credit for this procedure; and an emphasis of
      hygienists, and dentists are expected to work in a cohesive and             this modality in the junior lecture series.
      efficient manner on graduation. Recognizing this problem, the dental              Barriers to gaining competency in cast gold inlay/onlay were
      assisting and dental hygiene programs, in collaboration with the            identified, and changes were implemented. Effectiveness will be
      general dentistry residency, built a facility designed to place the three   evaluated after one year.
      programs in intimate physical contact for didactic and clinical



228                                                                                   Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



71. Block Scheduling: Perceptions of a New Approach                           studies in first year at UBC in September 2002. Second- and third
for Clinical Faculty Assignment                                               year-studies will be completed at the community colleges and fourth-
                                                                              year at UBC. Only four of eleven students successfully completed
Lanning, Sharon, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Green,
                                                                              the first year. Refinements and modifications under way include
Thomas, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Piontek, Mary,
                                                                              increased program promotion, higher GPA, development of
University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and
                                                                              supplemental admission procedures, and clarification of transfer issues
Teaching, Johnson, Charles, University of Michigan School of
                                                                              between institutions.
Dentistry, Kowlaski, Charles, University of Michigan School of
                                                                                    It is anticipated that this partnership model may be of interest
Dentistry, McCauley, Laurie, University of Michigan School of
                                                                              to other North American programs.
Dentistry, Taichman, Russell, University of Michigan School of
Dentistry
                                                                              73. National Dental Certification in Canada
      Purpose: To compare student and faculty perceptions of block
                                                                              Boyd, Marcia, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,
versus traditional faculty scheduling in Comprehensive Care Clinics.
                                                                              Gerrow, Jack, Dalhousie University Faculty of Dentistry, Duquette,
      Periodontal faculty teaching assignments have traditionally been
                                                                              Pierre, University of Montreal Faculty of Dental Medicine, Haas,
evenly distributed over an entire academic year. Block scheduling is
                                                                              Robert, University of Toronto Faculty of Dentistry, Loney, Robert,
a new approach whereby faculty are assigned in concentrated blocks
                                                                              Dalhousie University Faculty of Dentistry
of time. Theoretically, block scheduling enhances continuity of
instruction and provides extended release time for faculty. Three                    Purpose: Using a new OSCE format for national licensure and
months after implementation of block scheduling in one of three               certification in Canada.
clinics, surveys were distributed to all dental students (n=206) and                 Assessment of dental graduates for practice using a nationally
faculty (n=37) assessing their perceptions of block versus traditional        accepted and recognized process is desirable. In Canada, the
scheduling regarding continuity of instruction and assessment, student        certification system involves 1) assessment of students’ competence
learning, productivity, and satisfaction using a 4-point Likert scale.        during the predoctoral program, 2) the process of accreditation, and
The overall response rate was 54 percent (students 52 percent; faculty        3) a national certification examination which consists of a Written
62 percent). There were no statistical differences between student            Examination and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination
and faculty perceptions for 25/27 and 30/30 survey items, respectively.       (OSCE). An OSCE has been in place since 1996. Testing to a national
Statistical differences included: 1) Students in the block clinic felt        standard against stated and nationally accepted competencies is the
less able to review patients’ clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment     mandate of the National Dental Examining Board of Canada (NDEB).
plan with faculty in an efficient manner than students in traditional         Test development and implementation constitute an ongoing process
clinics (2.6 vs. 3.3; P<0.05); and 2) Students in the block clinic felt       that demands the development and evaluation of new testing
faculty were less able to allocate time fairly and spend the right amount     methodologies. The NDEB has developed a new, more challenging
of time with each student compared to students in traditional clinics         OSCE that will be used for graduates of accredited North American
(2.4 vs. 2.9; P<0.05).                                                        dental programs and non-North American graduates who have
      From this initial investigation, students and faculty did not favor     successfully completed a two-year qualifying program. The
block over traditional scheduling. This may be due to survey design           examination is case-based with one or more correct answers (up to
or limited experience with block scheduling since follow-up                   fifteen options). The template, question stem, and options will remain
discussions with students were favorable. In addition, the same               constant, but the case material will change annually. Differential
amount of faculty coverage was provided in all clinics; thus,                 scoring is used. The template will be posted on the NDEB website
differences in student perceptions may be related to variations in clinic     for student and faculty information and study. The OSCE will be
efficiency and productivity, student numbers, or inherent differences         pilot-tested in 2004 with implementation in 2005. Previous KR20
in students or faculty. Further investigation of these areas is currently     statistics of the Written and OSCE examinations have been 0.88 and
under way.                                                                    0.73 respectively. Examples of the template, questions, and options
                                                                              will be available on site.
72. Four Canadian Institutions Partner in a
Baccalureate Degree in Dental Hygiene                                         74. A Browser-Based Electronic Dissector for Assisting
Craig, Bonnie, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry
                                                                              in the Dental Gross Anatomy Laboratory
                                                                              MacPherson, Brian, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry,
       Purpose: To develop an innovative, cost-effective model for a
                                                                              Brueckner, Jennifer, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry,
four-year dental hygiene degree program.
                                                                              Tieman, James, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry
       In May 2001 agreement was reached and approval obtained for
a unique program to be offered through an inter-institutional                       Purpose: To develop and provide a CD-based electronic
partnership between three community college dental hygiene                    dissector to assist students in the dissection process, highlight session
programs and UBC. Primary goals were to develop a creative model              objectives, integrate the histology/clinical relevance wherever
for a four-year degree program and provide a foundational education           possible, and provide a value-added curricular enhancement in their
for graduate studies and research. Additional goals included increasing       gross anatomy laboratory experience.
public access to highly qualified clinical dental hygienists, better                Lack of trained faculty has resulted in many departments moving
meeting the increasing health care demands of changing                        to alternate dissection formats, reducing the number of students in
demographics, enabling high school graduates to directly access a             the gross anatomy lab at any one time. We have found while this
dental hygiene degree, increasing retention of dental hygienists              helps, students are often stalled, waiting for faculty to come by their
through enhanced professional expertise and career satisfaction, and          table to show them how the area/dissection should be approached.
responding to the call from the Canadian Dental Hygienists                    We are developing a CD-based electronic dissector that not only shows
Association and the British Columbia dental hygiene regulatory                them dissection images, outlining the session’s objectives, but also
authority for baccalaureate-level education for entry to practice. This       the exact dissectional approach to the area/structure. The dissector is
program makes cost-effective use of public education dollars and              assembled in an HTML editor (Dreamweaver MX). The user interface
existing resources. Eleven students selected on GPA only began their          has scrolling text on the left panel with hyperlinked text to dissection




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     229
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      images from Grant’s Atlas Life Art Image collection. Navigation              76. Accuracy of Automated Blood Pressure Monitors
      buttons below the primary image in the right panel include:                  Nelson, Debralee, University of South Dakota Department of Dental
      “Dissection,” a digital image of a typical dissection of the same region     Hygiene, Kennedy, Beverly, University of South Dakota Department
      as depicted in the Grant’s Atlas image; “Show Me How,” which                 of Dental Hygiene, Regnerus, Carissa, University of South Dakota
      presents a fifteen to twenty second digital videoclip; and an “Integrate     Department of Dental Hygiene
      My Histology” button, that shows them histological images of the
      structure and/or region, as well as a “Clinical Integration” button,               Purpose: To compare blood pressure and pulse readings obtained
      where appropriate. All digital images, either still or in movie form,        by automated and aneroid gauge monitors with the accurate and
      were collated from a complete dissection of the body performed in            preferred traditional mercury column manometer.
      our department. The histological images incorporated are designed                  Obtaining vital signs for dental patients is considered standard
      to reinforce integration between histology and gross anatomy. Clinical       of care, yet many offices do not routinely perform this health service
      integration is designed to reinforce clinical applications of basic          due to training and time constraints. The use of automatic blood
      science material in either gross or microscopic anatomy. The pilot           pressure monitors addresses both time and expertise concerns. The
      module (Head and Neck) will be beta-tested during the 2003-04                mercury column manometer, the control in this study, has long been
      academic year in all four gross anatomy courses taught in the                considered the most accurate and preferred instrument for obtaining
      department. Supported by the James and Barbara Holsinger Endowed             blood pressure. During this study, 100 participants (eighteen years
      Professorship and the Kentucky Research Challenge Trust Fund.                of age and older) consented to having their blood pressure taken with
             This value-added dissection aid, used at home prior to the            four different monitors: mercury column manometer and stethoscope,
      dissection, as well as available in the lab on several computers, should     aneroid manometer and stethoscope, automatic arm blood pressure
      significantly assist the student with the session’s dissection objectives.   monitor, and automatic wrist blood pressure monitor. All
                                                                                   measurements are taken from the left arm with five minutes allowed
      75. Critical Thinking Skills of Pediatric Dentistry                          between measurements. Identical stethoscopes are used with the
                                                                                   manual monitors. Each of the four clinicians was assigned to and
      Residents                                                                    calibrated for a specific monitoring device with testing limited to ten
      Ocanto, Romer, Nova Southeastern University College of Dental                to twelve individuals per session to avoid operator error. Strict
      Medicine, McGuire, Jason, Nova Southeastern University College of            adherence to manufacturer directions and patient preparation is
      Dental Medicine                                                              followed for all monitors. Measurements recorded onto a master sheet
             Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the           identify subjects by identification numbers only. Investigators are
      acceptability of two assessment tools designed to measure students’          not aware of readings obtained by other investigators during testing.
      ability to think critically.                                                 Comparisons of readings are made using these master sheets.
             Assessment of learning is a process to improve the knowledge,         Individuals with abnormal readings are notified and advised to seek
      skills, and attitudes acquired through study and practice. The ability       medical attention.
      to distinguish observable, verifiable facts from opinions or untested              Preliminary results indicate blood pressure readings obtained
      theories is critical to the scientific method and to measures of inquiry     with automated monitors are significantly different from those
      used in dental education. The purpose of all courses in the pediatric        obtained with the mercury column monitor. Less difference has been
      dentistry graduate program at Nova Southeastern University is to             noted between the aneroid and mercury column units.
      develop and refine this ability. However, it is necessary first to assess
      the pediatric dentistry residents in regard to their cognitive disposition   77. Student/Provider Evaluation of Revisions Made to
      through the use of the appropriate assessment tools.                         a Dental Hygiene Field Experience Course
             Twelve residents (four females and eight males, aged twenty-          Scheidel, Donal, University of South Dakota
      five to thirty-six) were asked to participate in four test sessions. All
      participants completed two traditional critical thinking (CT) tests:               Purpose: To survey students and dentists participating in a field
      the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Watson-         experience summer course regarding their response to a course
      Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), both context-                    reorganization.
      independent tests. Residents are now in the process of completing an               The University of South Dakota Department of Dental Hygiene
      adaptation of the context-dependent Multiple Rating Item (MRI)               has required students to develop an understanding of the private
      recommended by Fisher and Scriven (1997) as an alternative to                practice setting through participation in a three-week internship class
      constructed response questions used in most traditional tests.               during the summer between their junior and senior years. The goals
      Furthermore, resident feedback is also being obtained for each               of the course are to enable the student to develop an understanding
      measure. CT scores for both context-independent test (CCTST and              of the importance of all dental staff members, to expose the students
      WGCTA) were reviewed as function of age, gender, and dental school           to the pace of private practice, to observe the interactions between
      GPA scores. Both tests correlated positively with each other (r=.63)         the various staff members, and to gain an understanding of the various
      indicating a moderate association, and both tests correlated (r=32           procedures performed by the dentist. Their clinical requirements are
      and r=35 respectively) with GPA scores. These results are consistent         minimal (three prophylaxis). In past years, the students were required
      with previous findings (Soh et al., 2002). Comparisons with results          to seek out a dental office in which to spend their three-week internship
      from the MRI will allow us to determine which test or combination            and would then spend approximately a week each with the dentist,
      of tests will be suitable to evaluate dental educational interventions       hygienist, and front office staff. The course was changed for the
      involving CT skills.                                                         summer 2003 term to require students to spend one week in a single-
             This pilot study suggests that both context-independent tests         dentist practice, a week in a multiple-dentist practice, and a week in
      are acceptable for this population group; however, comparison with           an Indian Health Service dental clinic. The change was implemented
      results from the context-related instrument will provide more                to expose students to three different practice settings and to expose
      information on what test(s) to use while assessing CT skills at the          students to different cultures. Each student was scheduled into an
      dental graduate level.                                                       office convenient to the student’s available free lodging after offices
                                                                                   in the four-state area (South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Minnesota)




230                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                          Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



agreed to participate in the program. Thirty-eight private practice               The pediatric dentistry predoctoral clinic at the University of
settings and seven IHS dental clinics hosted students throughout the        Puerto Rico School of Dentistry has used OSCE (Objectively
summer. Students were still participating in their internships at the       Structured Competency Examination)-based examinations for some
submission deadline, but preliminary evaluations from both the              years to measure the students’ progress after the preclinical and third-
students and the providers supported the course change. After all           year clinical rotation, where, in a closed setting, the student completes
evaluations are received, the final evaluation data will be compiled.       two comprehensive school-aged patients. The senior students are
      Both students and dentists felt the changes in the internship         required to complete two more patients in a Comprehensive Care
were positive, allowing students to gain a broader perspective on           Clinic, in addition to an external clinical rotation at a hospital-based
available practice settings in the workplace and to experience a            dental clinic. In order to assess curriculum adequacy of all the
different culture firsthand.                                                components within the pediatric dentistry section, a prospective
                                                                            assessment of our evaluation strategies is being developed, applying
78. Implementation of the Faculty Research                                  purposeful assessment techniques. The overall project consists of the
Enrichment Program for Clinical Dental Educators:                           administration of an OSCE-based examination in two consecutive
                                                                            years, measuring skills and knowledge in basic examination,
First-Year Results
                                                                            diagnosis, and treatment planning of the child patient. Comparison
Bilan, Janice, University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, O’Neill,       of student performance will be assessed using linear scales, ensuring
Paula, University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, Powers, John,          “person-free” and “item-free” measurements. Our hypothesis is that
University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston                                the OSCE-based examination will adequately measure students’ entry-
       Purpose: The purpose of the University of Texas Dental Branch        level clinical knowledge and skill as well as basic competency in
at Houston Faculty Research Enrichment Program (FREP) is to                 pediatric dentistry. The first phase of the study was conducted at the
provide clinical faculty a comprehensive package of educational and         end of the last academic year. The OSCE-based examination was
mentoring offerings aimed at helping them attain their research goals.      administered to the junior and senior classes (n=90). Mean raw score
       In 2003 UT-Dental Branch at Houston developed a                      for juniors was 46.53 (Std 3.68) and for seniors was of 50.19 (Std
comprehensive program to improve research skills of clinical faculty:       2.84). This difference was statistically significant at P<0.01.
the Faculty Research Enrichment Program (FREP). Phase I is a                      The preliminary results indicate our OSCE-based examination
seminar series immersing faculty in research methodology; Phase II          discriminates between levels of competency. This instrument will be
includes four pathways from which faculty can choose, based upon            assessed and improved after an item evaluation, to be readministered
individualized research goals. This program needs commitment, so            in May 2004 to the current classes, in the second phase of the study.
Phase I was designed as a pilot project to determine whether seminars
resulted in clinical faculty pursuing Phase II or initiating individual     80. Development of a Comprehensive Integrated
research projects. Clinicians (twenty-two) were chosen so that the          Geriatric Dental Curriculum
pilot group varied in age, research experience, and tenure status. The
                                                                            Hjertstedt, Jadwiga, Marquette University School of Dentistry,
four-month seminar series included ten sessions. Phase II includes
                                                                            Schrubbe, Katherine, Marquette University School of Dentistry,
four tracks and is arranged to accommodate schedules of clinical
                                                                            Iacopino, Anthony, Marquette University School of Dentistry
faculty: 1. degree track; 2. long-term research mentoring track; 3.
short-term research mentoring track; and 4. master teacher                        Purpose: To produce dental students competent in gerontology
(educational research component) track. On the degree track, faculty        and geriatric dentistry.
are given three years to complete a M.S. degree. On the long-term                 The rapidly growing older population with complex dental,
track, trainees are mentored by senior faculty and administrators for       medical, and psychosocial needs requires competent dental clinicians
five years, with the goal of becoming independent researchers. Short-       with a unique set of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. Future general
term trainees are mentored by senior faculty and administrators for         dentists must be able to work as interdisciplinary team members to
one year, with the goal of becoming part of a research team. On the         provide optimal care to the aging population. As part of a schoolwide
master teacher track, faculty earn a M.Ed. or Fellowship. Phase I           curricular revision and renewal, the proposed four-year integrated
was assessed using three measures: Likert scale evaluations; number         geriatric dentistry curriculum was developed and approved for
of participants registering for Phase II; and number of participants        implementation. Geriatric concepts were woven into existing didactic
engaged in new research. Evaluations of Phase I were uniformly              material, rather than creating separate discipline-based courses. The
positive; ten participants are now involved in research; one trainee is     key features of the curriculum employ a general dentistry approach,
in a short-term mentoring program. Next steps: improve and repeat           provide clinical experiences with older adults during all four years
Phase I and develop assessment measures for Phase II.                       of instruction, facilitate progressive reinforcement of basic/behavioral
       Based upon initial observations, the first year of the FREP          sciences, and emphasize principles of preventive dentistry, public
initiative was positive. The plan is to continue FREP at the Dental         health, and ethics. The curriculum uses different teaching methods
Branch.                                                                     including dental rounds, computer-assisted independent learning,
                                                                            small group discussions, and case-based instruction to emphasize
79. Assessment of OSCE-Based Examination for                                problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and lifelong learning. The
                                                                            curriculum emphasizes early clinical and community-based training
Pediatric Dentistry Competency Evaluation
                                                                            exposing students to the role of the dentist as a member of an
Correa Luna, Adolfo, University of Puerto Rico School of Dentistry,         interdisciplinary team caring for older adults. A comprehensive
Garri, Viviana, University of Puerto Rico School Of Dentistry,              evaluation strategy has been developed to support ongoing
Melendez, Jorge, University of Puerto Rico School of Dentistry,             refinements and modifications of the educational program. Pilot
Hernandez, Jose, University of Puerto Rico School of Dentistry,             programs conducted for the freshmen class during the 2002-03
Torres, Jose, University of Puerto Rico School of Dentistry, Crespo,        academic year provided an initial baseline for comparison. The D1
Kathleen, University of Puerto Rico School of Dentistry                     students completed a “Palmore’s Facts on Aging” quiz to assess
      Purpose: This study was designed to internally validate the           knowledge and attitudes about aging. The results revealed a general
OSCE-based examination and demonstrate usefulness in measuring              lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the elderly. The
the students’ competency attainment.



