PowerPoint Presentation - Scott Lalonde

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					Economy:The wealth and resources of a
  country or region, esp. in terms of the
  production and consumption of goods and
Technology: Machinery and equipment
  developed from such scientific
• Economic development
• In the past Britain relied on its
  colonies for raw materials
• Colonists became the preferred
  customers for British
  manufactured goods
• By the 1840’s British North
  Americans were exporting
  significant quantities of timber
  and wheat to the mother country
• Great Britain adopted policy of free trade in

• And because of this prices of wheat and
  timber tumbled in 1847
• Many economic and political leaders across North America
  were calling for a reciprocity agreement with the
  Americans. Some Canadians from Canada east advocated
  complete annexation
• (Canada east wanted to be completely separated from the
  States economy way in terms of trade)
• Canada seen themselves as a part of North
  American economy and capable of
  developing their own industrial base

• Due to this reason Canadians realized that
  they didn’t have to be part of British
  imperial economic network

• In 1854 habitants (farmers) were finally
  aloud to purchase land
• The period between 1840 and 1870 has
  been designated as the golden age of sail
  because there was a boom in ship building
  and growth of maritime shipping lanes and
  wooden ships cost half as much as iron
  steam ships
Railway Growth and the New Industrial Era
• A number of technological developments
  played a role in reshaping the economic
  landscape in the late nineteenth century,
  such as the steam engine
• Railways would support the new industrial
• the railway offered year round
  transportation unlike boat shipping
• cost of building railways was over
  41000 km per kilometer prior to 1867
• between 1852 and 1867 more than
  3200 km of track were laid, costing
  over 100 000 000
• in the 1850’s the United province of
  Canada took undertook to build the
  longest railway line in the world at the
  time, eventually stretching from
  Quebec City to Sarnia and with
  connections to Chicago
• building the Grand Trunk railways almost bankrupt the
• Canadian Pacific Railway company negotiated benefits
  such as receiving twenty five million dollars and twenty
  five million acres of land, a continuing tax exemption and
  a promise that no competing rail lines would be built west
  of Lake Superior for twenty years. In addition the company
  received more than 700 miles of existing track built by the
  Canadian government costing over 35 million dollars.
  When completed the railway would be longer than any
  other railway in the world
• After borrowing 22 and a half million, the CPR
  asked to borrow more but the conservative party
  said no. The next day after the conservative party
  said no the Métis under Luis Real rebelled in the
  face of advancing settlements that were
  threatening their way of life. The government used
  to railway to dispatch troops. The value of the
  railway was clear to everyone and the government
  agreed to provide the funds necessary to complete
  the construction through to the Pacific
• on Nov 7 1885 the last spike was hammered
  in at Craigellachie
• The factory system and large scale
  production was applied to a number of
  products, including locomotives, clothing,
  textiles, agriculture implements and
  foodstuffs, like bread and beer
• The Canadian Manufactures Association
  (CMA) promoted a system of protective
  tariffs. The reason they wanted it was so they
  were able to sell all of the Canadian good
  before imported goods so the money would
  stay in the colonies
•   Factories were often inhospitable places. Factory workers, many of them women
    and children, worked long hours and endured physical punishment and fines if
    they failed to measure up to the demands of management. In 1886, the Macdonald
    government appointed a Royal Commission “for the purpose of enquiring into
    and reporting on all questions arising out of the conflict of labour and capital.”
    The Commission heard more than 1800 witnesses who spoke about the human
    costs of the industrial changes. At the same time, these changes marked a
    fundamental shift in the economy- a shift that was becoming even more
    pronounced by the end of the 19 century. By then, steam power was even more
    widely used and the age of electricity was about to dawn. These new sources of
    power and the development of entirely new consumer goods, like the automobile,
    would lead to even greater changes in the factory system and in working
    conditions early in the twentieth century.
• The industrial Revolution was dependent on coal, iron ore,
  and other minerals. Coal was discovered in Cape Brenton,
  Alberta and British Columbia. During the construction of
  the CPR, a number of mineral deposits were discovered in
  Northern Ontario and British Columbia. For example,
  copper and nickel deposits at Sudbury were uncovered in
  1883 during the blasting for the railroad bed.
• At first, nickel was viewed as a nuisance metal. After a
  method for separating the nickel from the rock was
  discovered and more uses for nickel were developed,
  Sudbury became the “Nickel Capital” of the world.
• Perhaps one of the most significant discoveries of the industrial period
  was the discovery of oil in 1855. Oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric
  power would become the chief sources of power for the new industrial
• Niagara Falls in Ontario and Shawinigan Falls in Quebec began to
  provide massive amounts of inexpensive hydroelectric power that
  would soon drive Canada’s second Industrial Revolution
• in the early twentieth century, a revolution based on the production of
  minerals, chemicals and pulp and paper.
• In 1896, gold was discovered in the Yukon. As with other gold rushes,
  miners began to pour into the area, many entering through American
  ports like Skagway, Alaska. The North West Mounted Police quickly
  put into place a system to control entry, trying to ensure that those who
  came had adequate supplies to survive the harsh Yukon conditions.
• While not central to future economic growth, the Yukon
  Gold Rush marked the end of the recession that had
  showed economic growth for more than two decades
• Fish continued to be an important Canadian export. On the
  West Coast, canneries were set up to process salmon for
  export to British market.
• The West Coast salmon fishing industry developed a
  unique division of labour based on both gender and race.
• White factory owners and managers oversaw the work of
  Chinese men and Japanese and Native women in the
• On the East Coast, fishing continued to play a significant
  role in the economy. The forest industry in the east was
  affected by the depletion of the white pine. The western
  Douglas fir and cedars, however, became the principle
  products of a burgeoning West Coast forest industry.
• Most of the timber was shipped to the American market.
  Pulp and paper production also expanded rapidly during
  the later years of the century.

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