February 2004        ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    231
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      next step in the development of the curriculum is implementation of                SL and CE are key components of IUSD’s predoctoral
      educational components for each dental class in the 2003-04 academic        curriculum. As our students actively engage in various SL and CE
      year.                                                                       programs (many of which are in remote locations away from the
            A comprehensive geriatric dental curriculum was developed             dental school), they will need to have quick access to an intuitive,
      for D1 through D4 students at Marquette University School of                powerful information delivery system that can help them best address
      Dentistry.                                                                  situations and problems requiring specific dental knowledge as well
                                                                                  as access to socioeconomic information. Additionally, faculty and
      81. Establishing a Clinical Tobacco Cessation/                              staff, as they assist the primary focus group participants, will also
      Prevention Intervention as One Part of a University-                        need direct access to the web-based system in order to best facilitate
                                                                                  the learning opportunities offered by the programs. The web-based
      Wide Tobacco Control Initiative
                                                                                  tool under development utilizes a “stream of thought” design
      Davis, Joan, Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine         methodology that will allow users to have a learning experience based
            Purpose: To offer participants interested in establishing or          on their own pre-existing knowledge base. In short, the tool will allow
      enhancing a tobacco control program at their institution strategies         for exploration based on specific interests, but in the sense the
      and insight as to how to use an institution-wide, comprehensive,            exploration is self-guided (with the ability to record the “learning
      multidisciplinary approach.                                                 path” for presentation and evaluation to the users as they leave the
            Healthy People 2010 has set a goal for the number of Americans        site). Critically, this “stream of thought” design methodology will
      smoking to be reduced from a current estimate of 25 percent to 12           complement the pedagogical focus of IUSD’s problem-based learning
      percent. An integral part of the reduction strategy includes health         (PBL) initiative in the predoctoral curriculum. Since PBL requires
      care providers’ offering tobacco cessation interventions to every           participants to draw on their existing knowledge base to understand
      tobacco user. Dental professionals have a professional and ethical          and ultimately deal with a given problem, this tool, and how it is
      responsibility to offer these services, but often do not due to a feeling   used outside the traditional classroom, will further the students’ ability
      of being inadequately prepared. Providing a tobacco cessation               to develop “real world” solutions via this conceptual discovery
      program in the clinical arm of a dental or an allied health curriculum      process. The web-based tool is specifically facilitating our
      may better prepare clinicians to intervene in private practice. A           community/SL “Seal Indiana” program (a state-of-the-art mobile
      Midwest university, with an enrollment of 22,000, received                  dental unit that provides community-based sealant care to
      government funding to develop and implement a campus-wide,                  underprivileged children throughout the state of Indiana). Supported
      multidisciplinary tobacco control initiative over a two-year period.        by an SBC Technology Fellowship.
      This initiative included policy components, advocacy, positive media               Given their participation in this program is a required part of
      messages, a public health component, evaluation, and cessation              our fourth-year D.D.S. students’ schedule of rotations, a primary goal
      services. The cessation component included a baccaloriate dental            of the tool is to record both their pre- and post-experience reflections
      hygiene program, with 100 students and fifteen faculty. The dental          concerning this rotation. Problems in service learning and civic
      hygiene staff and tobacco coodinator researched, designed, and              engagement programs require a combination of traditional scientific
      implemented a comprehensive tobacco cessation program that                  knowledge and an understanding of various socioeconomic factors.
      includes: identifying tobacco users, their readiness to quit, brief         By asking students to respond in narrative format (via the web-based
      motivational interviewing, oral cancer exam, free nicotine                  tool) to these varied issues, we are already witnessing a better
      replacements, follow-up, and evaluation. Over 350 university students       understanding of what the term “service learning” means and how it
      used the dental hygiene clinic fall 2002 and spring 2003. Each student      can be applied to our students’ professional careers. In short, the web-
      filled out a tobacco use survey as a part of the intake. A total of 41      based tool is facilitating a more complete “service learning
      percent of the student tobacco users indicated they were interested in      experience” by not only requiring this pre- and post-experience
      quitting. A great many insights have been gained, materials developed,      reflection but also allowing (because the narrative information is
      and resources compiled that could save other faculty interested starting    captured) the later review of these narratives by students just entering
      their program a great deal of time and effort. The exchange of ideas        the rotation, thus giving them more insight into the goals of the
      could benefit all.                                                          program. The narratives also provide rich material for the development
            Through the process of developing and continuing to refine a          of cases in our predoctoral PBL curriculum. As such, the web-based
      multidisciplinary clinical tobacco intervention program, both               tool is also facilitating a more holistic integration of our entire
      presenter and participants could gain from sharing ideas and strategies.    curriculum given that first- and second-year students working through
                                                                                  PBL cases will benefit from the experiences of their fourth-year peers.
      82. Development of a Web-Based Discovery Tool for
      Enhancement of Dental Service Learning and Civic                            83. Toward Better Integration of Biomedical Science
      Engagement Programs                                                         and Clinical Dentistry
      Garetto, Lawrence, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Yoder,           Humphrey, Sue, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Skelton,
      Karen, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Gosney, John, Indiana        Judith, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, West, Karen,
      University School of Dentistry                                              University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, MacPherson, Brian,
                                                                                  University of Kentucky College of Dentistry
             Purpose: Many problems in service learning (SL) and civic
      engagement (CE) programs require a combination of traditional                     Purpose: To improve the integration of biomedical science
      scientific knowledge and an understanding of various socioeconomic          instruction with clinical dentistry.
      factors. We are developing a web-based assessment tool that can 1)                The integration of biomedical and clinical sciences has long
      help facilitate a new level of communication between the patient and        challenged dental educators. Inherent to the problem is the lack of
      health care provider; 2) enhance the level of interaction among faculty,    expertise outside of faculty’s respective biomedical or dental field.
      staff and students within the Indiana University School of Dentistry        As a result, there is constant tension between the instruction students
      (IUSD); and 3) increase communication between dental school                 receive and value in biomedical and clinical sciences. In an attempt
      personnel and alumni, as well as local and state communities.               to address this issue, a survey was administered to dental faculty,




232                                                                                   Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



biomedical faculty, and dental students. Dental students were asked           85. Comfort and Effectiveness of the AMSA Nerve
to evaluate the integration of dental sciences in each of ten biomedical      Block Injection
science courses in their curriculum and to report the use of dental
                                                                              Pollard, Marti, University of South Dakota, Bly, JoNell, University
examples/applications, small group discussions, participation by
                                                                              of South Dakota, Nelson, Robert, University of South Dakota
dental faculty, and the general degree of clinical integration within
each biomedical science course. Dental and biomedical science                        Purpose: This study was designed to determine the comfort and
faculties were asked to evaluate integration and participation in             success of the AMSA nerve block injection utilizing a computer-
courses from their own perspective. All groups were asked to                  controlled anesthetic delivery system.
recommend specific methods to better integrate biomedical science                    Many dental patients have preconceived thoughts concerning
with clinical dentistry. With an average of 78.5 percent of students          pain upon the injection of local anesthetic. Dental clinicians have the
and 54.5 percent of faculty responding, the survey gave us significant        task of achieving successful anesthesia with a minimum of patient
data to aid in curricular improvement. Results to be reported include         discomfort. The Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar (AMSA) nerve
specific areas for improvement, some of which have already been               block achieves pulpal and lingual soft tissue anesthesia for the
initiated: for example, identification of topical areas that need to be       maxillary central incisor through the maxillary second premolar,
linked early in specific biomedical science classes and reinforced in         without collateral anesthesia of the face or lips. This injection is
clinical courses. In addition, 92.8 percent of biomedical and dental          accomplished using a computer-controlled anesthetic delivery system.
faculty responded positively to participating in the development and          A pilot study was conducted to determine ease of administration,
implementation of curricular modifications. This process could be             degree of anesthesia achieved, and perceived comfort level of the
adapted to other schools with similar concerns.                               patient when the AMSA technique is utilized. A small convenience
       The results of the survey give evidence of specific areas of           sample of nine senior dental hygiene students enrolled in university-
evaluation and recommendations in an effort to improve the                    based dental hygiene program was selected to participate in this study.
integration of biomedical science with clinical dentistry. Most               Study participants administered the AMSA injection to a student
encouraging was the volume of student responses, along with the               partner using the Dentsply Comfort Control Syringe™. Operators
positive response by faculty for participation.                               administered 0.9 ml of lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000. The
                                                                              operator and student partner completed separate surveys to evaluate
84. Vertical Integration of Cariology in a Four-Year                          the injection technique. The preliminary conclusions indicate that
Curriculum                                                                    this injection is easy to administer, relatively comfortable to receive,
                                                                              and achieves effective anesthesia. The next step is to expand this
Collins, Claire, University of Colorado School of Dentistry, Passon,          research project by increasing the number of subjects and by
Craig, University of Colorado School of Dentistry                             evaluating the comfort level of the subjects during a scaling procedure.
       Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a           Prior to scaling maxillary premolar and incisor areas, contra-lateral
program integrating the study of dental caries into the four-year             areas will be anesthetized following the AMSA technique and
curriculum.                                                                   traditional palatal, ASA, and MSA techniques respectively. Following
       The process of dental caries, one of the two main diseases we          the scaling procedure, subjects will rate the comfort of each injection
treat, is complex. Its detection has long been the subject of conjecture.     and scaling procedure.
Early detection is essential to conserve tooth structure. Students need              The investigators of this study anticipate this ongoing research
sound core information to detect, manage, and assess outcomes.                will confirm the findings of the pilot study and provide further insight
Previously, information about dental caries had been taught                   into the use of the AMSA nerve block injection.
disjointedly, resulting in students having fragmented knowledge about
the topic. Program: A four-year curriculum is in progress. Cariology          86. The Case-Based Group Interview as a Pre-
I (January of Year 1): Introduction to Caries as a Disease Process            Admission Selection Tool
was first presented in January 2003. It correlates the microbiology of
caries and plaque, immunology, microanatomy, nutrition, fluoride,             Bolivar, Sandra, University of Southern California School of Dentistry
prevention/plaque removal techniques, and progression patterns                       Purpose: To evaluate dental applicants’ abilities to work and
related to dental anatomy with other courses. A clinic exercise with          learn in a PBL environment.
students acting as both clinician and patient to evaluate plaque                     In 2001, the USC School of Dentistry fully adopted PBL as its
accumulation and conduct saliva tests was performed. Cariology II             curriculum pedagogy following a six-year pilot program. With PBL
(January of Year 2): Methods of Detection and Caries Risk Assessment          as the pedagogy, all USC dental students must be able to learn and
will be presented in January 2004. It will correlate with clinical            work cooperatively in small groups where their contributions and
diagnosis and treatment planning. The various detection methods,              behavior affect their own and their peers’ learning. Consequently,
practice of these methods on extracted teeth and standardized patients,       the School of Dentistry modified its pre-admission process to identify
and use of patient interviews to determine risk factors is planned.           a class of 144 entering students who will be best suited to a the school’s
Cariology III (fall semester of year 3) and IV (fall semester of year         unique learning environment and who will find the PBL environment
4) integrate cariology with clinic care. The development of portfolios        suitable to their personal learning preference. This admission process
documenting risks, planning caries management programs, and                   was originally developed for the twelve students admitted to the PBL
providing follow-up evaluation and treatment are part of the planned          pilot program, but required additional planning to implement in the
course activities. The portfolios will provide outcomes assessment.           process to admit a class of 144. The interview day begins with a
A clinic competency in the process and nonsurgical management of              group of up to thirty students who participate in a detailed orientation
noncavitated lesions is already a requirement.                                to PBL and the USC curriculum. This is followed by observation of
       After the first course, students better understand the need for        an actual PBL learning session with currently enrolled students in
surgical intervention and the impact of caries progression on                 the first- or second-year classes followed by the opportunity to interact
preparation design. Student reactions to the clinic exercise in               with these students and learn about their experiences in PBL. To
Cariology I are being submitted in a separate abstract.                       observe the students in a group learning environment, applicants are
                                                                              divided into smaller groups of between six and ten who then engage




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                      233
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      in an hour and a half long problem-based learning exercise based on          methodological dialogue, modeling the PBL process, and providing
      a nonbiomedical case. The applicants participating in the PBL session        practical yet effective faculty development.
      are observed by two members of the selection committee and are                      In 1997, Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD)
      evaluated and ranked in the areas of interpersonal behavior, language,       introduced student-centered problem-based learning (PBL) into its
      reasoning, and feedback skills. This group learning evaluation               curriculum. In small-group sessions, students explore health care
      criterion becomes a central element incorporated into the admissions         scenarios that involve specifically designed yet ill-structured patient
      decision.                                                                    problems. They identify gaps in their knowledge in a hypothesis-
             This method of screening applicants has yielded classes of            driven manner by drawing on prior knowledge and identifying areas
      students who are more team-oriented and collaborative as measured            for research. An essential element of PBL groups is the tutor. In novice
      by student and faculty feedback. Efforts to maximize our ability to          groups, tutors model desirable PBL process skills and, as students
      select students with the most positive behavioral skills continue.           gain experience and progress through stages of group development,
                                                                                   help them build group dynamics, insist they support their statements,
      87. Innovative Teaching of Operative Dentistry Using                         and encourage them to control and direct their own learning. In an
      Bi-Layered Caries Teeth and Simulated Radiographs                            intensive two-day workshop, new tutors gain a foundational
                                                                                   understanding of the PBL process and receive detailed instruction
      Strassler, Howard, University of Maryland Dental School, Kaim,
                                                                                   and mandatory practice giving constructive, in-depth self and student
      James, New York University College of Dentistry, Porter, Judith,
                                                                                   feedback. Yet though expected to give in-group feedback, tutors
      University of Maryland Dental School
                                                                                   received no formal formative peer review nor training following their
             Purpose: This program is designed to teach cavity preparations        initial workshop, and their skills varied widely with no plan for
      in operative dentistry with a case-based approach using a simulated          systematic review or improvement. Thus, the Tutor Triad was created
      patient using bi-layered plastic teeth that have caries pathology and        wherein an experienced tutor called the “Float” observes a less-
      radiographs demonstrating the presence of caries.                            experienced tutor (A) facilitate a PBL session. Immediately
             The challenge when teaching operative dentistry preparations          afterwards, they discuss that session’s process. For the next case
      on plastic teeth is how to teach diagnosis, decision-making, and tooth       session, the Float substitute tutors for A, enabling A to observe another
      preparation design when the tooth has no pathology. The development          tutor (B). Following this session, A and B reflect on that day’s
      of a bi-layered (dentin-enamel) plastic tooth with site-specific caries      facilitation process. At a third session, the Float substitutes for B,
      placement has been developed and is under evaluation. The caries             thus allowing B to observe A and to discuss it afterwards. Finally,
      allows students to be challenged with simulated clinical situations.         and most importantly, the Float and tutors A and B meet to discuss
      To further enhance diagnosis of pathology, the “simulated patient”           and reflect on their observations during all sessions.
      with the caries teeth placed into the typodont comes with                           Initial survey data indicates 60 percent of triad participants
      accompanying radiographs that mimic the radiographic appearance              agreed the system was a good use of their time; 80 percent agreed or
      of caries that coincides with the location of the caries in the bi-layered   strongly agreed that it was useful to observe another PBL tutor. Despite
      teeth. Using this methodology the student in the preclinical laboratory      these positive results, only 40 percent agreed and 40 percent were
      may be exposed to case studies that are problem-based. This case-            undecided that the system helped them develop more effective tutoring
      based approach is innovative in that a first-year dental student is given    skills. Our current focus is on what else should be done to translate
      a patient history with a typodont that has simulated caries and              this positively viewed process into one that generates improved
      accompanying radiographs. The caries teeth can be customized to              tutoring skills.
      mimic incipient caries, more extensive caries that may need base
      and/or liners, or more extensive caries for a cusp replacement
      restoration. Traditionally, cavity preparations in the simulation            BLOCK IV, Tuesday, March 9
      laboratory have been limited to “ideal or classical” designs. With
      these innovative bi-layered caries teeth, the student can now be
                                                                                   10:00 am to 11:30 am
      challenged to make decisions for diagnosis and preparation design.
      Initial experiences with this approach have been well received by            89. Clinical Application of Emerging Technologies in
      both students and faculty. Students are able to chart their simulated        Predoctoral Periodontics Programs at U.S. Dental
      patient using the visual appearance of the caries teeth and radiographs      Schools
      and then design and prepare teeth based upon the extent of the caries.
      This program will present examples of case-based simulated patients          Pryor, Mary, Temple University School of Dentistry
      using bi-layered caries teeth and radiographs and how it may be                    Purpose: The extent and reasons for clinical use or nonuse of a
      incorporated into a restorative program.                                     variety of traditional and emerging periodontal diagnostic and
             Using a case-based problem-based methodology along with bi-           therapeutic modalities in predoctoral educational programs at dental
      layered caries teeth and simulated radiographs, students learn               schools in the United States were evaluted by a survey questionnaire.
      diagnosis, charting, treatment planning, and appropriate surgical                  A standardized written survey questionnaire was mailed to
      treatment.                                                                   predoctoral periodontology program directors at all U.S. dental
                                                                                   schools (n=53), which assessed the depth and scope of clinical training
      88. Problem-Based Learning Tutor Triad Formative                             in nonsurgical periodontal therapy at a predoctoral level relative to
      Feedback Process                                                             anti-infective treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years.
                                                                                   Survey items inquired about predoctoral clinic use of Periodontal
      Fitzgerald, Brenda, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Garetto,         Screening and Recording (PSR) scores, IL-1 beta genetic
      Lawrence, Indiana University School of Dentistry                             polymorphism testing, microbiological analysis (culture, nucleic acid
           Purpose: This study discusses the “Tutor Triad” process whereby         probes, phase-contrast microscopy, serum antibody assessment),
      PBL tutors observe each other, generate formative self and peer              gingival crevicular fluid evaluation, povidone-iodine pocket irrigation,
      feedback, and discuss tutoring techniques. Goals include providing           local subgingival application of sustained-release tetracycline
      essential feedback and support to tutors, actively engaging them in          (Actisite), doxycycline (Atridox), minocycline (Arrestin), and




234                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



chlorhexidine (PerioChip), low-dose systemic doxycycline (Periostat)          generate revenue while providing a valuable service to the patient
therapy, and systemic amoxicillin-metronidazole antibiotic                    population.
administration. The survey also assessed predoctoral clinical use of
more traditional periodontal diagnostic procedures, such as                   91. Dental Students’ Reactions to First Dental Clinic
evaluations of probing depth/clinical attachment level, bleeding on           Experience
probing, tooth mobility, furcation involvement, and mucogingival
                                                                              LeClaire, JoAnn, University of Colorado School of Dentistry, Collins,
defects, as well as treatment with nonsurgical periodontal scaling
                                                                              Claire, University of Colorado School of Dentistry
and root planing. Respondents provided information as to how often
the procedures were carried out in their predoctoral clinics and the                 Purpose: To examine dental student reactions to their first
student skill level sought. Reasons for not utilizing any of the emerging     clinical experience as a function of their own/family dental
periodontal diagnostic/therapeutic procedures were also obtained.             background and their opinions of value and curricular timeliness of
Ninety-two percent of U.S. predoctoral periodontology programs                their initial clinical experience.
responded to the survey. Survey findings revealed that traditional                   Dental student (DS) backgrounds vary, many having no prior
diagnostic/treatment procedures are clinically used in nearly all             dental work experience (DWE) or family members in the profession
predoctoral periodontology programs. Interestingly, measurements              (FMP). This first clinical experience occurred as part of Cariology I,
of clinical periodontal attachment level are not employed routinely/          second semester, during the basic science/preclinical (BSP)
frequently in approximately one-third of all U.S. predoctoral                 curriculum. Methods: Forty first-year DS were enrolled in Cariology
periodontology clinics. The PSR screening system is clinically taught         I. The clinic component included simulation clinic training and a
in only half of these programs despite past national campaigns to             clinical exercise (CX) in plaque removal, with each DS acting as
promote its clinical use. Other emerging diagnostic techniques are            clinician and patient, after which they provided reflective responses.
almost entirely not used in U.S. predoctoral periodontology clinics,          Later, thirty-one DS (78 percent) completed a thirty-three question
with concerns expressed by nonusers most often about the lack of              survey based on these reflections. Demographic data, DWE, FMP,
clinic time (25 percent), high costs (30 percent), and a perceived lack       and 5-point opinion scales were obtained. Descriptive summary
of scientific validity (30 percent) for these procedures.                     statistics and ridit analysis for ordinal scales (at p<0.05) are presented.
      Despite considerable research activity, virtually no clinical           Results: Respondents were similar in distribution to the school
application of recently developed periodontal diagnostic techniques           population. More than 87 percent agreed (A) or strongly agreed (SA)
is occurring in U.S. predoctoral periodontal educational programs.            that CX was educational, rewarding, and encouraging and curricular
In comparison, 50 percent of these programs employ a variety of               placement was relevant and appropriate. At least 63 percent SA said
emerging local and systemic antimicrobial agents. These survey                that CX was practical and improved empathy for patients. DS with
findings underscore potential barriers in attaining transfer of new           no DWE were more likely to SA that the exercise was educational
technologies from a research environment to clinical practice settings.       (p=0.02) or fun/interesting (p=0.05). DS with FMP were more likely
                                                                              to consider the exercise difficult (p=0.03). One hundred percent A/
90. The University of Maryland’s Dental Hygiene                               SA that CX was valuable at this stage, and 94 percent A/SA that CX
Fellowship Program                                                            helped make BSP curriculum more relevant. One hundred percent
                                                                              would like to have more CX, and 93 percent would consider CX in
Bress, Lisa, University of Maryland Dental School Department of               the first semester helpful. Ninety-seven percent felt that CX helped
Dental Hygiene                                                                put themselves in the role of dental professional. Discussion: Most
       Purpose: The Department of Dental Hygiene in the University            DS enjoyed the CX and found it valuable to identify with the
of Maryland Dental School offers a Dental Hygiene (DHYG)                      profession. DS with more experience in dentistry have a basis for
Fellowship Program (FP) to newly graduated students prior to                  comparison about the difficulty of tasks. Those with no PWE/FMP
licensure. The DHYG-FP provides these new DHYG graduates with                 may be more enthused by the newness of the experiences.
the opportunity to enhance their clinic and patient management skills                Although some differences were shown, the data suggest that
while they wait to receive their licenses.                                    1) DWE/FMP makes little difference in positive opinions of first
       Interested DHYG graduates submit applications, and a group             clinical experience; 2) having early CX enhances the value and
is subsequently selected to provide initial therapy services in the           relevance of the BSP curriculum; 3) early CX assists DS to identify
Advanced Education General Dentistry (AEGD) clinic and                        their roles as dental professionals; and 4) consideration might be given
maintenance services in AEGD and the general practice clinics. Over           to increase clinic exercises in the first year.
their four-week commitment, fellows also attend seminars on current
dental topics. The dental school’s patient pool is growing annually.          92. Survey of Undergraduate Dental Students
In the summer, fewer dental and DHYG students are available to                Regarding Their Perceptions of the Value of Third
provide services to recare patients. Based on this year’s reports, the
                                                                              Molars
fellows not only helped maintain the growing recall pool but also
generated operative work for dental students. The fellowship program          Eisen, Steven, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Eisen,
helps DHYG graduates establish their own practice philosophies,               Debbie, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Silvestri,
select future employment settings wisely, and ease their transition           Anthony, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
from school to practice. Initial evaluations have been favorable. The               Purpose: To assess how dental students perceive the value of
fellows report that their confidence, independence, and clinical skills       third molars in terms of their long-term value for the dentition as
improved during their four weeks in the program. The combined report          opposed to their lifelong potential for causing disease and damage to
from the business managers in the undergraduate and AEGD clinics              the rest of the dentition. We were interested in assessing their
is that the fellows treated a total of 164 patients and generated             perceptions in order to better aid us in teaching them how to do rational
substantial revenues.                                                         treatment planning, which requires their weighing these two aspects
       A Dental Hygiene Fellowship Program may be established in              of third molars in situations where there is a lack of reliable
any dental hygiene program with a viable patient pool. Such a program         prognosticative information.
has the potential to increase graduates’ clinical proficiency and




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                       235
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



             To help better prepare students for dealing with these complex        of 600 pts) and total flexibility above 600 pts, while defining a smaller,
      issues, we conducted a survey of first- and second-year undergraduate        more focused set of mandated experiences. A full range of required
      dental students at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine                competency/skill exams was also implemented. Points are earned
      concerning their perceptions of third molars including the value third       for clinical experiences, e.g., 3-surf amalgam=4 pts, single crown=12
      molars add to the dentition, the wisdom of therapeutic interventions         pts, complete denture arch=12 pts, caries-risk assessment=5pts.
      such as prophylactic surgical extractions of third molars, and               Minimum experiences are defined, e.g., Cl II amalgam 50pts, CD or
      alternative treatments including the extraction of second molars at          RPD arches 132 pts, Crn or FxBr 180 pts including 1 FxBr. Outcomes
      an early age to allow third molars to erupt in their place as well as        of the Class of 2002 were analyzed. Results: Average activity 690
      interventions that would prevent the development of third molars             pts, range 600-1180. Sixty-one percent of flexible pts were earned in
      altogether. The vast majority of both first-year student respondents         operative dentistry, 29 percent in fixed prosthodontics, and 10 percent
      (90.1 percent) and second-year respondents (87.8 percent) believe            in removable prosthodontics. For the top 10 percent of the class, an
      that third molars are the most difficult teeth to keep clean and free of     average of 905 pts was earned. Forty-four percent of flexible pts
      disease. They also feel these teeth have the least functional value,         were earned in operative dentistry, 46 percent in fixed prosthodontics,
      with 90.1 percent of first-years and 87.8 percent of second-years            and 10 percent in removable prosthodontics. For the bottom 10 percent
      expressing assent. They believe third molars to be the most difficult        of the class, an average of 601 pts was earned. Sixty-five percent of
      molars to restore, with 75.6 percent of the first-years and 80.2 percent     flexible pts were in operative dentistry, 26 percent in fixed
      of the second-years agreeing. As to the statement that third molars          prosthodontics, and 9 percent in removable prosthodontics. Additional
      are the least effective molar bridge abutments, there was less               analyses show similar variations. All students passed all competency/
      agreement here, with just 50.8 percent of the first-year students and        skill exams prior to graduation.
      45.8 percent of the second-year students agreeing. We also found                    The new system resulted in flexible clinical experiences while
      that 17.8 percent of the first-years and 14.8 percent of the second-         continuing to support comprehensive care, attainment of
      years held that extracting second molars at a young age to let third         competencies, and strong clinical experience for the Class of 2002.
      molars erupt in their place is not a desirable orthodontic therapeutic       The system is applicable to schools with the ability to combine
      approach. The students were split on their opinion as to whether or          multiple disciplines.
      not people who never develop third molars experience less pain and
      suffering as a result, with 57.9 percent of the first-years and 51.9         94. Preparing Residents to Work with HIV/AIDS
      percent of the second-years believing a patient would experience less        Patients: Knowledge and Attitudes About HIV/AIDS
      pain and one-third believing they would experience more.
                                                                                   Calero-Breckheimer, Ayxa, Columbia University School of Dental
             There appears to be general agreement among the first- and
                                                                                   and Oral Surgery, Murrman, Marita, Columbia University School of
      second-year students of Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
                                                                                   Dental and Oral Surgery, Ahluwalia, Kavita, Columbia University
      that third molars are teeth that have little functional value, are more
                                                                                   School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Weglein, Sandra, Harlem United
      difficult to keep clean, and are more prone to disease than any other
                                                                                   CAC, Burkett, Sandra, Columbia University School of Dental and
      teeth. Compared to other molars, these teeth appear to pose difficulties
                                                                                   Oral Surgery, Darlington, Tanya, Columbia University School of
      for dentists trying to restore them. Whereas most students would prefer
                                                                                   Dental and Oral Surgery, Diaz, Yessica, Columbia University School
      that their children never develop these teeth, they do not appear to
                                                                                   of Dental and Oral Surgery, Edelstein, Burton, Columbia University
      favor a therapeutic interventional approach at an early age to stop
                                                                                   School of Dental and Oral Surgery
      their development.
             Third molars continue to present dentists with a problem. The                Purpose: To help implement and inform a course on HIV/AIDS
      value of these teeth in the dentition is perceived to be extremely low,      for postdoctoral dental residents, residents’ attitudes, knowledge, and
      the difficulty in keeping them clean and free of disease high, and the       perceived competence in treating HIV/AIDS patients were assessed.
      ability of the dentist to restore them limited. Their remains no effective   A questionnaire was administered prior to the start of a nine-week
      management strategy to deal with their presence in the dentition. All        course entitled “Integrated Management of HIV/AIDS Patients.” Data
      this presents dental educators with a problem, in that it is our             from this questionnaire were used to modify the course and to develop
      responsibility, given these facts, to teach our students how to make         a post-implementation evaluation tool.
      rational treatment decisions that will best benefit their patients.                 Methods: All registrants (twenty-four) completed the pre-test
                                                                                   consisting of forty items divided into five sections: 1) experience
      93. New Program of Flexible Requirements for Clinical                        and perceived competence in treating HIV/AIDS patients; 2) general
      Restorative Dentistry                                                        attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients; 3) perceived risks and fears;
                                                                                   4) general HIV/AIDS knowledge; and 5) residents’ socio-
      Boston, Daniel, Temple University School of Dentistry, Alperstein,           demographics. Items assessing dentists’ willingness to treat people
      Klara, Temple University School of Dentistry, Appleby, David, Temple         with HIV/AIDS used in an earlier study by division faculty were
      University School of Dentistry, Arocho, Sheldon, Temple University           also included. Summary: Results indicated 46 percent of residents
      School of Dentistry, Winkler, Sheldon, Temple University School of           had mixed feelings about being adequately prepared to treat and
      Dentistry, Gray, Sarah, Temple University School of Dentistry                manage HIV/AIDS patients, even though 83 percent had received
            Purpose: To increase flexibility in meeting minimum clinical           didactic training about HIV/AIDS in dental school and 92 percent
      experience requirements in the disciplines of treatment planning,            reported treating HIV/AIDS patients in the past. Seventy-nine percent
      operative dentistry, fixed prosthodontics, and removable                     of residents reported a commitment to treating all patients the same
      prosthodontics while supporting comprehensive care, attainment of            regardless of medical condition, with 55 percent believing that
      competencies, and strong clinical experience.                                managing AIDS patients is within the scope of general dentistry and
            A new combined minimum requirements system was                         is a rewarding experience. Results for correctly answering HIV/AIDS
      implemented in Restorative Dentistry to replace previous discipline-         knowledge items ranged from 55 percent to 88 percent indicating
      based systems that specified all experiences by discipline. The new          room for improvement.
      structure maintains previous overall minimum clinical activity, but                 Even with a strong commitment to treat HIV/AIDS patients at
      provides flexibility for 27 percent of the minimum requirement (163          baseline, residents may not have had the requisite knowledge and




236                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                              Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



clinical skills needed to act upon these attitudes in practice. Identifying     students were selected to act as peer teachers. Students were
this attitude-knowledge gap and specifying the areas for improvement            introduced to their peer teachers during a clinic seminar. The roles
were crucial for tailoring the development and implementation of                and responsibilities of the peer teachers were explained, and the
the course, as well as the post-implementation evaluation of this new           students were informed that peer teachers would not be involved in
course for postdoctoral dental residents.                                       the direct grading but were there to answer questions and provide
                                                                                support. After twenty-five clinic sessions, students were asked to
95. Centralizing Faculty Credentialing Documentation                            evaluate the peer teaching experience using an 11-item Likert-style
Suffet, Eileen, University of Southern California School of Dentistry,          survey. Response options ranged from strongly agree to strongly
Eisenberg, Larry, University of Southern California School of                   disagree. Two additional open-ended questions were included to allow
Dentistry, Shuler, Charles, University of Southern California School            students to make comments regarding positive and negative aspects
of Dentistry                                                                    of their experience and to suggest ways in which it could be improved.
                                                                                Twenty-eight of the thirty-one students completed the survey (90
       Purpose: To computerize and improve faculty credentialing                percent). Favorable responses ranged from 96 to 100 percent for ten
documentation procedures, thus ensuring that faculty are in                     of the eleven items. The statement “The peer teacher divided his/her
compliance with necessary standards.                                            time equitably among the students” was responded to negatively by
       Continual documentation of faculty credentials is an essential           three students (14 percent). Students’ responses to open-ended
activity. In the past, individual school departments were responsible           questions indicated that they felt more comfortable asking questions
for collecting faculty credentials and monitoring the process. This             of the peer teachers and that peer teachers were more available than
resulted in numerous collection and recording approaches. Following             the regular instructional faculty. The most frequent response to how
a school-wide reorganization, this responsibility became centralized            the program could be improved was to have more peer teachers
in the Outcomes Assessment Office. It was clear that tracking and               available in all clinic sessions.
monitoring CPR and licensure credentials for more than 450 faculty                    The results of this study indicate that the use of student peer
(including some 300 part-time and volunteers) was an unwieldy and               teachers in a clinical situation was well received and overwhelmingly
complicated task not easily achieved in the previously decentralized            supported by first-year dental hygiene students. Students felt they
approach. A Microsoft Access database for faculty credentials was               benefited from peer teacher instruction. Students indicated the
developed that connects to the school’s personnel records and the               addition of more peer teachers at all clinic sessions would enhance
rosters of our five divisions. This database enables us to record, track,       their clinical experience.
maintain, and “prompt” faculty members of their need to update their
credentials. Monthly “pop-ups” alert the outcomes office of those               97. The Use of a Dental Anatomy CD-ROM in a Dental
faculty members whose credentials are expiring in the next thirty
days, and an automated email goes out advising the faculty member               Hygiene Dental Morphology Course: A Pilot Test
that recertification needs to be documented. Each month a status report         Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando, University of Missouri-Kansas City
is generated for division administrators who are responsible for                School of Dentistry, Keselyak, Nancy, University of Missouri-Kansas
contacting specific individuals for the needed information. In May              City School of Dentistry, Branson, Bonnie, University of Missouri-
2002, before the creation of the database system, accumulation of               Kansas City School of Dentistry
the information maintained by individual departments indicated that                    Purpose: To determine if a dental anatomy CD-ROM was
33.9 percent of the faculty involved with patient care had evidence             beneficial in students’ learning in a dental morphology course.
of their credentials on file. In less than one year, this figure increased             The study of dental anatomy in the first semester of a dental
to 82.7 percent. While 100 percent compliance is a goal, it is nearly           hygiene program serves as an important piece of foundational
impossible since about 10 percent of all credentials are scheduled to           knowledge of the relationship of the teeth and the application of dental
expire each month. Thus our outcomes assessment target has been                 morphology to the practice of dentistry. In the fall of 2002, the course
adjusted to 90 percent, and in one year we have nearly achieved this            coordinator of a dental hygiene dental morphology course wanted to
objective.                                                                      examine the possibility of incorporating a dental anatomy CD-ROM
       In the past year, the institution of a faculty credentials database      into the DH3000 course at the University of Missouri–Kansas City.
has resulted in a dramatic increase in our percentage of faculty with           Mean entering grade point averages determined which group of
“evidence of required credentials.” Other significant outcomes have             students were chosen to participate in the pilot study. Students were
also emerged through the use of this database including better tracking         aware of their participation in the study and had the option of not
of faculty assignments and increased ease in scheduling faculty for             participating. No specific instructions on how to operate the CD were
clinical teaching responsibilities.                                             given to students. However, students were asked to keep a journal
                                                                                throughout the semester-long course. The CD was used as an adjunct
96. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Peer                                to lecture and lab notes as well as to the required course book. At the
Teacher Assistance During Initial Patient Care                                  conclusion of the course, students were asked to complete a
Experiences                                                                     questionnaire relating to their experience with the CD. Survey results
                                                                                indicated overall satisfaction with the CD. Students strongly agreed
Klausner, Christine, University of Michigan School of Dentistry                 that the CD was easy to open and operate. They also felt that the CD
       Purpose: To assess first-year dental hygiene students’                   helped them to better understand and visualize the teeth. They either
perceptions regarding the use of peer teachers to assist with initial           agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the CD to
patient care experiences.                                                       others enrolled in the same course. Journal entries indicated the CD
       Providing dental hygiene care in a clinic setting involves the           “to be a wonderful addition to the information provided in class.”
performance of a set of complex tasks while managing and caring                        Based on these results, the CD-ROM will be incorporated into
for a patient. For beginning dental hygiene students, it can be an              the dental hygiene dental morphology course in the fall of 2003, and
overwhelming and anxiety-producing experience. To encourage and                 all students enrolled will use it.
assist first-year students with initial patient care, senior dental hygiene




February 2004          ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     237
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      98. Institutional Resources Needed to Conduct a Mock                     truly accomplished. The same ten formative examinations of ten
      Board Exam                                                               questions each were administered prior to each appropriate lecture
                                                                               as the preceding year reported. Summative exam results reflected
      Sabaitis, Eva, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry,
                                                                               similarly high achievement between the two-year groups. A
      Gehrke, Ken, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry
                                                                               comparison of the survey results of the two classes (forty-eight vs.
            Purpose: To quantify and evaluate the amount of financial          fifty students) reveals an overall positive perception of their
      support, personnel, facilities, time, and materials that are committed   experience with mastery learning with some noteworthy differences.
      by a school when providing a simulated regional board examination        Overall, students’ perceptions of their experience with mastery
      for graduating dental students.                                          learning continued to be overwhelmingly positive. However, as the
            To assist their graduates with preparation for a licensure         formative and summative exams were identical for the two-year
      examination, most dental schools conduct a simulated board               groups, an increasing number of students felt the approach was “too
      examination. The resources needed to administer such an examination,     easy” and lent itself to cheating and plagarism (10.42 percent vs. 28
      comparable to the actual exam in format and design, are substantial.     percent). There was also a slight increase in the perception that this
      This past year, an effort was made to assess all of the resources        learning technique did not allow the gifted student to excel (8.33
      committed by our school when conducting a mock board examination.        percent vs. 18 percent). As in the previous year, however, nearly all
      The exam was given over a three-day period, with a day committed         students reported they enjoyed the mastery learning experience and
      to patient procedures, a day to manikin procedures, and a day to a       would readily enroll in another course using that approach.
      prosthodontic station-to-station exam. General clinics were closed             Even though summative evaluation results reflected favorable
      for two days to accommodate operation of the exam. Three clinic          learning achievement, the survey trends reflected growing concerns
      rooms and one laboratory were utilized. Fifty-five seniors, sixty-       that some students were simply copying formative exam answers.
      five juniors, thirty faculty, nineteen support staff, and four           As this two-year survey comparison demonstrates, if a mastery
      maintenance engineers participated. Items assessed included              learning approach utilizes identical formative exams, there was an
      manpower hours and related costs for: 1) development of the              increasing perception that students merely copied those results from
      prosthodontic station exam; 2) organization and set-up for the exam;     other students rather than ascertaining the appropriate answer from
      3) sterilization of instruments; and 4) administration of the mock       the assigned readings.
      exam. Additional items evaluated were: 1) loss of clinic revenues
      due to clinic closure, free patient screenings, and procedures done at   100. Assessment of Enrichment and Recruitment
      N/C during the exam; 2) cost of materials and supplies; and 3) faculty   Programs on Dental School Enrollment of
      time for calibration, grading and preparation of exam results, and
      remediation. Approximate manpower hours needed and costs                 Underrepresented Minority Students
      associated with the simulated board exam were as follows: 1)             Gravely, Tamara, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      development of station exam, 72 hrs/$3,300; 2) set-up of supplies,       College of Dentistry, McCann, Ann, Baylor College of Dentistry,
      instruments, and facilities for exam, 461 hrs/$9,200; and 3)             Brooks, Ernestine, Baylor College of Dentistry, Harman, William,
      administration of exam, 909 hrs/$25,900. In addition, $4,800 of          Baylor College of Dentistry
      materials and supplies were used, and $32,000 of lost revenues were            Purpose: A survey of U.S. dental school enrichment and
      incurred. In summary, over 1,400 manpower hours and $75,000 of           recruitment programs (n=23) was conducted in 2002 to identify
      costs were attributable to the mock examination. An itemized cost/       program characteristics and outcomes that were related to participants
      time analysis will be presented.                                         getting into dental school. Recruitment programs encourage students
            Providing a simulated board examination to prepare students        to consider dentistry as a career choice, while enrichment programs
      for challenging regional dental board licensing examinations is a        strengthen academic skills so students can successfully compete for
      costly and labor-intensive endeavor. However, the “trial run”            acceptance into dental school.
      experience with the board exam format that this provides students              The survey assessed program background, participant
      and the potential for an increase in the pass rate provide strong        demographics, program components, and program outcomes to
      rationales for continuing this program.                                  determine factors relating to successful admission into dental school.
                                                                               Success factors were further explored in telephone interviews with
      99. Mastery Learning in an Esthetic Dentistry                            selected program directors. The survey response rate was 73.9 percent
      Curriculum: A Two-Year Comparison                                        (n=17). The majority of programs had been in place for ten or more
      Osborne, Paul, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry               years (n=10). The majority of program participants were
                                                                               underrepresented minorities (URM) students (program median=100
             Purpose: A mastery learning approach was incorporated in a        percent). The leading program goals were to increase minority
      2002, first-year operative dentistry esthetics course. After a second,   enrollment (47 percent) and URM competitiveness (35 percent). The
      consecutive year utilizing this approach, the purpose of this endeavor   median program length was seven weeks and forty hours per week.
      is to compare the survey results between two first-year undergraduate    Programs offered the following components: basic sciences (thirty-
      dental classes’ perceptions of mastery learning.                         two median hours), DAT review/preparation (thirty median hours),
             Mastery learning as a teaching discipline has been firmly         introduction to dentistry (sixteen median hours), preclinical laboratory
      established in educational literature as an effective educational        activities (sixteen median hours), and learning strategies (nine median
      epistemology. An initial trial with this teaching approach was           hours). The overall median percentage for dental school enrollment
      undertaken with the University of Kentucky first-year esthetic           of program participants in the study was 52.3 percent. Regression
      dentistry course in the spring semester 2002 (previously reported in     analysis revealed that the length of program time in existence was a
      2003 ADEA Abstract #62). The identical survey was repeated to gain       significant predictor of participant enrollment into dental school (R
      student perceptions of the mastery approach with the 2003 class of       squared=.320; p=.035). Interviews of program directors with
      first-year students (n=50). Also, the final, summative examination of    participant enrollment in dental school greater than 60 percent (n=4/
      100 questions was altered in sequence and format to attempt to           6) provided further insight into their strategies. Five of the six
      ascertain if the learning achieved was “rote” or understanding was       successful programs were very well established (two in existence for




238                                                                                Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



ten to fourteen years; three for fifteen or more years). They reported       try to forecast the number of pediatric dentists who will be available
that mentorship, institutional support, program structure, and               to treat the state’s children by 2012.
admission policies were key factors contributing to success.                        Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood.
      It is concluded that enrichment and recruitment programs are           In the last twenty-five years, the number of filled and decayed teeth
successful in getting their participants into dental school. Dental          in children aged two to four has remained unchanged. The
schools should consider these programs as a viable option for                ramifications of untreated dental caries in children can be severe and
increasing URM enrollment.                                                   can include systemic sequelae. Nationwide, the dentist-to-population
                                                                             ratio is declining. In Indiana, the total number of dentists has declined
101. Active Mentoring Strategies for Future Dental                           from 2,951 in 1998 to 2,650 in 2002. General dentists provide the
Educators                                                                    majority of dental care for children. However, a percentage of the
                                                                             child population needs specialized pediatric dental care, and there is
Lefever, Karen, University of California, Los Angeles School of
                                                                             a need for a sufficient number of pediatric dentistry specialists to
Dentistry, Bibb, Carol, University of California, Los Angeles School
                                                                             provide this care. In 1998, the national age information for pediatric
of Dentistry
                                                                             dentists showed 26.9 percent over age fifty-five and an additional
       Purpose: To describe an experiential program to mentor future         24.2 percent aged fifty to fifty-four. Figures for the 2000-01 academic
dental educators.                                                            year show 216 first-year pediatric dentistry residency positions
       The UCLA School of Dentistry mentors future dental educators          available. These statistics appear to point to a dangerous “graying”
through apprenticeships that reflect the professional activities of          of pediatric dentists nationwide, without adequate graduates to take
academic dentists. Under the supervision of faculty mentors, fourth-         their places when they retire. Does the same hold true for the state of
year students have the option to teach fine motor skill development          Indiana? The ages and practice locations were determined for all
in the introductory waxing lab course, teach in the Restorative Clinic,      private practice pediatric dentists in Indiana as of July 1, 2002. There
design and deliver a didactic course in dental anatomy for first-year        were ninety-one pediatric dentists in the state. Thirty-five percent
students, and/or conduct educational research. In the waxing lab,            practice in the northern third of the state, 47 percent in the central
student teachers adopt a group of twelve students and provide the            third, and 18 percent in the southern third. In the entire state, 37
mini lectures, demonstrations, and feedback critical to fine motor           percent of pediatric dentists are over age fifty-five, but only 10 percent
skill development. In the new clinical teaching option, fourth-year          are under age thirty-five. Sixty-seven percent of pediatric dentists in
students who have met competency requirements in restorative                 Indiana are over the age of forty-five. In the past ten years, 24 percent
dentistry will provide clinical instruction to second and third years        of pediatric dentists graduating from the state’s pediatric dentistry
under the supervision of a clinical faculty mentor. Twenty-seven             residency have remained in the state.
students have completed the didactic teaching apprenticeship, now                   Using the data reviewed, we project that there will be a
in its fourth year. Eight are currently enrolled in the 2003-04 cycle.       considerable shortfall of pediatric dentists, with the possibility of at
Women constitute 60 percent of the participants; men, 40 percent.            least thirty-four pediatric dentists retiring and only thirteen new
Longitudinal follow-up of the twenty-seven graduates was conducted           pediatric dentists beginning practice.
in summer 2003 to assess their continuing commitment to teaching.
Seventy percent were or are enrolled in residency programs; thus,            103. Less Restrictive Operative Dentistry “Test Case”
the most consistent finding was an emphasis on the benefits of               Criteria Have No Adverse Effect on State Dental Board
PowerPoint and public speaking experience in delivering the seminar
presentations and predoctoral teaching assignments required of               Performance
residents. Financial concerns were the primary reason that graduates         Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry,
who went directly into general practice have not pursued teaching            Hagge, Mark, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Loos,
opportunities. Additionally, one graduate declined a part-time position      Larry, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Simon, James F.,
teaching radiology in a dental hygiene program due to child care             University of Tennessee School of Dentistry
issues. Student experience in educational research is fostered by the               Purpose: To see if less stringent requirements for operative
ADEA-sponsored UCLA Student Teaching Group (STG). Each year,                 clinical test case criteria would detrimentally affect overall pass rates
the STG identifies a research question, develops a research plan             or pass rates/mean scores for two operative dentistry procedures
including submission to appropriate campus oversight groups,                 performed during a state dental board examination.
conducts the study, analyses the findings, and submits an abstract for              We reported last year (J Dent Educ 2003;67:191-2 [Abstr No.
the annual ADEA meeting. Past participants in the didactic                   45]) that state dental board performance in 2001 was not adversely
apprenticeship have presented their research on course outcomes in           affected by a 37.5 percent reduction (from eight to five cases) in
a poster at the 2002 ADEA meeting. The current STG leaders have              required senior student operative test cases (OTC) because of
submitted an abstract for the 2004 ADEA meeting describing the               concomitant quality improvements made to the OTC program. In
results of a survey on teaching skills. The overall impact of the            fact, the pass rate for the amalgam procedure improved significantly
teaching apprenticeships and formation of an active STG has been to          in 2001 as compared to 2000. Even so, not all 2001 graduates
promote student interest in teaching and educational research and            completed the five-case requirement (56 percent completed five; 86
faculty commitment to mentoring future dental educators.                     percent completed four or five), which resulted in lower final course
       The program has promoted student interest in dental education         grades. Students insisted that a lack of eligible lesions (previously
and faculty commitment to mentoring.                                         unrestored interproximal caries) was responsible. Therefore, for the
                                                                             2002 senior class, two replacement restorations were permitted, but
102. Age Distribution of Pediatric Dentists in Indiana:                      required moderate recurrent caries, base placement, and could only
The Challenge for Education                                                  be performed during the first two academic quarters. Overall board
De Ball, Suzanne, Indiana University School of Dentistry,                    pass rates and pass rates/scores for the amalgam and composite
Baumgartner, Michael, Indiana University School of Dentistry                 procedures from 2000, 2001, and 2002 were tabulated and compared
                                                                             (Chi-square test for pass rates; Kruskal-Wallace ANOVA for mean
      Purpose: First, to determine the demographic age distribution          scores). Results: The students’ OTC completion rate improved in 2002
of practicing pediatric dentists in the state of Indiana, and second, to     (71 percent completed five; 97 percent completed four or five). The



February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     239
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      2002 graduates also demonstrated very slight improvements in overall         was much lower in URM than in NHW students. This may be a
      board pass rates (2002: 94.35 percent; 2001: 93.89 percent) and              reflection of the proportionally fewer number of suitable mentors
      composite pass rate/mean score when compared to 2001 graduates               from underrepresented and minority backgrounds. However, family
      (2002: 89.52 percent/80.40; 2001: 86.26 percent/80.37), but exhibited        friends appear to be a fairly high influencing factor among URM
      a slight decrease in amalgam pass rate/mean score (2002: 79.84               students who make a late decision to pursue dentistry as a career.
      percent/77.85; 2001: 84.73 percent/78.21). However, none of these            Educational debt affects students’ career choice, but many more URM
      differences were significant (p > .05), nor were any significant             students expressed a “debt-unrelated” willingness to practice among
      differences detected between overall board pass rates or operative           inner-city and underserved populations. White students may need to
      procedure pass rates/mean scores from 2002 and those reported in             be exposed to practice settings where the majority of the patients are
      2001 or 2000 (2000: overall 90.90 percent; composite 85.61 percent/          from underserved backgrounds through community-based or outreach
      80.30; amalgam 76.52 percent/78.40).                                         programs during their dental school education.
            Permitting replacement restorations for 40 percent (2/5) of
      senior operative test cases did not adversely affect overall state board     105. Tobacco Use Among Patients Receiving
      pass rates or pass rates and scores for composite and amalgam                Emergency and Comprehensive Care in an Urban
      procedures.
                                                                                   Dental School Clinic
      104. Factors Affecting Underrepresented Minority                             Shaner, John, Creighton University School of Dentistry, Romito,
                                                                                   Laura, Creighton University School of Dentistry, Calixte, Karine,
      Students’ Dental Career Decisions                                            University of South Florida
      Morgan, Yewande, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial
                                                                                         Purpose: To characterize tobacco use in patients receiving
      Research, National Institutes of Health
                                                                                   episodic dental care via the Emergency Clinic compared to those
            Purpose: To better understand the factors that affect                  receiving comprehensive care through the adult clinic at the Creighton
      underrepresented minority (URM) students’ decisions to study                 University School of Dentistry.
      dentistry and the factors affecting their postgraduation career choice.            Tobacco use is associated with increased morbidities of general
      Using data collected by the American Dental Education Association            and oral health, including periodontitis and oral cancer. Oral cancer
      (ADEA), the study explored whether there are any differences in the          screening and tobacco cessation interventions in high-risk populations
      factors deemed important by URM and non-Hispanic white students.             may decrease the potential for such morbidities. It was hypothesized
      The study emphasized students’ motivations for pursuing dentistry,           that patients receiving episodic care are more likely to have unhealthy
      factors influencing career choice, the roles of finances (parents’           lifestyle behaviors, such as tobacco use, compared to patients
      income, educational debt upon entry, and dental education expenses)          receiving regular, comprehensive care. As such, the Emergency Clinic
      and prior exposure to the dental profession. In addition, associations       would be a focal point for oral cancer screenings and tobacco cessation
      between time of career decision and the influence of external factors        interventions. Methods: A representative sample of 600 dental records
      on career decisions were examined.                                           of patients presenting for care at Creighton University School of
            Underrepresented minorities (URM) from American Indian/                Dentistry (300 each from emergency and adult clinic) between January
      Alaska Native, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black backgrounds                  and June 2003 were reviewed for the following information: patient
      generally have the poorest oral health in the U.S. population. While         age, sex, tobacco use, and tobacco type. Results: The emergency clinic
      the growth of minority populations is increasing substantially in the        sample contained 163 males and 137 females; the comprehensive
      United States, the number of URM students enrolling in dental schools        care sample had 140 males and 160 females. Of emergency patients,
      has dropped significantly over the last decade and is far below its          54 percent used tobacco compared to 34 percent of comprehensive
      proportion in the U.S. population. Yet studies show that URM dental          care patients. Z-test revealed a statistically significant difference
      health professionals are more likely than their non-Hispanic white           (p<.05) in tobacco use between the emergency and comprehensive
      (NHW) counterparts to provide oral health care to minority                   care patient populations. Smoke tobacco accounted for more than 95
      populations. Data were obtained from the American Dental Education           percent of the tobacco used by tobacco users in both groups. Of
      Association Survey of Graduating Seniors and analyzed with SAS               tobacco-using emergency patients, 58 percent were male and 42
      V8 to determine the importance of certain factors to students’ career        percent were female, compared to 52 percent and 48 percent,
      decisions. While some statistically significant differences were found,      respectively, in comprehensive care. Of emergency patients, 60
      the results showed that overall pattern of importance attached to the        percent were <40 yrs of age; they represented 64 percent of the tobacco
      various factors was similar for URM and NHW students. Black                  users in this group. In contrast, 74 percent of comprehensive care
      students had disproportionately greater amounts of debt upon entry           patients were >40 yrs of age; they represented 70 percent of tobacco
      to dental school than did Hispanic and NHW students. Educational             users in that group.
      debt affected career choice in over 75 percent of the students. Many               Patients receiving emergency dental care tend to be younger,
      more URM students expressed a willingness to practice in locations           male, and more likely to use tobacco than patients receiving
      where the majority of their patients would be from inner-city or             comprehensive care. However, incidence of tobacco use in both
      underserved populations.                                                     clinics’ patient populations was higher than national and statewide
            In general, factors related to students’ personal motivations were     averages of 25 percent and 17 percent, respectively, indicating this
      rated as being highly influential in their career decisions, while factors   urban dental school population is at greater risk for tobacco–associated
      related to the influence of external forces were not rated as being          morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an appropriate target population
      highly important. Both URM and NHW students appeared to be                   for oral cancer screenings and tobacco cessation education/
      influenced more by internal factors than by external factors.                interventions. Because the incidence of tobacco use is greatest in the
      Opportunity for self-employment and high income potential stood              emergency dental clinic, it should be the focal point for initiating
      out as motivating factors cited by all the students. Neither URM nor         such programs within the school.
      NHW students rated the influence of outreach and recruitment
      activities as highly important. The influence of family-related mentors




240                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                          Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



106. Students’ Understanding of the HIPAA                                   1. A darker background (black or navy blue) with a lighter font (white
Compliance Act                                                                  or pastel yellow or violet) was the most preferred combination
                                                                                for readability and ease on the eyes;
Herren, Michael, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Short,
                                                                            2. Larger font sizes and fewer bullets per slide were preferred to
Roger, University of Kentucky HIPPA Compliance Officer,
                                                                                smaller font size and more content per slide;
McConnell, Thomas, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry
                                                                            3. Sentence case style was preferred to all capitals;
       Purpose: To assess the student dentists’ understanding and           4. Bold type font selection was preferred;
application of HIPAA protocols in our undergraduate clinic.                 5. Varying the background colors and template design of the
       The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act                  presentation was preferred over a continuous selected background;
(HIPAA) became effective on April 14, 2003. As part of our                  6. An occasional shocking slide (bright color, odd color, visually
curriculum we instituted mandatory HIPAA training for all student,              stimulating photo, or animation) was enjoyed;
faculty, and staff. The purpose of the following study was to determine     7. Humorous slides were enjoyed more than regular educational
the students’ knowledge of HIPAA. A lecture was given to all faculty,           slides;
students, and staff about HIPAA prior to April 14. It was mandatory         8. Personalized slides specific for the instant audience were enjoyed
for all participants to attend the course and take an examination. The          more than regular informational slides; and
course was given in early December in anticipation of the April 14          9. More slides with less content at a faster tempo were preferred
deadline. A score of 100 percent was required for successful                    over fewer slides with more information at a slower pace.
completion of the course. The undergraduate student dentists were                 Viewers have definite preferences for viewing electronic media
given a follow-up questionnaire at the end of April to determine their      presentations. Electronic media presentations can be formatted to
retention of this important information. The questionnaire covered          conform to viewer preferences and enhance viewer enjoyability and
basic information required for HIPAA compliance. The questionnaire          readability.
was given to rising third- and fourth-year student dentists. No student
was able to correctly answer all questions. Examples of scores on           108. Integrating and Facilitating the Diagnosis and
some questions: 42 percent could not correctly identify what HIPAA          Treatment of Urgent Care Patients into the
stands for; 68 percent correctly answered a question concerning when
a patient should be informed about HIPAA; many believed the patient         Undergraduate Clinic
must be informed at every appointment; 100 percent knew a patient           Licari, Frank, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry,
must sign receipt of a Notice of Privacy Practices from the school;         Drahos, Gary, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry,
36 percent could not correctly answer a question about leaving              Burger-Zellinger, Rudolph, University of Illinois at Chicago College
messages on a patient’s machine concerning his or her appointment;          of Dentistry
and 52 percent did not know whether a patient could further restrict               Purpose: To introduce the dental student to the process involved
release of his or her health records. In conclusion, this survey has        in diagnosing and treating the episodic urgent care patient and
revealed the need for further instruction and monitoring of our student     improving the timeliness and patient satisfaction with the process.
dentists to ensure compliance with HIPAA protocol. This will be                    In recent years, the University of Illinois at Chicago College of
important for them not only while in school but throughout their            Dentistry has treated urgent care (emergency) patients by admitting
professional careers.                                                       a defined number of patients to be seen during the day (usually twelve
       Further work is needed to ensure proper education and                to sixteen). Exams and x-rays were ordered, and staff dentists provided
compliance. Students may not be cognizant of the serious nature of          the diagnoses. The patients were then routed to a department within
HIPAA violations. Students may have a false sense of security due to        the college that could best facilitate their urgent care needs (endo,
their status as a student.                                                  oral surgery, postgraduate clinics, undergraduate clinics, General
                                                                            Practice Residency, etc.). This diagnosis process took, on the average,
107. Format Preferences for Electronic Lecture                              ninety-three minutes to complete and, depending on student and clinic
Presentations                                                               availability, often did not result in same-day dental treatment. In
Drahos, Gary, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry,       September 2002, the College of Dentistry undertook a major
Licari, Frank, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry,      reconfiguration of the undergraduate clinic experience. Six identical
Drahos, Lee, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry         clinics were developed that took the form of large group dental
                                                                            practices. The urgent care patient treatment was integrated into this
      Purpose: To determine viewer preferences for electronically           clinic model to introduce the students to the actual diagnosis and
produced lecture material.                                                  treatment planning phases for the emergency patient. The patients
      An increasing amount of lecture material is being presented in        are registered as before and are immediately escorted to one of the
the electronic format (such as Microsoft PowerPoint). Slides, lecture       group practice clinics where they are seen by assigned dental students.
material, photographs, graphs, and other material can be incorporated       The students work independently according to a developed flow chart
into these electronic presentations. A group of 294 students from the       and obtain the necessary diagnostic information (radiographs, pulp
D1, D2, D3, D4, and postgraduate classes at the UIC College of              test, medical information, consultations, etc.) to establish a diagnosis.
Dentistry, as well as faculty members, comprised the test group. A          The patient is advised of all treatment options, and the agreed-upon
Microsoft PowerPoint presentation consisting of 132 slides of varying       treatment is performed immediately by the assigned student or the
backgrounds, font sizes, case letter, animations, and slide template        required clinic. Treatment under this process has reduced average
designs was made in an approximately one-hour time slot using               patient waiting time, from registration to treatment, to sixty minutes.
dimmed overhead lighting. Part of the presentation was also                 Patient satisfaction (by survey) with treatment is 89 percent. Student
personalized for the subject audience. The tempo of the slide               acceptance of the program (by survey) as a useful learning experience
presentation was also varied. A questionnaire was developed asking          is 94 percent.
the viewer to grade each slide for various aspects of readability and              Integration of the urgent care diagnosis, treatment planning,
teaching effectiveness. Viewer preferences were as follows:                 and treatment process into the undergraduate clinic decreases the




February 2004        ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    241
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      waiting time for the patients and effects treatment for them in a more      the DH students. A resident was assigned to each of the clinic sessions
      timely manner. Patient satisfaction with this process is high. Ninety-      where DH students provided care and evaluated the examination,
      four percent of the students feel that participation in urgent care         diagnosis, and therapy of each patient, whether their own patient or
      diagnosis and treatment is a useful learning experience.                    the patient of other residents. Questionnaires were developed and
                                                                                  administered to the twenty-eight participating students to assess the
      109. Oral Care for Autistic Patients: The Role of Dental                    collaboration. Results indicated that 36 percent of the residents had
      Education                                                                   no previous knowledge of the utilization of DH in PM, while DH
                                                                                  studens were very and somewhat knowledgeable (29 percent and 71
      Inglehart, Marita, University of Michigan School of Dentistry,
                                                                                  percent, respectively) and 43 percent of residents had no previous
      Ramaswami, Neerrajah, University of Michigan School of Dentistry,
                                                                                  experience working with a DH. All residents found DH students very
      Feigal, Robert, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry
                                                                                  or mostly valuable in PM provided to their patients (86 percent and
             Purpose: To explore the role of undergraduate and graduate           14 percent respectively), and 93 percent stated that the collaboration
      education for pediatric dentists’ decisions to treat autistic dental        allowed them to maximize their time in clinic to provide other
      patients and attitudes towards treating autistic patients.                  treatment to their patients. All the residents responded that the
             In the year 2000, the first U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on         collaboration should continue and, based on these experiences, would
      Oral Health stressed the importance of providing oral health care to        hire a DH for their periodontal private practice in the future. All the
      special needs patients. The objective of this research project was to       DH students responded that the collaboration should continue since
      explore whether dental education about special needs patients, and          it allowed a forum for the application of didactic information and
      in particular about autistic patients, will affect whether pediatric        opportunity to continue developing competence in care of periodontal
      dentists will actually treat autistic patients and their attitude towards   patients. Based on these experiences, 92 percent of DH students would
      treating autistic dental patients. Data were collected with a survey        seek a private practice DH position in a periodontal specialty office.
      mailed to a random sample of 500 members of the American Academy                   The assessment of the collaboration indicated that it was
      of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) in the USA (response rate: 42.4               beneficial both to the PG Periodontics residents and DH students.
      percent; N=212). Overall, 69.5 percent of the respondents indicated         The interaction provided the residents the opportunity to learn about
      that their undergraduate dental education had not prepared them well        utilization of the DH in a simulated private practice setting, while
      to treat special needs patients, 70.9 percent that they had not been        DH students continued to develop competence in monitoring
      educated well to manage patients with mental retardation, and 79.6          periodontal patients. It also provided an opportunity for both to nurture
      percent that they were not educated well to treat patients with autism.     interpersonal skills as periodontal cotherapists.
      Pediatric dentists who did not treat autistic children (N=21) differed
      from those who treated autistic children (N=182) in several ways.           111. Designing Innovative Dental Education
      They were more likely to be male (p=.064), white (p=.032), and agreed       Experiences That Reinforce a New Curriculum
      less strongly with statements such as “I like to treat autistic children”
      (means on 5 point scale: 2.76 vs. 3.41; p=.005) and “Graduate               Lobb, William, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Schnuck,
      education prepared me well to treat autistic children” (3.30 vs. 3.98;      Lawrence, Kahler Slater Architects
      p=.015) than pediatric dentists who treated autistic children. The                 Purpose: To educate university and dental school administrators,
      attitude towards treating autistic patients was significantly correlated    faculty, and students on how a holistic approach to their new building/
      with how many patients with special needs (r=.17*), with mental             renovation project can successfully integrate a new curriculum into
      retardation (r=.18*), and with autism (r=.20**) they treated in an          the design of innovative experiences for all users at their institution,
      average week, as well as with how well the respondents felt that their      which will improve faculty recruitment and retention; increase
      dental undergraduate education and their dental graduate education          collaboration, teamwork, and mentorship among students, faculty,
      had prepared them to treat autistic children (r=.19**; r=.25***).           and alumni; provide a technologically advanced yet comfortable and
             This research showed that pediatric dentists differ in the degree    safe environment for research, study, and team building; and ensure
      to which they treat patients with special needs and in particular with      a more flexible and stress-free environment for patients.
      autism and that dental undergraduate and graduate education about                  Visionary leaders of dental/allied dental education institutions
      this special patient population not only affects the attitudes towards      understand that to adequately support the latest education practices,
      treating these patients, but even more so the degree to which dentists      they must successfully integrate school and university visions with a
      decide to treat these patients. The results point to the significance of    solid curriculum and innovative experience for all dental school user
      curriculum development efforts in this area.                                groups. Presenting Marquette University Dental School and the
                                                                                  College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South
      110. Assessment of Postgraduate Periodontics and                            Carolina as case studies, our poster will illustrate how each
      Dental Hygiene Programs Collaboration                                       institution’s unique, holistic design process—contrary to “traditional
                                                                                  architecture”—has helped to transform the way modern-day dental
      Lupovici, Eva, New York University College of Dentistry, Schoor,            education is delivered and practiced in a real world clinical setting.
      Robert, New York University College of Dentistry, Westphal, Cheryl,         Poster illustrations depicting this design process will include the
      New York University College of Dentistry, Kreismann, Judy, New              following: visioning workshops where faculty, students,
      York University College of Dentistry                                        administrators, facilities staff, architects, and contractors focus on
            Purpose: To assess the collaboration between a Postgraduate           developing project goals that are consistent with the university’s vision
      (PG) Periodontic program and a Dental Hygiene (DH) program.                 and could be measured against this vision at every phase of the
            A collaboration was established between a PG Periodontics             planning process; case-based curriculum in action where students
      pogram and a DH program to provide interchange between second-              prepare for future dental practice through hands-on interdisciplinary
      year dental hygiene students and PG Periodontics residents in the           learning; and new building design that supports the university and
      management of periodontal patients. DH students rotated through             dental school vision and enhances the ideal student, faculty, and patient
      the PG clinic to provide periodontal maintenance (PM) care to patients      experience. Case studies also will represent each institution’s vision-
      of the program. Residents scheduled the initial appointment of their        driven results through the following images: small group rooms where
      patients, while subsequent recall appointments were scheduled by            faculty and students come together to develop solutions for actual



242                                                                                   Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                             Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



clinical cases and problems; “rounds rooms” where students can view            academic achievement, their confidence in their academic skills, and
and discuss hands-on learning activities with their peers in real time;        their motivation to become dental care providers.
and operatories where patients receive technologically advanced                       The objectives of this study are to explore whether two programs
dental care in a friendly, warm environment.                                   for potential dental students from disadvantaged backgrounds helped
      This poster presentation will provide participants who are either        the participants to increase their academic skills, confidence to
contemplating or already in the early planning stages of a renovation          perform well academically, and motivation to become dentists. The
and/or new building project with ideas on how to successfully design           Pipeline Program is a program for disadvantaged first- second-year
innovative faculty, student, and patient experiences that reinforce a          undergraduates who are interested in dentistry. The students
new curriculum at dental/allied dental education institutions.                 participate in academic skills, biology, chemistry, and physics
                                                                               workshops. The Profile for Success (PFS) Program is for junior and
112. The Effects of Mentoring on Dental Educators’                             senior undergraduates who plan to attend dental school. The
Workplace Perceptions and Experiences                                          participants prepare themselves for the dental school admission
                                                                               process. All students interact with dental students and faculty and
Nesbitt, Paula, Meharry Medical College, Inglehart, Marita,
                                                                               learn about dentistry in hands-on preclinical exercises and lectures.
University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Sinkford, Jeanne,
                                                                               The participants responded to surveys and academic tests before and
American Dental Education Association
                                                                               at the end of the programs (Pipeline Program: Nelson-Denny Reading
       Purpose: To investigate how mentoring experiences affected              Test; subject-specific tests; PFS Program: DAT). Data from 108
male and female dental educators’ workplace perceptions and                    students in the Pipeline Program and 117 students in the PFS Program
experiences.                                                                   who participated between 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. The results
       In May 2001, survey data were collected from 870 faculty                showed that the students improved academically (Pipeline Program:
members in U.S. dental schools. While 498 (60.1 percent) respondents           vocabulary percent ranks before/after: 46.58/61.37***; reading
indicated that they had a mentor either in the past or currently, 331          comprehension: 52.52/64.19***; reading rate: 36.14/80.39***; PFS
(39.9 percent) reported never to have had a mentor. Of the 299 female          Program: beginning/midterm/end: perceptual: 14.31/16.31/17.54;
respondents, 192 (65.5 percent) had mentoring experiences, while               academic: 13.72/13.92/14.80***), increased their desire to become
306 (57.1 percent) of the 568 male respondents reported having been            dentists, and became more confident to do well academically (Pipeline
mentored (p=.011). The results showed that dental educators with               Program-4 point rating scale: before/after: biology: 3.23/3.31;
mentoring experiences agreed more strongly with statements that                chemistry: 2.96/3.34; physics: 2.59/3.50*; PFS Program: doing well
indicated that they felt more welcomed as members of their dental              on DAT: 2.88/3.61; in admission interview: 3.11/3.67; in admission
school community (5-point scale: 3.82 vs. 3.48; p=.000), that they             essay: 3.16/3.63***).
felt like a full and equal participant in problem-solving and                         The data suggest that these two programs support students from
decisionmaking (3.72 vs. 3.28; p=.000), and that they were more                disadvantaged backgrounds in their academic careers and help to
satisfied with their work setting (3.53 vs. 3.19; p=.000), their potential     increase their academic skills, their confidence in doing well
to achieve professional goals (3.68 vs. 3.18; p=.000), their overall           academically, and their interest in dentistry. These outcomes will
professional practice/research (3.65 vs. 3.28; p=.000), and the extent         ultimately contribute to creating more diverse dental school classes
to which this practice had met their expectations (3.63 vs. 3.22;              nationwide.
p=.000) when compared to respondents without mentoring
experiences. Mentoring experiences were especially important for               114. Performance Trends by Ethnicity on the Survey
female respondents. While female respondents describe their                    of the Natural Sciences and the AAVE Scores of the
workplace experiences as more negative than male respondents,
female educators with mentoring experiences were less negative about           DAT
the work climate (2.33 vs. 2.98; p=.000) and their professional                Yang, June, American Dental Association
situation (3.41 vs. 3.00; p=.000) than female respondents without                    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate performance
mentoring experiences.                                                         trends on the Survey of the Natural Sciences (SNS) and the Academic
       These findings showed that while mentoring can make an                  Average (AAVE) scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT) during
important difference for all dental educators’ workplace perceptions           a six-year period, 1997-2002, by all examinees and five ethnic groups.
and their satisfaction with their work situation, it was of even greater       The existing standardized DAT test scores for the examinees who
importance for the female respondents. Efforts to offer mentoring to           volunteered ethnicity information were a sample of convenience for
all incoming faculty members may lead to an increase in job                    the data analyses. Performance trends on the DAT were analyzed for
satisfaction and faculty retention.                                            all examinees as a group, for each year, and for each ethnic group
                                                                               over the six-year period.
113. Recruiting Disadvantaged Students into Dentistry:                               The questions to be investigated were: 1) Were there statistically
A Systematic Approach                                                          significant performance level changes on the DAT subtest scores by
Woolfolk, Marilyn, University of Michigan School of Dentistry,                 all examinees each year? 2) Were there statistically significant
Inglehart, Marita, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ester,          differences on the DAT performance levels by five ethnic groups
Todd, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Markels, Geraldine,          over the six-year period? and 3) Were there statistically significant
University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Daniels, Charlita,                 performance fluctuations by particular ethnic groups over particular
University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Katcher, Patricia,                 years? That is, were the trends similar in all ethnic groups from year
University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Green, Thomas,                     to year, or were there particular ethnic groups that showed markedly
University of Michigan School of Dentistry                                     different trends in their performance? A two-factor design was used
                                                                               for the statistical significance test. Because the numbers of ethnic
      Purpose: This educational research project investigated how              groups were unbalanced, the general linear model (GLM) was used
the Pipeline Program for first- and second-year undergraduates and             for the analysis. The results showed that there were statistically
the Profile for Success (PFS) Program for junior and senior                    significant (p<.0001) performance differences from year to year, by
undergraduates interested in dentistry affected the participants’              various ethnic groups, over the six-year period, and by particular




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                     243
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      groups in some years. A statistically significant performance              program. A nine-item survey was used to question a population of
      difference among the ethnic groups and/or a trend in a certain direction   269 dental hygiene students in Michiagn (DH ’02 and ’03) on their
      may have some implications for future applicants’ educational              interests in obtaining a baccalaureate degree. Of the surveys returned,
      planning and preparation for their goal of gaining admission to dental     67 percent (N=179) had been completed for analysis. Preliminary
      schools. In-depth comparisons among the ethnic groups were not a           results indicate that 66.9 percent (N=119) of the dental hygiene
      purpose of this study. However, some differences are noted.                students were interested in pursuing a baccalaureate degree, and 2.8
            The results showed that there were statistically significant         percent (N=5) indicated that they did not perceive a value in obtaining
      (p<.0001) performance differences from year to year, by various            an advanced degree. Of 172 responses to “overall value of a Bachelor
      ethnic groups, over the six-year period, and by particular groups in       of Science degree,” 53.5 percent (N=92) indicated “increased general
      some years.                                                                knowledge leading to diverse skills,” and 52.3 percent (N=90)
                                                                                 indicated “expanded dental hygiene skills.” Services that would
      115. Ceramics Laboratory Quality Assurance Program                         attract a prospective student (out of 546 responses, with multiple
      McConnell, Thomas, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry,            choices allowed) into a degree completion program were flexible
      Armentrout, Timothy, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry,          time commitment (23.8 percent, N=130), campus location (19.6
      Chaney, Alex, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Robinson,       percent, N=107), and cost (19 percent, N=104). The following issues
      Fonda, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Timmons, James,        (out of 322 responses, with multiple choices allowed) would
      University of Kentucky College of Dentistry                                discourage a prospective student: cost (34.2 percent, N=110), campus
                                                                                 location (31.4 percent, N=101), and limited time to complete program
            Purpose: To develop and implement a ceramics laboratory              (23 percent, N=74). If graduated from a degree completion program,
      quality assurance program and have students participate in the             62.1 percent (N=77) indicated their primary professional role would
      assessment.                                                                be as a clinician, 21 percent (N=26) indicated as a dental hygiene
            Student dentists will need to evaluate the quality of lab work       educator, and 5.6 percent (N=7) indicated working in business/sales.
      provided for them upon graduation from dental school. This program               The data suggests that dental hygiene students in Michigan are
      gives them a framework for assessing ceramic laboratory work when          interested in pursuing a baccalaureate degree after completion of a
      they enter private practice. A quality assurance survey was developed      dental hygiene program to increase general knowledge. To encourage
      with input from the ceramics laboratory supervisor, faculty, and           enrollment into such a program, degree completion programs should
      students. After editing, the survey was distributed with random cases      focus on specific flexibility of coursework within the program and
      to ensure that every technician was evaluated throughout the year.         offer financial aid opportunities and extension programs as stimuli.
      With faculty assistance, student dentists would evaluate the fit,
      esthetics, and function of the prosthesis to be delivered. After one
      year of use the following results were obtained: 123 units of crown        BLOCK V, Tuesday, March 9
      and bridge were evaluated, including 96 PFMs, 13 FGCs, 10 porcelain
      veneers, 2 resin bonded FPD abutments, 1 inlay, and 1 onlay.               12:00 noon to 1:30 pm
      Seventeen percent of the units were high in occlusion. Proximal
      contacts, margins, shade match, and contours were all 9 percent or         117. Correlation of a Carving Test to the First Three
      less. Only one crown had to be remade (remake rate of 0.8 percent).        Years of Dental School Performance
      This compares favorably with the ceramics laboratory overall remake
      rate of 4.8 percent. Twenty-five positive comments and one negative        Kwapis-Jaeger, Judy, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      comment were listed. Strategies are currently being developed to           Abbott, Lawrence, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      improve the problem of high occlusion.                                     Pink, Frank, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
            The quality of the ceramics laboratory was found to be very          Coleman, Margaret, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      good to excellent, and student participation was a good learning tool.     Kashani, Nahid, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
                                                                                 Linger, Jackson, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
                                                                                 Mattana, Durinda, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      116. The Interest of Michigan Dental Hygiene Students                      Shepherd, Kathi, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry
      in Obtaining a Baccalaureate Degree
                                                                                        Purpose: To test whether a carving dexterity test correlates with
      Luxmore, Judi, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,            the first three years of dental school performance.
      Coleman, Margaret, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,               The identification and development of hand skills has always
      Shepherd, Kathi, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,          been an issue in dental education. Today, U.S. dental schools use the
      Pink, Frank, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry               PMAT of the DAT to assess potential psychomotor skills, while
            Purpose: To determine the interest of Michigan dental hygiene        Canadian schools and Louisiana State University use a carving test
      students in obtaining a baccalaureate degree; determine their perceived    for this purpose. This study was to assess the relationship between a
      value in obtaining a Bachelor of Science degree; and determine the         carving test similar to that used by the CDA and LSU and the first
      services of a degree completion program and/or college campus that         three years of dental school performance, measured by operative GPA,
      would attract or discourage prospective students into a degree             clinical performance as represented by operative dentistry competency
      completion program.                                                        exams, and National Board Part I scores. First-year students, without
            The American Dental Hygienists’ Association (ADHA)                   prior notice, carved a specific design into standardized sticks of soap
      advocates an advanced degree for all dental hygienists to expand           on the first and last day of class. Carvings were evaluated by a team
      scientific knowledge beyond the entry level. Data is not available to      of eight faculty who had been calibrated using the standardized criteria
      document the number of dental hygienists in Michigan with                  and format used by the CDA. Criteria were flatness of planes,
      baccalaureate degrees; however, the assumption is that the majority        sharpness of angles, symmetry, and accuracy of reproduction. One
      of hygienists in the state do not have an advanced degree. Of the          pair of faculty evaluated the same criterion on each carving assigning
      twelve dental hygiene programs in the state, two offer a Bachelor of       score values of 0-4. At the end of the third year, relevant summary
      Science program (dental hygiene major), nine offer an Associate of         data of the class was obtained, including third-year operative GPA,
      Applied Science program, and one offers an Associate of Science            third-year Science GPA, clinical operative competency scores, and




244                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



Part I National Board Scores. Data was then statistically analyzed           this point is reached. Encouraging expeditious completion of root
using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, regression, and correlation analyses.           canal therapy would be in the best interest of the patient, as well as
A weak correlation was observed between carving scores and                   the educational interest of the student.
competency scores. The first-year competency score is significantly
related to the second carving, as one improved so does the other,            119. A Bachelors’ Degree Completion Online Program
ANOVA 0.04. No correlation between carving scores and third-year             Assessment
operative GPA or third-year Science GPA was observed. National
                                                                             Barnes, W. Gail, East Tennessee State University
Board Part I scores had no significant relationship to either carving,
p>0.05. National Board Part I scores are correlated to first-year                  Purpose: To identify the pros and cons of a Bachelor of Science
cumulative GPA, linear regression p=0.00, slope=.80.                         Completion Online program.
      A carving dexterity test weakly correlates with third-year                   The assessment of a new program is a vital component of its
operative competency scores, but more closely correlates a second            success. In an effort to meet the needs of present and future students
wax carving with first-year competency scores which may not reflect          of the BSDH Degree Completion Online program, the researcher
inherent manual dexterity.                                                   developed a survey to ascertain the positive and negative aspects of
                                                                             the program that had been in existence for one year (three semesters).
118. Time Interval Between Gutta Percha Obturation                           An Internet survey was mailed to the twenty-nine students enrolled
and the Placement of a Definitive Seal of the Root Canal                     in the online program, asking them to identify the positive and
                                                                             negative aspects of their experiences as online students. The survey
System in Two Dental Schools                                                 consisted of twenty items: closed-ended questions and qualitative
Lin, Jarshen, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Kwon, Kung-Rock,            open-ended questions (to help with interpretation of quantitative
Kyung Hee University, Weber, Hans-Peter, Harvard School of Dental            results). The data sample consisted of twenty-two useable responses
Medicine, Samet, Nachum, Harvard School of Dental Medicine                   (76 percent). Data were downloaded from the web and manually
      Purpose: Ideally, dental students treat patients only after            entered into SPSS 10.0. The results indicated that, of the courses
acquiring patient history, initial examination, and treatment planning.      they had taken, the students were most positive regarding the
However, in many cases, students are required to perform emergency           “flexibility of classes, i.e., no specific lecture time and day” (N=20,
root canal treatment, even before finalizing data collection. Since          91 percent). “Asynchronous communication” and “developing
only one procedure can be completed in the time allotted per clinic          PowerPoint presentations” both had a 32 percent response rate.
session, emergency endodontically treated teeth are often left without       Conversely, the students responded most negatively to the “other”
a permanent seal. However, endodontic treatment is not considered            category (N=8, 32 percent). The qualitative responses for “other”
complete until a permanent coronal sealing material is placed.               revealed that the group projects were too difficult to complete online,
Postponing of the definitive seal often worsens the prognosis of             communication with instructors was limited, some of the courses
endodontic treatment by allowing leakage and secondary decay, tooth          were better suited for the traditional classroom setting, and the
fracture, gingival inflammation, migration of neighboring and/or             personal computer was very slow. Only one student (5 percent)
opposing teeth, etc. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the            responded negatively to each of the following categories:
time interval between the completion of gutta percha obturation and          asynchronous communication, testing method, developing
the placement of a definitive seal of the root canal system in two           PowerPoint presentations, and flexibility of classes.
dental schools: Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), Boston,                  It is concluded that the year-end assessment of the students’
MA, USA, and Kyung Hee University dental school (KHU), Seoul,                experiences provided valuable data for program evaluation, revision,
South Korea.                                                                 and implementation of online courses.
      The study groups included 112 teeth treated by senior dental
students at the HSDM and and 178 treated teeth at the KHU during             120. Effect of Different Types of Dental Simulation
the year 2003. A definitive seal of the root canal system included           Training on Students’ Performance in Operative
either the placement of an amalgam or a composite core buildup               Dentistry
material, the placement of a prefabricated post and core, or the
cementation of a cast post and core. At both schools, a cast post and        Urbankova, Alice, Columbia University School of Dental and Oral
core were always covered with a temporary crown after cementation.           Surgery, Hadavi, Farhad, Columbia University School of Dental and
The average time interval between gutta percha obturation and the            Oral Surgery, Lichtenthal, Richard, Columbia University School of
placement of a definitive seal of the root canal system was found to         Dental and Oral Surgery, LeBlanc, Vickie, University of Toronto
be seventy days at the HSDM and 77.4 days at the KHU. The longest            Center of Research in Education
time interval at HSDM was 295 days, compared with 428 days at the                  Purpose: This study compares the effect of faculty-assisted and
KHU. The shortest time interval in both schools was zero days, in            virtual reality computerized training on students’ proficiency in
cases where a core build-up material was used directly following the         operative dentistry. Evaluation of students’ progress was determined
completion of gutta percha obturation. No significant statistical            by standard grading procedures utilized in the operative dentistry
differences were found between the two dental schools. In both               course in SDOS at Columbia University.
schools, three main reasons were found to be the most common for                   Methods and materials: 153 students participating in this study
the prolonged time intervals: students’ skills and ability, availability     were randomly divided into four groups; A, B, C, and D. All students
of clinical time, and neglect by the patients.                               in this study participated in an eight-hour training program using
      In overcoming this delay clinically, the use of glass ionomer          different learning procedures. Group A, which consisted of forty-
materials as temporary restorative materials should be considered            one students, practiced with KaVo noncomputerized simulator (KaVo
for both its superior sealing and mechanical properties.                     America Corp) with faculty supervision (F/S ratio 1/3). Group B,
Administratively, a better tracking system would allow for better            which consisted of thirty-two students, received conventional
follow-up of the teeth after the completion of gutta percha obturation.      preclinical lab training with faculty feedback (F/S ratio 1/12). Group
Furthermore, since endodontic treatment is technically only complete         C, which consisted of forty students, practiced using VR-DS compact
with a definitive sealing, no credits should be given to students until      KaVo/DentSim Virtual Reality Simulator (DenX America, Inc.). The




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                  245
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      feedback and evaluation were provided by computer software (CS)                 Purpose: To describe New York State’s new “PGY-1” law and
      (CS/S ratio 1/1). Group D, which consisted of forty students, received   to discuss the implications of the law and its impact on dental
      conventional training (CL) without any supervision from faculty. All     education
      students in this study participated in the formal course of operative           Groundbreaking legislation was recently passed in New York
      dentistry consisting of sixty-five hours of lectures and 110 hours of    State that has changed the way dentists may be licensed. This law,
      laboratory exercises. In conventional settings the feedback is limited   known as PGY-1 (postgraduate year one), mandates that prospective
      and offered with delay on the first-come, first-served basis. However,   dentists wishing to practice in New York State now have two routes
      the VR-DS system with computerized instruction software offers           to achieve licensure. One is the traditional route: four years of
      immediate and limitless evaluation and feedback on demand.               attendance at an accredited dental school, passage of Parts I and II of
            Results and Discussion: The students’ learning curve is affected   the National Boards, and passage of clinical exam with live patients
      mainly by repetitive practice of specific procedures and by the          administered by the North East Regional Board of Dental Examiners
      feedback component.                                                      (NERB). The new alternative allows a year-long residency in dentistry
            The preliminary data of this study confirms the results of our     at an approved institution in lieu of the clinical exam. This momentous
      previous studies showing significant difference between conventional     change was due in large part to the concerted efforts of the American
      and computerized training. If the improvement of the students’           Dental Association (ADA) and dental educators to eliminate the live
      performance depends mainly on the amount of time spent practicing        patient exam. Many reasons were cited including high failure rates,
      operative procedures, then Groups A, B, and C will perform better        allegations of unethical and inappropriate patient treatment, lack of
      on the standardized practical examinations then those in Group D.        exam validity and examiner reliability, and the nonalignment with
      However, if the learning mainly depends on the quality and quantity      the medical profession’s method of licensure. Requiring a fifth year
      of feedback, then the performance of Group C will be significantly       of additional training in a hospital setting reflects the changing nature
      better then Groups A, B, and D.                                          of dentistry. It has evolved from a surgical model limited to the oral
                                                                               structures to a medical one where comprehensive care is the norm.
      121. The Synergy of Community Service                                    Dentistry has also become far more complex. Implants, porcelain
      Hlava, Gwen, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of            laminates, CAD-CAM restorations, to name but a few, have been
      Dentistry, Froeschle, Mary Lynn, University of Nebraska Medical          added to the dental curriculum. It has become a real challenge for
      Center College of Dentistry                                              dental educators to address this expansion of dental services in the
                                                                               same four-year time frame. The diverse and aging population of the
            Purpose: The purpose of the Sealing Smiles Dental Sealant          United States makes this task even more daunting. For those students
      Program was to provide preventive dental care to needy children.         who intend to practice in New York State, the senior year of dental
            The program has provided dental exams, sealants, fluoride          school could provide a much richer experience. Currently, a large
      treatments, and education to an underserved population of second-        portion of a student’s senior year consists of practicing the required
      and third-grade children. Dental hygiene students gained valuable        procedures for the NERBS and looking for ideal patients. With the
      experience in treating children and being involved in community          burden of the clinical exam lifted and a residency to look forward to,
      service. The dental hygiene department teamed with local community       the curriculum could be tailored to the student’s level of expertise
      service organizations to coordinate the logistics and identify those     and interest. More students could participate in research projects and
      children most in need. Six dental hygiene students, one dental hygiene   do longer rotations in the different specialties.
      faculty, and two dentists from federal health clinics took portable             New York’s “PGY-1” has profound implications not only for
      equipment to each school. All children received an oral exam, fluoride   dental licensure in the remaining forty-nine United States, but also
      treatment, indicated sealants, and individual oral health education.     for dental education in general.
      This is the first time dental hygiene students were allowed to deliver
      care in the public school system. Innovative approaches to               123. The Dental Aptitude Carving Test: A Learnable
      coordinating existing community organizations and resources allowed
      this program to evolve. The four separate site visits were each one      Skill?
      week in duration. A total of 515 children participated. Twenty dental    Abbott, Lawrence, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      hygiene students provided 1000 sealants, 439 fluoride treatments,        Kwapis-Jaeger, Judy, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      and patient education. The on-site dentists referred 220 children to     Pink, Frank, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      federal clinics for additional dental care. As financial pressures       Coleman, Margaret, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      increase, off-site locations and community involvement gain added        Kashani, Nahid, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      importance to dental schools. No outside costs were incurred by the      Linger, Jackson, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      College of Dentistry. The format and implementation are easily           Mattana, Durinda, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry,
      replicated to fit other educational institutions and experiences. The    Shepherd, Kathi, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry
      value of the services rendered were tabulated at each site. The first           Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test whether
      year almost $63,000 worth of preventive care was provided. Five          performance on a carving aptitude test can be improved by repetition
      new sites have been targeted for the upcoming year.                      and previous experience.
            The program met the strategic mission of the college: student             Predicting success in dental school has always been a challenge.
      education, patient care, and community outreach. Outcomes exceeded       While past academic performance is a proven predictor of future
      expectations in the areas of community dental health and clinical        academic performance, predicting the psychomotor skills necessary
      practice.                                                                for dentistry has been more difficult. Until 1972 the ADA used a
                                                                               chalk carving exercise to attempt to predict such skills. Since then
      122. Only in New York: PGY-1 Law Changes Dental                          the PMAT has been used as a predictor. However, all Canadian schools
      Licensure                                                                and LSU still require a carving test for admission. But if a carving
      McAndrew, Maureen, New York University College of Dentistry, Peltz,      test is used, to what degree does it predict innate ability and to what
      Ivy, New York University College of Dentistry                            degree can it be learned? Previous studies suggested a correlation
                                                                               between PMAT performance and carving dexterity tests, but no known




246                                                                                Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                             Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



studies have been conducted on whether repeated practice on a carving          need more training on direct posterior composites prior to graduation.
test will yield a measurable improvement in that test. The purpose of          The biggest factor in the number of composites and amalgams done
this study was to assess the change in mean carving scores between a           in the dental school clinic is the best choice in restorative materials
group of students who had no previous experience in such an exercise           considering all the aspects of the patient’s oral cavity and budget. We
and a second group who had performed the exercise previously. First-           are currently looking at ways to provide the students with more
year students carved a specific design into standardized sticks of soap        opportunities to place direct posterior composites on simulators
on the first and last day of class. Carvings were evaluated by a team          through selectives and block assignments.
of eight faculty calibrated to the standardized criteria of the CDA.                 A dental school’s patient population may cause graduating
Criteria were flatness of planes, sharpness of angles, symmetry, and           students to be less than well prepared for entering private practice,
accuracy of reproduction. One pair of faculty evaluated the same               and the students could get those experiences through simulations.
criterion on each carving, assigning scores of 0-4. The mean aggregate
carving scores of US students (N=62) who had not carved previously             125. Mentoring Dental Students Considering Dental
were compared to mean aggregate scores of Canadian students (N=13)             Associateships
who had carved as part of their application to Canadian schools.
                                                                               Fields, W, University of Tennessee College of Dentistry
ANOVA analysis compared the two carving scores. For the 1st carving
the mean U.S. score was 4.645 and mean Canadian score was 6.846,                      Purpose: To provide individualized assistance to dental students
p=0.011. For the second carving, the mean U.S. score was 7.629 and             (and alumni) in analyzing associateship opportunities by identifying
mean Canadian score was 9.769, p=0.212. The data suggests a                    potential problems in employment contracts and refining strategies
learning curve associated with this test. The U.S. students who had            for negotiating equitable and mutually beneficial relationships.
not carved previously scored significantly lower than their Canadian                  Twenty years after the American Dental Association funded
classmates in the first exercise. But both groups improved in the              the Private Practice Associateship Program pilot project at the
second exercise, with the difference between the two no longer                 University of Tennessee, associateships still represent the most
statistically significant.                                                     common avenue for transition into practice for dental students
       For schools using carving as an admission test, the degree to           planning to enter general practice immediately following graduation.
which an applicant can improve his or her performance may                      In spite of improved curricular content related to career choices,
compromise the validity and reliability of the test.                           students approach this decision with varying degrees of trepidation.
                                                                               The feeling of unease is intensified by the complexity of associateship
124. Preparing Students for Private Practice Is an                             contracts, with their intimidating and seemingly unavoidable legalese.
Attribute of Mentoring                                                         A Contract Assessment Program (CAP) was developed to provide
                                                                               individualized assistance to students as they review and interpret
Dower, James, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Salimi,           specific contracts defining associateship offers. It is emphasized that
Sima, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Garcia, Richard,          such assessment is intended as an adjunct to rather than a replacement
University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, White, Marc, University         for a legal review by an attorney. Over 150 contracts have been
of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Geissberger, Marc, University of           assessed, with 100 percent favorable feedback from students and
the Pacific School of Dentistry                                                alumni. A checklist of clauses that are or should be found in an
      Purpose: Preparing students for private practice.                        associateship contract will be displayed, along with commonly
      At the University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, the                encountered red flags (clauses with potential for causing dissonance
Operative Dentistry Department has been preparing the students for             between the owner-dentist and the associate). Sample assessments
private practice with a curriculum including an extensive preclinical          will be available for review and discussion, along with excerpts from
operative course, three half-days of an advanced restorative block             their respective contracts.
the quarter before entering the clinic, selectives in placing direct class            A formal program to mentor dental students in assessing
II composite resins, didactic courses, the availability of five half-          associateship offers can ensure that common problems resulting from
days a week for two years in esthetic dentistry clinics, the esthetic          the wording of contract clauses are identified and addressed, and it
dentistry done in the regular clinics, and a large esthetic dentistry          can alleviate some of the anxiety inherent in leaving a twenty-year
study club. To assess how well this was meeting the students’ needs,           career as a student to initiate a new career as a health care professional
a survey was done of 114 graduating students two weeks before                  and businessperson.
graduation. The results of the survey showed seventy-eight students
placed fifty or more amalgams and twenty-seven students placed                 126. Case-Based Learning in Endodontic Diagnosis
twenty-five to fifty, while seventy-eight students placed zero to ten          Rafter, Mary, University of Michigan School of Dentistry
posterior composites and twenty-seven placed ten to twenty-five.
Fifty-five of the students felt adequately trained for placing posterior              Purpose: To compare outcomes following teaching of
composites, and fifty-nine did not feel adequately trained. Of course,         endodontic diagnosis using traditional lecture-based methods alone
many students do not feel adequately trained in a variety of subjects,         or in combination with a case-based learning session.
which is one of the reasons for the applications to AEGD and GPR                      In the preclinical endodontic program at the University of
programs. The students were also asked what percentage of direct               Michigan, endodontic diagnosis had always been taught using the
posterior restorations they expected to place in private practice. Six         traditional lecture-based format. A one-hour lecture, using slides and
expected 81-100 percent amalgam, eighteen expected 61-80 percent               an extensive hand-out, covered history taking, clinical examination,
amalgam, twenty-one expected 41-60 percent amalgam, nineteen                   and diagnostic tests. During a subsequent lecture, considerable time
expected 21-40 percent amalgam, and fifty-two expected 0-20 percent            was spent explaining how this data should be collected and used to
amalgam while sixteen expected 81-100 percent composite, twenty-               reach the correct diagnosis. In spring 2003, the second lecture was
seven expected 61-80 percent composite, twenty-one expected 41-                replaced by a case-based learning session. The class was divided into
60 percent composite, twenty-two expected 21-40 percent composite,             small groups. Two types of cases were developed by endodontic
and thirty expected to do 0-20 percent composite. From this data it            faculty. In the first type, the history and the results of the clinical
appears that fifty-nine to seventy-eight of the 114 students desire or         examination and diagnostic tests were provided, and the students were




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                       247
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      required to reach a pulpal and periradicular diagnosis. The final two             Purpose: This prospective, longitudinal, randomized study was
      cases consisted of clinical pictures and radiographs. The students         designed to determine whether there was a significant difference in
      were not provided with the results of the examination, but were            broken appointments in a group of orthodontic patients receiving a
      required to ask the appropriate questions to collect the data necessary    computer-generated telephone reminder (HouseCalls™, Televox™)
      to reach a diagnosis. As part of the test case for completion of the       as compared with a group not receiving a reminder.
      preclinical program, the students are required to complete an                     Broken appointments can affect the length of treatment, the
      evaluation form and reach a pulpal and periradicular diagnosis based       quality of resident clinical experience, and the productivity of a
      on information provided. The results achieved by preclinical students      university orthodontic postgraduate clinic. Patients in active treatment
      in 2002 (lecture alone) and 2003 (lecture in combination with case-        were randomly assigned to either of two groups: call or no-call groups.
      based learning session) were compared. In 2002, 30.5 percent of            The patients in the call group (n=114) with 495 scheduled
      students achieved a score of 100 percent, while, in 2003, 63 percent       appointments received a computer-generated reminder the night prior
      achieved this score. The data was statistically analyzed using the chi-    to their appointment. The no-call group (114 patients) with 541
      square test. The outcomes following the case-based learning session        scheduled appointments received no reminder. The call group had
      were statistically significantly superior to those achieved with lecture   twenty-two broken appointments (4.4 percent failure rate) and the
      alone.                                                                     no-call group had forty-six broken appointments (8.5 percent failure
            It was concluded that a combination of lecture and case-based        rate). There was a significant difference in total broken appointments
      learning was more effective than lecture alone for student acquisition     and in broken appointments at each of the first three visits (Chi-square;
      of endodontic diagnostic skills.                                           p<0.05). Applying this data to an average orthodontic office, the
                                                                                 estimated clinic savings was $14,000 a year. The time required for
      127. Distribution of Course Materials in Multiple                          staff or residents to make calls was minimized; staff could perform
      Formats to Meet Different Learning Styles                                  other duties; the residents’ clinical experiences were maximized; and
                                                                                 patient treatment schedules were better maintained. The savings in
      Levine, Alan, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
                                                                                 monies and time are important to economically stressed academic
            Purpose: To assess the value of providing students in a dental       institutions. Other features of the HouseCalls™ system included its
      biochemistry course with learning materials in alternative formats to      interface with patient management software, ease of use, less than
      meet different learning styles.                                            five minutes daily set-up time, personalized messages, flexibility in
            Student learning style is an important contributor to academic       placing calls at optimal times to contact patients, ability to record
      and clinical success in dental school. We attempted to meet this need      patient messages, and the identification of incorrect and out-of-order
      by supplementing traditional lectures in the intermediary metabolism       telephone numbers.
      section of the dental biochemistry course with posted PowerPoint                  Thus, the use of a computer-generated telephone reminder
      slides from all lectures, web-based lessons, and additional Internet       system, HouseCalls™, significantly decreased the number of broken
      resources. Students were encouraged to utilize all materials and the       appointments in a university clinic.
      textbook in their studies. Dental students from five consecutive first-
      year classes at UT-Houston, Dental Branch completed an online              129. Learning in the First Year of a Simulation
      questionnaire that included both scaled and free-text responses to         Laboratory
      questions evaluating the use and design of the resources. Results from
      this questionnaire showed that students completed, on average, 65          Yanus, Margaret, Baylor College of Dentistry, McCann, Ann, Baylor
      percent of the lessons and spent approximately five hours online.          College of Dentistry, Griffin, Stephen, Baylor College of Dentistry,
      Evaluation of responses related to the web-based lessons indicated         Beninger, Thomas, Baylor College of Dentistry, McKinney, Thomas,
      that a majority (60-90 percent) of students either agreed or strongly      Baylor College of Dentistry, Miller, Amp, Baylor College of Dentistry,
      agreed that practice exercises and the ability to control the pace of      McCarthy, Sandra, Baylor College of Dentistry, Mash, Kay, Baylor
      the lessons were important, that the illustrations, animations, and        College of Dentistry
      hyperlinks were helpful, and that the lessons were effective as a                Purpose: The simulation laboratory at Baylor was built in the
      review. Students particularly liked the practice exams that included       summer of 2002 to improve the environment for teaching and learning
      answers and explanations. The highly positive response to the web-         of preclinical dentistry. The goal was to enhance the learning of
      based lessons indicates the usefulness of this approach as a study aid     second-year dental (D2) students so that they would feel prepared to
      for dental students. Greater than 85 percent of the students agreed or     enter the clinic.
      strongly agreed that posting of PowerPoint slides and the use of                 This simulation laboratory features 100 stations, each with a
      Blackboard™ as a vehicle for accessing the online material was             sim unit, operator chair, and monitor linked to a state-of-the-art
      helpful in studying for the course. Approximately 25 percent of the        multimedia center. The D2 classes in operative, fixed, and removable
      students’ comments contained statements regarding learning styles,         prosthodontics began in the fall of 2002, with modules from other
      and the majority of these responses indicated the importance of having     preclinical courses introduced throughout the year. The focus of
      study materials available in alternative formats.                          instruction across the disciplines was the teaching of ergonomics,
            Faculty should be aware of student learning styles and provide       indirect vision, and using the handpiece intraorally on a simulated
      course materials in various formats including web-based lessons to         patient. The students (n=86) completed an evaluation of the sim lab
      enhance student learning.                                                  experience at the end of the second year where they identified the
                                                                                 experiences that improved their learning, the ease of using the various
      128. Outcome of Computerized Telephone Reminders                           pieces of equipment, and their preparation for various procedures.
      on Clinic Appointment Attendance                                           They also compared learning in the lab to other environments. They
                                                                                 reported that the following sim lab features improved their learning:
      Kula, Theodore, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of               computer monitors (93 percent “agree” or “strongly agree”), media
      Dentistry, Roth, John, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of        system (91 percent), sim heads (90 percent), and delivery system for
      Dentistry, Glaros, Alan, University of Missouri-Kansas City School         handpieces and suction (89 percent). Overall, 81 percent of the
      of Dentistry, Kula, Katherine University of Missouri-Kansas City           students “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that they felt prepared to begin
      School of Dentistry




248                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                           Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



patient care in the clinic. Specifically, more than 80 percent “agreed”      populations, the medically compromised, children, the elderly, and
or “strongly agreed” that they felt prepared to use correct posture          people in recovery. Services have been provided in many locations
and chair positioning, indirect vision, and the handpiece. More than         including community clinics, dental school clinics, extramural sites
92 percent reported that they preferred learning operative procedures        as much as 100 miles away, local schools, private practices, and
and taking practical exams on the sim heads. The lowest ratings were         hospitals. Treatment is provided during weekday rotations as well as
for the assistance arm (55 percent did not “agree” or “strongly agree”       weekend and vacation rotations. This approach allows students to
that it improved their learning), lectures in the sim lab (47 percent),      increase access to care without impacting their curricular activities
and cheek material on the sim head (32 percent). When asked to               or clinic production. In fact, gross clinic production has increased 9
identify the “one thing they liked the most,” the students most              percent in each of the last two years by enhanced student efficiency
commonly cited some variant of the “simulation of the real patient           and targeted fee increases. Approximately 8,000 patients have been
experience” (n=40).                                                          treated under these programs, in 16,000 visits, with over $2,500,000
       In conclusion, preclinical courses were introduced successfully       of treatment provided. The number of patients receiving other outreach
into the new lab with only minor problems identified. The D2 students        services has increased from approximately 1,973 to 2,316 (17 percent
reported that the sim lab improved their learning, and they felt             growth increase). Future growth is dependent on our ability to
prepared to begin patient care.                                              establish an effective distance-learning program and identify
                                                                             alternative funding sources to maintain fiscal responsibility.
130. Educational CD-ROM on Fabrication of                                           Innovative approaches to student community clinic assignments
Immediate Denture                                                            have allowed a dental school to increase the provision of care to
                                                                             underserved populations while maintaining dental school clinic
Abadi, Behruz, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Herren,
                                                                             productivity and patient care.
Michael, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, McConnell,
Thomas, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry
                                                                             132. Student Benefits from a Summer Preparatory
       Purpose: To develop a program for students to review the              Course in Dental Histology
fabrication of a provisional denture.
       The clinical setting is the application of preclinical knowledge      Moved to Monday, 2:00-3:30 pm
as applied to real situations. The transfer of didactic material into        Brueckner, Jennifer, University of Kentucky College of Medicine
clinical application is a challenge for students. Students in clinical             Purpose: To evaluate the educational impact of a summer short
settings are all working under different situations. Instruction takes       course on student understanding of basic histological concepts and
place individually with the clinical instructor. The challenge for           on student performance in an eighteen-week dental histology course.
clinical teachers is how do we provide students with instruction in                The University of Kentucky College of Dentistry offers a two
this type of curriculum? We are now using Asynchronous Learning              and a half week summer preparatory (PREP) course annually for
Networks (ALN) to augment our traditional curriculum. CD-ROM                 incoming first-year students who have limited backgrounds in the
media have been developed to demonstrate clinical procedures. A              basic sciences. This program seeks to introduce and review core topics
CD-ROM demonstrating the fabrication of a provisional denture was            in three scientific disciplines (histology, physiology, and
fabricated to assist students. The use of alternate teaching methods is      biochemistry), as well as to acquaint students with the format in which
becoming commonplace in dentistry. Further incorporation of CD-              each course is taught. The efficacy of the histology component of the
ROM software and computer technology into clinical teaching is               PREP program was evaluated in 2002-03 by measuring: 1) student
expected.                                                                    performance on pre- and post-PREP course quizzes addressing basic
       A survey of the students revealed the following: 93 percent           histological concepts, and 2) PREP student performance in the
have access to a computer at home; 100 percent have access to a              eighteen-week dental histology course taught in the fall semester.
computer at school; and 100 percent found the CD-ROM useful to               Results from pre- and postcourse quizzes administered on the first
their clinical experience.                                                   and last days of the PREP program indicate a significant increase in
                                                                             students’ mastery of basic concepts in histology (understanding the
131. Expanding Community Services While Increasing                           chemistry of staining and distinguishing tissue types). Preliminary
Dental School Clinic Production                                              data also suggest that participation in the PREP program confers an
Fredekind, Richard, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry,           academic advantage to students on exams covering PREP content in
Miller, Christine, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Kirk,      the fall dental histology course.
Jeffrey, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Barniv, Zuri,              Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the histology
University of the Pacific School of Dentistry                                component of the PREP program revealed that this short course not
                                                                             only familiarized incoming freshmen to the format and expectations
       Purpose: To balance the provision of dental services to
                                                                             of the eighteen-week fall histology course, but also provided an
underserved populations in northern California with the maintenance
                                                                             academic advantage to these students over their classmates as they
of fiscal responsibility in a dental school clinic.
                                                                             entered the fall course.
       Access to dental care is a significant problem in California.
The existing ratio of dentists to patients is 1:1700 and growing. Over
the past twelve years, the University of the Pacific School of Dentistry     133. Measuring Written PBL Assessment Quality:
has developed many programs staffed by predoctoral students and              Rubric Design and Testing
volunteer faculty to help meet this need. Concurrently, the economic         Fitzgerald, Brenda, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Meadows,
crisis in California has created a $35 billion deficit. The purpose of       Melinda, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Aguirre-Zero,
our program is to achieve a balance between supporting our clinic            Odette, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Garetto, Lawrence
mission, expanding service to our communities, and providing a broad         P., Indiana University School of Dentistry
spectrum of student experiences, while increasing clinic revenues.                 Purpose: To develop a rubric to evaluate the “quality” of
The outreach programs target many diverse groups including the               assessment narratives written by tutors about students in their PBL
disabled, the working poor, those on state-funded assistance, ESL            groups.




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                  249
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



             In the first two years of its curriculum, Indiana University School          Results indicate that a social work presence is a positive addition
      of Dentistry uses problem-based learning (PBL) in addition to                to the SDM clinical program. In addition to providing needed services
      traditional lectures to introduce basic/clinical science content, enhance    to patients, CARES also exposes SDM students, faculty, and staff to
      critical thinking skills, and develop students’ ability to assess            social work as a key interdisciplinary team member in total patient
      themselves and others. At routine intervals, students and tutors use         care. Revenue, retention, and admissions to the SDM have increased
      specific criteria to evaluate their performance in four categories:          since the inception of the CARES Program. For fall 2003, the program
      Knowledge Base, Reasoning Process, Communication, and                        plans on increasing dental student and social worker interactions,
      Assessment. While tutors are expected to model PBL process skills,           increasing community outreach projects, and integrating case
      including writing effective assessments, in practice, their assessments      vignettes and communication skills into three biobehavioral dental
      have varied in content, length, tone, and specificity. Thus, tutors may      courses.
      inappropriately model poor assessment skills or provide little direction
      for improvement. Using a sixteen-item tool, we evaluate whether              135. The Effect of Eliminating Clinical Grading on
      tutors addressed criteria, gave specific examples, suggested areas for       Students’ Stress
      improvement, and gave scores congruent with their narrative. To
                                                                                   Ray, Carolyn, Texas Woman’s University Department of Dental
      determine whether different raters used the rubric consistently, three
                                                                                   Hygiene
      researchers independently coded a set of sixty tutor-written
      assessments. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed                Purpose: To determine if the elimination of grading prophylactic
      for each evaluation area. The ICC values for the first wave of               procedures had an effect on students’ perceptions of their stress level
      assessments averaged 0.58 overall. ICC values for the category               in Clinic I experience.
      “support of score” were lower (average 0.19) than the other three                   An important goal of dental hygiene education is graduating
      categories (average 0.71). Coding rules were subsequently refined,           clinically competent practitioners. Much of the clinical curriculum
      and the same three examiners working independently applied the               includes process and product evaluations that monitor and assess
      revised coding system to a new set of fifty assessments. The ICC             dental hygiene students’ clinical abilities. The purpose of this study
      values for the second set were substantially higher overall than the         was to determine if the elimination of grading prophylactic procedures
      first (average 0.75), the coefficients for the “support of score” items      had an effect on students’ perceptions of their stress level in Clinic I
      increased considerably (average 0.53), and the ICCs for the other            experience. A survey was administered with twenty-one junior dental
      three categories increased as well (average 0.82).                           hygiene students (class of 2003) two months after completion of their
             These results suggest that our instrument allows raters of various    first semester of clinic in a 1 + 3 bachelor degree dental hygiene
      backgrounds and experience to achieve significant agreement on               program. One hundred percent (N=21) completed the questionnaire.
      scores of written narratives that address a wide range of PBL behaviors      The survey asked the students to rate their stress level using a 1-5
      and observable outcomes.                                                     Likert scale (1=very low, 2=low, 3=average, 4=high, 5=very high).
                                                                                   The mean stress level reported was 3.89 (range 2-5). Students were
      134. Project CARES: Two-Year Outcomes                                        asked open-ended questions to determine which factors they
                                                                                   considered to contribute to their stress level and to indicate which
      Zittel-Palamara, Kimberley, State University of New York at Buffalo,
                                                                                   factors were most stressful, stressful, and least stressful. Written
      Davis, Elaine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Fabiano, Jude,
                                                                                   comments were categorized and weighted (most stressful=3,
      State University of New York at Buffalo, Goldberg, Deborah, State
                                                                                   stressful=2, least stressful=1). The three top categories and their
      University of New York at Buffalo, Waldrop, Deborah, State University
                                                                                   weights are as follows: requirements=40, grading=24, and instructors/
      of New York at Buffalo
                                                                                   staff=22. A curricular change that eliminated grading of prophylactic
             Purpose: The CARES (Counseling, Advocacy, Referrals,                  procedures was incorporated into the next Clinic I session. The same
      Education, and Service) Program goals included enhancing patient             survey was administered with twenty-three junior dental hygiene
      retention and recruitment, strengthening community relationships,            students (class of 2004) two months after completion of their Clinic
      solidifying interdisciplinary relationships, and integrating all of the      I experience without having prophylactic procedures graded. Ninety-
      above into dental student education.                                         two percent (N=23) completed the questionnaire. The mean stress
             The Schools of Dental Medicine and Social Work collaborated           level reported was 3.37 (range 3-5). Survey results were compared
      to establish a program to increase the accessibility of dental treatment     for the two groups using a t-test for independent samples (p<0.05). A
      for marginalized populations and to provide dental students with the         significant difference (p=0.04) was found between the two groups.
      means to address these patients needs in future dental practices.            Changes in the evaluation system, i.e., elimination of grading
      Rationale: Patient surveys (N=928; mean age fifty-seven yrs) revealed        prophylactic procedures, resulted in a reduction of stress level. Dental
      42 percent with monthly incomes below the poverty level. Patients’           hygiene educators can deduce that a reduction of student stress is
      main concerns were health (32 percent), finances (25 percent), medical       worth considering adjustments in evaluation methods.
      bills (16 percent), and family problems (14 percent). In-depth follow-              Changes in the evaluation system (elimination of grading
      up interviews with 157 respondents were used to develop the program.         prophylactic procedures) resulted in a reduction of stress level.
      Approach: CARES is staffed by one full-time Ph.D. social work
      supervisor who provides field education instruction to six MSW               136. Student Identification of Learning Issues in a
      interns and didactic instruction to dental students. Results: Retention
                                                                                   Curriculum Utilizing PBL
      results showed a 26 percent decrease in discharge rates and a 9.3
      percent increase in new patients since CARES started. Further, 71.7          McDonald, James, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Olson,
      percent of patients seen by CARES saw their dental student during            Byron, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Garetto, Lawrence,
      the past year. Financial results showed patients receiving social work       Indiana University School of Dentistry
      intervention spent on average $400.00 more for dental treatment than              Purpose: To compare biomedical, ethical, behavioral, and
      they did prior to social work intervention. Also, patients seen by           population learning issues generated by students in a PBL curriculum.
      CARES have contributed approximately $87,000 to SDM revenue,                      The Indiana University School of Dentistry curriculum contains
      for which CARES is partially responsible. Educational results showed         some thirty-five PBL cases utilized during the first two years.
      that approximately 75 percent of students found CARES useful.                Typically, groups of five to six students and one facilitator meet for



250                                                                                    Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



three three-hour sessions for each case. During that time, students           identified between strains of bacteria, site, and presence of teeth
are presented with dental health-related cases to explore. They are           (p<0.05). Significant site and strain differences between groups of
expected to collectively probe their prior knowledge related to facts         subjects suggest that the presence of periodontopathogenic bacterial
presented in the case, identify knowledge gaps, convert these gaps            DNA at coronary artery and bronchial sites was not an artifact of the
into researchable questions (learning issues), research the issues, and       embalming procedure and likely represented the sites of the bacterial
then present their findings at the next group session. Students are           colonies during the life of the subject.
encouraged to consider four major domains as they read through the                  Thus, periodontopathogenic bacterial DNA can be recovered
case: Biomedical, Behavioral, Ethical, and Population. Having                 from human embalmed cadavers, suggesting that cadavers used for
identified their specific learning issues, each PBL group then enters         anatomical instruction could also be used for research studies of links
them into a web-based learning issues library. In doing so, they must         between periodontal and systemic diseases. Collection and
categorize the learning issues into one of the four domains. The entered      identification of these bacteria could be a useful clinical correlation
learning issues can then be monitored. Historically, students prefer          activity for dental students.
to explore learning issues within the biomedical realm, largely because
our assessment process drives them in this direction. This presentation       138. A Residential Model for Providing Experience in
compares the number of learning issues in each of the four domains            Emergency Care
generated by students during the first year of the curriculum. Five
                                                                              Cox, Stephen, University of Sydney, Martin, Elizabeth, University of
PBL cases are compared: the 1st three cases (#1, 2, and 3) as entering
                                                                              Sydney, Zoellner, Hans, University of Sydney, Gonsalkorale, Shalinie,
freshmen vs. the last two cases (#18 and 19) at the end of the first
                                                                              University of Sydney, Russell, Delyse, University of Sydney
year. In case #1, 62 percent of the issues were biomedically related;
35 percent were ethically related; 1 percent were behavioral and 1                  Purpose: To demonstrate a residential model for the provision
percent were population related. In case #2, 67 percent were                  of experience and training of students in emergency care of the
biomedical; 18 percent ethical; 10 percent behavioral; and 5 percent          medically compromised patient.
population. In case #3, 80 percent were biomedical; 4 percent ethical;              Preparation and training for medical emergencies is difficult in
5 percent behavioral; and 10 percent population. Towards the end of           a school environment. Medical emergencies can occur both inside
the first year in case #18, 88 percent were biomedical; 1 percent             and outside the clinics and by definition are unpredictable. The dental
ethical; 7 percent behavioral; and 3 percent population. In the last          school at the University of Sydney is linked with a general hospital,
PBL case of the first year, 95 percent were biomedical; 2 percent             which allows for a residency program in emergency care. Students
ethical; 2 percent were behavioral; and no population issues were             participate in the program over an allotted period in which they are
researched. In conclusion, it is clear that students increasingly focus       able to observe emergency procedures and protocols, assist in
on biomedical issues to research as the academic year progresses.             emergency care where appropriate, and observe the importance of
This presentation will discuss why these results were obtained and            having an experienced team of people who have specific tasks. A
what is being done to encourage a more balanced approach to                   review of this program shows good student preparation for an
exploring the four domains in each case.                                      appropriate response to a medical emergency and very positive
      Students select learning issues within the four domains based           feedback to participation in a residential model.
on their expectations of how they will be assessed on the information.              Participation in a residential program in a hospital emergency
                                                                              department by dental students is an important educational process in
137. Recovery of Periodontopathogenic Bacteria from                           preparing students for medical emergencies.
Embalmed Human Cadavers
                                                                              139. Mentoring: Use of a Local Anesthesia CE Course
Wood, Nelson, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Johnson,
Roger, University of Mississippi Medical Center                               to Develop Leaders in the Dental Hygiene Community
      Purpose: To determine whether periodontal pathogenic bacteria           Coleman, Margaret, University of Detroit-Mercy School of Dentistry,
could be recovered from the coronary arteries and the bronchi of              Cabanilla, Leyvee Lynn, University of Detroit-Mercy School of
human embalmed cadavers used in a gross anatomy course.                       Dentistry, Linger, Jackson, University of Detroit-Mercy School of
      Bacterial samples were collected from the right coronary artery         Dentistry
and the right superior secondary bronchus from eight human cadavers                  Purpose: An online survey assessed the use of local anesthesia
(four edentulous and four dentuluous), using paper points.                    by dental hygienists who completed a continuing education course
Specifically, specimens were collected from the right superior                at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) School of Dentistry. The
secondary bronchus at its junction with the right primary bronchus            objectives of this study were to evaluate how dental hygienists utilize
and from the right coronary artery 1 cm distal to its origin.                 their skill in administering local anesthesia; assess the levels of success
Concentrations of eight periodontopathogenic bacteria were                    as well as incidences of complications; and provide insights on patient
determined by DNA analysis (MicroDentX, Ft. Myers, FL). The                   and dental professional acceptance of hygienists administering local
laboratory could detect the presence of the following bacteria: A.            anesthesia.
actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, E. corrodens,                   Michigan has become the twenty-eighth state to legalize local
C. rectus, B. forsythus, T. denticola, and F. nucleatum. In addition,         anesthesia (LA) administration by dental hygienists. Support from
concentrations of each species was determined using the following             the dental profession and acceptance in the patient population depends
classification: negative (pathogen concentration <103 cells), low ,           on the success of clinicians in performing their newly acquired skills.
moderate, and high (pathogen concentration >105 cells). Frequencies           UDM Dental School seized the opportunity to utilize dental faculty
of each species were calculated and compared using a Kruskall-Wallis          as mentors to train practicing hygienists to become skilled in LA
H test and correlations between the presence of teeth, bacterial species,     administration, thereby preparing them to become leaders in the
and sites were determined by Spearman’s rho correlation tests, using          hygiene community. Since November 2002, UDM has trained 445
SPSS v10.1. A. actinomycetemcomitans and B. forsythus frequencies             dental hygienists through a Continuing Education Course using
were different between the sites (p<0.05); the frequency of B.                didactic, online pre-study, and hands on clinical laboratories. A fifty-
forsythus at the bronchial site was different in dentulous and                five-item online survey was made available to all 445 participants to
edentulous subjects (p<0.05). Numerous other correlations were                determine when they implemented this skill, most common techniques



February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                       251
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      utilized, frequency of administration, procedures that required            and giving the PDL injection when necessary. This is important
      anesthesia, success rates, incidences of complications, overall            training considering the difficulties practitioners have with mandibular
      acceptance by patients and support from dental practitioners. Early        anesthesia.
      preliminary results (N=28) revealed 93 percent of the respondents
      started administering LA; 96 percent stated they felt well prepared        141. International Outreach Programs: Charity,
      for the licensing exam upon completion of the course; 53 percent           Education, or Both?
      delivered LA with a frequency of one to three times a week; and 89
                                                                                 Cunningham, Ralph, New York University College of Dentistry, Peltz,
      percent stated that patients were comfortable with hygienists
                                                                                 Ivy, New York University College of Dentistry, Maloney, William,
      administering LA. Hygienists most frequently deliver anesthesia for
                                                                                 New York University College of Dentistry, Studley, Eric, New York
      scaling and root planing procedures (82 percent), and 17 percent
                                                                                 University College of Dentistry
      administer anesthesia for restorative patients. Eighty-five percent of
      the respondents stated that employers felt comfortable in their ability          Purpose: To evaluate the educational outcomes of a dental
      to administer LA and felt this skill was an asset to the practice. In      outreach program for the underserved from the student perspective.
      general, respondents reported high success rates, with the IAN being             A medical-dental team consisting of eighteen dental students
      the most difficult to achieve. Seventeen percent experienced               (fourteen from NYUCD, three from UMDNJ, and one from Meharry)
      complications, the most common of which was hematoma.                      and four dentists (two NYUCD faculty and two practicing dentists)
            The local anesthesia CE Course at UDM adapted the principle          participated in a volunteer outreach to the underserved in Jamaica,
      of mentoring by using dental faculty to train practicing hygienists        WI. HealthCare International, SNDA, NYU College of Dentistry,
      who would become some of the first leaders in the dental hygiene           and Rotary International sponsored the outreach program. May Pen,
      community. Preliminary results of this survey indicate that hygienists     a city near the center of the island, was the base of operations. Buses
      who completed this course provided effective and safe LA                   were loaded daily with medical-dental equipment, and clinics were
      administration. This new skill has been well received by patients and      set up in local or distant schools and community centers. Dental
      dental employers alike.                                                    students delivered oral hygiene instructions to the population, who
                                                                                 were then screened at the clinic. Any necessary extractions were
      140. Utilizing the Periodontal Ligament Injection in                       performed. Restorative procedures were accomplished with a portable
      Dental Education                                                           electric compressor unit. All procedures were done in close quarters
                                                                                 with regular chairs under natural light or with a small mag flashlight.
      Park, Jun, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Dower, James,    Students treated between twenty and thirty patients per day. Prior to
      University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Nguyen, Nhi, University     the trip, the students were interviewed and asked to write a brief
      of the Pacific School of Dentistry                                         explanation of their reasons for participating in the outreach. The
             Purpose: To clinically instruct students in overcoming              most common responses included a desire to educate patients, a desire
      difficulties with incomplete mandibular anesthesia and the use of the      to serve others, the challenge to adapt to unusual conditions, and a
      PDL injection.                                                             desire to be part of a team. After completion of the outreach program,
             The most important thing to a dental patient is profound            the students were asked to submit written responses to the question,
      anesthesia. Unfortunately, anesthesia of the mandible may not be           “Did your outreach experience affect your dental education?” Their
      complete even when the lip has symptoms of profound anesthesia.            comments included: “gained confidence,” “invaluable,” “can not help
      Our students take a course in overcoming difficulties with anesthesia      but learn,” “single most valuable experience in dental school
      where they learn how to diagnose and treat incomplete mandibular           education,” “unparalleled,” “more competent,” and “changed me.”
      anesthesia and proceed with another mandibular block injection and/              The student remarks prior to and subsequent to the trip indicate
      or injections for accessory innervations and, as a last resort, the PDL    that there is a positive educational outcome in a well-organized and
      injection due to short duration of anesthesia and postoperative            faculty-supervised dental outreach program. The students involved
      complaints. The PDL technique taught is associated with less pain          in this outreach recognized it as a source of information and
      during the injection by giving local anesthetic in the sulcus for ten      enlightenment and an experience to be called upon as they progress
      seconds before penetrating the PDL. Each student gave and received         through their professional careers.
      1/4 cartridge (~.45 ml) of 2 percent lidocaine with 1:100,000
      epinephrine on the distal of #30 with a PDL syringe and drops of           142. Dental Explorers Program: A Summer Program
      solution at the mesial with a standard syringe due to the difficulty in    for Pre-College Students
      expressing the solution. A 30-gauge extra-short needle was used with
      both syringes. Ninety-nine students took the block and recorded            Bolivar, Sandra, University of Southern California School of Dentistry
      sensations from the PDL injections that included pain, pressure and              Purpose: To introduce minority pre-college students to dentistry
      tachycardia, and postoperative effects. The student was given six          and dental hygiene as career options.
      categories to use in recording the level of pain. Thirty-four registered         Efforts to attract and enroll historically underrepresented
      no pain, thirty-two indicated a sensation similar to a gentle probing,     minority students must begin early to increase the dental pipeline
      twenty-one registered it was a little uncomfortable, eleven indicated      and ultimately yield measurable results. The Dental Explorers
      moderate discomfort, one registered it was very uncomfortable, and         program at the USC School of Dentistry was a collaborative effort
      none said it was excruciating. Thirty students reported no                 with the university’s Education Opportunity Programs Center
      postoperative complaints, fifty-nine experienced a period of high          (EOPC). The EOPC mission is to serve the campus-area community
      occlusion, and thirty-nine experienced soreness, pain, pain on biting,     and the Los Angeles Unified School District and “increase the number
      dull ache, or throbbing. Twenty-nine of those experiencing pain had        of low income and first generation college-bound residents to pursue
      it for fifteen minutes to four hours, eight experienced it for half-day    and successfully complete a post-secondary educational program.”
      to a full day, and two experienced it for two days.                        The USC School of Dentistry enrolled seven students in a summer
             This rotation in local anesthesia provides the student with the     day camp experience. Four of the seven students were high school
      skills and knowledge necessary for treating incomplete anesthesia          graduates beginning college in the fall; the other three participants




252                                                                                  Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2
                                                                            Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



will be high school seniors. The students were presurveyed to                 director before initiating treatment. The wax-up is then displayed for
determine their current career objective, which ranged from political         the patient’s approval.
science to law and medicine. None of the seven students indicated                   A state-of-the-art aesthetic center is conducive to the demands
dentistry as a career objective. The week-long experience combined            of patients requiring aesthetic dentistry and can provide students with
team building exercises, clinic shadowing, hands-on clinical exercises,       a more closely supervised and stimulating learning environment.
a lecture on oral cancer, and career seminars. The week ended with a          Additionally, the luxurious setting generates excitement among
recognition lunch where the students, their parents, faculty, and             faculty, students, and patients alike!
university administrators attended a mock graduation exercise. Each
student presented a personal summary of the week’s activities                 144. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Integrated
including what was learned and most enjoyed. Each student received            Biosciences: A Review Course for Part I of the National
a white clinic jacket to commemorate the experience. An evaluation
                                                                              Board Examinations
at the end of the program asked students to anonymously evaluate
the program using both a ranking scale (1 low to 5 high) and                  Otsuka, Allen, Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine,
comments. The student evaluations were exceptional with a total               Jenkins, David, Southern Illinois University School of Dental
numerical ranking of all areas being 4.8. Each participant now                Medicine, Boyle, Ann, Southern Illinois University School of Dental
considered dentistry or dental hygiene as a potential future career           Medicine
choice. Comments included: “The program overall was great; it was                   Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of changes to Integrated
just too short”; “Change nothing; everything was great. Just try to           Biosciences: A review course for Part I of the National Board
extend the program to at least two weeks”; and “Lunch with dental             examinations.
students was a great experience.”                                                   Since 1997, second-year students have taken a forty-onehour
      In conclusion, this type of partnership with the university served      review course in June, just prior to taking Part I of the National Board
the university, the school of dentistry, the community, and the               examinations. This review course, called Integrated Biosciences,
profession well by introducing students from minority backgrounds             consists of classroom review in gross anatomy, neuroanatomy,
to the dental profession. These students will be tracked during the           histology, pathology, biochemistry, physiology and microbiology.
next few years to monitor their progress and career choices.                  Within the course, two examinations utilizing a National Board format
                                                                              account for 50 percent of a student’s grade. The remaining 50 percent
143. Beauty Is a Joy Forever: The Benefits of Teaching                        of the course grade is based on the student’s performance on Part I of
Aesthetic Dentistry in a State-of-the-Art Aesthetic                           the National Board examinations. Students are not scheduled for any
Center                                                                        classroom or clinical activities for the week prior to taking Part I of
                                                                              the National Board examinations. Faculty changes in the above
Peltz, Ivy, New York University College of Dentistry, McAndrew,               biomedical science courses have been minimal over the past eleven
Maureen, New York University College of Dentistry, Cunningham,                years. Prior to 1997, students were only required to attend the review
Ralph, New York University College of Dentistry, Estafan, Denise,             sessions. No examinations were administered and no course grades
New York University College of Dentistry                                      were issued. The average school ranks (out of all schools taking Part
      Purpose: To describe the educational and patient care benefits          I of the National Boards) and the average school failure rates were
of exporting aesthetic cases out of the general clinics and into a            calculated and compared for the periods of 1997-2002 and 1992-96.
separate, state-of-the-art aesthetic center.                                  From 1997 to 2002, students at the school had an average rank of
      Patients requesting aesthetic dentistry frequently have high            19.5, and the average school failure rate was 3.4 percent. (National
expectations for the outcome of their cases. They are informed                failure rate average was 9.3 percent for this time period.) In
consumers, and their motivation to seek treatment is often to improve         comparison, students from 1992 to 1996 had an average rank of 31.4,
their appearance. With the inception of the Larry Rosenthal Institute         and the school failure rate was 8.5 percent. (National failure rate
for Aesthetic Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry,          average was 13.6 percent for this time period.)
patients have an opportunity to experience the delivery of aesthetic                From the above data it is evident that the combination of the
dentistry by predoctoral third- and fourth-year dental students who           two factors (examinations and time off to study immediately prior to
are supervised by standardized faculty in a luxurious, state-of-the-          taking National Boards) were effective in helping the students achieve
art environment. Faculty attended weekly seminars addressing the              a marked increase in average school rank and a decrease in average
core technique of aesthetic dentistry procedures and CAD/CAM                  failure rate.
technology. Once the faculty were considered proficient, they were
invited to teach in the Rosenthal Institute. The faculty to student ratio     145. A Written Exercise in Dental Hygiene Admissions
in the Rosenthal Institute is double that of the general clinics;             Maseman, Denise, Wichita State University Dental Hygiene
consequently, students receive closer supervision while performing            Department, Huntley, Diane, Wichita State University Dental Hygiene
demanding aesthetic procedures. The higher faculty to student ratio           Department
also enables students to work more efficiently, thus providing students
with more satisfying educational experiences and patients with more                 Purpose: A written exercise was developed as a pilot program
immediate results. In this setting, students are exposed to CAD/CAM           to enhance the dental hygiene admissions process and replace oral
procedures, chairside and at-home tooth whitening procedures,                 interviews. The purpose/objective of the written exercise was to assess
indirect ceramic and ceromer inlays and onlays, porcelain veneers,            applicants’ written communication skills and seriousness towards the
single unit ceramic crowns, and all ceramic fixed partial dentures.           program.
Students must make maxillary and mandibular full arch preliminary                   The exercise counted for 20 percent of the applicant’s
impressions of prospective patients and mount the poured casts on a           evaluation. The rationale was that concerns had been expressed by
semi-adjustable articulator. Students then perform a diagnostic               faculty and administrators with the personal interview process. The
composite wax-up of the case, which they present to the course                concerns related to possible bias with personal interviews, ineffective
                                                                              use of faculty time, large applicant pools, and student expense for




February 2004         ■   Journal of Dental Education                                                                                                    253
      Poster Sessions: Poster Abstracts (cont.)



      out-of-state applicants. The Dental Hygiene Admissions Committee
      developed items and an evaluation scale for possible responses. Items
      asked applicants to describe their interest in or suitability for a career
      in dental hygiene and how they would handle a specific problem. All
      qualified applicants were notified of the date, time, and location of
      the exercise. Applicants were given forty-five minutes to complete
      the three items. Applicants more than three hours away could make
      arrangements to take the exercise at another testing site. Applicants
      were assigned numbers for the forms utilized during the exercise.
      Two members of the Admissions Committee evaluated and scored
      each blinded forms. Each item was evaluated 50 percent based on
      response content and 50 percent based spelling, grammar,
      organization, and clarity of thought. Results of the written exercise
      were self-elimination of approximately 20 percent of the applicant
      pool and providing a structured, objective evaluation of written
      communication in a test-like situation.
            Faculty expressed strong satisfaction with the written exercise,
      and the pilot program was adopted as a permanent component of the
      application process




254                                                                                Journal of Dental Education ■ Volume 68, No. 2

				
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